TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the Study/Rationale
Statement of the Problem
Scope and Limitation of the Study
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Population and Sampling
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Phil- IRI Pre-Test Result of the Participants
Post Test Result of the Participants
Future Plan of the Program
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
LIST OF TABLES
The Tabulated Scores of the Participants’ Phil-IRI Pre-Test Result
The Frequency and Percentage of the Phil-IRI Pre-Test Result
The Summary of the Phil-IRI Pre Test Result of the Participants
The Tabulated Scores of the Participants’ Post Test Result
The Frequency and Percentage of the Post Test Result
The Summary of the Post Test Result of the Participants
The Correlation Difference of the Pre-test and Post test results
Reading plays a vital role to every individual as it is the key to literacy. Pardo (2004) suggests in his study that is important for pupils to acquire decoding skills, fluency skill, background knowledge, vocabulary, motivation, and engagement to develop good comprehension skill. Moreover, Dougherty-Stahl (2004) suggests that effective reading comprehension is the culmination of mastering vocabulary, phonics, fluency, and reading comprehension skills. Project ReFUnd aims to gauge the impact of the program on the participants’ reading comprehension through the use of Activities on Better Reading Comprehension (ABRC) materials. The recipients of the said program are the 84 grade four pupils who were categorized under the frustration level after the Phil-IRI (Philippine Informal Reading Inventory) was conducted. Post test result seems to indicate that the participants’ reading comprehension level improved to instructional level since their scores range between five to seven. Moreover, the t-test computed value suggests that there is a significant difference on the participants’ pre-test and post test results. Hence, with the seemingly successful outcome of the program, S. Elementary School deem to continue the program even without budget allocation from the Department of Education (DepEd).
Background of the Study/Rationale
The School-to-School Partnership (SSP) program was implemented by the Department of Education because the agency believes that high-performing schools can share its best practices to schools who have not yet reached their full potential in school performance.
Lapidario Elementary School and S. Elementary School will be the partner schools for this year school-to-school partnership. Lapidario Elementary school is identified by the division as the leader/high school based on different performance indicators stipulated in the School Based Management Validation Report.
For the past three school years, Lapidario Elementary School has shown significant improvement in performance as shown by the different performance indicators stipulated in the School Based Management Validation Report.
From 1.46 score for the school year 2012-2013, the school’s score increased to 2.00 and 2.41, respectively, for the succeeding two consecutive school years.
In addition, it can also be noted that the school’s National Achievement Test score increased for the school year 2014-2015. From 83.46 NAT score in school year 2013-2014, the school’s NAT score increased to 86.40. This increase can be attributed to the different intervention programs implemented by the school to ensure the high success of learning among the pupils. The different strategies utilized by the school are as follows: DEAR (Drop Everything and Read), remedial in reading, peer teaching, collaborative learning, and the like. The school strongly believes that reading is the key to literacy, thus, the school emphasizes the importance of developing good reading comprehension among its pupils.
As such, Lapidario Elementary School has been categorized with level five Performance Based Bonus in 2014, which is one of the criteria in the selection of the School-to-School Partnership as mandated in DepEd Order No. 44, s. 2016.
The year 2015, S. has not shown much improvement in performance when it comes to NAT performance with 41.60 MPS and 601 pupils out of 2208 pupils fall under frustration level in the reading programs conducted. S. Elementary School strongly believes that benchmarking and adopting the best practices of performing school will help a lot in improving our school’s performance academically. S. also believes that reading is the key to literacy, thus, the school emphasizes the importance of developing good reading comprehension among its pupils.
From the result of PHIL IRI last July, among all grade levels, grade IV pupils got the highest number of frustration level pupils, thus they are the recipient of this School-to- School Partnership program.
Hence, this program aims that with the partnership of Lapidario Elementary School and S. Elementary School, the reading challenge being encountered by the grade four pupils of S. Elementary School who were categorized under the frustration level, would be alleviated through the implementation of Project Reafund.
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to gauge the impact of the implementation of Project ReFUn on the reading comprehension of the participants of the program.
Specifically, this study aimed to answer the following questions:
1. What is the reading comprehension level of the participants after the Phil-iri Pre Test was conducted?
2. What is the result of the Post Test of the participants after the implementation of Project Reafund?
3. Is there a significant difference on the Phil-iri Pre Test and Post test results of the participants?
4. What is the future plan of the program after its implementation?
1. There is no significant difference on the result of the Phil-iri pre test and post test results.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study focused on the improvement of the participants’ reading comprehension skills through the use of ABRC materials. Moreover, the study will be limited to the result of the post test after the implementation of Project ReaFUn.
The participants of this study were the 84 grade four pupils in S. Elementary School who were categorized under the frustration level after the Phil-iri Pre-test was conducted.
As such, this study was limited to the following variables: the 84 grade four pupils of S. Elementary School who were categorized under frustration reading comprehension level school year 2016-2017 and the implementation of Project ReFUnd through the use of ABRC materials to improve the reading comprehension of the participants.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Reading is the process of deriving meaning from written or printed text (Alvermann & Montero, 2003). It is a complex process which includes many components. According to Armbruster et al. (2001), phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension are the five major areas of reading. Alvermann and Montero believe instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, and fluency impact children’s early reading development. It is necessary for a child to learn and understand each area in order for a child to achieve reading success. Phonemic awareness is necessary for the development of phonics; phonics is necessary for word recognition; word recognition is necessary for fluency; and fluency is necessary for reading comprehension (Eldredge, 2005). Pardo (2004) emphasized the relationship shared between all components of reading when noting that, before establishing good comprehension skills, students must acquire decoding skills, fluency skills, background knowledge, vocabulary, motivation, and engagement.
Bastug Muhammet, Gonca Demirtas (2016) said that poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. They conducted a study on child-centered reading interventions that focuses on the following domains in reading see, talk, dictate, read and write. In this study, they found out that student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate, and reading comprehension. They suggested that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.
Mahgoub Dafalla Ahmed (June 2015), concluded in their study that necessary to adopt the interactive method to provide a method of reading which integrates elements of both levels of processing skills: bottom-up and top-down. It is important to provide students explicit instruction of some lower level processing skills (bottom-up) such as teaching students some strategies in phonemic awareness, word recognition, and syntactic analysis, and some higher-level of processing skills (top-down) such as teaching students some strategies in guessing, inferences, and predicting. Good applications of techniques and procedures of teaching EFL reading may prove to be a viable intervention for improving students’ performance in EFL reading.
Stephanie Pagan, Monique Senechal (2014) in their study they found out that involving parents in a summer book reading program has an implications for summer and intervention program designed for poor to average readers. Their study showed a promising evidence that providing access to appropriate books and maximizing the role of the parents could serve as an effective approach to improve literacy skills.
Reading comprehension can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text (Bouchard & Trabasso, 2003). It is a “process in which readers construct meaning by interacting with text through the combination of prior knowledge and previous experience, information in the text, and the stance the reader takes in relationship to the text” (Pardo, 2004, p. 272). The ultimate goal of reading is to understand what has been read (Nation & Angell, 2006). Comprehension is the reason for reading. It involves a complex process that includes many skills and strategies (Kolić-Vehovec & Bajšanski, 2006; Nation & Angell; Pardo). To be a good reader it is critical to not only be able to identify the words, but to understand them as well. If readers can read the words, but do not understand what they are reading, they are not really reading. This process requires a numbers of skills, from recognizing individual words to “forming a coherent and cohesive mental model of a text” (Nation & Angell, p. 86). Effective reading comprehension is the culmination of mastering vocabulary, phonics, fluency, and reading comprehension skills (Dougherty-Stahl, 2004).
This study employed descriptive research one group pre-test post-test design since the main purpose of the study was to gauge the improvement on the reading comprehension skills of the participants after the implementation of Project ReFUnd.
Population and Sampling
This study utilized purposive sampling since the target participants are the 84 grade four pupils who were categorized under frustration level of reading comprehension after the Phil-IRI pre-test was conducted.
There were three phases in the implementation of the program: the Pre-implementation, implementation proper, and Post implementation phases.
The following were the procedures that were undertaken during the pre-implementation phase: the formulation of the School-to-school partnership teams – both of the Leader School (Lapidario Elementary School) and the Partner School (S. Elementary School), identification of the SSP program that will be implemented based on the School Improvement Plan’s Priority Improvement Area of the Partner School, identification of the participants of the program based on the result of Phil-IRI Pre-test, conducting of the teachers’ and parents’ orientation on the program, and the conducting of the capacity building of the Leader School on the implementation of the program through the use of the ABRC materials and the sharing of its best practices and strategies employed in the school on the development and improvement of its pupils’ reading comprehension.
The implementation of the program started on September 5 and ended on December 2. During the implementation of the Project ReFUn, the SSP team of the partner school conducted reading classes in the ICT Room at 10:00-11:30 in the morning and 1:00-2:30 in the afternoon since the school has shifting classes. To avoid class disruption, the participants who belong to the morning shift attended reading classes in the afternoon, and vice versa. The reading teachers utilized ABRC materials in conducting the reading classes. After the discussion and/or analysis of each passage in the ABRC material, the participants answered the comprehension questions of the passage read. The teacher checked the answers of the participants, recorded the scores, and provided the essential feedback to each question as the need arises. The SSP Team of the Leader School, on the other hand, conducted weekly monitoring and assessment on the pupils’ reading comprehension progress.
During the Post Implementation phase, the post test was prepared by the SSP Leader School. The Partner School conducted the post test and tabulated the pupils’ scores. After which, the data from the Phil-IRI pre-test was compared to the Post test result to gauge the improvement of the participants’ reading comprehension after the implementation of the Project ReFUn.
Prior to the implementation of SSP Program Project Reafund, the principal of the Partner School – Mrs. Arcely M. Lucero, conducted Parents’ Orientation to discuss the role of the parents and the community to ensure the success of the program. Likewise, an informed consent was secured from the parents.
To have concrete answers and results to each statement of the problem, the researchers used the statistical analysis below:
SOP 1: The researchers tabulated the scores of the participants in the Phil-IRI Pre-test result and computed its mean and standard deviation.
SOP 2: The researchers tabulated the scores of the participants in the Post Test and computed its mean and standard deviation.
SOP 3: Using T-test, the researchers compared the result of the Phil-IRI Pre-test result and Post-test results. Moreover, the standard rubrics in interpreting the participants’ score in Phil-IRI was used.
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