Generation Z. A New Challenge for Human Resources Manager

Research Paper (postgraduate) 2019 56 Pages

Leadership and Human Resource Management - Recruiting


Table of Contents

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

1 Introduction
1.1 Problem
1.2 Objectives/structure of the work
1.3 Methodology of the work

2 Theoretical basics
2.1 Definitions of the concept of generation
2.2 Selected generations on the German labour market
2.3 Classification of the generations
2.3.1 Baby Boomer
2.3.2 Generation X
2.3.3 Generation Y
2.3.4 Generation Z

3 Requirements for future personnel work
3.1 Expectations for the professional life
3.2 Effects on personnel recruitment
3.2.1 Candidate approach/employer branding
3.2.2 Selection process
3.2.3 Integration process (Onboarding)
3.3 Effects on personnel management
3.3.1 Communication, collaboration and motivation
3.3.2 Leadership behaviour
3.4 Effects on human resources development
3.4.1 Development measures for Generation Z
3.4.2 Career planning
3.5 An overview of the most important recommendations for action in personnel work
3.6 Limits of feasibility for human resources management

4 Conclusion

5 Bibliography

List of Figures

Figure 1 Population pyramid Germany in 2017

Figure 2 Age of the sources

Figure 3 Employment rate in Germany in 2018

Figure 4 Generations

List of Tables

Table 1 Generation Y versus Generation Z

Table 2 Recommendations for action at a glance

1 Introduction

1.1 Problem

For several years now, a new generation has been entering professional life. Namely Generation Z, made up of people who saw the light of day from 1995 onwards.1 This generation, which is also known as the "Internet generation" or "iGeneration"2, is considered to have drastically changed values and behavioural patterns compared to previous generations.3

Christian Scholz, Professor of Economics at Saarland University, who unfortunately died much too early in October 2019, described Generation Z as follows:

"It no longer feels any loyalty to her employer, insists on separation between private and professional life, wants clear structures, has little interest in competition and prefers a performance-independent pay, does not want to burden her private life by having to take on responsibility at work takes over and defines itself primarily via itself." 4

This characterization may not seem as attractive to employers, but in the future, they will probably not have any alternatives to meet their manpower needs. At present, it is mainly the baby boomer generation and the X and Y generations that are represented in the labour market.5 However, as Figure 1 on page 2 shows, the baby boomers - and with them Germany's highest-birth cohort (1964)6 - will retire in the next few years, which will inevitably increase the share as well as importance of the youngest generation within the labour market. As Figure 1 also shows, the population is declining significantly and for a long time after the baby boomers. As a result of this demographic change, employers will find it increasingly difficult in the future to find and retain qualified young employees7. The competition among employers will not stop increasing, thus triggering a "war for talents".8

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1 Population pyramid Germany in 20179

In order to be able to cover their own manpower requirements in the future10, employers must display themselves attractively on the labour market and be prepared to adapt to the needs of the employees, which, however, necessarily requires knowledge of employee preferences.11 A shift of power within the labour market in favour of the employees has long since happened, but not every employer has noticed this yet.12 As mentioned, Generation Z will play a crucial role in the labour market in the future. For this reason, employers are well advised to take a close look at this generation in order to determine how to attract and retain this generation.

1.2 Objectives/structure of the work

The present paper aims to show employers how they should shape their personnel work in the future regarding Generation Z. It is made up of four parts.

The first part starts with an introduction to the problem and defines the objectives and methodology of the work. In the second part, on the basis of a comprehensive literature research, first the generational topic is described and then the current state of research with regard to Generation Z is presented. In this context, the attitudes, values, and behavioural patterns of Generation Z are differentiated from those present in previous generations. Subsequently, the third part of the study transfers the generation-specific requirements to human resources work. The main focus here is on recruiting and retaining members of Generation Z. In this context, the following research questions will be answered:

1.) What does Generation Z expect from its future employer?

On the basis generation-typical value conceptions as well as needs the requirements are to be worked out, which distinguish a fitting employer from view of the generation Z.

2.) What effects will these expectations have on human resources management, especially on recruitment as well as leadership?

Based on the answers to the mentioned research questions, personnel management measures for recruitment and retention are derived and explained. The thesis is summed up in the fourth part with a conclusion.

1.3 Methodology of the work

The answer to the above research questions was preceded by literature search. The relevant literature was determined using a keyword search within the following sources of supply:

- Libraries and electronic ebook catalogs
- TIB and Hannover University Library
- Bielefeld University Library
- German National Library
- Publishing portals and electronic journals, catalogs as well as databases
- SpringerLink
- Statista
- Scientific search engines
- GoolgleScholar
- ISI Web of Knowledge

The digital search process itself was accomplished using the keyword search method. The following keywords were used in this context:

- Employer attractiveness
- Employer loyalty
- Baby Boomer
- Employees
- Employer branding
- Lack of skilled workers
- Generation, Generation Z, Generation Y
- Company
- Cohort
- Staff retention
- Recruiting

In addition to the systematic literature search, a "manual" search was also done outside the defined sources, since relevant literature was not yet digitized in several cases.

A total of 122 sources were therefore identified and subsequently analysed and assessed with regard to their usability. Of the 122 sources originally identified, 89 publications were included in the work. As Figure 2 displays, these are publications that mostly appeared between 2015 and 2019. The timeliness of the work is therefore guaranteed. 82 sources are in German, 7 papers are in English.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2 Age of the sources13

2 Theoretical basics

In order to be able to define the demands Generation Z makes on its employers, it must first be clarified what is actually meant by a generation. In this context, the first step is to teach the corresponding theoretical principles. This is followed by a presentation of specific generations that are currently represented on the labour market. A special focus will be on Generation Z and how it is different from previous generations.

2.1 Definitions of the concept of generation

In our media and in the public discussion, the term "generation" is omnipresent. In this context, generation labels such as "Generation 68" or "Generation Internet" are often used strikingly. However, these terms are sometimes overused, as they are only used briefly due to fast-moving media, technical or cultural phenomena and then go on to disappear again into the media.14

In comparison, more stable generation concepts have developed in the scientific literature. In this context, four different generation concepts are classified. The biological-genealogical generation concept refers to the descent and succession of family members. The pedagogical generation concept differentiates between knowledge imparting as well as knowledge receiving generations. The socio-political generation concept, on the other hand, regards generations as categories of welfare state distribution processes between age groups and/or birth cohorts, as is the case, for example, with old-age provision15. The historical-social perspective utilized in this work explains different value systems of an age group due to common socialization. The historical-social perspective goes back to the sociologist Karl Mannheim (1928).16 With his 1928 essay "Problem of Generations" he set the foundation for modern generational research.17 In his essay, he differentiates between three different concepts of generation:

- the generational storage (Generationenlagerung),
- the generational context (Generationenzusammenhang)
- and the generation unit (Generationeneinheit), which are tightly linked to each other.

Generational storage defines the basis of generational coherence. It describes a cohort that shares a certain birth period, it is the membership in a "historical community"18. The generational context in turn describes how this "historical life community" is linked to each other through the common experience of particularly formative events.19 The generational unit describes the embodiment of this connection. It reveals itself in similar values and collective patterns of behaviour as well as attitudes of a cohort.20

The mentioned explanations display quite well the actual core of the generational concept; it is the expression of typical characteristics, patterns of behaviour and values that lead to the formation of a specific generation.21 This concept is based on the thesis that it is primarily the experiences of children, adolescents as well as early adults that form a person's basic value concepts, which are then expressed later during the formative phase through similar patterns of action as well as reaction.22 Since it is well known that humans are individuals, it is not surprising that not all people of a generation react the exact same way. Mannheim points out that the same situation can be perceived very differently depending on origin, culture, class and other influencing factors. This can even go so far that in the specific forms of expression one can observe almost opposites, which however are based on a common basic mood.23

Since childhood and adolescence have a crucial influence on the consciousness and the later life of an individual24, it is advisable to analyse significant events as well as adapted living conditions in childhood/adolescence in order to gain a deeper understanding of generations.25

2.2 Selected generations on the German labour market

On the basis of the international definition, the working population comprises all persons between 15 and 75 years of age.26 As Figure 3 illustrates, the employment rate of women and men in Germany continually rises with age due to the gradual transition from education (school, apprenticeship, studies) to work until about the age of 30.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 3 Employment rate in Germany in 201827

In the life span from 30 to 55 years about 90% of the men are employed. The employment rate of women reaches its peak only at the age of 40 to 55 years and remains clearly below the one of men. The exit from working life begins at the age of 55. These early exits are probably partly due to illness or unemployment. Beginning the 63rd year of life the exit from the working life forces itself, the portion of persons, who are still employed after the 65th birthday, is minimal in Germany.

Based on these remarks, it is thus not unrealistic that in a company the 15-year-old trainee encounters employees who are, as an example, 65 years old. This corresponds to an age difference of half a century, which in itself shows a certain potential for conflict.28 According to studies, these conflicts happen due to different job-related characteristics and values of the different generations.29

2.3 Classification of the generations

There is at this point no generally binding generational division in the literature. Some attempts are carried out to transfer the American generational system to Germany, but this is problematic.30 In the USA, for example, the baby boom started about 10 years earlier than in Germany, which was destroyed by World War II.31 In addition to different time periods and definitions, the literature also contains a variety of synonyms for the respective generations, which name crucial elements for generational characterization.32

Following Mannheim's example,33 it is advisable to carry out a flexible generational classification based on the simultaneous perception of formative events by people of the same age or stage of life and their common cultural context34. However, generations are not regarded as global units, since cultural and socio-economic processes in different countries are not only time-delayed, but also proceeded in a different way. For example, in October 2019, youth unemployment in Germany was 5.8%, while it was 33.1% in Greece and 32.8% in Spain.35 Thus, insights gained into the values as well as attitudes of young people in Germany cannot just be transferred to young people in Greece or Spain.36

Generations are dynamic and not static constructs, because values and settings do not change abruptly after a certain point of time. Thus, individuals born in the 1960s may behave in a similar way to those who saw the light of day in the 1990s.37 In the context of this work, the generational classification of Martin Klaffke, author of the work "Generationen-Management" (Generation Management), is used and presented below. As the following figure no. 4 illustrates, he points out differences between baby boomers and the generations X, Y, and Z, which are in the life phases of socialization, employment as well as retirement.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 4 Generations38

As Figure 4 also shows, four generations are currently present in the German labour market. While baby boomers and generations X and Y are currently in the employment phase, generation Z is still in the socialization phase. Since the post-war generation is already largely in the retirement phase, it is not the subject of further discussion.39

2.3.1 Baby Boomer

The term Baby Boomer (also known as the generation of the economic miracle) defines a post-war generation with a high birthrate. In German-speaking countries, the baby boomers include the birth cohorts from around 1956 to 1965.40 1.4 million children were born in 1964 at the peak of the baby boom. As a comparison: in 2018, only 787,523 children were born in Germany.41 The baby boomers are at this point the oldest and, at the same time, quantitatively the strongest generation on the German labour market. The oldest representatives of the baby boomer cohort are about to retire or have already retired.42 This exit will lead to the fact that in the future many specialist and management positions will be distributed among the following generations. Additionally, there will be a decline in the German workforce, since all subsequent generations will have a decreased birth rate.43

The representatives of this generation experienced their formative phase between the years 1965 and 1989, depending on the specific year of birth44. The historical events that formed the generational context were the construction of the Berlin Wall (1961), the student movement of the 1960s, the oil crisis (1973), and the German Autumn (1977). Worldwide, the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), the assassination of US President John F. Kennedy (1963) as well as the Vietnam War (until 1975) were defining events. In the social context, the hippie movement (1969) and the moon landing (1969) had an influence on the attitudes and value patterns of the baby boomers. While the economy still improved very strongly in the 1950s and 1960s (economic miracle), economic growth slowed considerably in the 1970s. Social life was also heavily influenced by the introduction of the contraceptive pill in the early 1960s and the resulting sharp drop in the birth rate.45

Baby Boomers are defined by an optimistic as well as idealistic attitude towards life as well as a friendly, communicative, helpful and socially competent personality. Due to the strong birth cohorts, Baby Boomers developed a specific competitive nature, high assertiveness and a strong self-confidence. Even though they had to compete for training and jobs as a baby boomer cohort, they are credited with a good team spirit, a superb work ethic and loyalty to the employer. The men of this generation are typically the breadwinners of their families. It is thus not surprising that a high work orientation and a strong sense of responsibility are defining factors. Although they are assumed to live to work, they still try to balance work and private life.46

2.3.2 Generation X

The term "Generation X" goes back to Douglas Coupland47 's socio-critical novel of the same name, which discussed the prosperity situation at the time and the older generations.48 Synonyms for this generation are "Post-Boomers", "Generation MTV", "Latchkey Kids" or "Generation Golf". As a result of the "Pillenknick"49 and the associated birth control, Generation X falls into a low-birth period.50 It is made up of the birth cohorts between 1966 and 1980.51

The representatives of Generation X experienced their defining phase between the years 1982 and 2004, depending on their specific year of birth.52 During the socialization of these people, the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989), reunification (1990) and some right-wing extremist attacks such as the pogroms in Rostock-Lichtenhagen (1992) or the arson attack on a house inhabited by foreigners in Mölln (1992) happened in Germany. The spread and discussion of AIDS (early 1980s) and the Chernobyl reactor catastrophe (1986) were global events that left their mark. The ongoing worldwide recession and the associated rise in unemployment at the beginning of the 1980s influenced Generation X on an economic as well as social level.53 The unemployment rate in Germany increased from 3.8 % in 1980 to 9.1 % in 1983.54 The formation of the European Union in 1992 also laid the foundation for economic, political and social cooperation between the member states and most likely had a formative influence on Generation X.55

Generation X is characterized by a rational, pragmatic but sceptical attitude. The members of this generation are attributed an even more present sense of personal responsibility than the baby boomers. They demand a good balance between professional as well as private life and, unlike the previous generation, are among the people who work to live. They can be critical of instructions and work processes, but this does not apply to change and competition.56

Even though members of Generation X are established on the labour market and have profound expertise and experience, they are comparatively rarely found in management positions. According to studies, this is not based on a lack of interest57, but rather on a lack of opportunities58. At present, a large part of management positions are still occupied by baby boomers. If they decide to leave the company, however, the vacant positions are partially (in the sense of long-term employee retention) directly assigned to representatives of the younger Generation Y59. Members of Generation X are thus often actively looking for alternative options to expand and further their careers.60

2.3.3 Generation Y

Generation Y comprises the birth cohorts between 1980 and 1995. 1993 was the first year in which the term "Generation Y" was defined in the trade journal Advertising Age. In the article, adolescents who in 1993 were 12 years old at most were characterized as "different" and were handed the status of a new generation, Generation Y. It should be mentioned here that the letter "Y" is pronounced as "why", because this generation is said to be always looking for reasons and questioning present rules and norms that previous generations still take for granted.61

Generation Y experienced its most defining years in the late 1990s and around the turn of the millennium, which is why they are often called "millennials".62 They grew up in a globalized world containing increasing insecurity, e.g. as a result of the stock market crash in 2008. Probably the most memorable and therefore most formative event was the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre on September 11, 2001.63

In their youth, Generation Y also saw the triumphant advance of the Internet and the associated media offerings.64 Never before has a generation been provided with such an enormous amount of information. It is not surprising, therefore, that this generation has a special need for information as well as feedback, while at the same time being attributed a particularly strong ability to obtain and process information. As a result65 of its strong ties to the Internet or the digital world, Generation Y is referred to as "digital natives"66 or "Generation Internet67 ".

While earlier generations still saw work as an obligation to secure their livelihoods, the members of Generation Y regards work as an opportunity for self-realization. Therefore, extrinsic motivators, among those monetary incentives, no longer affect them as strongly as they did in previous generations. Intrinsic motivators, however, are more crucial.68

Since Generation Y grew up in a globalized world, internationality, tolerance and openness play an important role for them. Diversity oriented companies that can also offer jobs abroad are therefore particularly popular among it69. As a consequence of the increased competition due to globalization, Generation Y is characterized by a pronounced performance orientation and flexibility. Their relatives demand high quality work performance from themselves. They therefore expect their employers to offer them fruitful opportunities for further development as well as career advancement.70 As mentioned, the members of Generation Y have grown up in a competitive society. This also influences the bond to an employer. They tend to be less interested in long-term relationships in order to be able to react flexibly when other employers make attractive offers. In comparison to their previous generations, employer loyalty is considerably lower. Generation researchers therefore attribute opportunistic behaviour to Generation Y.71

2.3.4 Generation Z

In Germany, unlike in the USA or France, for example, no generally accepted term for the generation following Generation Y has yet been established.72 In the literature, this generation is referred to as "Generation Z", "iGeneration" or "Generation Internet"73. While the term "Generation Z" describes an alphabetical continuation of Generation Y, the other terms refer to the spread of the Internet from 1995 onwards and see this as a constitutive characteristic of this generation, as the majority of Generation Y came into contact with the Internet relatively late in comparison with Generation Z. Therefore, it is safe to assume that the life-world of Generation Y differs considerably from the life-world of Generation Z in this respect. This development forms the basis for the generational context of this generation.74

Some literature does not make a difference between generations Y and Z and only speaks of Generation Y or the digital natives. However, this idea is rejected by Klaffke and Scholz, who consider differentiation to be indispensable. They justify this with clearly different patterns of behaviour and values.75

In the literature, there are also differing opinions in Generation Z as to the year of birth from which a person belongs to this generation. According to Bencsik et al., Generation Z is made up of people born between 1995 and 2010. People born after 2010 are already assigned to the new "Generation Alpha".76 Appel and Michel-Dittgen make a similar classification; they count the birth cohorts born after 1995 as part of Generation Z, but do not provide for a final year of birth.77 For Klaffke and Mangelsdorf, Generation Z includes persons born in 1996 or later.78 Bugge locates the start of this generation in the year of birth 1998, while79 Hesse & Mattmüller again see the beginning in 1995.80

In the context of this work, the beginning of Generation Z is attributed to the year of birth 1995 (generational storage), since a corresponding tendency is quite evident in the literature. The oldest members of this generation are therefore currently 23-24 years old and are already, for example as students, trainees or young employees, at the beginning of their work life. Many other members of this generation are, however, still in the defining phase of their childhood and youth81. About 15.5 million Germans, which represents 20% of the population, belong to Generation Z.82

The subject of this work is the special challenges to human resources work that are triggered by the entry of Generation Z into work life. Of special interest are the professional preferences of this generation and the demands they place on an employer. In order to gain a better understanding of this youngest generation on the labour market, Generation Z is first described in general terms below. In this context, environment-related influences and personal aspects are also taken into consideration, which can be assumed to have had a formative effect in the formative phase. About particularly formative historical-social influences at present still few reliable statements can be made, since the particularly relevant defining phase for some generation members did not begin yet or only recently.83 However, researchers assume that the global economic crisis from 2007 onwards, the increase in global terrorism as well as the expected shortage of workers due to demographic change have so far had a formative influence on Generation Z.84

Generation Z is multi-faceted, with security as well as affiliation needs flexibly joining the ranks of qualities such as performance orientation, ambition and the desire for personal development. What sticks out is the pragmatic optimism of this generation with regard to their own future, while their own future is thought of in a rather short-term perspective. As the85 Sinus Institute has found out, Z'ers do have dreams, but they do not focus on them a lot. They are more in search of pragmatic solutions and approach the realization of their dreams, but only up to a specific risk.86

Resulting from the academization of the professional world, which has been progressing for years and is accompanied by a large and difficult to grasp variety of educational and professional opportunities, Generation Z is increasingly feeling a certain disorientation. This is exacerbated by the early career choices due to the shortened schooling period for high school graduates and the abolition of compulsory military service. It is therefore hardly surprising that members of this generation have a specific need for security and orientation. The changes in the educational system also mean that the transitions between the phases of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood are much faster than in previous generations. As a result, the demands on performance and flexibility increase, which can result in excessive demands. As a reaction to this excessive demand, the desire for a regenerative time-out often arises, e.g. in the form of a break after finishing school for the purpose of a world trip, a stay abroad, a voluntary social year or even a sabbatical during work life. Klaffke expects that these regeneration phases, which usually last a long time, will increase in Generation Z.87

Generation Z is the first generation to be born into a fully digitized world. Digital media and social networks are a normal and natural part of everyday life for Z'ers. Google (1998), Wikipedia (2001) as well as Facebook (2004) were established when the oldest representatives of Generation Z left elementary school. It is not surprising that this circumstance has a decisive influence on leisure behaviour, communication and the consumption of digital information.88 In comparison with previous generations, Generation Z is much more familiar with digital media and social networks. While Generation Y still managed interpersonal relationships and communication entirely without usage of the Internet, the members of Generation Z are growing up in the midst of a global network and making friends online89. The use of media - both in their professional and private lives - indicates that this generation has quick and easy access to information and knowledge and therefore feels well informed. The interaction within the communicative exchange and the tone of communication are made up of honesty, directness, but also of short life and simplicity.90


1 see Bencsik, Juhász & Horváth-Csikós, 2016, p. 92

2 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 69

3 see Twenge, 2010, p. 201; Scholz & Weth, 2015, p. 265

4 see Scholz & Weth, 2015, p. 265

5 see Hesse & Mattmüller, 2015, p. 53

6 see Federal Institute for Population Research, 2014, p.1

7 see Pfeil, 2017, p. 43-45

8 see Ruthus, 2014, p. 3

9 Source: Federal Institute for Population Research (2018)

10 see Lievens and Highhouse, 2003, p. 75

11 see Gurtner & Kels, 2016, p. 1

12 see Beck et al., 2010, p. 8

13 Source: Own representation

14 see Höpflinger, 2019, p.2

15 see ibid. p.2-3

16 see Jureit & Wildt, 2005, p. 20

17 see Jureit, 2006, p. 12

18 see Mannheim , 1964 1928, p. 520

19 see ibid. p. 547

20 see ibid. p. 547

21 see Scholz, 2014, p. 16

22 see Herrmann, 2006, p. 35; Klaffke, 2014, p. 9

23 see Jureit & Wildt, 2005, p. 4

24 see Klaffke & Parment, 2011, p. 6

25 see Klaffke & Plambeck, 2015, p. 36

26 Federal Institute for Population Research, 2019

27 Source: Own presentation based on the Federal Institute for Population Research, 2019

28 see Milliken & Martins, 1996, p. 408

29 see Klaffke & Parment 2011

30 see Otto & Remdisch, 2015, p.50; Klaffke & Plambeck, 2015, p.36; Burch, Kunze, & Böhm, 2010, p.94

31 see Dimbath, 2016, p. 184; Klaffke, 2014, p. 11;

32 see Hucke et al.,2013, p. 126

33 see Mannheim , 1964 1928

34 see Mannheim,1964 1928; Klaffke, 2016, p. 2011-212

35 Source: Eurostat, 2019

36 see Klaffke, 2016, p. 212

37 see Klaffke, 2016, p. 212

38 Source: Klaffke, 2014, p. 12

39 See also chapter 2.2

40 see Pfeil, 2017, p. 65

41 see Federal Statistical Office (2019)

42 see Bundesinstitut Bevölkerungsforschung (2014), p. 1, see Federal Statistical Office, 2014

43 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 12

44 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 12

45 see Pfeil, 2017, p. 65

46 see Pfeil, 2017, p. 66

47 Coupland, 1991

48 see Burch et al., 2010, p. 105; Parment, 2013, p. 7

49 drop in the birth rate due to the pill

50 see Oertel, 2014, p.45

51 see Pfeil, 2017, p. 67

52 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 12

53 see Kupperschmidt, 2000, p. 69

54 see Federal Employment Agency, 2019

55 see Pfeil, 2017, p. 67

56 see Pfeil, 2017, p. 68

57 see Smola & Sutton, 2002

58 see Deal, Altmann & Rogelberg, 2010

59 see Zemke, Raines & Filipczak, 2013; Deal , Altmann & Rogelberg, 2010

60 see Deal, Altmann & Rogelberg, 2010; Smola & Sutton, 2002

61 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 12 f.

62 see Klaffke & Parment, 2011, p. 5; Parment, 2013, p. 7; Imme & Wind, 2011, p. 45

63 see Klaffke, 2011, p. 60

64 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 13

65 see Schulenburg, 2016, pp. 10-11

66 see Gurtner, Dievernich, & Kels, 2013, p. 245; Kunze, 2013, p. 232; Imme & Wind, 2011, p. 45

67 see Becker & Heuzeroth, 2014, p. 4

68 see Schulenburg, 2016, p. 11

69 see Schulenburg, 2016, p. 17

70 see Schulenburg, 2016, p. 12

71 see Schulenburg, 2016, p. 14; Klaffke, 2011, p. 66; Gurtner & Kels, 2016, p. 28

72 see Scholz & Weth, 2015, p. 264

73 The term "Generation Internet" is sometimes also used in literature for "Generation Y".

74 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 69

75 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 69; Scholz & Weth, 2015, p. 264

76 see Bencsik et al., 2016, p. 92

77 see Appel & Michel-Dittgen, 2013, p. 4

78 see Mangelsdorf, 2015, p. 13; Klaffke, 2014, p. 13

79 see Bugge, 2015, p. 561

80 See Hesse & Mattmüller, 2015, p. 77

81 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 69

82 see Federal Statistical Office, 2015

83 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 14

84 see Turner, 2013, p. 35; Klaffke, 2014, p. 70

85 Calmbach et al., 2016

86 cf. Klaffke, 2011, p. 73 ff

87 see Klaffke, 2011, p. 73, 75-76

88 see Klaffke, 2014, p. 70

89 see Mangelsdorf, 2015, p. 21

90 see Mangelsdorf, 2015, p. 62


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Title: Generation Z. A New Challenge for Human Resources Manager