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Flipped Classroom Approach. Enhancing the Academic Performance and Motivation of Senior High School Students

Research Paper (postgraduate) 2019 31 Pages

Pedagogy - School Pedagogics

Excerpt

Table Of Contents

1 Context and Rationale

2 Innovation, Intervention, and Strategy

3 Action Research Questions

4 Action Research Methods
4.1 Participants and Other Sources of Data and Information
4.2 Data Gathering Methods

5 Discussion of Results and Reflection
5.1 Discussion
5.2 Conclusions and Reflections

6 References

7 Appendix

Abstract

This research study was conducted to investigate the effects of Flipped Classroom Approach on the Academic Performance and Motivation of Senior High School Students in Physical Science. The study was conducted at B. N. High School- D. A. in the school year 2017-2018. A quasi-experimental static group comparison pretest-posttest research design was utilized in the study. The developed lessons and the 30-item academic performance test with 0.803 reliability in Physical Science were evaluated and assessed by the panel of experts. A motivation Scale adopted from Glynn (2011) was modified and used to assess students’ motivation to learn towards Physical Science using Flipped Teaching Approach. The data were treated with the mean, standard deviation and one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. The findings reveal that the experimental group attained a fairly satisfactory result compared with the control group which is did not meet the expectation. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in the academic performance between the Senior High School students taught with Flipped teaching Approach and of students taught using conventional teaching approach. The study also shows that students are very highly motivated to learn Physical Science.

Keywords: Flipped Teaching Approach, Academic Performance, Motivation to learn

Acknowledgement

The researcher wishes to express his deep appreciation for those who have extended their support and encouragement in fulfillment of this thesis. The researcher would like to thank the following:

To God almighty who is the source of everything, for letting me through all the difficulties, with him everything is possible;

To Dr. Cesar B. Ortiz, for being a patient mentor, for providing valuable guidance throughout this research, and for encouraging the researcher to grow professionally and personally, he has inspired the researcher to do his best;

To the expert evaluators: Dr. Sol S. Simbulan, Mr. Dindo M. Gabales and Mr. Senen M. Patricio for their suggestions and for polishing the development of the lesson; they had contributed greatly to the improvement of this research;

To Dr. Zita I. Dales, the statistician, for extending her intellectual assistance for the statistical needs of the researcher;

To the Sir Vicente San Miguel for allowing me to present my research in the Division Research Congress;

To the former School Head of Bukidnon National High School-Dalwangan Annex, Romulo M. Sarmiento, for his trust, guidance, and for pushing the researcher to be the best version of himself;

To the former teacher of the researcher, Mrs. Rudy Dalihog, for helping the researcher in the conduct of try-out of questionnaires at Bukidnon National High School, for her words of wisdom, and for her kindness;

To the School Head of Bukidnon National High School-Dalwangan Annex, Mr. Roel F. Abecia, for his patience and encouragement and worthy advises.

1 Context and Rationale

The flipped classroom approach is an instructional approach and a type of blended learning that reverses the traditional learning environment by delivering instructional content outside of the classroom (Bergmann & Sams, 2012). It means that learners gain the first experience to a new material outside of class, usually via lecture videos or reading materials and then use class time for harder works like applying knowledge, creating projects, problem-solving, discussion, or debates. In Bloom's taxonomy (2001), this implies that learners are doing the lower level of cognitive work (gaining knowledge and comprehension) outside of class, and focusing on the higher forms of cognitive work (application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) in class, where they have the help of their peers and teacher.

The flipped classroom gave emphasis on the use of technology in the class wherein students are introduced to pre-recorded materials (via the Internet, videos, or author audio-visual recordings) outside of the traditional instructional space (at home, in the library, or wherever the instructional material can be accessed) (Bergmann & Sams, 2012). After students have watched the material, they are expected to come to class—usually the very next class meeting—and collaborate with their peers and teacher about the material. During this time, they may clear up any misconceptions regarding the content they watched.

In the conventional approach of classroom instruction, the teacher is the focal point of a lesson and the most important disseminator of information during the class period. The teacher responds to questions while students defer immediately to the teacher for instruction and feedback. In a classroom with a conventional style of teaching, individual instructions might also focus on a rationalization of content material utilizing a lecture-style. Student engagement in the conventional approach would possibly restrict to activities in which students work independently or in small groups on an application challenge designed by the teacher.

The flipped classroom intentionally shifts instruction to a learner-centered model in which class time explores topics in greater depth and creates meaningful learning opportunities, while educational technologies such as online videos are used to deliver content outside of the classroom. In a flipped classroom, content delivery may take a variety of forms. Often, video lessons prepared by the teacher or third parties are used to deliver content, although online collaborative discussions, digital research, and text readings may be used.

Physical Science is a fundamental for perception about the complexities of present-day technology and imperative for technological advancement of a nation. This component of science is making a substantial contribution to many of the innovations that are shaping the modern day and has helped to explain many of the occasions encountered in daily life. Despite its importance, Physical Science remains the least preferred science subject among Senior High School students.

Physical Science aims to help learners achieve a functional understanding of the scientific principles and standards linked with real-life situations, and acquired scientific skills, attitudes, and values necessary to solve day to day problems. In class, the teacher ought to create experiences for the learners to acquire factual knowledge, construct concepts and focus generalization on helping the said learners apprehend and motivated to learn physical science.

Based on interviews conducted, the students recognized the nature of the subject as the predominant reason for their difficulties in learning Physical Science. Physical Science needs memorization (the formulas), however, you cannot just stick stuff into these principles, theories, and laws and expect a predictable answer every time. You have to be able to understand the general ideas to apply your knowledge from distinct views to clear up difficult problems.

Motivation often leads to improved performance. Students who are most encouraged to learn and excel in classroom activities have the tendency to be our highest achievers. Conversely, students who have little interest in academic achievement are at high risk for dropping out before they graduate from high school. Motivation influences what learners are interested in and how successfully they process it (Pintrich & Schunk, 2002).

The Flipped teaching approach requires students to manage and maintain motivation for both implementing self-directed learning and enabling students to maintain their learning processes. Student motivation is a prerequisite for maintaining their learning process. Song and Hill (2007) defined one of the three most important traits of self-directed students as motivation. Motivation is the motive people make an effort, and self-directed students must make an effort for their learning process. Therefore, motivation is a prerequisite for self-directed learning.

In this study, utilizing Flipped Teaching Approach as a strategy in teaching and learning on the topics on Force and Motion, Laws of Motion and universal Law of Motion could be a suitable solution to student's problem of students' difficulty in Physical Science. The researcher believes the flipped teaching approach can alter the hesitation and convert the classroom into an active and challenging workspace. Physical Science can be made interesting with the use of flipped teaching approach.

The Flipped classroom approach is a technique used to personalize teaching, which allows teachers to vary instruction and hone in on students’ strengths and weaknesses. Once these strengths and weaknesses were identified, students can get hold of additional practice to remedy viable misconceptions about standards or even begin to fill the gaps in their learning. When teachers use this approach, students can focus on their weaknesses, as a result advancing student critical questioning skills as well as student educational achievement (Subban, 2006).

This study was anchored on Bruner’s Constructivist Theory. Constructivism is the philosophy that learning is the result of the development of abstract principles in the mind to describe and represent actuality (Bruner, 1961). Constructivism debates that making use of speaking and interactive things to do in which learners play engaged and active roles can encourage mastering more effectively and fulfill all intents and functions of the learners than activities where learners are inactive. Flipped teaching and online movies reinforce the ideas and assumptions of constructivist by releasing class time for inquiry-based learning (Kim & Bonk, 2006).

This education methodology was based on the premise that direct instruction and lecture is no longer an advanced teaching tool in the group learning space however is high-quality when delivered to the individual (Bergman & Samms, 2013). Thus, the flipped classroom approach describes a reversal of conventional teaching where students acquire first exposure to new material outside of class, typically by reading or lecture videos, and then class time is used to do the more difficult work of assimilating that knowledge through strategies such as problem-solving, discussion, or debates.

The study also finds support from Bloom Taxonomy (Bloom, 1956). In the flipped teaching, students are engaged in content material at home, out of the classroom and away from the teacher. This turns into the first journey in the Kolb cycle – exposure to new knowledge. Often in the conventional classroom, this is in the form of homework, however, in the flipped classroom the teacher ought to lead a reflective process with the students through the potential of a peer-assisted, collaborative strategy (Bishop & Verleger, 2013).

The use of a flipped classroom approach brings great undertaking to investigate its effects on the teaching and learning process. They take the representation from any forms of media as a tool for learning Science. In science education, student's motivation is important to all educators because it is an effective predictor of academic performance. In the conduct of the study, the researcher allows the students to watch online lectures which made the

students learn on their pace and carry out research at home while engaging in standards in the classroom with the guidance of the researcher. Class activities also vary which includes, in-depth laboratory experiments, original document analysis, debate, peer reviewing, project-based learning, and skill improvement and application of a concept.

Various studies on Flipped Classroom Approach revealed remarkable performance of students’ academic achievement. Enfield (2013) explained that students are encouraged to move out of the classroom to learn anytime and anywhere by flipped classroom approach. The most useful study strategy can be chosen and used by students while moving at their own pace through the instruction. Hung (2015) demonstrated that students’ participation, satisfaction and performance showed a positive change after taking part in this pedagogical approach.

Malto (2018) used the flipped classroom approach in investigating the academic performance and attitude of students in Biology. The study was conducted at University of Santo Thomas and result of the study manifested a significant improvement in both achievement and attitude towards Biology in favor of the flipped classroom group. The exposure to flipped classroom instruction developed a more positive attitude in students, which also resulted in a greater improvement of understanding of concept as reflected by their performance. Bedi (2018) used the flipped classroom approach in studying the Perceptions, Engagement, and Academic Achievement. Based on the result of his study, the flipped teaching approach has been shown to inspire and motivate educators to change their teaching practices and incorporate technology to reflect our current digital era.

Hamaidi (2018) investigated the effect of using flipped Classroom Approach on the academic achievement of fourth grade students in Jordan. The results showed that students who were taught by using the strategy of flipped classroom as a teaching strategy got higher scores in the academic achievement test than students who were taught by using the traditional strategy as a teaching strategy. The study findings encourage teachers of science to teach students by using modern teaching strategies, in particular, flipped classroom strategy as it improved the academic achievement of student.

In the conduct of the study, the researcher allow the students to watch online lectures which allows the students to learn on their own pace and carry out research at home while engaging in concepts in the classroom with the guidance of researcher. Class activities also vary which includes, in-depth laboratory experiments, original document analysis, debate, peer reviewing, project-based learning, and skill development and application of concept

In this study, the academic performance in Physical Science of the Senior High School students was based on their proficiency level. Their proficiency level was measured in their test scores. The academic performance of students in Physical Science and their proficiency level are scaled as Outstanding (90% and above), very satisfactory (85%-89%), satisfactory (80%-84%) Fairly satisfactory (75%-79%) and Did not meet the expectations (74% below

Generally, researcher have examined and cited the encouraging effects of flipped teaching approach on students’ motivation to learn. And so, this study will provide more findings in flipped teaching approach on student’s motivation to learn. This study was also made to validate the previous claims of some researchers of flipped teaching approach effectiveness on students’ academic performance.

2 Innovation, Intervention, and Strategy

The researcher developed five lessons in Physical Science parallel to K to 12 teaching guides with the integration of Flipped Classroom Approach to facilitate the learning process. The lessons develop included the topic Force and Motion, Law of Inertia, Law of Interaction, Law of Action and Reaction, and Universal Law of Gravitation.

Flipped Classroom Approach was integrated in the concept formation of the development of the lesson for the experimental group. Included in the outline of the lesson was the exposure to new material outside of class, usually via reading or lecture videos, and then use class time to do the harder work of assimilating that knowledge, perhaps through problem-solving, discussion, or debates.

The developed lesson was presented to the students in the experimental group. However, the control group was taught using the Conventional teaching approach. Five topics in science about force and motion was presented in both experimental and control group.

The researcher presented the same topics to the control group using the conventional model of teaching. The control group was given the same inputs about the topic but was not taught using the Flipped Classroom Approach. The control group was given lecture discussion and demonstration most of the time by the teacher during the conduct of the study.

After all the topics were presented the posttest was given to both the experimental and control group in order to assess the academic performance gains of the students. The results of the posttest were recorded and compared with the results in the pretest to see if there are gains in knowledge about the topics. The results were checked and was attributed to the analysis of the study.

In the conduct of the study both groups were given pretest before the conduct of the lesson. In this design the answer of the students in pretest assessed the previous knowledge of the students in Science. The posttest score of each group were compared and treated as the independent variable of the study. The pretest and posttest results of each group were compared using ANCOVA at 0.5 alpha level of significance to control the possible existence variable that could cause variance between experimental and control group.

A Physical Science motivation questionnaire was used by the senior high school students. It was accomplished by the experimental group only.

The design of the study is represented by the scheme:

Experimental Group X1 0 X2 X3

Control Group X1 X2

Where:

a) (Broken Line) Use of intact classes of both experimental and control group
b) 0 Treatment (Flipped Teaching Approach)
c) X1 Pretest
d) X2 Posttest
e) X3 Motivation Scale

3 Action Research Questions

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the Level of Performance in Physical Science of students taught with Flipped Classroom Approach and of those students taught with Conventional Classroom Approach?
2. Is there a significant difference in the academic performance in Physical Science between students taught with Flipped Teaching Approach and of those students taught with Conventional Classroom Approach?
3. What is the motivation to learn Physical science of the Senior High School students who are taught with Flipped Classroom Approach?

4 Action Research Methods

4.1 Participants and Other Sources of Data and Information

The study was conducted at Bukidnon National High School-Annex Dalwangan, located at Barangay Dalwangan, Malaybalay City. The school was established on November 10, 2012. The Provincial Board approved a resolution appropriating an amount for the procurement of the present school site with an aggregate area of 3 hectares.

The participants of the study were intact classes of Grade 11 of Bukidnon National High School-Annex Dalwangan for the school year 2018-2019 which had an average of 35 students per class that was assigned to be the experimental and control group.

The study used two intact classes for both experimental group and control group so as not to interrupt the natural setting. The experimental group was taught with the integration of Flipped Classroom Approach while the control group was taught with Conventional Teaching approach.

Table 1. The number of respondents according to gender, section and treatment condition.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

In the conduct of the study both groups were given pretest before the conduct of the lesson. In this design the answer of the students in pretest assessed the previous knowledge of the students in Science. The posttest score of each group were compared and treated as the independent variable of the study. The pretest and posttest results of each group were compared using ANCOVA at 0.5 alpha level of significance to control the possible existence variable that could cause variance between experimental and control group.

4.2 Data Gathering Methods

The study used static group non-equivalence pretest-posttest quasi experimental research design to investigate the effects of Flipped Teaching Approach on the academic performance and motivation of senior high school students in physical science. The study used two intact classes for both experimental group and control group so as not to interrupt the natural setting. The experimental group was taught with the integration of Flipped Teaching Approach while the control group was taught with Conventional Teaching approach.

After all the topics were presented the posttest was given to both the experimental and control group in order to assess the academic performance gains of the students. The results of the posttest were recorded and compared with the results in the pretest to see if there are gains in knowledge about the topics. The results were checked and was attributed to the analysis of the study.

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Details

Pages
31
Year
2019
ISBN (eBook)
9783346158703
ISBN (Book)
9783346158710
Language
English
Catalog Number
v511816
Grade
Tags
academic senior school performance motivation high flipped enhancing classroom approach students

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Title: Flipped Classroom Approach. Enhancing the Academic Performance and Motivation of Senior High School Students