FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
Internet has become one of the essential parts of our lives that we cannot ignore. It is the worldwide network of computers that connects people across the whole world. Internet has more power over any other sources of information like TVs, radios, newspapers, etc. There are millions of networks, search engines, millions of computers and some billions of internet users out there. Internet is used for every minute of things and with the fast-growing technologies in the world, there is no doubt in saying that people get glues to their computer or phone screens and are having less relativity with the world in person as everything has become digital. Youth is being attracted to the negative content which is the main cause of cybercrimes and cyberbullying. Uses and gratification is an age-old theory of communication and research so this study includes the uses and gratification study for the internet media. The objectives of this study are to know the internet usage behavior among the millennials in Hyderabad. This study also helps to understand least and most used activity for which internet is used. The data is collected with the help of primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data is collected using a structured questionnaire with 5-point Likert scale to measure the variables, and the secondary data is collected using various internet sources. The collected data is further analyzed using the statistical tool i.e. Exploratory Factor Analysis with the help of IBM SPSS 20.0 software. This study is useful to know the internet usages among the youngsters in Hyderabad. From this study it is found that internet is mostly used for enhancement of creativity, Global exposure, Social relationships, Adaptability, Pastime, Stress relief, improve work efficiency, expression of opinion, job opportunities and improving ideology.
Keywords: Internet Usage, Factor Analysis, Uses and Gratification, Internet Usage Among the Students, Exploratory Factor Analysis.
There is no lie in saying that the world nowadays is being taken by the storm of the internet. It has become that one essential part of our lives that we cannot ignore. It is the worldwide network of computers that connect the world across. There are millions of networks, search engines, millions of computers and some billions of internet users out there. Internet is used for every minute of things and with the fast-growing technologies in the world, there is no doubt in saying that people get glues to their computer or phone screens and are having less relativity with the world in person as everything has become digital.
The internet has more power over another source of information like TVs, radios, newspapers, etc. The Internet is the tool that will take you beyond telephones, faxes and isolated computers to a growing network. information border. The Internet complements the traditional tools used to collect information, data graphics, news and communicate with other people. Skillfully used, the Internet reduces the world and provides information, experience, and knowledge on almost every imaginable topic directly to your computer. The adolescent is getting attracted to the internet at a faster pace, the learning has been digital. There are online courses available, social media is been used actively, and for every single thing in the world, the internet is involved. Internet is a place where we can find a lot and lots of content, it is used for new idea generation and interactions browsing. It also can be harmful if used in the wrong way.
There is a huge generation gap between generation X and millennials and internet usage also have been changed drastically. The gratification also has changed from generation to generation. Some percentage of the baby boomers are also active users of the internet and they mainly use it for emails and personal connections. Youth is been attracted to the negative content which is the main cause of cybercrimes and cyberbullying. Millennial is the generation that has witnessed the internet spreading throughout. There are so many studies done around the evolution of the internet and the usage of the internet worldwide in the past decade. This study is done to determine the uses and gratification of the internet among the millennials in Hyderabad. To understand the behavior of internet usage among the youth.
Uses and gratification is an age-old theory of communication and research. Its beginnings lie in researchers’ studies of radio listeners in the 1940s. It seeks to understand why people look out to the media and what they use it for. UGT differs from other media effect theories in that it assumes that individuals have power over their media usage, rather than positioning individuals as passive consumers of media. UGT explores how individuals deliberately seek out media to fulfill certain needs or goals such as entertainment, relaxation, or socializing. Uses and Gratification Theory presupposes prior adoption of an innovation and concerns itself with the individual user's motivations to continue the use of that technology (Ruggiero, 2000).
Gratification is Pleasure, especially when gained from the satisfaction of a desire (according to the oxford dictionary). There are three types of gratification, content gratification involves entertainment, information, etc. It would have the message carried by the medium. Process gratification is the actual use of the medium itself like internet surfing, new technology. Social gratification involves social networking, interpersonal development, etc.
We might think that process gratifications are all about the Internet addiction than content gratifications. Content gratifications are connected to the world outside like information, news, research, information about community events, housing, or employment, it is presumably to engage in related real-world activities. An item purchased through the Internet typically produces a delivery to the real-world doorstep. The use of emails for communication is also related to content gratification. Conversely, process gratifications are focused on the consumption of the medium itself and pull the user away from the outside world.
Hence, this study focuses on the internet usage behavior of the millennials in Hyderabad. The main purpose of this study is to understand the least and most activities for which internet is used. The present study is intended to extract the factors for the internet gratification among the millennials.
Internet has become impossible to ignore as its usage is increasing day by day. Increasing internet usage have replaced radios, TVs, newspapers etc. It is used as the best tool to get information, communication, entertainment, shopping etc. Roy (2008) has stated the factors of gratification of the internet uses among the Indian users. This study has examined the gender difference in terms of the internet users. Gratification is the feeling of pleasure according to the chambers dictionary. Main objective is to determine and understand the psychological needs which shape people’s reason for using media and motivation for certain medias. The data was collected by doing a questionnaire survey with 26 statements using 5-point rating scale where 1 is means strongly disagree and 5 means strongly agree, and the data was collected from 6400 households which have internet connection. Out of which 4512 responses were recorded to determine the motivation for the internet users. The data was analysed with the help of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. This study can also be used to teach the basics of structural equation modelling using the software AMOS. Among all the identified factors, Self-development Wide exposure, user friendly, Relaxation, Career opportunities and Global exchange were emerged as most important factors for determining the uses and gratification of Indian internet users.
Internet usage can be a boon and at the same time it can be bane if used excessively. There are various studies which are done to determine the usage of the internet and the factors motivating the users to use the internet. Larose, Mastro and Eastin (2001) stated the uses and gratification of the internet users through SCT. This theory involves self- reinforcement, self-control and self-efficiency. The data for this study was collected by questionnaire survey from 171 undergraduate students from an introductory communication class at a large mid-western university, respondents was asked to keep a check on the amount of time they utilize for internet for better data collection. The questionnaire consists of the Likert scale for the statements 1 being very unlikely and 7 being very likely. Pearson correlation was used to do the hypothesis and the regression was analysis was done for the dependent variable using strategic package of social science. All the 6 statements namely the activity outcome, novel outcome social outcome, pleasing sensory outcomes, Negative outcomes, Internet self-efficacy, Self-disparagement, Self-slighting, Perceived addiction were confirmed and found significant with the internet usage.
Internet usage has been so common now-a-days that children are going in a wrong way with the excessive use of it. This is affecting the adolescents and have brought a negative aggression in the mindsets of the children whether it may be by playing violent games or introducing themselves in a totally different person. Bayraktar and Gün (2007) determine the internet usage and its correlation with respect to the young generation (i.e. from the age group of 13-15). The data was collected by through questionnaire which was distributed to the students of north Cyprus. Which consists questions about demographic information, internet usage, sites visited, aggression and depression. 686 respondents participated in the survey conducted. This study stated that the internet usage among the adolescent has huge impact on their psychological behaviour, they are subjected to depression and the GPA of the students in decreasing with the increase in the use of the internet. The correlation between the violent games and aggressions is positive and strong.
The impact of the internet usage has been a controversial topic. Internet provides the platforms to gain information, for communication, for research etc. College going student are the most likely to get affect by the usage of the internet like harassment, stalking etc. Anderson (2001) tried to do an exploratory study of the internet usage among the students. Eight colleges were selected through open invitation, and the students were given questionnaires to fill which consists of 69 statements. Five-point Likert was used 1 being highly disagree and 5 being highly agree. The data was collected from 1302 respondents. According to the amount of time spent on the internet T-test was performed and found that science group students have the average usage time of 123 mins/ day. This study also stated that the students mostly use the internet for information, MUD games, communication. Student who indicate more internet usage have a direct impact on the academics, meeting new people and their sleeping pattern. This study also stated that the hard science students uses more of the internet in their daily lives.
Internet now-a-days is penetrating among the young people of this generation rapidly. Number of internet users have grown by 114% when compared to previous years. Among the Asian countries Hong Kong is the number one country in terms of internet penetration with a good internet infrastructure. Chan, K., and Fang, W. (2007) tried to determine how the young people used the internet to fully understand the social market. The data for this study was collected through questionnaire which consists of a five-point Likert scale where 1 means never and 5 means almost every time. 405 respondents participated in the survey and also a brief interview was conduct with the respondents. This study found that young generation is more attracted towards the usage of the internet and the internet is used for activities like doing homework, getting information, playing games, fashion trends, communication. This study also stated that the violent content attracts the young boys and girls.
Technology is rapidly growing all over the world and the usage of the internet and the accessibility is also growing with the years passing by. There is a huge difference in the internet usage between the younger generation and the older generation. Adekunmisi, Ajala and Iyoro (2012) tried to study the internet access and usage of the undergraduate students in Nigeria. This study is also done to determine the benefits of the internet usage. The data was collected through a questionnaire survey where the first part of the questionnaire consists of the demographic information and the second part consists of the open ended and close ended questions related to the study. 200 students took part in the survey and filled the questionnaire. The analysis was done and was found that the students use internet 6-7 hrs a day and the internet was mainly used for emails, web pages, search engines, communication etc. The benefits of the internet usage are communication purpose, academic researches, entertainment, general knowledge and current affairs.
Society cannot be touch, felt, heard or seen it’s a non-physical complex system which exists. The wide development in the technology consists of the culture and society and the fast growth in the internet usage has changes the individual behaviour towards the society. Sait, Al-Tawil, Sanaullah and Faheem Uddin (2007), made an effort to understand the impact of the internet usage in Saudi Arabia, this paper is studied in social and cultural perspective to understand the increase and decrease in the usage of the internet. The data was collected through a web-based questionnaire in public domain, 3000 inputs were collected as the respondents and the correlation of the internet usage was driven and the regression analysis was also done on the dependent variables. The result shows that 85% of the respondents are worried about the privacy. Through the regression analysis it was found that the female spends less time on internet than male and the student are more likely to spend more than 6 hours a day on the internet.
Internet has become an essential part of our lives. Many students use internet for educational, communicational, research purpose etc. so we cannot imagine life without internet now-a-days. The internet usage has increased over the past decade and there are different usage patterns depending upon the demographic segments . Thanuskodi (2013) has done a comparative study of the internet usage among the college students of different gender. The main moto of this study is studying the usage of the internet of male and female students and identifying the problems they face while surfing the internet. The data was collected through a questionnaire survey in which 340 respondents took part. In which 54 % were male and remaining 46% were female. The sampling was done by random sampling technique. The data was analysed using quantitative techniques. Hypothesis was done and t-test was done to understand the purpose for the internet usage among the male and female students which says male students use the internet more than female students and the main purpose for the internet usages is determined to be for information, communication, education, entertainment.
Adolescent are getting attracted towards the negative content on the internet. The internet usage pattern differs from adults to adolescents and male to female. There are many studies around the digital divide but Park (2009) has made an attempt to study the differences in the exposure of the negative content and examine whether the internet usage pattern is related to the male and female are different. A survey was conducted in Korea where 606 adults and 205 adolescents took part. The questionnaire was given to them which consist of related questions. The sampling method adapted is random sampling. Five-point Likert scale was used were 1 being never and 5 being more frequently. Factor analysis was done and there were six factors were extracted and they are communication, entertainment, shopping, participation, information and games. Through the regression analysis it is determined that men and young people get attracted towards the violent content easily.
Mobile with internet in it is the most common thing in this generation, it is probably the newest innovation in the recent years. Chigona, Kamkwenda and Manjoo (2008) has done this study to understand the motivation factors for the use of internet among south African students. Technology has been evolved through the years and the internet usage also. The information for the examination were accumulated utilizing up close and personal semi-structured interviews. Each meeting endured all things considered 40 minutes. The inquiries for the meetings were gotten from the subjects distinguished in past examinations. Every one of the meetings were recorded with the members' consent. The example was constrained to 17 understudies. The examination group moved toward understudies on grounds and asked in the event. The following stage was to choose on the off chance that they met the decent variety prerequisites. The investigation was finished with respect to the cell phone utilization, portable web, uses and satisfaction of versatile web. At long last, this examination demonstrated that versatile Internet was as a rule broadly utilized and was the favoured Internet get to medium among respondents. Research can be directed to approve this hypothesis further. It is fascinating to research the entrance rate of portable Internet in country zones, as these zones are maybe the most impeded in Internet get to.
Internet now is a multi-purpose media which has been a replacement for television, radio, newspaper, magazine etc. People have the whole world on their fingertips with internet. Ko (2000) has performed this study to understand the motivational factors for internet usage, patterns of surfing the internet, and attitude towards the internet. The data for this research was collected by conducting a questionnaire survey and 185 responses were used to do the analysis of the motivation factors for internet uses. Seven-point Likert scale was used 1 is strongly disagree and 7 is strongly agree. Correlation was performed on the seventeen variables. There are 4 factors of motivation were derived and they are social escapism, time pass, interactive control, information.
The quick growth of the internet has driven the gratification of the users through different uses, and one such important components is political information. The uses and gratification theory best suit the study of internet. Kaye and Johnson (2004) has done this study to determine the gratifications of the politically interested internet users. This study used a convenience sampling as the online survey was posted on the world wide web, the questionnaire consists of 22 statements and a Likert scale was used 1 being greatly increased and 5 being greatly decrease. The study was done considering 442 respondents. The study showed that 70 % of the respondents were interested in politics. Factor analysis was done and the motivations factors derived from this study were guidance, information, entertainment, social utility and convenience.
A research says that 70 percent of the people of the age above 50 uses internet for at least 10 hours a week. That means the older individuals are also active users of the internet. Trocchia and Janda (2000) has done an investigatory study on the usage of internet among the older individuals. This study is for better understanding of the motivation of the internet usage among the older people. The data was collected from 12 individuals by deeply interviewing them through non-probability sampling, where 6 considered themselves as active internet users and 6 of them claimed that they are not active internet users. This study found the gratification of the older individuals to use the internet are reference group affiliation, technology schemes, resistance to change, nature of social relations, perception of reality, physical dexterity.
On a normal, students go through around 1.6 hours on web every day. Analysts have discovered that the people vary in the internet utilization. There is a little part of students built up a hazardous internet use . Fortson, Scotti, Chen, Malone and Ben (2007) studied the internet access, misuse and dependency of the student. The information was gathered through a questionnaire survey in the south eastern college with 458 respondents, 74 respondents were rejected and 411 responses were considered. Likert scales was used for both variables in the internet access. Multi variate analysis was conducted. The outcome that were found was the vast majority of students’ access internet daily, half of the respondents are observed to misuse the internet, and one fourth are dependent on the web. Purpose behind the web use varies in both male and female. Because of the regular utilization of internet students are exposed to depression. The psychological well-being of the students is influenced because of damaging web use.
Internet and communication technology have spread rapidly and students are getting attracted towards internet and computers. Almost all of the students have laptop or phone with them now-a-days with an internet connection and internet is used for various purposes. Abedalaziz, Jamaluddin and Leng (2013) have done this study to understand the students’ attitude towards the internet and computer usage. The data was collected from the college students of Malaysia. After briefing for the researcher, the questionnaire was distributed with the related questions in it, 289 respondents took part, the multivariant analysis was done. Likert five-point scale was used where 1 means strongly disagree and 5 means strongly agree. With the help of exploratory factor analysis there were 4 factors found for the effective internet and computer usage and they are attractiveness, perceived useful, perceived control, behavioural intentions. The attitude towards the internet usages is attractive, useful, controllable, and behavioural intentions.
Some mass communication researchers have battled that utilization and satisfactions is anything but a thorough sociology hypothesis. In this article, Ruggiero (2000) simply expressed the inverse, and endeavoured to guess on the future course of mass correspondence hypothesis should genuinely incorporate the uses and gratification approach. In this study, it is said that the emergence of computer-mediated communication has revived the significance of uses and gratifications. The primary objective of this study is to decide the significance of the UGT for the new media's entering the market. Truth be told, uses and gratification has consistently given an edge to hypothetical methodology in the phases of each new mass communication medium: papers, radio and TV, and now the Internet. In spite of the fact that researchers are probably going to keep utilizing conventional devices to the inquiries concerning media use, we should likewise be set up to grow our momentum hypothetical models of employments and delights. Contemporary and future models must incorporate ideas, for example, intelligence, demassification, hyper textuality, and asynchroneity. Specialists should likewise be eager to investigate relational and subjective parts of intervened correspondence in a progressively comprehensive approach
With the increase in the internet usage the addiction of the internet is also increasing which have many affects to the normal health and the symptoms can be found in normal population. In this study Song, Larose, Eastin and lin (2004) determined the internet gratification and studied about the misuse of the new media. The data for the research was collected from the 498 students, through questionnaire and seven-point Likert scale was used. A quantitive analysis was done. The correlation of the variables was found with the help of spss tool. The motivational factors for the internet usage was driven through factor analysis and found that there are seven factors which are Virtual community, Information seeking, Aesthetic experience, Monetary compensation, Diversion, Personal status, Relationship maintenance. The regression analysis was also done on the dependent variables to know if the internet gratification is the root cause of internet addition and it turned out to be true.
Middle eastern countries or the Arab countries have a different society and cultures, their norms differ from other countries. The internet usage has been spread worldwide but in Arab countries there is huge impact on the culture. Through different studies the usage of the internet among different generations were determined . Shen and Shakir (2007) have done this study to determine the different usages of the internet among the adolescents in Arab countries. An exploratory study was done through an online survey in two colleges and the questionnaire was distributed. A qualitative analysis tool was used. Based on the responses of the 74 people a focus group discussion was held and were observed. The researchers found that the boys use internet more than the girls and the main activity for the usage of the internet was found to be activities, searching, emailing, chatting, entertainment, and online discussions and there is a significant impact on the dependency of the students on the internet.
Throughout the generations there were many technologies welcomed and adapted like telephone, computers, internet etc. Now the internet usage has touched peaks as there are less individual who are not aware of the internet. Emmanouilides and Hammond (2000) has made an attempt to study the factors that predict the internet usage pattern. A longitudinal research was done in 4 instalments. where young people of the age 15 were chosen who have been using the internet for the past 12 months. The explanatory factors were determined to know the usage behaviour of the respondents. 3770 respondent’s response was taken into consideration. Correlation analysis was done and the internet usage frequency was driven out and the factors which were found for the fluctuations in the frequency of the internet users are Broad Application, Location of use, Time since ﬁrst use, Reason for ﬁrst use, Services used, Work status, Type of connection, Who pays for connection, Main purpose for use, Date of data collection.
Followings are the objectives of the present research study;
1. To know the internet usage among the millennials in Hyderabad.
2.To know the most and least done activities for which the internet is used.
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- Institute of Computers and Business Management –School of Business Excellence
- Internet Usage Factor Analysis Uses and Gratification Internet Usage Among the Students Exploratory Factor Analysis