TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2Statement of the Problem
1.3Purpose of the Study
1.5Significant of the Study
1.6Scope of the Study
1.8Definition of Terms
2.1 Database Literature
2.2 Theoretical/Conception Literature
2.3 Prevalence Rate of Drug Abuse in Nigeria
2.4 Causes of Young People Vulnerability to Drug Abuse
2.4 Drug Abuse and Students’ Academic Performance
2.5 Causes and Effects of Drug Abuse
2.6 Review of Empirical Studies
2.7 Summary of Literature Review
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Area of the Study
3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.6 Instrument for data Collection
3.7 Validation of the Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Collection
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.2 Data Analysis
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 Background of the Study
A drug can be define as any chemical solid, liquid or amorphous substances derived from plants, animals or mineral resources which is applied externally or internally to cause some descramble effects. Also, a drug can be define as a substance which by its chemical nature has an effect to open the body of higher nervous system (the mind) the effect of drug can be positive or negative.
Positive Effect of Drug
Drug when properly used or taken into a living organism, produces the desired result and many modify one or more of its functional parts it is usually prescribed by a medical practitioner. Such substances are either of nagetables mineral or animal origin they could be prepared for the human body that produces the desired result into the treatment of diseases and ailment.
Negative Effect of Drug (Drug Abuse)
The negative effect is referred to as drug abuse drug abuse is therefore defined as the excessive consumption of drug by an individual. Drug abuse results when there is self-infection or from the approved medical usage. Drug abuse is involved in the following.
- Excessive use of drugs (unprescribed, drugs )
- Use of hard drugs
According to Agwusike (1990) drug abuse is the use of drugs above the prescribed dosage and for the purpose other than for the original prescription Salamatu (2019) also defined drug abuse as self-treatment of physical ailment which would result from ignorance. The society of doctors and pharmacist wormed at the uncontrollable ways and manners in which the drugs are sold to the public in our markets and medical stores which are contributory factors to drug abuse. Drugs other than those for common pain cough abuse and cold are sold in a doctor’s prescription.
Drug abuse could be viewed from different perspectives depending on the focus under view. It could be described as a non-medical use of drug which may cause harm to the students or the society in general.
People generally misuse or abuse drugs because the substance alter the mode of behavior of an individual. Over the years, the use of hard drugs like tobacco, sedatives, Indian hemp, cocoa leaves, alcohol, cocaine to mention but a few have drastically been on the increase especially in this part of the word (Africa). The dependence or addition, which is psychological is characterized by the complication to take drugs on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its mental effect.
According to (Robins, 2010) in his book “The history of drug abuse could be traced to the urge of man wanting to have power to relieve tension, satisfy his needs obtained occasional release from problems and the need to find a cure to some ailments all those have contributed to drug use abuse and addiction. The use of drugs by man is as old as man himself. Through-out recorded history drug has been in use long before this medical and recreational intoxicating and self-induce relief from psychic pain and emotion. The early history of drug is inseparable from the early history of medicine.
According to A (Idown, 2018) “Most traditional drugs are always misused or abused because of lack of dosage to determine the quantity required by the users. the expiration period is not stated substances that are today referred to as drugs originated from herbs and other natural substances that are today referred to as drugs originated from herbs and other natural chemicals caffeine which is the main ingredient in tea or coffee and nicotine as in stimulant and tension relieving drugs. They are considered socially acceptable and used recreationally.
However, they produce dependence and are also known to cause harm. Other dugs although are used medically for the treatment of one ailment or the other may also cause problems for individual. Examples of such drugs are psychoactive drugs or sedative prescribed but may be abuse thus causing addiction and harm. There are different causes of drug which include stimulant such as cocaine, tobacco or coffee, depressants such as alcohol and other substances of depressants such as heroine, morphine and opiates and the last one is hallucinogens.
Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder is a disease that affects a person’s brain and behavior and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication. Substances such as alcohol, marijuana and cocaine also are considered drugs when you’re addicted you may continue using the drug despite the harm it cause. Drug and dictation can start with experiment use of a recreational drug in social situations and for some people, the drug use becomes more frequent. For others particularly with opoids drug addiction begin with exposure to prescribed medication or receiving medications from a friend or relative who has been prescribed the medication (Richard, 2018).
The risk of addiction and how fast you become addicted varies by drug. Some drugs such as opioid have a higher pain killers than others pain killers have a higher than others. As time passes you may need large dose of the drug to get high. Soon you may need the drug just to feel good. As your drug use increases you may find that it’s increasingly difficult to go off the drug. Attempts to stop drug use may cause intense craving and make you feel physically ill (withdrawal symptoms). You may need help from your doctor, family, friends support groups or an organized treatment program to overcome your drug addiction and stay drug free.
Symptoms of drug addiction include:
- Feeling that you have to use the drug regularly
- Having intense urges for the drug that block out any other thoughts
- Over time needing more of the drug to get the same effect
- Taking large amount of the drug over a large period of time than you intended
- Making certain that you maintain a supply of the drug
- Spending money on the drug even through you cants afford it
- Continuing to use the drug, even though you know its causing problems in your life or causing you physical and psychological harm.
- Not meeting obligations, situations, studies, work responsibilities or cutting back on social or recreational activities because of drug use.
According to P.M Morton 2018 great misfortunes have resulted as a result of drug abuse and addiction examples series of road accidents that have claimed lives of men. Drug addicts when severely under the influence of drugs walked along the street half naked and perform perpetual acts like rape, assassinations and murders.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Drug abuse is pandemic problem even on the increase in an alarming rate in Nigeria today. About two decades ago incidence of drug trafficking in Nigeria was low and abuse was minimal, but today drug has destroyed and killed many people in the society. Students in our secondary school are the majority in this act. In view of this the research is embarked on to highlighting the effect of drug abuse and its addiction.
Over the years, it has been observed that students from some secondary schools in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state are in a form of drug addiction or the other as well as being involved in drug abuse. This research is therefore designed to view immediate causes of health implication of drug abuse and addiction among students in some selected secondary schools in Nasarawa local government.
The research hope that this research work would help the teachers, school authorities and the society at large to minimize the use and effects of drugs in schools. Also this study will encourage the government of Nasarawa local government area to establish drug rehabilitation activities with the help of the ministry of health and drug inspection unit (DIU) to care for addicts.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to highlight the causes of drug abuse among students in some selected secondary schools in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state by random sampling thus by taking from the beginning middle and deep end of the local government. This research is conducted and to recommend appropriate solutions in the following:
a. Find the main causes of drug abuse on students in Nassarawa local government
b. Determine the effect of the drug abuse on the students
c. Find out the extent of drug addiction on the students in Nasarawa local government
d. Find out the factors that influences drug abuse in Nasarawa Local Government
e. To identify the strategies that could take to address the problem associated with the drug abuse among students in S.S
This study might also situated the researcher into areas of drug addiction or some aspects of drug use, abuse and addiction among students.
1.4 Research Question/Hypothesis
In the course of carrying out this research work, the researcher will attempt got proffer solution to the following questions.
a. What are the courses of drug abuse on students in Nasarawa local government?
b. What is the effect of drug abuse on students in Nasarawa local government?
c. What is the extent of the drug addiction on students in Nasarawa local government?
d. What are the factors influence students to drug abuse in Nasarawa local government?
e. What are the strategies that could be taken to address the problems of drug abuse by students in Nasarawa local government?
In order to achieve a purposeful result in this research, it is necessary to declare the following statements.
1. Students engage in drug abuse in an attempt to cope with the opposite sex
2. Most student abuse drugs in order to gain absolute self confidence amongst follow students in class.
3. Drug abuse among student result from influence from friends and peer group pressure.
4. Students who abuse drugs are sure to suffer from mental, psychological and emotional problem.
1.5 Significant of the Study
The importance of this study is to provide resource materials for many that want to have deeper knowledge about the cause, effect and control of drug abuse and addiction.
This research will encourage organizations like NAFDAC, NDLEA health organizations like who, she and government parastatals to establish drug rehabilitation centers to help victims of drug abuse and addiction.
More so, the significance of this study is to outline its health implication amongst secondary school students, which will be centered on the following:
1. To identify the causes of drug abuse among secondary school students.
2. To help reduce the hazard of drug abuse to minimum and to enlighten the teachers on how to educated their students and the society at large.
3. To reduce the incidence of rape among secondary school students
4. To alert the government on how to control the abuse of drugs since the short term and long term effects are disastrous.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will be done in some selected secondary schools in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state. The schools covered for this research include: government Girls secondary schools Giginyu and government secondary school Tarauni all in Nasarrawa local government area.
The study is restricted to only Nasarawa local government area of Kano state. This study is conducted in this area to bridge the gap.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Excessive Use of Drugs
This is when an individual takes in drug without following the current prescription of the doctor
Use of Hard Drugs
Hard drugs are capable of affecting the state of the body or mind by either depressing or stimulating the central nervures system or producing other biochemical harm to the society at large.
This are the kinds of drugs that stimulates the nervous system of an individual to behave extra-ordinary leading such individuals to misbehave. The health implication is that the individual is acting on the influence of a cultivating factors such as tobacco, cocaine e.t.c. common incidence that happen around us today is on the influence of those stimulants and if care is not taken could lead to mental disorder.
These are sleeping inducing drugs they are used to calm anxious and restless subjects. They are barbiturales and non barbiturates that are capable of producing some degree of depression of the central nervous system (CNS) they are the most dangerous drugs.
These are substance that produces a state of altered perception and other alteration of mood such as illusion hallucination. Examples of these drugs are hysergic acid dethy lamine (LSD).
This chapter will focuses on review of related literatures on socio economic problems associated with drug abuse. The chapter will be discuss under the following subheadings.
2.1 Database literature
2.2 Theoretical/Conception literature or
2.3 Conceptual framework
2.1 Database Literature
Concept of Drug and Drug Abuse
Drug abuse is rapidly growing global problem. (Lakhanpal, Agnihotri, 2007); United Nations Office of Drug and Crime, 2007; (UNODC) Abudu, 2008. The problem of drug abuse places a significant threat to the social, health, economic fabrics of the families, society and the entire nations. (Giade, 2012; Oshodi, Aina & Onajole, 2010). Almost country in the world is affected from one or more drug being abused by its citizen’s (UNODC, 2007) the increase of drug abuse globally has brought problems such as increase in violence and crime, increase in Hepatitis B and C virus, increase in HIV/AIDS diseases, collapse of the veins and in the social structure. (UNODC, 2007; Oshodi, Aina, & Onajole, 2010).
Horrible youthful activities are widespread in Nigeria to the extent that they have been giving a lot of concern to the society, government and other stake holders in Nigeria. In primary schools, peers engage in organized crimes and disrupts normal academic programs. In secondary schools and most Nigerian Universities, the activities of secret cults are known to have been source of threat to lives and property. Outside the compuses, a lot of ritual killings are taking place. (Abudu, 2008; Oshodi, Aina & Onajole, 2010). The impact of drug abuse among Nigerian adolescents has been a feature of a morally bankrupt, corrupt and wasted generation and loss of our societal values and ideals. The situation now appears to be such that no one can argue ignorance of what is happening (Abudu, 2008). We cannot sit and illegitimately pretend on the menace of drug abuse among our adolescents. According to Giade (2011), any nation being used by drug barons as a transit rout has the potentials of becoming a drug abuse consumer’s country, drug abuse threaten the security of every nation, tearing a apart our societies, spawning crime, spreading diseases such as aids and killing our youths and our future.
Drug abuse may be defined as the “arbitrary” over dependence or miss-use of one particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioners. (Lakhanpal, & Agniotri, 2007). (Olumni, 2012), drug abuse is the harmful use of mind altering drugs. It added that the term usually refers to problem with illegal drugs, which also include harmful use of legal prescription drugs, such as in self-medication. Majority of the Nigerian adolescents ignorantly depend on one form of drug or the other for their various daily activities-social, educational, political moral e.t.c. such drugs include: Tobacco, Indian hemp, Cocaine, morphine, heroine, alcohol, ephedrine, madras, caffeine, glue, barbiturates, and amphetamines. (Oshikoya and Alli, 2006; Oshodi, Aina, Onajole 2010) in their studies on perception of drug abuse amongst Nigerian undergraduates identified dependence and addition as one of the major consequence of drug abuse, characterized by compulsive drug craving seeking behaviours are used that persist even in the face of negative consequences. These changes are maladaptive and inappropriate to the social or environmental setting, therefore may place the individual at risk of harm. Drug use among youth’s and adolescents should be a matter of concern to all Nigerians especially the socially, government, school heads, religious leaders, groups and other NGOs.
Experiment with drugs during adolescence (11-25 years) is common. At this age they try so many new things. They use drugs for many reasons, including curiosity and desire to find out the effectiveness of a particular drug, to feel good, to reduce stress, or to feel grown up. Using alcohol and tobacco at a young age increase the risk of using other drugs later in one of the WHO’s and the world Heart Foundation’s data, posit that in Nigeria, 22.1 percent of school youth age between 12 to 17 years use tobacco. The government of Nigeria seems to lose sight of its responsibilities, though it claims that tobacco should be regulated in a market oriented framework, which strikes an optimal balance and the need to ensure healthy death from cardio vascular diseases (CVD), lung cancer and other tobacco related diseases. (Abudu, 2008; Giade, 2011). Already, Nigerian adolescents are being offered cigarettes through promotions and musical concerts. Some teens will experiment and stop, or continue to use occasionally without significant problems. While others will develop addiction, moving on to more dangerous and hard drugs and causing considerable harm to themselves and the society at large. Despite the effort of many concerned individuals and organizations to curb this menace, many individuals and organizations still present these drugs as though they are harmless. They give them slogans such as “for greatness” “for brighter life” reports from all over the world about this menace of drug abuse are severe. The British Officer for national Statistics reports that 12 percent of pupils aged (11-15) had used drugs. Amphetamines are used among student (Oshodi, Aina, & Onajole, 2010) Barbiturates are used by adolescents with suicidal tendencies rather than for addictive purpose. Madras abuse once reached epidemic proportions among students (Abudu, 2008). However, cannbis (marijuana) appears to be the most commonly abused drug by the adolescents. (UNODC, 2011).
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