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The effect of monitoring and evaluation to project performance in Rwanda. A case study of World Vision 2013-2017

Master's Thesis 2020 100 Pages

Business economics - Miscellaneous

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Problem Statement
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 General Objective
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
1.4 Research question
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Conceptual Framework
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Scope of the study
1.8.1 Conceptual scope
1.8.2 Geographical scope
1.8.3 Time scope
1.9 Organization of the study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Definition of Key Concept
2.2.1 Evaluation
2.2.2 Project
2.3 Theoretical Review
2.3.1 Monitoring
2.3.2 Evaluation
2.3.3 Project Time Management
2.3.4 Project time efficiency
2.3.5 The steps for time Management process
2.3.6 Project cost Minimization
2.3.7 Project scheduling (Activity Network)
2.3.8 Project Budget Adequacy
2.3.9 Project Cost Minimizing
2.3.10 Cost Estimating tools and Techniques
2.3.10 Developing a Baseline Cost for a project
2.3.11 Project Quality Management
2.3.12 Project performance indicators
2.3.13 Ten steps towards building a performance based M&E system
2.3.14 Development Project Cycle
2.3.15 The need for Monitoring and Evaluation in Project Management
2.3.16 Approaches of Monitoring and Evaluation
2.3.17 Traditional Approach
2.3.18 Participatory Approach
2.3.19 Designing Monitoring and Evaluation
2.4 Empirical Review
2.5 Research Gap

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Case Study Profile
3.2 The Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample Size
3.5 Data Collection Techniques
3.6 Data Collection Methods and instruments
3.6.1 Primary data
3.6.2 Questionnaire Method
3.6.3 Secondary data
3.6.4 Documentation
3.7 Data validity and reliability of the data collection Instruments
3.7.1 Validity of Instruments
3.7.2 Reliability of Instruments
3.8 Data processing
3.9 Editing
3.10 Coding
3.11 Tabulation
3.12 Data Analysis
3.12.1 Quantitative Data Analysis
3.12.2 Qualitative Data Analysis
3.13.3 Descriptive Method
3.14.4 Correlation
3.13 Ethical Considerations
3.14 Limitations of the Study

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
4.1 Data analysis and interpretation
4.1.1 Respondents’ general information
4.1.2 Analysis of the findings
4.1.3 Gender Respondents
4.1.4 Age Respondents
4.1.5 Respondent’s marital status
4.1.6 Education Level of the Respondents
4.1.7 Working experience

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Summary of major findings
5.1.1 Compliance to Quality Standards
5.1.2 Compliance to activity Cost Performance
5.1.3 Compliance to activity duration performance
5.1.4 The correlation between Monitoring and evaluation on project performance in World Vision Rwanda
5.1.5 Regression Analysis
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 Scope for Future studies

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My greatest thanks are addressed to God Almighty who gave me the courage, health and energy to accomplish my research study in due time. Without different support from different persons this research proposal would have not been possible to complete within the time limits.

This study would not have been possible without the assistance of many persons to whom I am deeply indebted. I must recognize and extend my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr Zenon MBERA, for his constructive guidance, advice and time given throughout this research proposal.

Many thanks go to employees of World Vision Rwanda who accept to provide the data which will make data collection. Your cooperation is highly appreciated. Special thanks go to UNILAK, both Administrative staff and MBA Lectures for their supportive role, advice, encouragement and suggestions which all contributed to the quality of this proposal.

I would like to express my thankful for the encouragement, patience ,sacrifice and support to my beloved mother relatives Singoma Ronald, John Madaraka and Evode Uwanyiligira for their care and effort that made me who I am today

I also convey many thanks to all respondents for enduring the inquisitive questions. The Patience demonstrated during the research was immeasurably the backbone to completion of this project.

I am greatly beholden to my classmates from University of Lay Adventist of Kigali (Main Campus) in Master’s Program and colleagues for their support and encouragement they gave me that immensely contributed immensely to the success of this research proposal.

Finally , I thank all those who contributed directly or indirectly to the completion of of this work.

John. BAGABO

ABSTRACT

Rwanda, like other African countries, local government is responsible for delivering basic services (e.g. access to potable water, proper sanitation, a sustainable electricity supply, and regular waste removal).

The major problem of World vision faces is development of its projects in Rwanda is lack of effective monitoring and evaluation. Therefore, this study aimed at assessment of monitoring and evaluation on project performance. The specific objectives were to study the effect of compliance to quality standards on Project performance of world Vision in Rwanda. to analyse the effect of compliance to activity cost on Project performance of World vision in Rwanda, to study the effect of compliance to activity duration on Project performance of world Vision in Rwanda, to examine the relationship between monitoring and evaluation and the project performance in World Vision Rwanda.To achieve the above objectives, a combination of questionnaires, interview and analyzing financial and other reports were used. Questionnaires were distributed to a group of 22 respondents selected from among the staffs and interview was done with the Director of Finance, Monitoring and Evaluation department. Both purposive and universal sampling techniques were applied in the study. Findings revealed that three techniques of monitoring and evaluation namely Compliance to Quality standards, Compliance to activity cost, Compliance to Activity duration were studied fully and the findings indicated that World Vision Rwanda have all the activities of improving these techniques of which help to better the Project performance. To assess the effect of variation in predictors, multiple regressions were performed. Effective Monitoring and evaluation is well supported under specific activities that are tackled both tactically and strategically hence better project performance and this was represented by Correlation. The correlation coefficient of 0.786 between monitoring and Evaluation and Project performance is high which means that Monitoring and evaluation has very high effect on the Project performance. The 72.5% of the variation in project performance is explained by the combined effect of compliance to quality standard, Compliance to activity cost and compliance to activity duration . The compliance to quality standard appears as the best predictor.

Conclusion and recommendation were basing empowerment of Monitoring and evaluation to project performance due to hypothesis (Ho) in this study was rejected.

Key words: Monitoring, Evaluation, project, Performance.

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Frame work

Figure 2.1 Project Lifecycle adapted from PIM (2013, p.49)

Figure 2.2 the frontal perspective of the 3D log frame showing the project planner's view

Figure 2.3 the rear perspective of the 3D Log frame showing the logical assumptions and the project manager's view

LIST OF TABLES

Table: 3.1. Likert five point scale

Table: 3.2. Reliability statistics

Table: 4.1. Profile of Respondents

Table: 4.2. Perception of Respondents on compliance to quality standards

Table: 4.3. Perception of respondents on compliance to activity cost

Table: 4.4. Perception of respondents on compliance to activity duration

Table: 4.5. Perception of respondents on optimum quality achievement

Table: 4.4. Perception of respondents on budget execution

Table: 4.5. Perception of respondents on optimum time utilization

Table: 4.6. Correlation between compliance to quality standards and project performance

Table: 4.7. Correlation between compliance to activity cost and project performance

Table. 4.8. Correlation between compliance to activity duration and project performance

Table: 4.9. Correlation between monitoring and evaluation and project performance

Table: 4.10. Model Summary

Table .4.11. Regression Coefficients

Table .4.12. ANOVAa

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the background of the Study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, and scope of the study and significance of the study.

1.1 Background of the Study

Countries worldwide e, including Rwanda, have been grappling with how to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in project performance. There is evidence of a growing number of countries perusing the path of results orientation by building or strengthening their projects monitoring and evaluation systems (Mackay, 2006). While monitoring has been described as the systematic and routine collection of information from projects and programs (Scriven, 1991), evaluation is a systematic process used to determine the merit or worth of a program or strategy in a specific context (Guskey, 2000).

Monitoring and evaluation is conducted for several purposes namely to learn what works and does not; to make informed decisions regarding programme operations and service delivery based on objective data; to ensure effective and efficient use of resources; to track progress of programmes; to assess extent the programme is having its desired impact; to create transparency and foster public trust; to understand support and meet donor needs; and to create institutional memory. Correction highlights areas for improvement for staff and tracks financial costs against budget. Monitoring focuses on the implementation process and asks the key question how well is the program being implemented while evaluation analyses the implementation process. Evaluation measures how well program activities have met objectives, examines extent to which outcomes can be attributed to project objectives and describes quality and effectiveness of program by documenting impact on participants and community ( Samuel J. , 2001).

The key to a successful Monitoring and Evaluation system is to utilize the collected data correctly; Monitoring is seen as a continuous function that uses systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide management and main stakeholders of an on-going development intervention with indications of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives. Evaluation on the other hand is the systematic and objective assessment of an on-going or completed project, program or policy which is aim is to determine relevance and fulfillment of objectives, development efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability (UNDP, 2009).

The literature draws attention to problems relating to monitoring, and evaluation. Efforts to assess accurately the impact of discrete projects have often been hindered by the cumulative effect of a number of common weaknesses, including: lack of clarity concerning the precise objectives of projects and how they might best be assessed; poor or non-existent base-line data; inadequate monitoring and project completion reports; the low priority given to assessment and the related problems of inadequate in-house skills .A good monitoring and evaluation system provides early warning signals so that corrective action can be taken timorously (NORAD, 2013).

Monitoring and evaluation enhance the efficient and effectiveness of organization assistance by establishing Clear links between past, present and future interventions and results. Monitoring and Evaluation can help an organization to extract, from past and ongoing activities, relevant information that can subsequently be used as the basis for programmatic fine-tuning, reorientation and planning. Without monitoring and evaluation, it would be impossible to judge if work was going in the right direction, whether progress and success could be claimed, and how future efforts might be improved Monitoring and evaluations are interactive and mutually supportive processes. The real product of Monitoring and Evaluation is not reports or facts, but a higher quality of decision-making (Hunter, 2011).

Mackay (2006:1) in developing countries have a high demand for effective government Monitoring and Evaluation systems in order to ensure proper public sector management. He further states that the culture of evaluation has become a path to enhance government performance; hence, developing countries are working to strengthen their existing Monitoring and Evaluation systems, while others are developing them from scratch.

According to Naidoo, (2009), Monitoring and Evaluation in Africa emerged largely from observations of the practice of Monitoring and Evaluation in countries outside Africa and was, therefore, a relatively late entrant to Africa. The entry of Monitoring and Evaluation into Africa has been largely through donor programmes and accompanied by an import of theories and methodologies that are largely northern in origin. Whitmore, et al., (2006), on the other hand, argued that Monitoring and Evaluation in Africa has taken on a transformative and social justice emphasis. He said Monitoring and Evaluation demonstrates societal transformation which comes about when there is a greater transparency and accountability of its operations.

Mackay (2007:45) points out that Africa has a special case owing to the discrepancies of the past and extreme poverty levels. Reveals that the problem in African countries is that performance information is often of poor quality, whilst officials who are designated to collect performance information are often tired and over worked, but expected to provide information to other officials who rarely give feedback. Monitoring and Evaluation has taken a greater role in international development in the last decade. Monitoring and evaluation has been brought to the fore of the global development agenda, as calls for better development and better evidence of practices that have rallied the global community and NGOs and other development actors in Africa to prioritize Monitoring and Evaluation in development interventions the key to a successful M&E system is to utilize the collected data correctly.

In recent years, Due to Inefficient monitoring and evaluation, Rwanda has suffered from an acute shortage of electricity supply and severe load shedding. Its installed generation capacity, has been severely constrained by regional drought, which led to a rapid draw-down of the reservoirs. Furthermore, the poor quality of supply severely limits the competitiveness of Rwandan businesses; the sector has emerged from a period of supply shortages, helped by better-than average rainfall and additional base-load thermal generation (Republic of Rwanda, 2013).

As (Muller, et al, 2007) mentioned that, project performance is complex and ambiguous concept and it changes over the project and product life cycle .Various performance can be listed for projects, these could range from cost to time and quality or many other factors (Mwala, 2012) mentioned controlling as three steps process, measuring progress, evaluating and what remains to be done and corrective actions to achieve or exceed the objectives.

According to Hauge (2013), the question that should be asked is whether the quality of the Monitoring and Evaluation information provided is appropriate and how well it feeds into existing managerial processes Monitoring and evaluation of development activities therefore provides government officials, development managers, and civil society with better means for learning from past experience, improving service delivery, planning and allocating resources, and demonstrating results as part of accountability to key stakeholders. The overall perception of Monitoring and Evaluation as homogenizing therefore does not imply that there is a single determinate outcome of this mode of organization and governance; the relative autonomy of World Vision can be both increased and restricted by intensified reporting demands. An evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful, enabling the incorporation of lessons learned into the decision-making process. The project manager has to maintain the project network and monitor against slippages in cost, time and quality for the duration of the project. The current practice of project control is entirely dependent on cost, schedule, and quality reports and personnel performance review. In the case of project monitoring, information for tracking progress according to previous agreed on plans and schedules routinely gathered (Atieno, 2014). Without proper planning, projects or programmes may be implemented at the wrong time or in the wrong manner and result in poor outcomes (Bakewell, et al., 2003). Therefore, the practice and use of Monitoring and Evaluation as part of the decision-making process is more important than formal requirements for Monitoring and Evaluation. According to Jody Kusek et al, (2004, p.227) define performance measurement as "system of assessing performance of (development) interventions against stated goals." From a system theoretic point of view, success monitoring provides organizational members with an orientation about a risky organizational transformation. Wholey (2010) states that evaluation is used in government to increase transparency, strengthen accountability, and improve performance, whereas performance management systems establish outcome-oriented goals and performance targets, monitor progress, stimulate performance improvements, and communicate results to higher policy levels and the public (Wholey, et al., 2010). The monitoring and evaluation function particularly the role it plays on performance of International and local NGO’s particularly world Vision Rwanda to provide better means for learning from past experience, improving service delivery, planning and allocating resources, and demonstrating results as part of accountability to stakeholders.” (World Bank, 2004).

1.2 Problem Statement

Globally, citizens want better and more services to maintain or improve their livelihood in Rwanda, like other African countries, local government is responsible for delivering basic services (e.g. access to potable water, proper sanitation, a sustainable electricity supply, and regular waste removal), in collaboration with other spheres of government, to enhance quality of life and local democracy there has been grappling with the challenge of ensuring increased efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of services. The fundamental cause of this challenge has been attributed, among others, to weak Monitoring and Evaluation systems (Hauge, 2003).

Best practice requires that projects to be monitored and control because stakeholders require transparency, accountability for resource use and its impact, worthy project performance and organizational learning which will assist in forthcoming projects. World vision has been increasingly and challenged to demonstrate accountability and relevance, with reporting, monitoring and evaluation arguably having become development activities in their own right (World Vision Rwanda 2014 report). One of the major problems of World vision faces is development of its projects in Rwanda is lack of effective monitoring and evaluation. This apparent neglect has resulted in the inability to complete projects within the stipulated period, escalation of costs, poor design and construction works, and inevitably poor performance. This results different projects to suffer lengthy delays and cost overruns, but if there had been proper planning and consultation with them, the donors would have known the best time to start the project and the type of material to use. Some of the problems may appear to be closely related, and some may appear to be causes or consequences of another problem. (World vision Rwanda, 2016). Critical and analytical examination of the above reasons commonly adduced for poor project execution and management at the third level of government in Rwanda shows that they constitute only symptoms and not the problem. The problem as identified is lack of adoption of an articulate, programmed activities and focused framework for project conceptualization, planning execution, monitoring and evaluation. It is therefore, the strong belief and contention that if local and international projects had adopted the project cycle approach in their development planning and execution, most of the problems identified above would not have arisen . To respond to this challenge, World vision has developed and implemented the Monitoring and Evaluation training of the personnel and hired the experts in Monitoring and Evaluation with the view of enhancing accountability, transparency, management decision, organizational learning (World vision report 2015) . The researcher therefore intends to study if Monitoring and Evaluation has contributed to the quality of its projects.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.3.1 General Objective

The primary objective of this study is to assess monitoring and evaluation on the project performance.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives

This study aims to achieve the following objectives.

1. To study the effect of compliance to quality standards on Project performance of world Vision in Rwanda.
2. Analyse the effect of compliance to activity cost on Project performance of World vision in Rwanda.
3. To study the effect of compliance to activity duration on Project performance of world Vision in Rwanda.
4. To examine the relationship between monitoring and evaluation and the project performance in World Vision Rwanda.

1.4 Research question

1. Is there any effect of compliance to quality standards on Project cost performance of World vision in Rwanda?
2. Is there any effect of compliance to activity cost on Project cost performance of World vision in Rwanda?
3. Is there any effect of compliance to activity duration on Project time performance of World Vision in Rwanda?
4. Is there any relationship between monitoring and evaluation and the project performance in World Vision Rwanda?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho: There is no relationship between monitoring and evaluation and the project performance in World Vision Rwanda.

Ho: There is a relationship between monitoring and evaluation and the project performance in World Vision Rwanda.

1.6 Conceptual Framework

According to Orodho (2009) a conceptual framework describes the relationship between the research variables. Jabareen (2008) argues that a variable is a measurable characteristic that assumes different values among subjects. This study seeks to establish the assessment of monitoring and evaluation on the project performance in Rwanda. With the review of related literature, the researcher managed to portray the sub variables by referring to practices of monitoring and evaluation identified in (Wholey, et al., 2010). Figure 1.1 outlines the schematic presentation of the variables of concern in the study and their corresponding dimensions. The independent variable consists of monitoring and evaluation while dependent variable is about project performance.

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1.2 Conceptual Frame work

Source: Researcher

1.7 Significance of the Study

Given the context of the study the research will be useful on the scientific level, to the society of Rwanda and to the researcher himself.

To the Researcher

The study will enable the researcher to assess the impact of to assess monitoring and evaluation on the project performance. With reference to World vision Rwanda and it will equally help to gain more experience in conducting research which subsequently will enable her gain research skills and to add on pool of existing knowledge. The findings of this study will serve as basis and guide for future reference to other researchers and other academic references, the research also will help other people especially on how build capacity and to empower other vulnerable groups of people. The study will also put to light the activities that must be performed to help World Vision to build capacities and performance of forthcoming projects.

To Community

The research clarified the assessment of monitoring and evaluation on project performance in Rwanda and will be the reference for project manager and staff in order to implement or maintain the capacity building within the project. This particular study will assist students of UNILAK since after the accomplishment and compilation; it will be submitted to the institution’s library. Other students that would need to carry out the similar topic or domain of the study in future shall use it as a reference.

To Project Managers

The research will teach them about monitoring and evaluation towards the project performance

1.8 Scope of the study.

Like other scientific tasks, this study is also limited in space, time and domain. It encompasses ideas concerning monitoring and evaluation and its impact on performance of projects. The researcher collected data that covers periods of four years from 2013 – 2017

1.8.1 Conceptual scope

This study was restricted on the assessment of Monitoring and evaluation on project performance

1.8.2 Geographical scope

The research will take a sample of data from World Vision with the aim of underlying the assessment of monitoring and evaluation on the project performance in Rwanda and all the data will be gathered from the Head office located at Gasabo District, Kigali City.

1.8.3 Time scope

The study covered the interval of four years from 2013 – 2017, this period was chosen to assess Monitoring and evaluation on the Project performance.

1.9 Organization of the study

This study will be made up of five chapters presented as follows; Chapter one consists the general introduction that contains the background of the study, problem statement, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and conceptual framework. Chapter two presents the literature review which includes the introduction and definition of key terms and literature on the study that has been extracted from various text books, publications, journals, and other electronic sources related with the study. The third chapter highlights the methodological approaches employed in the collection of data. It analyzes the techniques and the approaches used in data collection and analysis during the research study. Chapter four focuses on results and discussion. In this part of the study, the researcher processes and analyzes the data which informed the presentation of findings, analysis and interpretation. Chapter five presents the conclusion; in this chapter the researcher summarizes the research findings and recommendations for improvement. It also outlines topic for further research.

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Details

Pages
100
Year
2020
ISBN (eBook)
9783346216625
ISBN (Book)
9783346216632
Language
English
Catalog Number
v538728
Grade
Tags
rwanda vision world

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Title: The effect of monitoring and evaluation to project performance in Rwanda. A case study of World Vision 2013-2017