Communist Retaliation and Persecution on Yugoslav Territory during and after WWII (1943-1950)

Scientific Essay 2004 26 Pages

History Europe - Other Countries - Ages of World Wars


Michael Portmann, Vienna

Abstract: The following article deals with repressive measures undertaken by communist-dominated Partisan forces during and especially after WWII in order to take revenge on former enemies, to punish collaborators, and “people’s enemies“ and to decimate and eliminate the potential of opponents to a new, socialist Yugoslavia. The text represents a summary of a master thesis referring to the above-mentioned topic written and accepted at Vienna University in 2002.[1] The author is scholarship holder of “ZEIT Foundation” (Hamburg) and is currently working on his doctorate on “The Process of Transformation in Vojvodina in the Period of 1944 to 1946”.


It is a general phenomenon in history that transformation processes of states and societies have always been accompanied by persecution, retaliation and political trials and cleansings. Nevertheless, it is a fact that with respect to the extent, intensity and the consequences retaliation upon fascism and collaboration in Europe between 1943 and 1948 stands singularly. Hundreds of thousands of real or imagined war criminals, collaborators, and “people’s enemies” have been killed, even more have been condemned by courts and millions of people (mostly civilians) have been expelled or were forced to leave their homes by the new authorities. Especially since the beginning of the 1990ties the historiography has asked the crucial questions in this context and found (or is still looking) for adequate answers.[2] Some of these questions are:

- The whole spectrum of possible activities for people in an occupied country (from active collaboration to open resistance) has to be exactly defined and described.[3]
- Which role played collaboration in the occupying policy of the Axis powers?[4]
- Which power did indeed decide who has to be treated as a war criminal, collaborator or “people’s enemy”?
- How narrow was the link in the respective countries between legal punishments, revolutionary jurisdiction and - in areas where a civil war took place - retaliation upon former war enemies?

The often one-sided historiography in communist countries stigmatised all former war enemies and also political opponents in general as traitors and collaborators, without making any differentiation. It was exactly this one-sidedness, which led in some of the new states (Baltic republics, Ukraine, Slovakia, Croatia and Serbia) - after the collapse of the Soviet bloc and the dissolution of the old Yugoslavia - to a similar one-sided political and legal rehabilitation of convinced representatives of the collaborationist regimes. It might be one of the most delicate and difficult tasks of European historiography to describe the complex of “occupation – collaboration – retaliation” during and after WWII with all its complex facets.

II Stand of research and secondary literature

The following literature review does not claim to be complete. It may be that a publication was deliberately not mentioned, or it was omitted because this author was not aware of its existence.

a) Slovenian, Croatian and Serbian literature of the 1990ties

It almost goes without saying that in socialist Yugoslavia a free, scholarly-based, and public debate about the “dark sides” of communism coming into power was neither possible nor desired. It was only after the violent break-up of the old Yugoslavia during the 1990ies, when in Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia and Montenegro the historiography was to be turned a new page in recent history of their countries.

The articles and books published by Slovenian historians usually do emphasize - but not over-stress - a national point of view and most of them can be characterized as professional and impartial works.[5]

In the light of the difficult political situation in Croatia between 1992 and 1995 not only the population but also a part of Croatian historians and journalists were affected and influenced by nationalistic war propaganda. Among other works, a spate of literature appeared on the sensitive topic of “Bleiburg and the Death marches”, most of it by far not reaching the level of scholarship.[6] It rather seemed to be the intention of the authors to describe the “right” (in both senses of the word) Croats as the good ones and to condemn and stigmatise the (alleged) then and present-day enemies of the Croatian people, such as Communists and Serbs. Therewith they helped – whether on purpose or not – to prepare and legitimate the forthcoming respectively ongoing expulsion and flight of Croatian Serbs from the Krajina and Eastern Slavonia. Nevertheless, there were also some works about the so-called “greatest tragedy in Croatian history” which tried to support an objective discussion within Serbian and Croatian historiography and public on the events during and after WWII.[7]

But “Bleiburg” wasn’t the only field of interest of historians dealing with Croatian history after 1945. Other so far unrevealed aspects linked to the socialist metamorphosis of Yugoslavia have been uncovered: The role of the Croatian Catholic church during WWII and the fate of a part of its representatives were almost re-written, although with remarkable differences in quality.[8] Furthermore some of the most spectacular communist trials against both ecclesiastical and political personalities have been satisfactorily described.[9] Principally due to the outstanding effort of Vladimir Geiger, the history of the German minority in Croatia (and Yugoslavia) is very satisfactorily explored.[10] As far as this author is aware, a reliable summary – comparable with similar works in Slovenia - about the process of transformation seen as a unity has yet to be published.[11]

In Serbia and Montenegro, the scientific discussion and non-ideological handling of the communist take over of power are in their infancy. The war years and Miloševic’s nationalist-communist dictatorship left its mark on Serbian historiography and amongst the population. While in Croatia “Bleiburg” stood and stands as a symbol for suffering and martyrdom of the Croatian people, a similar function was taken over by “Jasenovac” for the Serbian nation.[12] In the disastrous, highly political-motivated quarrel about Serbian and Croatian victims during WWII, some of the previously respected Serbian historians obviously forgot their scientific obligations and became little more than a tool in Miloševic’s nationalist war propaganda.[13] Unfortunately the otherwise excellent book by the Serbian scholar Bogoljub Kočović cannot contribute much to an objective debate.[14]

Besides some journalistic publications on communist crimes committed in Serbia[15] only a handful of source-based, scientific articles and monographs dealing with repressive aspects of the communist take over exist.[16] However, both the position of the Serbian Orthodox church in the period of 1945 to 1952[17] and the fate of the Danube Swabians from the Vojvodina are solidly researched.[18]

It is at least this author’s impression, that the most important and delicate records are still waiting to be discovered or, in worst case, have either never reached the archives or have been destroyed. Be as it may, there is still a lot of unavoidable archive work to be done, until an all-embracing and well-balanced history of the first years of Serbia within socialist Yugoslavia can be written.

b) Yugoslav-communist literature

Although communist literature concerning the construction of the second Yugoslavia is often one-sided, there is a quite remarkable number of publications that have to be mentioned and taken into account. Primarily the document editions on People Liberation War and about the construction of socialist Yugoslavia build the starting point for further research.[19] Read in a different way, these documents provide reliable and valuable information. Additionally many Yugoslav historians dealt with other (not repressive) aspects of the transformation process. Although these works are to a great extent ideologically coloured they still represent well-funded, professional contributions to recent Yugoslav history.[20]

c) South-Slavic exile literature

A small part of Yugoslav anticommunists (former ustaše, četnici, nedićevci, ljotićevci, domobranci, domobrani and others) who managed to leave the country in time didn’t let the opportunity slip away to state their position on what happened in Yugoslavia during and after WWII. While the memoirs of ustaše, ustaše-sympathisers and former četnici is hardly worth mentioning[21], other authors at least tried (more or less successfully) to be scholarly and their historiographic interpretation of the events lies within an acceptable frame.[22]

d) Miscellaneous literature

Not only historians of Yugoslav provenience have been showing interest in recent Yugoslav history. The bloody and tragic end of the centuries long, mostly peaceful coexistence between the Yugoslav Germans and their South-Slavic neighbours after WWII led to an intensive and not seldom half- or unscholarly tackling in Germany and Austria of the history of the German minority in Yugoslavia.[23] A comparable motivation has to be stated for Hungarian historians who tried to enlighten the fate of their co-nationals in Vojvodina during and after WWII.[24] Aleksandar Kasaš however published the most reliable work about Hungarian minority in Yugoslavia.[25] The description of repressive measures undertaken by Partisan forces (mass executions and expulsion) against the Italian minority in Istria, Dalmatia and Slovenia is the subject of some articles published in Italy, Austria and Croatia.[26] Since the author unfortunately cannot read Albanian it is impossible to say what was published in Albanian about “retaliations with balists”.[27]

Only a few other publications dealing with persecution in Yugoslavia appeared in English and German.[28]

Finally the international comparative studies intending to stress both the differences and similarities in the process of coming into power of communist parties in the respective European countries after WWII deserve to be mentioned. The unhindered access to Eastern European archives made it possible for historians to focus on so far neglected fields of research, such as terror against alleged and true enemies, show trials, “cleansings” within the Communist Party and so on.[29]


[1] Portmann, Michael, Kommunistische Abrechnung mit Kriegsverbrechern, Kollaborateuren, „Volksfeinden“ und „Verrätern“ in Jugoslawien während des Zweiten Weltkriegs und unmittelbar danach, unpublished MA Paper, Wien 2002.

[2] Bjelajac, Mile, Istoriografija o građanskom ratu u Jugoslaviji 1941-1945. in: Istorija 20. veka, god. XV, broj 1, Beograd 1997, p. 129-144.

[3] Okkupation und Kollaboration (1938-1945). Beiträge zu Konzepten und Praxis der Kollaboration in der deutschen Okkupationspolitik. Zusammengestellt und eingeleitet von Werner Röhr (=Europa unterm Hakenkreuz. Die Okkupationspolitik des deutschen Faschismus (1938-1945), Ergänzugsband 1), Berlin, Heidelberg 1994.

[4] Die Okkupationspolitik des deutschen Faschismus in Jugoslawien, Griechenland, Albanien, Italien und Ungarn (1941-1945), (=Europa unter Heknkreuz. Die Okkupationspolitik des deutschen Faschismus (1948-1945), Bd. 6), Berlin, Heidelberg 1992.

[5] The bibliographical data of the most important works are to be mentioned here: Griesser-Pečar, Tamara, Das zerrissene Volk. Slowenien 1941-1946. Okkupation. Kollaboration. Bürgerkrieg. Revolution, Wien/Graz 2003; Vodušek Starič, Jera, Prevzem oblasti 1944-1946, Ljubljana 1992; Ibid., Ozadje sodnih procesov v Sloveniji v prvem povojnem letu, in: Pripevki za novejšo zgodovino 1-2, Ljubljana 1992, p.139-154; Ibid., Überlegungen zur Sowjetisierung Nachkriegs-Jugoslawiens, in: Jahrbuch für Historische Kommunismusforschung, Mannheim 1998, p.86-98; Ibid., Stalinismus und Selbst-Sowjetisierung in Jugoslawien. Von der kommunistischen Partisanenbewegung zu Titos Einparteiensystem, in: Gleichschaltung unter Stalin? Die Entwicklung der Parteien im östlichen Europa 1944-1949, edited by Stefan Creuzberger und Manfred Görtemaker, Paderborn 2002, p. 219-237; Jančar, Drago (ed.), temna stran meseca. kratka zgodovina totalitarizma v sloveniji 1945-1990, Ljubljana 1998; Slovenija v letu 1945. Zbornik referatov, edited by Zveza zgodovinskih društev Sloveniji, Ljubljana 1996; Sirc, Ljubo, Resnična borba za svobodo: množično ubijanje - čast ali sramota za Slovence? Kranj, 1995; Ibid., Between Hitler and Tito. Nazi Occupation and Communist Oppression, London 1989 (Sirc actually belongs to the group of Southslavic exile writers); Repe, Božo, Povojni sodni procesi v Sloveniji, in: Zgodvina v šoli, Vol. 1 (1992), No. 3, p. 9-16; Vodopivec, Peter (ed.), Usoda slovenskih demokratičnih izobražencev. Angela Vode in Boris Furlan - žrtvi Nagodetovega procesa, Ljubljana 2001; Drnovšek, Darinka, Zapisniki politbiroja CK KPS/ZKS 1945-1954, in: Viri, 15, Ljubljana 2000; Griesser-Pečar, Tamara, Zur Problematik der katholischen Kirche in Slowenien unmittelbar nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, in: Österreichische Osthefte, Vol. 37, book 1, Wien 1995; Ibid., Rožmanov proces, Ljubljana 1996; Dornik-Šubelj, Ljuba, Nastanek in razvoj organov za notranje zadeve republike Slovenije v oVolobju 1945 do 1963, in: arhivi 1-2/1993, p. 78-81; Ibid., Oddelek za zaščito naroda za Slovenjo, Ljubljana 1994.

[6] A nationalistic view Nikolić, Vinko (ed.), Bleiburg: uzroci i posljedice. Spomen-zbornik četrdesete godišnjice tragedije, München/Barcelona 1988. Nikolić, Vinko, Poslije pola stoljeća – Bleiburg je povijest, in: Spomenica povodom 50-te obljetinice Bleiburga i Križnog puta 1945.-1995., edited by Mirko Valentić, Zagreb 1995. Other contributions in this book - such as the one by Vladimir Geiger - are highly recommendable. Herceg Stjepan, Samobor. Mali Bleiburg 1945, Samobor 1996.

[7] Žerjavić, Vladimir, Demografija o Bleiburgu. In: Bleiburg. otvoreni dossier. Marko Grčić (ed), Zagreb 1990; Ibid, Opsesije i megalomanije oko Jasenovca i Bleiburga. Gubici stanovništva Jugoslavije u drugom svjetskom ratu, Zagreb 1992; Ibid., Population losses in Yugoslavia 1941-1945, Zagreb 1997.

[8] Đurić, Veliko Đ., Josif (Cvijović), mitropolit skopljanski, i Alojzije Stepinac, nadbiskup zagrebački, prvosveštenici Srpske pravoslavne i Rimokatoličke Crkve i prekrštavanje 1941-1945. godine, in: Dijalog povjesničara-istoričara, Vol. 4, edited by Hans Georg Fleck and Igor Graovac, Zagreb 2001, p.. 449-466; Akmadža, Miroslav, Oduzimanje imovine Katoličkoj crkvi i crkveno-državni odnosi od 1945. do 1966. godine, Zagreb 2003; Krišto, Jure, Katolička crkva i Nezavisna Država Hrvatska 1941-1945, Dokumenti, 2, Zagreb 1998; Ibid., Protukatolička srpska propaganda tijekom Drugoga svjetskog rata, in: Dijalog povjesničara-istoričara Vol. 2, edited by Hans Georg Fleck und Igor Graovac, Zagreb 2000, p. 521-536; Ibid., Crkva i država. Slučaj vjerskih prijelaza u Nezavisnoj Državi Hrvatskoj, in: Dijalog povjesničara-istoričara Vol. 1, edited by Hans Georg Fleck und Igor Graovac, Zagreb 2000, p. 189-205.

[9] Geiger, Vladimir, Smrtna presuda Vojnog suda mitropolitu Germogenu, in: Dijalog povjesničara-istoričara 2, edited by Hans Georg Fleck und Igor Graovac, Zagreb 2000, p. 569-582; Ibid., Sudski procesi vjerskim dostojanstvenicima u Hrvatskoj 1945. godine. Smrtna presuda metropolitu Germogenu, in: Nedjeljna Dalmacija, Split 1995, p. 36-37; Ibid., Sudski procesi u Hrvatskoj 1945. godine. Smrtna presuda evangeličkom biskupu dr. Philipp Poppu, in: Časopis za suvremenu povijest, Vol. 27, No. 1, Zagreb 1995, p. 157-166; Ibid., Sudski procesi vjerskim dostojanstvenicima u Hrvatskoj 1945. godine. O smrtnoj presudi muftiji Ismetu ef. Muftiću, in: Hrvatska knjževna revija, Vol. 29, No. 2, Zagreb 1996, p. 233-235; Jareb, Jerôm, Filip Lukas je bio osuđen na smrt u studenome 1945, in: Kolo: časopis Matice hrvatske, p. 5-10, Zagreb 1998; Kisić-Kolanović, Nada, Vrijeme političke represije: "veliki procesi" u Hrvatskoj 1945.-1948., in: Časopis za suvremenu povijest 25 (1), Zagreb 1993, p. 1-23; Ibid., Drama vojskovođe Slavka Kvaternika, in: Časopis za suvremenu povijest 28 (3), Zagreb 1996; Krapac, Davor, Revolucionarno pravosuđe kao instrument političkog progona: političko lice kaznenog postupka totalitarističkih diktatura, in: Odvjetnik, Vol. 69 (1996), 11/12, p. 63-93; Sabljak, T., U redu za smrtnu kaznu. Egzekutori Vojnog suda II. armije Koče Popovića u Zagrebu, godine 1945, in: Hrvatska revija. Kulturno-književni tromjesečnik, g. XLIII, sv. 4 (172), Zagreb 1993, p. 432-441.

[10] Geiger, Vladimir, Umrli i zatočeni Osjećani u logoru Valpovo 1945/1946. godine prema zabilješkama župnika Petera Fischera, in: Glasnik arhiva Slavonije i Baranije, p. 95-102; Ibid., Položaj njemačke manjine u bivšoj Jugoslaviji (s posebnim osvrtom na razdoblje drugog svetskog rata), in: Historijski zbornik god. XLV (1), p. 165-185, Zagreb 1993; Ibid., Nestanak folksdojčera, Zagreb 1997; Ibid., Udio djece među stradalim Folksdojčerima u jugoslovenskim logorima (1944-1948.), in: Dijalog povjesničara-istoričara, Vol. 4, edited by Hans Georg Fleck und Igor Graovac, Zagreb 2001, p. 525-538; Ibid., Sudbina Folksdojčera u Jugoslaviji nakon Drugoga svjetskog rata u jugoslovenskoj historiografiji, publicisti i književnosti (1991.-1998.), in: Dijalog povjesničara-istoričara Vol. 1, edited by Hans Georg Fleck und Igor Graovac, Zagreb 2000, p. 225-243; Ibid./Jurković, I., Što se dogodilo s Folksdojčerima?, Zagreb 1993; Ibid., Poratni logori za pripadnike njemačke manjine. Imenik i tipovi poratnih logora z pripadnike njemačke nacionalne manjine na teritoriiju istočne Slavonije, Srijema, Baranje, Bačke i Banata, in: Zatvorenik, br. 9, Zagreb 1991.

[11] Some other works of interest: Spehnjak, Katarina, Narodna fronta u Hrvatskoj kao instrument partjiskog monopola 1945-1952, doktorska disertacija, Zagreb 1995; Ibid., Vlast i javnost u Hrvatskoj 1945-1952, in: Časopis za suvremenu povjiest 32 (2003), 3, p. 507-514; Jandrić, Berislav, Komunistička partija Hrvatske 1945-1952. Organizacija, uloga, djelovanje, doktorska disertacija, Zagreb 1995; Kisić-Kolanović, Nada, Problem legitimiteta političkog sustava u Hrvatskoj nakon 1945, in: Časopis za suvremenu povijest 24 (1992) 3, p. 177-196; Jurčević, Josip, Represivnost jugoslavenskog sustava u Hrvatskoj 1945. godine, disertacija, Zagreb 2000.

[12] See also: Tomasevich, Jozo, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia 1941-1945. Occupation and Collaboration, Stanford 2001, pp. 724.

[13] Ekmečić, Milorad. Srbija između srednje Evrope i Evrope, Beograd 1992; Bulajić, Milan, Jasenovac. Ustaški logori smrti. Srpski mit? Hrvatski ustaški logori genocida nad Srbima, Jevrejima i Ciganima, Beograd 1999; Ibid., Tuđman’s „Jasenova myth“. Genocide against Serbs, Jews and Gypsies, Beograd 1994; Petrović, Rastislav V., Zavera protiv Srba, Beograd 1989; Bulatović, Radomir, Koncentracioni logor Jasenovac, s posebnim osvrtom na Donju Gradinu, Sarajevo 1990;

[14] Kočović, Bogoljub, Žrtve Drugoga svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji, Sarajevo 1990 (first published in London 1985). Kočović himself gives a very accurate explanation why his work failed to support an open dialogue: «Very soon it dawned upon me that the major obstacle to my work would be the myths created over four decades about the number of victims, myths by now deeply implanted in the soul of the people of all religions, political beliefs and nationality; myths which, by repetition became a 'reality'. There will be many who will reject my study because it does not conform to their beliefs...Many of them are looking for spiritual food to ignite their hatred of the Croats.” Cit. http://mirror.veup.hr/myth/victimp.html

[15] Otašević, Ana, Zločini komunizma 1944-1956, Sudbina pobeđenih, in: NIN, October 25th 2001; Pogled (specialno izdanje): Partizanski zločini u Srbiji 1944-45: 150.000 neznanih grobova, broj 2, June 1991; Kovačević, Sonja, Milan Trešnjić - Major OZNE i generalni konzul SFRJ u Štutgartu: Oslobađanje Dedinja, in: KRUG, mart 1999, broj 8, Beograd 1999.

[16] Recommendable, whenever not source-based and with definitely too much sympathy for the nationalistic Chetniks and their leader Draža Mihailović: Marković, Slobodan G., Communist „Liberation“ and New Order in Belgrade, in: The South Slav Journal, Vol. 24 No. 3-4 (93-94), Autumn-Winter 2003 at: http://www.southslavjournal.com/feat1.htm; Other interesting works: Mitrović, Momčilo, Sudovi časti u Srbiji 1944-1946 posle Drugog svetskog rata, in: Godišnjak 2, Beograd 1994, p. 123-139, Ibid. , Izgubljene iluzije. Prilozi za društvenu istoriju 1944-1952, Beograd 1997; Ibid., Promene svojinskih odnosa u valjevskom kraju 1944-1960, Valjevo 1997; Radić, Snežana, Konfiskacija imovine u valjevskom okrugu 1944-1946, Valjevo 2002; Miloradović, Goran, Logori za izolaciju političkih protivnika na tlu Jugoslavije 1918-2000, in: Istorija XX. veka, br. 2, p. 115-125, Beograd 2000; Marković, Predrag, Državna represija i javno mnjenje Beograda 1948-1965, in: Istorija XX. veka, broj 1, p. 73-88, Beograd 1996; Jovanović, Žarko S., Nova vlast u Srbiji 1941-1945, Beograd 1997; A non-scientific book about OZNA and its successors provides Lopušina: Lopušina, Marko, Ubij bližnjeg svog. Jugoslavenska tajna policija 1945/1995, Beograd 1996; About the situation of the Catholic Church during and after WWII writes: Živojinović, Dragoljub, Vatikan, Katolička crkva i jugoslovenska vlast 1941-1958, Beograd 1994.

[17] Radić, Radmila, Verom protiv vere. Država i verske zajednice u Srbiji 1945-1953, Beograd 1995; Ibid., Država, Rimokatolička i Srpska pravoslavna crkva od 1945. do polovine šezdesetih godina, in: Dijalog povjesničara-istoričara 2, edited by Hans Georg Fleck und Igor Graovac, Zagreb 2000, p. 653-670.

[18] Janjetović, Zoran, Between Hitler and Tito. The disappearance of the Vojvodina Germans, Belgrade 2000; Ibid., Deportacija vojvođanskih Nemaca na prinudni rad u Sovjetski Savez krajem 1944. i početkom 1945. godine, in: Jugoslovenski istorijski časopis, No. 1, Beograd 1997, p. 157-168; Ibid., Prilog proučavanju položaja folksdojčera u Jugoslaviji 1944-1948, in: Istorija XX. veka, No. 1, Beograd 1996, p. 143-152; Ibid., Logorisanje vojvođanskih Nemaca od novembra 1944. do juna 1945. godine, in: Tokovi istorije, No. 1-2, 1997, p. 150-164; Ibid., The disappearance of the Germans from Yugoslavia: Expulsion or emigration?, Bonn 2003; Ibid., O državljanstvu jugoslovenskih Nemaca, in: Tokovi istorije, No. 1-2, 2002, p. 25-35; Ibid., Die Konflikte zwischen Serben und Donauschwaben, in : Südostforschungen, Vol. 58, München 1999, p.119-168.

[19] Petranović, Branko, Zapisnici sa sednica Politbiroa Centralnog komiteta KPJ (11. jun 1945 – 7. jul 1948), (=Izvori za istoriju Jugoslavije), Beograd 1995; Petranović, Branko/Zečević, Momčilo, Jugoslovenski federalizam. Ideje i stvarnost. Tematska zbirka i dokumenata. Drugi tom 1943-1986, Beograd 1987; Petranović, Branko/Marković, Ljljana, Zapisnici NKOJ-a i Privremene vlade DFJ: 1943-1945, Beograd 1991; Zečević, Miodrag/Popović Jovan P., Dokumenti iz istorije Jugoslavije, Državna komisija za utvrđivanje zločina okupatora i njegovih pomagača iz Drugog svetskog rata, Beograd 1996; Nešović, Slobodan, Stvaranje nove Jugoslavije 1941-1945, Beograd 1981; Ibid. (ed.), Zakonodavni rad Predsedništva AVNOJ-a i Predsedništva Privremene narodne skupštine DFJ, - 19. XI 1944-27. X 1945, edited by Pretsedništvo Narodne Skupštine FNRJ, Beograd 1951; Ibid. (ed.), Rad zakonodavnih odbora Predsedništva Antifašističkog veća narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije i Predsedništva Privremene narodne skupštine, 3 April-25 October 1945, edited by Pretsedništvo Narodne Skupštine FNRJ, Beograd 1952; Arhiv Jugoslavije (ed.), Dokumenti centralnih organa KPJ, NOR i revolucija (1941-1945), Knj. 22-23. Beograd 1996; Pijade, Moša/Nešović, Slobodan, Prvo i Drugo zasjedanje AVNOJ-a: 26. i 27. novembra 1942. u Bihać: 29. i 30. novembra 1943. u Jajcu, Zagreb 1963; Glavni izvršni odbor (ed.), Saopštenja zločina okupatora i nijhovih pomagača u Vojvodini 1941-1944. Vol. 1: Zločini u Bačkoj i Baranjij; Vol. 2: Zločini u Sremu, Novi Sad 1946; Popov, Jelena (ed.), Glavni NOO Vojvodine 1943-1945 (=Građa za istoriju Vojvodine, knj. 12), Novi Sad/Sremski Karlovci 1977; Vasilić, Ljubiša (ed.), Okružni komitet KPJ za Vojvodine 1944-1945 (=Građa za istoriju Vojvodine, knj. 11), Novi Sad/Sremski Karlovci 1978; Ibid., Pokrajinski komitet KPJ za Vojvodinu 1941-1945 (=Građa za istoriju Vojvodine, knj. 7), Novi Sad 1971.

[20] Čulinović, Ferdo, Stvaranje nove jugoslovenske države, Zagreb, 1959; Koštunica, Vojislav / Čavoški, Kosta, Party pluralism or monism. Social Movements and the Political System in Yugoslavia 1944-1949 (=East European Monographs, No. CLXXXIX), New York 1985; Pavlović, Momčilo, Politički programi Demokratske, Narodne radikalne, Jugoslovenske republikanske demokratske, Socialističke stranke Jugoslavije iz 1945. godine, in: Istorija XX. veka, broj 1, Beograd 1985, p. 119-156; Petranović, Branko, Istorija Jugoslavije, Vol. 3: Socijalistička Jugoslavija 1945-1988, Beograd 1988; Ibid., AVNOJ Revolucionarna smena vlasti, 1942-1945, Beograd 1976; Ibid., Političke i pravne prilike za vreme privremene vlade DFJ, Beograd 1964; Gaćeša, L. Nikola, Agrarna reforma i kolonizacija u Jugoslaviji 1945-1948, Novi Sad 1984; Stipetić, Vladimir, Agrarna reforma i kolonizacija u FNRJ godine 1945-1948, Rad. knj. 300, JAZU, Zagreb 1954; Čepić, Zdenko, Agrarna reforma in kolonizacija v Sloveniji 1945-1948, Maribor 1984; Maticka, Marijan, Agrarna reforma i kolonizacija u Hrvatskoj 1945-1948, Zagreb 1990; Čalić, Dušan, Industrializacija FNRJ, Zagreb 1963; Petranović, Branko, Aktivnost rimakatoličkog klera protiv sređivanja prilika u Jugoslaviji (mart 1945-septembar 1946), in: Istorija XX. veka, Zbornik radova, V, Beograd 1963; Živojinović, Dragoljub, Vatikan, katolička crkva i jugoslovenska vlast 1941-1958, Beograd 1958.

[21] Musa, Vladimir, Bleiburška tragedija hrvatskoga naroda, München/Barcelona 1976; Prpić, George J., Tragedies and migrations in Croatian history, Toronto 1973; Studia Croatica, La Tragedia de Bleiburg. Documentos sobre las matanzas en masa de los croatos en Yugoslavia comunista en 1945, Buenos Aires 1963; Katalinić, Kazimir, Argumenti: NDH, BiH, Bleiburg i genocid, in: Časopis „Republika Hrvatska“, p.7-12, Buenos Aires/Zagreb 1993; Skertić, Stephen W., The Bleiburg-Maribor tragedy. Croatian golgotha: fifteenth anniversary of the massacre of the Croatian army, Cleveland 1960; Omrčanin, Ivo, Dokumente über Greueltaten der Tschetniken und Kommunisten in Kroatien (1941-1945), München 1960; Rajić, Milan L., Srpski pakao u komunističkoj Jugoslaviji. Trilogija komunističkih zločina, Beograd 1991 (Rajić was a member of the četnici and his book is characterised by one-sidedness and dull Serbian nationalism.)

[22] Đilas, Milovan, Der Krieg der Partisanen. Memoiren 1941-1945, Wien 1978; Karapandžić, Borivoje, Kočevje: Tito's bloodiest crime 1945-1970, Cleveland n.d; Ibid., The Bloodiest Yugoslav Spring, 1945 – Tito's Katyn and Gulags, New York 1980; Klepec, Matiaž, Teharje so tlakovane z našo krvjo. Tüchern ist getränkt mit unserem Blut, Buenos Aires 1973; Kovač, Tomaž, V rogu ležimo pobiti, Buenos Aires 1968; Hečimović, Joseph, In Tito's Death Marches and Extermination Camps, New York 1962; Prcela, John/ Guldescu, Stanko, Operation Slaughterhouse. Eyewitness Accounts of Postwar Massacres in Yugoslavia, Philadelphia 1970;

[23] Only a small part of the numerous publications related to this topic are mentioned below: Arbeitskreis Dokumentation (ed.), Verbrechen an den Deutschen in Jugoslawien 1944-1948, Die Stationen eines Völkermords, München 1998; Beer, Josef, Weissbuch der Deutschen aus Jugoslawien. Ortsberichte über die Verbrechen an den Deutschen durch das Tito-Regime in der Zeit von 1944-1948, (=Donauschwäbisches Archiv: Reihe 3, Beiträge zur donauschwäbischen Volks- und Heimatgeschichtsforschung; 46) München 1992; Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa, Vol. V: Das Schicksal der Deutschen in Jugoslawien, edited by Bundesministerium für Vertriebene, Flüchtlinge und Kriegsgeschädigte, Bonn 1961; Sundhaussen, Holm, Die Deutschen in Kroatien-Slawonien und Jugoslawien, in: Günter Schödl (ed.), Deutsche Geschichte im Osten Europas. Das Land an der Donau, Berlin 1995; Suppan, Arnold (ed.), Deutsche Geschichte im Osten Europap. Zwischen Adria und Karawanken, Wien 1998; Ibid./Rumpler, Helmut (eds.), Geschichte der Deutschen im Bereich des heutigen Slowenien 1848-1941, München 1988; Böhme, K.W., Die deutschen Kriegsgefangenen in Jugoslawien 1941-1949. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Kriegsgefangenen des Zweiten Weltkriegs, Vol. 2, edited by Erich Maschke, München 1962 and 1964.

[24] Ludanyi, Andrew, The Hungarians of Vojvodina under Yugoslav Rule, in: The Hungarians, A Divided Nation, edited by Stephen Borsody, New Haven 1988, p. 191-208, Ibid., Hungarians in Rumania and Yugoslavia: a comparative study of communist nationality policies, 1971; Ibid., Titoist Integration of Yugoslavia. The Partisan Myth and the Hungarians of the Vojvodina, in: Polity 12 (1979), p. 225-252; Cseres, Tibor, Titoist atrocities in Vojvodina 1944-1945. Serbian Vendetta in Bacska, Toronto 1993; Ibid., Blood Feud in Bácska, Budapest 1991; Hommonay, Elemér, Atrocities committed by Tito’s partisans in occupied Southern Hungary, Cleveland/Ohio 1957; Matuska, Márton, Retaliation, Budapest 1995; Arday, Lajos, Hungarians in Serb-Yugoslav Vojvodina since 1944, in: Nationalities Papers 24 (1996), p. 467-482.

[25] Kasaš, Aleksandar, Mađari u Vojvodini 1941-1946, Novi Sad 1996.

[26] Bartoli, G., Il martirilogo delle gente adriatiche, Trieste 1961, Wörsdorfer, Rolf, Zwischen Karst und Adria. Entnationalisierung, Umsiedlung und Vertreibung in Dalmatien, Istrien und Julisch-Venezien (1927-1954), in: Robert Streibl (ed.), Vertreibung und Flucht, Wien 1994; Esposito Givanni, Trieste e la sua odissea, Rom 1952 ; Galliano, Fogar, Fojbe in deportacije v Julijski krajini, in: Prispevki za zgodovino delavskega gibanja 25 (1985), p. 95-109 ; Orietta, Moscarda, L´esodo dall´Istria, in: Friuli e Venezia Giulia – Storia del´900, Gorizia 1997, p. 551-560; Tolto il segreto sui lager di Tito. Vi furono uccisi 5 mila italiani, in: “Il Giornale”, No. 126, Anno XXIV, May 29th 1997; Veiter, Theodor, Soziale Aspekte der italienischen Flüchtlinge aus den adriatischen Küstengebieten, in: Festschrift für Hans Schmitz zum 70. Geburtstag, Wien 1967; Dukovski, Darko, Egzodus talijanskog stanovništva Istre 1945-1954, in: Časopis za suvremenu povijest, XXXIII, 3, 2001.

[27] This the title of a book published in Belgrade: Vidanić, Rajko, Obračuni sa balistima 1944-1952 (=Prilozi za istoriografiju Kosova i Metohije), Beograd 1990; Also consider: Malcolm, Noel, Kosovo. A short History, pp. 314.

[28] Martin, David, The Web of Disinformation. Churchill’s Yugoslav Blunder, San Diego/New York//London 1990; Cowgill, Anthony, Cowgill Inquiry, The Repatriations from Austria in 1945. The documentary evidence reproduced in full from british, american and yugoslav sources, London 1990; Ibid., Cowgill, Anthony, The Repatriations from Austria in 1945. Report of an Inquiry, London 1990; Tolstoy, Nikolai, The Klagenfurt Conspiracy, in: South Slav Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1 (19), p. 6-23, 1983; Ibid., The Minister and the Massacres, London 1986; Jarman, Robert L., Yugoslavia. Political Diaries 1918-1965, Vol. 3: 1938-1948, Chippenham 1997; Völkl, Ekkehard, Abrechnungsfuror in Kroatien, in: Klaus-Dietmar Henke und Woller, Hans (eds.), Politische Säuberungen in Europa. Die Abrechnung mit dem Faschismus und Kollaboration nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, München 1991, p. 358-393; Kaltenegger, Roland, Titos Kriegsgefangene. Folterlager, Hungermärsche und Schauprozesse, Graz / Stuttgart 2001; Elste, Alfred, Filipic Hanzi, Koschat, Michael, NS-Österreich auf der Anklagebank. Anatomie eines politischen Schauprozesses im kommunistischen Slowenien, Klagenfurt/Wien 2000.

[29] Weber, Hermann (ed.), Terror. Stalinistische Parteisäuberungen 1936-1953, Paderborn 2001; Maderthaner, Wolfgang/Schafranek, Hans/Unfired/Berthold (eds.), "Ich habe den Tod verdient". Schauprozesse und politische Verfolgung in Mittel- und Osteuropa 1945-1956, Wien 1991; Courtosi, Stéphane (ed.), Das Schwarzbuch des Kommunismus: Unterdrückung, Verbrechen und Terror, München 1998; Hodos, Georg Hermann, Schauprozesse. Stalinistische Säuberungen in Osteuropa 1948-54, Berlin 1990; Weber, Hermann/Staritz, Dietrich (eds.), Kommunisten verfolgen Kommunisten: stalinistischer Terror und “Säuberungen” in den kommunistischen Parteien Europas seit den dreissiger Jahren (Beiträge des internationalen wissenschaftlichen Symposions an der Universität Mannheim “Weisse Flecken” in der Geschichte des Weltkommunismus - stalinistischer Terror und “Säuberungen” in den kommunistischen Parteien Europas seit den dreissiger Jahren vom 22. bis 25. Februar 1992), Berlin 1993; Kuretsidis-Haider, Claudia/Garscha, Winfried R. (eds.), Keine “Abrechnung”. NS-Verbrechen, Justiz und Gesellschaft in Europa nach 1945, Leipzig/Wien 1998; Henke, Klaus-Dietmar/Woller, Hans (eds.), Politische Säuberungen in Europa. Die Abrechnung mit dem Faschismus und Kollaboration nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, München 1991; Deák, István/Gross Jan T./Judt Tony (eds.), The Politics of Retribution in Europe. World War II and its Aftermath, Princeton 2000; Karsai, László, Crime and Punishment: People’s Courts, Revolutionary Legality, and the Hungarian Holocaust.


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Communist Retaliation Persecution Yugoslav Territory WWII




Title: Communist Retaliation and Persecution on Yugoslav Territory during and after WWII (1943-1950)