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The Impact of Human Resource Development Practices on Organizational Productivity

Master's Thesis 2020 105 Pages

Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION TO

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS; ACCRONYMES AND SYMBOLS

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE:
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0 Back ground of the study
1.1 Problem statement
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.2.1 General Objective
1.2.2 Specific Objectives
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Conceptual framework
1.6 Definition of Key Concept
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Scope of the study
1.9 Organization of the study

CHAPTER TWO:
LITERATURE REVIEW.
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Theoretical Review
2.2 Organization Development (O.D.)
2.3 Empirical Review
2.4 Management Development
2.5 Human Resource Development Practices
2.5.1 Techniques of Human Resource Development practices
2.5.2 Purposes of Human Resource Development practices
2.5.3 Functions of Human Resource Development System
2.5.4 Components of Human Resource Development
2.5.4.1 Individual Learning and Development
2.5.4.2 Self-Directed Learning
2.5.4.3 Workplace learning
2.5.4.4 Coaching
2.5.4.5 Mentoring
2.5.4.6 Training
2.5.4.7 Purposes of productivity measurement
2.5.4.8 Causes of Low Productivity
2.5.4.9 Factor Affecting Productivity
2.5.4.10 Organizational productivity
2.6 Ways to Increase Productivity in an Organization
2.6.1 Productivity and Productivity Improvement:
2.6.2 The Impact of Human resource development practices on Organizational productivity
2.6.3 Research Gap

CHAPTER THREE:
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
3.1 The Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample Size
3.4 Data Collection Techniques
3.5 Data Collection Methods and instruments
3.5.1 Primary data
3.5.2 Questionnaire Method
3.5.3 Secondary data
3.5.4 Documentation
3.6 Data validity and reliability of the data collection Instruments
3.6.1 Validity of Instruments
3.6.2 Reliability of Instruments
3.7 Data processing
3.8 Editing
3.9 Coding
3.10 Tabulation
3.11 Data Analysis
3.11.1 Quantitative Data Analysis
3.11.2 Qualitative Data Analysis
3.11.3 Descriptive Method
3.11.4 Correlation
3.12 Ethical Considerations
3.13 Limitations of the Study

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
4.1 Data analysis and interpretation
4.1.1 Respondents’ general information
4.1.2 Analysis of the findings
4.1.3 Gender Respondents
4.1.4 Age Respondents
4.1.5 Respondent’s marital status
4.2 Respondents’ views on the human resource development practices
4.3 Respondents’ views on organizational productivity
4.4 Regression analysis
4.5 Regression Coefficients
4.5.1 Scale range of correlation

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Summary of major findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 Scope for Future studies

REFERENCES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My greatest thanks are addressed to God Almighty who gave me the courage, health and energy to accomplish my research study in due time. Without different support from different persons this research proposal would have not been possible to complete within the time limits.

This study would not have been possible without the assistance of many persons to whom I am deeply indebted. I must recognize and extend my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Rhoda KAYONGO for the support, motivation, and immense knowledge in research, which helped me in writing this research report. I could not have imagined having a better supervisor and mentor for my master’s degree research.

Many thanks go to employees of BPR ATLAS MARA who accept to provide the data which will make data collection. Your cooperation is highly appreciated. Special thanks go to UNILAK, both Administrative staff and MBA Lectures for their supportive role, advice, encouragement and suggestions which all contributed to the quality of this proposal.

I would like to express my thankful for the encouragement, patience , sacrifice and support to my beloved mother relatives Singoma Ronald, John Madaraka and Evode Uwanyiligira for their care and effort that made me who I am today I also convey many thanks to all respondents for enduring the inquisitive questions. The Patience demonstrated during the research was immeasurably the backbone to completion of this project.

I am greatly beholden to my classmates from University of Lay Adventist of Kigali (Main Campus) in Master’s Program and colleagues for their support and encouragement they gave me that immensely contributed immensely to the success of this research proposal.

Finally , I thank all those who contributed directly or indirectly to the completion of of this work.

John. BAGABO

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS; ACCRONYMES AND SYMBOLS

CEO: Chief Executive Officer

HRM: Human Resource Management

IMF: International Monetary Fund

MOPAN: Multilateral Organization Performance Assessment Network

PM: Performance Management

RNP: National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda

SPSS: Statistical Packages for Social Sciences

UNILAK: University of Lay Adventists of Kigali

US: United Nations

WEI: Work and Environment Initiative

HRD: Human resource development

%: Percentages

ABSTRACT

The management of human resource development practices is an effective way of achieving organizational productivity. It has been discovered that most organizations are not performing well in this area and as a result have been experiencing a decline in productivity as well as failure in achievement of their goals and objectives. BPR ATLAS MARA as financial institution in Rwanda was under performing due to lack of enough funds , its bank’s loan portfolio was poorly performing thus lowering the profit for example its profits feels from 8645.3 to 395.1 million Rwfs in 2015 as a result , several measures were put in place to solve this downsizing of employees , in aim of becoming true leader in Rwandan financial services and bringing value to the customers , employees and broader communities served .Bpr report, 2015. Therefore, this study aimed at assess the impact of Human resource development Practices on organizational productivity. The specific objectives were to Investigate the impact of Human Resource Development practices that are implemented is BPR ATLAS MARA , to evaluate the level of organization productivity on the employees of BPR ATLAS MARA ,to examine the relationship between human resource development practices and organization productivity in BPR ATLAS MARA. To achieve the above objectives, a combination of questionnaires, interview and analyzing organizational productivity and other human resource reports were used. Questionnaires were distributed to a group of 21 respondents selected from among the staffs and interview was done with the Director of Human resource. Both purposive and universal sampling techniques were applied in the study. To assess the effect of variation in predictors, multiple regressions were performed. Effective Human resource development practices is well supported under specific activities that are tackled both tactically and strategically hence better Organizational productivity and this was represented by Correlation . The correlation coefficient of 0.786 between Human resource development practices and Organizational productivity is high which means that Human resource development practices has very high effect on the Organizational productivity . The 72.5% of the variation in organizational productivity is explained by the combined effect of task performance, Contextual performance, Counterproductive work behavior and Adaptive performance. The Performance appraisal standards is the best predictor that it influences the organizational productivity more than the two other independent variables appears as the best predictor.

Conclusion and recommendation were basing empowerment of Human resource development practices and organizational productivity due to hypothesis (Ho) in this study was rejected.

Key Words : Human resource , development practices , organizational productivity

LIST OF TABLES

Table 0-1: Conceptual Framework

Table 0-1: Factors of improvement

Table 3. 0-1 Likert five point scale

Table 3. 0-2 Reliability statistics

Table 0-3: Reliability Statistics

Table 0-1: Distribution of respondents by gender

Table 2: Distribution of respondents by Age

Table 3: Distribution of respondents by Marital Status

Table 4: Distribution of respondents by Education Background

Table 5: Distribution of respondents by Experience

Table 6: Respondents' level of agreement on quality of work life and welfare measures

Table -7: Respondents' level of agreement on organizational development

Table 8: Respondents’ level of agreement on training and development

Table 9: Respondents’ appreciation level on performance appraisal and rewards

Table 10: Respondents’ level of agreement on task performance

Table 0-11: Respondents’ level of agreement on contextual performance –organizational

Table 12: Respondents’ level of agreement on contextual performance –interpersonal

Table 13: Respondents’ level of agreement on adaptive performance

Table 14: Respondents’ appreciation level on counter productive work behaviour

Table 0-15: Model Summary

Table 0-16: ANOVA

Table 0-17: Regression Coefficients

Table 0-18: Correlation between Human resource development practices and organizational productivity

CHAPTER ONE:

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The twenty-first century organizations are faced with the task of achieving the best possible results in terms of efficiency and effectiveness in products/service delivery and profit maximization with available employees at their disposal. As a result, the concept of human resource development (HRD) has emerged as strategy to enhance the capacity of available employees in organizations for performance. (Santiago et al. , 2014).

Studies haves shown that the success of an organization is highly dependent on the skills, knowledge and experience of its employees, which is a direct product of adequate human resource development capability of that particular organization (Rao, 2000a, pp. 24-25).

Mohammed (2006, pp. 24-31), posits that “the success and progress of an organization depend on its ability to maximally explore the talent and potentials of its workforce.” And this is more likely to be achieved through the purposeful HRD capability of an organization. Despite from Human resource development goes hand in hand with Human resource management as stated the greatest asset of any organization is its human resources that ensure that achievement of the company’s goal and objective. ( Bokeno, 2011, pp.25-27).

It is unfortunate that most company’s organization have neglected the development and management of their chief asset which is human resource (Smith et al , 2012).

1.0 Back ground of the study

Globally as well as Rwanda not exceptional Human resource development is the integration of individual, career and organization .Development roles in order to achieve maximum productivity, quality, opportunity and Fulfillment of organizations members as they work to accomplish the goals of the organization Mills et al., (1991).

However, ineffective HRD practice can bring many problems such as reduced employees ‘enthusiastic to learn and apply new skills, decreased employee productivity, low morale, and higher employee turnover Fiona et al, (2005).

Developing an effective HRD practice is a difficult task since it demands to look into the needs of the employees and ensure that the practices are aligned with company and employee’s need. Therefore, problems in human resource development system arise when the training and development practices fail to accommodate employees’ needs. So, if an organization wants to enhance employees’ satisfaction and retain its’ employees; it should concern with improving the skills, knowledge, attitudes and behavior of employees in organizational settings for the benefit of both employees and the organization. Fiona et al.,(2005).

Human resource development is supported by Human Resource Management as the function within an organization that focused on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. It is also a strategic and comprehensive approach of managing people and the work place culture and environment Susan, ( 2012)

Human resource development as an administrative activity associated with human resources planning, recruitment, selection, orientation, training, appraisal, motivation and also a functions within an organization that focuses on people Edgar, ( 2012 ).

Consequently, organization should prioritize the development of the human element to maximize talents, skills and ability which will automatically reflects on the company’s profit. It pre-supposes that we do need people in order to firm a business which that no business can exist entirely without people. Even a computer auto-mental machine factory has to employ some people, though a conventional plant with similar capacity might require more people. There arises the need for proper planning of these people employed otherwise known as “Manpower planning” (Brewster, 2012). Moreover, HRD helps organizations to provide learning related to the goals of the organization and to its employees. Effective Human resource development enables employees to contribute effectively and productivity to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives Susan,( 2012).

Most organization does not have plans for the development of their members of staff. Once those people are recruited, the companies do not orientate them, neither do they train them to acquire other modern skills or improve upon their talents and educational qualifications they came in with. Companies under study need to equip their labor force which will boost quality product and profit making of their organization. Human resource development makes sure that manpower planning in an organization is not static but an ongoing process. It focuses on raising productivity through improved quality, efficiency, cost reduction and enabling customers concentrate on their core business activities. Therefore, human resources development is a universal norm and not a view concept. There is no industry, firm, organization, business enterprises, nation etc. that can boost a political, economic and social stability, quality product and profitability without adequate human resources in place Brewster et al, (2009).

In recent years, it has been noted that good number of business establishment are having poor performance as a result of lack of effective and efficient human resources. Business is full of uncertainty and the understanding of labor contribution or human resources development is vital for management especially in the areas of boosting organizational productivity and as well its profitability.(Maryhofer, et al . (2012)

Lazar (2001) stated that human resources ensure the right number of people and at the right time doing the right thing to ensure that goal of the organization are achieved. It is important to note that it’s the individual that determines and chooses in what type of organization’s human resources she wants to belong. Organization Productivity was seen as a measure of how well resources are brought together in an organization and utilizes for accomplishing a set of result. Productivity is at the highest level of performance with the least expenditure or resources. It is often seen as the relationship between total output/total input. This means that without availability of capable employees (in terms of required skills, knowledge and experience) to make things happen in the area of quality products/service delivery and profit maximization, the enhanced goal attainment of that particular organization becomes a mirage.(Mali et, al. 2008)

According to Peter Drucker a founding father of management theory wrote, effectiveness is a minimum condition for survival after success has been achieved. Efficiency is concerned with doing things right and effectiveness is doing the right things. Productivity concerns both effectiveness and efficiency.

1.1 Problem statement

The management of human resource development practices is an effective way of achieving organizational productivity .It has been discovered that most organizations are not performing well in this area and as a result have been experiencing a decline in productivity as well as failure in achievement of their goals and objectives. BPR ATLAS MARA as financial institution in Rwanda was under performing due to lack of enough funds , its bank’s loan portfolio was poorly performing thus lowering the profit for example its profits feels from 8645.3 to 395.1 million Rwfs in 2015 as a result , several measures were put in place to solve this downsizing of employees , in aim of becoming true leader in Rwandan financial services and bringing value to the customers , employees and broader communities served .Bpr report, 2015. More so as the argue to down operational costs as the bank moves towards introducing more digital products and refurbishing its brands across t. Howe there may be other solutions to increasing productivity in terms of performance other than the ones obtained above. Therefore, this study wants to find out if HRD practices are maintained in BPR ATLAS MARA would they improve the productivity of organization in improving efficiency and effectiveness. In order to address the problem , the management will enhance the human resource practices by taking into consideration of training and development as well as setting goals ,and training and development and need assessment respectively by providing a good learning environment including social capital as well as skills and training (Becker, 2002). In most cases, there may be gap between employees’ knowledge, skills and attitude and what the job demand, high rate of turnover, absenteeism, lack of skilled labor, heavy competition among firms, technological problems, low productivity and to mention but a few leads to a high rate of poor performance and poor product implementation while placing a serious limitation on product expansion and increase in productivity. The gap must be filled through human resource development programs. This may inherent in the organizational set up is low skills on the service delivered irregular promotional structure and lack of recognition of workers achievements. All these tend to dampen workers morale and consequently affect their productivity. As a result, personnel training, development and education are the major ways that attempt to maintain the competency levels of their human resources and increase their adaptability to changing organizational demand. (Hooi Lai et al, 2007).Performance appraisal and rewards of an organization depends on the quality of its human resources and human resources development strategy being an integral part of organizations’ strategic plan and its practicability. HRD practice of training and development provides their employees with greater Intrinsic rewards than other traditional HRD tools (Biraj et al, 2012). Therefore, the major reasons that the researcher’s wish to raise this point is that according to the researcher’s observation before conducting the study there is a positive effect of human resource development practice in employees’ performance and motivation and it decreases employee turnover in BPR ATLAS MARA Head quarters

1.2 Objectives of the Study

1.2.1 General Objective

The primary objective of this study is to assess the effect of human resource development practices on the organization productivity

1.2.2 Specific Objectives

This study aims to achieve the following objectives.

1. To Investigate the impact of Human Resource Development practices that are implemented is BPR ATLAS MARA
2. To evaluate the level of organization productivity on the employees of BPR ATLAS MARA
3. To examine the relationship between human resource development practices and organization productivity in BPR ATLAS MARA

1.3 Research questions

Based on the objectives of the study, the following research questions were formulated.

1. What human resource development practices are implemented in BPR ATLAS MARA BPR ATLAS MARA?
2. What is the level of organizational productivity in terms individual work performance in BPR ATLAS MARA?
3. What is the relationship between Human resource development and organization productivity in BPR ATLASMARA?

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Ho: There is no relationship between human resource development and organization productivity in BPR ATLAS MARA

H -: There is a relationship between human resource development and organization productivity in BPR ATLAS MARA

1.5 Conceptual framework

The relationship between HRD and productivity as argued by Okechukwu Agwu (2014) human resource development practice and organizational productivity relationship model which is based on the resource-based view which states that increasing employees’ abilities and HRD will ultimately improve organizational performance (Lopez et al., 2005.It is also argued that satisfaction usually precedes organizational motivation and commitment while job satisfaction, Organizational motivation and commitment are strongly interrelated (Bartlett, 2001)

Independent variable Dependent Variables

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Table 0-1: Conceptual Framework.

Source : Researcher, 2018

1.6 Definition of Key Concept

Human Resource

Human resources is used to describe both the people who work for a company or organization and the department responsible for managing resources related to employees. The term human resources was first coined in the 1960s when the value of labor relations began to harvest attention and when notions such as motivation, organizational behavior, and selection assessments began to take shape.

Human resources (HR) are one of the most important “assets” of your business. The individuals who make up your organization go a long way toward driving its success, whether they are employees, managers, consultants or others. HR refers to the recruitment and management of personnel, in compliance with the law. Thus, the practice of HR requires knowledge of the laws that affect your workplace - at the federal, state and local levels. In addition to legal compliance, HR covers the art of managing your business internally ( Roberson et al 2007).

Development

According to Michael et al (2008) economic development generally refers to the sustained, concerted actions of policy makers and communities that promote the standard of living and economic health in specific area. Economic development can also be referred to as the quantitative change in economy .Such actions can involve multiple areas including development of human capital ,critical infrastructure ,regional competitiveness ,environmental sustainability ,social inclusion ,healthy ,safety ,Literacy and other initiatives .Economic development differs from economic growth .Whereas economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in GDP.

Organization

An organization or organization is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment. Organizations can also be thought as “social entities that are goal directed, deliberately structured activity systems with a permeable boundary (Bedeian et al. 2008)

Productivity: according to Rolloos (1997) refers to as, “productivity is that which people can produce with the least effort”. Productivity is also defined by Sutermeister (1976) as, “output per employee hour, quality considered”. Dorgan (1994) defines productivity as, “the increased functional and organizational performance, including quality”. However, for the purpose of this study, Productivity” is referred to as a ratio to measure how well an organization (or individual, industry, country) converts input resources (labor, materials, machines etc.) into goods and services. In this case, “productivity is measured considering performance increase as when there is less absenteeism, fewer employee leaving early and less breaks; whereas increase in performance can be measured by the number of units produced per employee per hour.

1.7 Significance of the Study

Given the context of the study, the research will be useful on the scientific level, to the society of Rwanda and to the researcher himself.

To the Researcher

The study will enable the researcher to assess the impact of human resource development and organization performance. With reference to BPR ATLAS MARA Head quarters Limited and it will equally help to gain more experience in conducting research which subsequently will enable her gain research skills and to add on pool of existing knowledge. The findings of this study will serve as basis and guide for future reference to other researchers and other academic references, the research also will help other people especially on how build capacity and to empower other institutions . The study will also put to light the activities that must be performed to help BPR ATLAS MARA Headquarters to build the employees capacities and performance of the organization.

To Community

The research clarified the assessment of human resource development practices to the organizational productivity in Rwanda and will be the reference for BPR ATLASMARA Headquarters authorities and staff in order to implement or maintain the capacity building within the organization staff. This particular study will assist students of UNILAK since after the accomplishment and compilation; it will be submitted to the institution’s library. Other students that would need to carry out the similar topic or domain of the study in future shall use it as a reference.

1.8 Scope of the study.

Like other scientific tasks, this study is also limited in space, time and domain. It encompasses ideas concerning employee’s relation and its impact on organizational performance.

The researcher will collect data that covers periods of two years from 2014 – 2017

Conceptual scope

This study was restricted on the assessment of human resource development practices on organization productivity.

Geographical scope

The research will take a sample of data from BPR ATLAS MARA with the aim of underlying the impact of Human resource development practices on organizational productivity in Rwanda and all the data were gathered from the BPR ATLAS MARA Head office located at Nyarugenge District, Kigali City.

Time scope

The study covered the interval of three years from 2014 – 2017, this period was chosen to assess human resource development on organization Productivity.

1.9 Organization of the study

This study will be made up of five chapters presented as follows; Chapter one consists the general introduction that contains the background of the study, problem statement, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and conceptual framework. Chapter two presents the literature review which includes the introduction and definition of key terms and literature on the study that has been extracted from various text books, publications, journals, and other electronic sources related with the study. The third chapter highlights the methodological approaches employed in the collection of data. It analyzes the techniques and the approaches used in data collection and analysis during the research study. Chapter four focuses on results and discussion. In this part of the study, the researcher processes and analyzes the data which informed the presentation of findings, analysis and interpretation. Chapter five presents the conclusion; in this chapter the researcher summarizes the research findings and recommendations for improvement. It also outlines topic for further research.

CHAPTER TWO:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

This chapter presents the related literatures on the study so as to have an insight in to the research topic and briefly expose the readers to some of the major areas of the subject matter under consideration. These include human resource development on organizational productivity

2.1 Theoretical Review

Human Resource Development (HRD) is an organized learning experience aimed at matching the organizational need for human resource with the individual need for career growth and development. It is a system and process involving organized series of learning activities designed to produce behavioral changes in human resource in such a way that they acquire desired level of Competence for present or future role. At firms’ level; training and education are the main areas of human resource development practices. Lauring, (2011)

Emphasis on human resource development result in Several positive individual and organizational outcomes such as higher performance, high quality individual and organization problem solving, enhancing career plans and employability, Sustainable competitive advantage, higher organizational commitment and enhancing organizational retention. To accomplish this undertaking, organizations will need to invest resources to enhance employees’ knowledge, skills and competencies. (Harter et al 2002)

However, ineffective HRD practice can bring many problems such as reduced employees ‘enthusiastic to learn and apply new skills, decreased employee productivity, low morale, and higher employee turnover (Fiona et al, 2005). Developing an effective HRD practice is a difficult task since it demands to look into the needs of the employees and ensure that the practices are aligned with both company and employees need. (Fiona etal . 2005).

Therefore, problems in human resource development system arise when the training and development practices fail to accommodate employees’ needs.

So, if an organization wants to enhance employees’ satisfaction and retain its’ employees; it should concern with improving the skills, knowledge, attitudes and behavior of employees in organizational settings for the benefit of both employees and the organization. Human Resources Development as a theory is a framework for the expansion of human capital within an organization through the development of both the organization and the individual to achieve performance improvement (Kumar et al ,2012). HRD practices develop the key competencies that enable individuals in organizations to perform current and future jobs through planned learning activities. Groups within organizations use HRD to initiate and manage change, also, HRD ensures a match between individual and organizational needs(Mishra et al , 2012).An educated and well-trained work force is considered to be essential to the maintenance of a business firm’s competitive advantage in a global economy, also believed that Human Resources Development can and should be a powerful agent to facilitate a firm’s expansion and the development of capabilities, thus enhancing profitability (Duncan, et al ,1998).

The most precious asset that can contribute greatly to the organizational efficiency and Effectiveness is the human resource of organizations (Muhammad, 2009).

The most successful companies and the most successful countries will be those that manage human capital in the most effective and efficient fashion by investing in their workers, encouraging workers to invest in themselves, providing a good learning environment including social capital as well as skills and training (Becker, 2002).

Companies under study need to equip their labour force which will boost quality product and profit making of their organization. Human resource development makes sure that manpower planning in an organization is not static but an ongoing process. It focuses on raising productivity through improved quality, efficiency, cost reduction and enabling customers concentrate on their core business activities.(Kumar et al 2009)

Organizational productivity refers to cost efficiency, productivity and profitability. According to Chaffey (2008), cost efficiency refers to total revenue or sales compared to the total costs and overhead costs incurred to provide outsource services. Productivity is the amount of output produced with a given amount of inputs (Houseman, 2006). Profitability refers to the efficiency of a company to generate earnings (Houseman, 2006).

According to a study by (Matthew, et al,2009) there is positive Connection between organization effectiveness and employee motivation. The overall success of an organization in achieving its strategic objectives relies heavily on the motivation level of employees.

All organizations, regardless of sector, size or industry require motivated work force that ensures the efficiency, high organizational output and prosperity of the organization .Employees who are motivated to work are likely to be determinant, innovative and competent. As to International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences (2013) HRD practices is a frame work for helping employees develop their personal and organization skills, knowledge and abilities. Training on the other hand is an organizational efforts aimed at helping an employee to acquire basis skills required for the effective and efficient execution of the functions for which he or she is hired, i.e. having focuses on technical skills, supervisory skills, and relatively specific areas of accounting methods, material management and planning techniques Susan (2012).Human resource development is the integration of individual, career and organization development roles in order to achieve maximum productivity, quality, opportunity and fulfillment of organizations members as they work to accomplish the goals of the organization(Pace, Smith et al , 1991).

Afshan et al. (2012) define performance as the achievement of specific tasks measured against predetermined or identified standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. Employee performance can be manifested in improvement in production, easiness in using the new technology, highly motivated workers. Performance is a process that is carried out to enable both the individual and the organization to analyze, examine and evaluate the performance of specified objectives over a period of time; this process can take up formal and informal forms (McCourt et al. 2003) Human Resource Development is a process of developing or unleashing human expertise through organization development and personnel training and development for the purpose of improving performance (Swanson, 1994)

According to ( Abbas et al 2009), there is a relationship between training and development and employee performance. The processes of resourcing and development aimed at increasing employee’s skills have a direct impact on their attitude that is motivation, commitment and satisfaction (Wright et al., 2003).

(Bruvold et al 2003) stated that comprehensive training activities are positively associated with productivity; reduced staff intention to leave and organizational effectiveness In all characterization it is evident that the outcome will be independent variable is human resource development and dependent variables are organizational performance effectiveness and efficiency , motivation and turnover. Employees’ attitudes and behaviors generally depend on the HRD policies and procedures the organization is using. Employees’ attitudes influence their behavior which subsequently influences organizational performance (Wright et al., 2003).

It is argued that employee turnover is heavily influenced by job satisfaction, motivation and organizational commitment (Hardre, 2003).

HRD practice of training and development provides their employees with greater intrinsic rewards than other traditional HRD tools; there is a significant relationship between HRD practices (training and development) and increased employees’ motivation or commitment and organizational productivity. It is also argued that satisfaction usually precedes organizational motivation and commitment while job satisfaction, organizational motivation and commitment are strongly interrelated .The basic causal pathway of this HRD-performance linkage model is as stated thus: Resourcing → Development → Skills → Attitudes → Behaviour → Performance (Bartlett, 2001).

Problems of Human Resource Development

a. The ability of most manufacturing companies to manage their resources effectively
b. Many constraints impending the implementation of such programs.
c. High rate of absenteeism and high labor turnover which is a factor of poor service conditions and poor management development programs.
d. Inadequate supply of materials and spare parts for the servicing and maintenance of equipment most of which are old, obsolete and even need changing.
e. Lack of motivation.

Increasing Workers effectiveness

One of the major objectives of any formal business organization is profit maximization but cannot be achieved satisfactorily without an efficient and effective workforce. Staff training and development is one of the ways of improving effectiveness.

Human Resource development practices

1. Quality of work life and welfare measures

Employees are perceived to be one of the most important resources for the effective and efficient organization and without the personal efforts and commitment of the human resources, organizations cannot succeed (Torrington, et al, 2005). Quality of work life (QWL) is perceived to be critical to retain and attract well qualified personnel and further, people are interested to work in the organizations where there is better quality of work life. Historically, work has occupied an important place in the life of human beings. How people have thought and felt about the working experience has also been an age old concern for both employees and employers. (Davis et al , 1975)

The Quality of Work Life in an organization is essential to the smooth running and the success of its employees at lower levels in the organization usually perform relatively monotonous tasks and have fewer opportunities for promotion or change. This is particularly true in developing countries. In most countries, many employees belong to trade unions. In order to maintain their work commitment and motivation, the organization must provide some welfare benefits such as medical insurance, disability insurance, and holidays and vacations. Quality-of-work-life programmes generally focus on the environment within the organization and included: basis physical concern such as heating and air conditioning, lighting, and safety precautions; additional physical amenities such as food and beverages facilities, recreation, and aesthetics; and psychological and motivational factors such as flexible work hours, freedom to suggest changes or improvements, challenging work, and varying degrees of autonomy. HRD systems focus on employee welfare and quality of work life by continually examining employee needs and meeting them to the extent feasible. Job-enrichment programmes, educational subsidies, recreational activities, health and medical benefits, and the like generate a sense of belonging that benefits the organization in the long run. (J. Grawhich et al.2008)

2.2 Organization Development (O.D.)

Organization Development is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc., to bring about planned change. Its objectives are a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances and the fast pace of change within the environment.

There are seven characteristics of organizational development:

Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees (McGregor's TheoryY).

Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology and people, must work together.

Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should not be all theory and lecture.

Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research.

Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need.

Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate and coordinate change

2. Training and Development

Training and development are often used to close the gap between current performances and expected future performance. T & D falls under human resource development function which has been argued to be an important function of human resource management (Weil et al. 2005).amongst the functions activities of this function is the identification of the needs for training and development and selecting methods and programmes suitable for these needs, plan how to implement them and finally evaluating their outcome results (McCourt et al . 2003).

Guest (1997) argues that policies are necessary to ensure that employee performance is evaluated, which in turn ensures that the appropriate training and development take place. With the help of the performance appraisal reports and findings, the organization can be able to identify development needs. However, individuals themselves can help to indicate the areas requiring improvement as a result of the issues raised in the performance appraisal process and their career path needs. Development is a broad ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) aimed at bringing someone

3. Performance appraisal

Appraisal is the analysis of the successes and failures of an employee and the assessment of their suitability for training and promotion in the future (Maund, 2001). According to (Maund 2001), appraisal is a key component of performance management of employees. When effective, the appraisal process reinforces the individual’s sense of personal worth and assists in developing his/her aspirations. Employee Performance Appraisal, which provides basis for Performance Management or Performance Development, was introduced in Barclays Bank as a goal-oriented tool to guide individual performance on the job and to recognize performance at all levels of employment. Performance Development is based on meeting individual role and business requirements and facilitates improved communication and understanding between team leaders and team mates. Objectives for performance appraisal policy can thus, best be understood in terms of potential benefits. Mohrman et al (1989) identified the following, increase motivation to perform effectively, increase staff self-esteem, gain new insight into staff and supervisors, better clarify and define job functions and responsibilities, develop valuable communication among appraisal participants, encourage increased self-understanding among staff as well as insight into the kind of development activities that are of value, distribute rewards on a fair and credible basis.

Participative management

Participative Management means involving workers in the decision making process. Participative Management is based on the concept that when the worker invests his time and ties his fate to the workplace, he should be given an opportunity to participate in the decision making process of the management. Participative management offers all employees opportunities to contribute to workplace policies and decisions that achieve business goals while promoting career satisfaction. As opposed to an autocratic management style, where the manager assumes operational control and makes all the decisions unilaterally, a participative manager asks for input from team members and considers all opinions to find workable solutions to business problems and implement them to meet deadlines. As a result, employees feel more valued and often work harder on behalf of their employers under this style of management.(Maund, 2001).

Indicator of organizational productivity

1. Task performance

Task performance can be defined as the effectiveness with which job incumbents. Perform activities that contribute to the organization's technical core either directly. by implementing a part of its technological process, or indirectly by providing it. With needed materials or services Task performance and contextual performance are two distinct dimensions of behavior at work that can contribute independently to effectiveness outcomes for organizations. Contextual performance is important because it represents a type of behavior that is largely under the motivational control of individuals. Little research has addressed how the opportunity to engage in contextual behaviors might be constrained by situational demands. This study examined the contribution of task performance and contextual performance to effectiveness in the work of air traffic controllers. As predicted, task difficulty moderated the relationship between contextual performance and effectiveness. The results demonstrate that contextual performance does contribute to effectiveness in technical domains, such as air traffic control, and highlight the importance of assessing situational factors when assessing performance and effectiveness.

(Bormanet al ,1993)

Contextual performance

Contextual performance has emerged as an important aspect of overall job performance. Job performance is no longer considered to consist strictly of performance on a task. Rather, with an increasingly competitive job market, employees are expected to go above and beyond the requirements listed in their job descriptions. Contextual performance, which is defined as activities that contribute to the social and psychological core of the organization, is beginning to be viewed as equally important to task performance.

Examples of contextual performance include volunteering for additional work, following organizational rules and procedures even when personally inconvenient, assisting and cooperating with coworkers, and various other discretionary behaviors. By strengthening the viability of social networks, these activities are posited to enhance the psychological climate in which the technical core is nested.(Herbert, et al . 2000)

Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is employee behavior that goes against the legitimate interests of an organization. These behaviors can harm organizations or people in organizations including employees and clients, customers, or patients. It has been proposed that a person-by-environment interaction can be utilized to explain a variety of counterproductive behaviors. For instance, an employee who is high on trait anger (tendency to experience anger) is more likely to respond to a stressful incident at work (being treated rudely by a supervisor) with CWB. Some researchers use the CWB term to subsume related constructs that are distinct. Workplace deviance is behavior at work that violates norms for appropriate behavior.3Retaliation consists of harmful behaviors done by employees to get back at someone who has treated them unfairly. Workplace revenge are behaviors by employees intended to hurt another person who has done something harmful to them. Workplace aggression consists of harmful acts that harm others in organizations. (Herbert, et al . 2000)

Adaptive Approach

Adaptive Performance has been frequently described as a set of skills or behaviors that lead a person to maintain performance during unexpected changes; however AP has been found to have both proactive aspects (i.e. anticipatory actions regarding perceived future change) and reactive components (i.e. modifying one’s behavior due to change ( Jundt et al., 2015).

Therefore, although you can find many different definitions of AP throughout the literature, for the purposes of this paper, we follow ( Jundt et al.’s 2015) definition of AP: “task-performance-directed behaviors individuals enact in response to or anticipation of changes relevant to job-related tasks Despite the need for such information, the amount of research conducted to date regarding the topic of AP is sparse. To make matters more problematic, the limited numbers of studies that have been conducted on AP have not found consistent results. The AP literature in general lacks a uniform definition, representative model of the construct, and concrete findings on the various antecedents and consequences of Adaptive approach. According to a review of the AP literature by (Jundt, et al . 2015),researchers have assessed AP in many different ways, across various domains, and use several different terms when referring to Adaptive approach and its related concepts, which has left the Adaptive approach literature fragmented. Some of the concepts frequently used when discussing adaptive approach include adaptive performance, adaptability, adaptation, adaptive expertise, adaptive transfer, and performance adaptation. Processes such as problem solving, flexibility and coping, are often used as synonyms of AP, as well, and although these processes may play a role in Adaptive approach in certain situations, they do not appropriately represent the overarching conceptualization of AP (Jundt et al., 2015).

Antecedents of Adaptive Performance

Individual Differences

When examining the predictors of AP, many studies found in the literature have looked towards individual differences as possible antecedents (Jundt et al.,2015), and the results vary significantly. It has been suggested that the assortment of individual differences that predict decision-making performance in relatively stable or unchanging contexts may be different than the assortment of individual differences that predict adaptability in unstable contexts (LePine et al.(2000) also suggested that adaptability is a function of cognitive ability, conscientiousness and openness, noting that dependability, a sub-facet of conscientiousness (i.e. order, dutifulness) caused a decrease in decision-making performance after the changes in task context were introduced, suggesting that volition, another sub-facet of conscientiousness (i.e. competence, achievement striving) is responsible for predicting a person’s adaptability. Huang, Ryan, Zabel and Palmer (2014) also found some support for openness being associated with AP, along with support for emotional stability and the ambition sub-facet of extraversion being associated with reactive and proactive forms of AP, respectively.

Costanza (1993) suggested that individual differences (specifically, personality) influence adaptability by molding an individual’s beliefs, goals and reactions to change in their study where they evaluated 15 “promoters” and 13 “inhibitors” of adaptability and found that adaptive individuals were generally concerned with personal accomplishment on challenging tasks and used their self-discipline in order to successfully accomplish a meaningful goal.

Contextual Differences. In contrast with previously mentioned studies, Griffin and Hesketh (2003) found that conscientiousness did not predict AP, and suggested that the situation, rather than personality was predictive of performance, leading to belief that adaptability may be malleable, and various changes in the situation/environment may make employees more adaptable. Some of these contextual changes that have been noted in the literature include leadership, team-based work, training strategies.

Leadership . The idea that contextual or environmental aspects of the workplace may have an effect on adaptability to study the effects of leadership on AP. It was suggested that leaders could use a clear and compelling vision of the future in order to increase “adaptivity”, or AP, for individuals high in the individual difference of ‘openness to work role change’, however a strong leader vision could have an adverse impact on individuals lower in openness to work role change, showing that leader vision is unlikely to be solely adequate for provoking adaptability (Griffin et al., 2010).

Team-based Work. Another contextual factor related to the study of AP is the shift to team-based work. Due to this overwhelming shift, researchers began studying the relationship between individual adaptability and team adaptability. It has been found that team AP can be represented as a sum of individual AP; in other words, the more Adaptable the individuals of a team are, the more adaptable the team as a functioning unit will be (Han & Williams, 2008). It has also been suggested that in order to maximize team AP, organizations should establish practices that support continuous learning Environments (Han Williams, et al 2008).

Training Strategies.

A link between the AP literature and the training literature has also brought about suggestions regarding enhancing AP through improvements in adaptive transfer, which is the level at which trainees can alter newly acquired knowledge and skills to successfully fit a changing or unfamiliar task environment (Jundt et al., 2015). One of the suggested training techniques to improve an individual’s adaptive transfer rate is error-management training (Keith et al., 2005), which promotes trainees making mistakes and discourages them from avoiding errors. Two techniques that have been shown to lead to more effective learning and therefore consequent AP include adaptive guidance and emotion-control strategies (Jundt et al., 2015). Adaptive guidance is a training strategy where trainers provide individualized, future-oriented information regarding specific areas to focus on improving as trainees are developing a skill (Kozlowski et al , 2002). Emotion-control strategies teach trainees to increase the number of positive thoughts while decreasing the number of negative thoughts, and help trainees manage performance-deterring emotions such as anxiety (Kozlowski et al , 2008).

HRD practices and Employee Performance

Human resource development is concerned with the provision of learning and development opportunities that support the achievement of business strategies and improvement of organizational, team and individual performance (Armstrong et al , 2002).

According to (Mohanty et al . 2012: 8) Organizations maintain a blurred position regarding investment in training. They generally accept training as an important means to improve employee productivity, which ultimately leads to organizational productivity and effectiveness, a present demand for all organizations. (Niufar et al . (2009) found four HRD practices that are training and development, team work, human resource planning and performance appraisal have positive and significant influence on business performance. (Maychiun et al., 2009) found that two components of human resource practices namely training and information technology have direct impact on organizational performance. ( Fakhfakh et al . (2006) have found evidence on the impact of training on productivity. Batt (2002) finds that ‘high involvement’ practices such as autonomy, team collaborations and training are related to reduce employee turnover and increased productivity.

Motivation

Motivation is the inner power or energy that pushes one toward performing a certain action.

Motivation strengthens the ambition, increases initiative and gives direction, courage, energy and the persistence to follow one's goals. Motivation is usually strong, when one has a vision, a clear mental image of a certain situation or achievement, faith in one's abilities and also a strong desire to materialize it. In this case motivation pushes one forward, toward taking action and making the vision a reality ((Mason et al 2010)

It has been argued that employees’ turnover is heavily influenced by job satisfaction, motivation and organizational commitment, because no employee would like to stay with an organization that is not satisfied with his work. ( Bruvold et al 2003) stated that comprehensive training activities are positively associated with productivity; reduced staff intention to leave and organizational effectiveness.

Bartlett (2001) observed a positive relationship between training and organizational commitment and recommended that human resource development professionals adapt new research methods to demonstrate to Organizational decision makers that training and development contributes to desired workplace attitudes which may in turn influence behaviors such as absenteeism and turnover.

2.3 Empirical Review

Human Resources Development is organized learning experiences in a definite time period to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth. Skilled employees are the most precious assets of every organization. According to (Chaudhary et al 2011) the relationship and impact of HRD climate on job satisfaction the findings indicate that HRD climate has a definite impact on job satisfaction which in turn leads to the increased organizational performance.

Similarly, as stated by ( Purang et al , 2000) in their study on found a positive relationship between value institutionalization and HRD climate, meaning there by a better and more ethical environment of the organization shall lead to a better HRD climate for the organization.

According to ( Tazebachew 2011), training is positively and significantly correlated with employee performance. Moreover, according to ( Singh, et al 1997) concluded that the HRD climate is mainly a function of the effectiveness variables including individual efficiency, organizational efficiency and productivity and HRD variables including management policy on HRD, Organizational development , role analysis and training. ( Biraj, et al , 2012) in their study concluded that there is a significant relationship between HRD climate and Job performance and any positive change in HRD climate will bring about positive changes in job performance.

Ebiringa (2010) their results highlighted the critical value of on-the-job training as the most significant human capital development index (formal education, on the job training, participation in seminars, conferences and trade fairs) that increases small and medium enterprises performance. Furthermore, as indicated by ( Suriyani et al , 2014), they obtained in their study therefore, refute the ideological misconception of human resource development as a nonrevenue function which is costly and unnecessary.

Their results show that human resource development is an integral part of the firm which accords them capacity to create unique skill levels that guaranty efficiency.

Benjamin (2011) in another study found correlation between HRD practices/climate and employee performance, attitude and behavior.

According to (Solkhe et al., 2011), there is a significant relationship between Job Satisfaction and HRD Climate and any positive change in HRD Climate and its components will bring about positive changes in Job Satisfaction and in turn impact the Organizational Performance in positive manner. Banu (2007) found that sound HRD Climate is necessary for the success of the public sector Undertakings. In addition, Mufeed SA, (2006) examined the HRD climate in major hospitals. HRD practice of training and development provides their employees with greater intrinsic rewards than other traditional HRD tools; there is a significant relationship between HRD practices (training and development) and increased employees’ motivation or commitment and organizational productivity. The processes of resourcing and development aimed at providing increased skills to employees have a direct impact on their attitudes, such as motivation, commitment and satisfaction (Bartlett, 2001; Fey et al. , 2000; Wright et al., 2003).

2.4 Management Development

Management development is concerned with improving managers’ performance in their present roles and preparing them for greater responsibilities in the future. It has been described by Mumford and Gold (2004) as ‘an attempt to improve managerial effectiveness through learning Process Management development contributes to organizations success by helping the organization to grow the managers it requires to meet its present and future needs. It improves managers ‘performance, gives them development opportunities, and provides for management succession.

According to Armstrong (2006), with an effective management development programmes: development processes may be anticipatory (so that managers can contribute to long-term objectives), reactive (intended to resolve or preempt performance difficulties) or motivational (geared to individual career aspirations).

As pointed out by Michael Armstrong (2006), the particular aims of management development are to; Ensure that managers understand what is expected of them; agreeing with them objectives against which their performance will be measured and the level of competence required in their roles, Improve the performance of managers in their present roles as a means of preparing them for greater responsibilities, Identify managers with potential, encouraging them to prepare and implement personal , development plans and ensuring that they receive the required development, training and experience, Provide for management succession, creating a system to keep this under review

2.5 Human Resource Development Practices

As to International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences (2013) HRD is a frame work for helping employees develop their personal and organization skills, knowledge and abilities. Training on the other hand is an organizational efforts aimed at helping an employee to acquire basis skills required for the effective and efficient execution of the functions for which he or she is hired, i.e. having focuses on technical skills, supervisory skills, and relatively specific areas of accounting methods, material management and planning techniques Susan (2012).Human resource development is the integration of individual, career and organizational development roles in order to achieve maximum productivity, quality, opportunity and fulfillment of organizations members as they work to accomplish the goals of the organization (Pace et al 1991)

2.5.1 Techniques of Human Resource Development practices

Some HRD activities are conducted without a specific managerial decision, or even without the knowledge of management. Even these clandestine HRD operations can contribute to the success of your organization” (Diwan, 1999) Where staff are treated as costs rather than assets and no investment is made in their training and development, morale is likely to be low and motivation absent. The positive presence of motivation is a clear indicator of the morale of staff (Kempner, 1971) and is crucial to the effectiveness of the organization According to Sharma and Maheshwari (2013) the following techniques may be used for the development of Human Resources in an organization, Appraisal performance helps employees in self appraisal and they can review their performance in relation to the objectives and other behaviors, Potential appraisal is to be done thorough potential appraisal of the employee once in three years, Career planning is necessary to make employees familiar with the general phases of their development in the company. For this Plan should be made with senior employees’ career path, Career development is a plan development and coping strategies with employees Showing limited potentials, Employee training is having assessed training needs of different groups of employees; it must be developed in the organization strategy including pre-training and post-training activities, Team work spirit should be inspired among employees this will result good impact on productivity of company, Monetary rewards should be attractive because these awards motivate the employees to their performance further, Non-monetary rewards play an important role in the organization such as free lunches, and dinners, office environment, job rotation.

2.5.2 Purposes of Human Resource Development practices

Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition assistance, and organization development. HRD is one of the most significant opportunities that employees seek when they consider you as an employer. The ability, and encouragement, to continue to develop their skills help you to retain and motivate employees. Bhardwaj & Mishra, (2002).The combination of the four focus of HRD (Individuals, Dyades (employee-boss), Team, and Organization) with four agents of HRD (Employee, Immediate boss, HR department, and Organizations) gives the HRD systems (Armstrong, 2006). According to him, the fundamental purpose of HRD system is to enhance resource capability in accordance with the belief that the human capital of an organization is a major source of competitive advantage. It is therefore about ensuring that the right quality people are available to meet present and future needs. This is achieved by producing a coherent and comprehensive framework for developing people. Furthermore, Armstrong has mentioned specific purpose of HRD as: to develop intellectual capital and promote organizational, team and individual learning by creating a learning culture– an environment in which employees are encouraged to learn and develop and in which knowledge is managed systematically. Most theorists suggest that the general purpose of HRD system is to develop the individual Employee by providing training and development activities, thus enhancing personal development, work processes and organizational performance to achieve organizational effectiveness. Indeed, the central role of HRD practices was to benefit individuals, groups and organizations. However, development and change have to be embedded within an individual before progressing into teams and organizations. Armstrong stressed that change in an organization always involves changing the individual and is first focused on individual development. In addition to the view of Armstrong, C.B. Gupta (2001) has mentioned the following as the main purpose of HRD practices systems: to develop the capabilities of each employee as an individual to develop the capabilities of each individual in relation to his or her present role to develop the capabilities of each employee in relation to his or her expected future Roles, to develop the dyadic relationship between each employee and his or her supervisor to develop the team spirit and functioning in every organizational unit (department, group, etc.), to develop collaboration among different units of the organization, to develop the organization’s overall health and self-renewing capabilities which, in turn, increase the enabling capabilities of individuals, dyads, teams, and the entire organization.

Evidences from Gupta (2001) show that in order to achieve the above mentioned objectives of HRD practices system, human resource management functions need to work in coordinated and integrated manner.

2.5.3 Functions of Human Resource Development System

According to Michale (2008), human resource development system has the following six major functions:

1) Analyzing the Role: One of the main aspects of HRM is to analyze the role in terms of responsibilities or key functions/ performance areas of the role, and the competencies required to perform the role effectively.
2) Matching the Role and the Person: Once the organization is clear about the dimensions of the roles or the jobs, it tries to get the best people for these jobs. After people are recruited they are put in different places. Placement is useful for giving varied experiences to people being recruited. Another aspect of matching role and person is reflected in potential appraisal, finding out who has potential to match the requirement of the job. Obviously, the next step is promotion of people by placing them in appropriate roles for which the organization is searching people.
3) Developing the Persons in the Role: Individuals develop not only through training, but in fact more through effective supervision, by helping them to understand their strengths so that they can leverage them for better performance. Similarly, they are helped to find out in what they have to be more effective in their jobs. In this regard performance coaching or counseling and mentoring are very important.
4)Developing the Role for the Person: Developing the role makes the role worth doing for the person. Very little attention has been given to role, although job rotation is being practiced in most of the organizations, and some organizations have also tried out job enrichment based on Herzberg’s concept of motivators.
5) Developing Equitability: Satisfaction level of employees depends to a great extent on their perceived justice being done to them without any discretion, as reflected in practices like management of compensation, rewards and various amenities. People have high performance and develop competencies only if these are rewarded by the organization. Reward does not mean financial reward only; many rewards may be non-financial also. Equitability can also be developed by standardizing administrative procedures, so that people do not have any feelings that decisions are subjective
6)Developing Self-renewing Capability: An organization should be concerned not only with its growth, but also with its health. It needs to diagnose its problems from time-to-time and take steps to develop new competencies to cope with the various problems and challenges it would be facing. This can be done through action research that is concerned with development of competencies through effective teams to diagnose the problems and initiate the process of collaborative work to deal with such problems.

2.5.4 Components of Human Resource Development

Thomson and Mabey (1994), as cited by Armstrong (2006), present the components of HRD

2.5.4.1 Individual Learning and Development

The concept of human resource development should necessarily cover the individual development to facilitate and enhance teams and organization developments. As the above model also clearly shows, the major focus of HRD is on individuals. In this sub section, the main components of individual learning and development i.e. self-directed learning, coaching and mentoring techniques will be discussed.

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Details

Pages
105
Year
2020
ISBN (eBook)
9783346177049
ISBN (Book)
9783346177056
Language
English
Catalog Number
v538716
Institution / College
University of Lay Adventists of Kigali – UNILAK
Grade
Very Good
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Title: The Impact of Human Resource Development Practices on Organizational Productivity