IMPROVING THE ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH THE USE OF TASK-BASED STRATEGY
NORA T. CRUZ
Domalandan Center Integrated School, Lingayen, Pangasinan
DepEd Schools Division Office 1 Pangasinan
Students stand to accomplish a wide range of goals when basic instruction and opportunities to practice speaking are made available to them in class. Oral communication brings to fruition task-based approach which makes use of the target expressions or language functions in the carrying out of task-types.
Utilizing the results of the pre- and post tests in Oral Communication after using task-based approach, this study looked into the level of oral communication skills of the Grade 11 General Academic Strand students of Domalandan Center Integrated School this school year 2018- 2019. Results showed that though the overall rating before using task-based strategies were satisfactory, it was noteworthy that majority of the students proved to be outstanding in their performance after the use of task-based activities. Likewise, it also showed that the level of oral communication skills of the Grade 11 GAS students significantly differed before and after using task-based strategy/.
The results of the study indicated that students worked best in instructional formats that best suit their learning styles. Teachers, are then called to task to exploit the role of tasks in students’ higher motivation in classroom language learning. It also called on the teachers, to develop alternative methods in aid of creating more effective learning environment.
Keywords: fluency, oral communication, language structures, task-based speaking strategy
The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum Framework clearly states the need of developing the oral communication skills of students in preparation for the world of work, entrepreneurship and/or pursuing higher education. More so, communication skill is known to be one among the 21st century skills a learner should be equipped with. Recognizing this has led a major shift in the education sector that enhances the basic education curriculum through adding two years with high hopes to master the competences needed by a learner (RA 10533).
In answer to this call, the Senior High School Program included the core subject Oral Communication in Context to Grade 11 students. Oral communication is considered to be a core aspect of employability (Knight and Yorke, 2006) and in recognition of its importance for students and graduates also included that under transferable or non-subject specific skills, there is a need to be able to present information orally.
In today’s competitive world, oral communication skill is essential to be developed among students to gear them with appropriate knowledge on presentations. Being communicatively competent likewise boosts marketability and viability for work in variety of careers in the future, thus reiterates the essential of being equipped.
In the recently conducted unit test, item analyses revealed that students of General Academic Strand obtained low mean performance. Recognizing the importance of oral communication in this strand, the researcher aimed to improve the Oral Communication Skills of Grade 11 GAS students through a task-based strategy called simulations.
Simulations give students the chance to apply theory, develop critical skills, and provide a welcome relief from the everyday tasks of reading and preparing for classes (Kanner, 2007). An additional benefit of many of these simulations is the introduction of an aspect of realism into the students’ experience. Such simulations are historically seen in the medical fields, where mock-up patients take on the signs and symptoms of a certain disease or injury and the student is asked to assess, diagnose, and/or treat the patient. Here the students must apply what they have learned to a reasonably realistic scenario. Further, there is evidence that the experiential learning that occurs in simulations promotes long-term retention of course material (Bernstein & Meizlish, 2003; Brookfield, 1990).
With regard to Oral Communication in Context teaching, simulation is a more recent strategy which aims to achieve communicative competence rather than grammatical competence. This means that performance and actual output are represented in one’s actual real life situations. Many teachers want their students to apply the book knowledge to the real world, to see how the abstract concepts and theories play out in the real world, to be able to experience real-world processes, and to become motivated to become involved in the real-world processes that are discussed in class. Through this, teachers may conclude the long-term effect of their lessons to their students.
Willis & Willis (2001) have called for a move in language teaching toward task-based strategy to instruction. They agree that it is a form of teaching that treats language primarily as a tool for communication rather than a subject for study or manipulation.
Several researchers such as Nunan (2004), Ellis (2003) agreed that simulation view of language teaching is based on constructivist theory of learning. In the area of constructivism, Jean Piaget (2001) agreed that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between the students’ experiences and their ideas with full of tasks best exemplify learning.
It is clear that if learners are to develop the competence they need in order to use a second language easily and effectively in the kinds of situations they meet outside the classroom, they need to experience how language is used as a tool for communication within it.
It was in this context that the researcher conducted this study. It aimed to improve the oral communication skills of the Grade 11 GAS students at Domalandan Center Integrated School in order to fully equip the learners integrating not only of concepts but of classroom experiences, community experiences, and ideas rolled into one fine task-based classroom strategy, simulation.
The quantitative research approach was suitable for this study as its design was quasi- experimental. According to Moore (2008), a quasi-experimental study is a type of evaluation which aims to determine whether a programme or intervention has the intended effect on a study’s participant.
The Grade 11 General Academic Strand students enrolled in the subject, Oral Communication in Context during the First Semester, Academic Year 2018-2019 at DCIS, served as participants of the study. They were chosen as participants of the study as they were the only class handled by the researcher under the said subject. The respondents were in one intact class in order to prevent disruption to the normal teaching routine at the school.
Relevant data to actualize the research analyses were gathered using the teacher-made test. A 60-item multiple choice test was the instrument used to test learners and to know the differences, improvement, and achievement level in oral communication skills before and after using task-based strategy.
2.4. Data Analysis
The data gathered from the participants/sources of data were treated and analyzed statistically. Mean was used to determine the level of Oral Communication skills of the Grade 11 GAS students before and after utilization of task-based strategy. The t- test was used to determine the significant difference between the level of Oral Communication skills of Grade 11 GAS students before and after using task-based strategy based on the results of the teacher-made test.
3.1 Performance in Oral Communication in Context Before Utilization of Task-based Strategy
The Grade 11 Gas students’ level of performance in Oral Communication in Context was assessed prior to their exposure to task-based strategy. The results of the said assessment are reflected in Table 1.
Table 1 Level of Performance in Oral Communication of Grade 11 GAS Students
Before Utilization of Task-based Strategy
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Majority of the students (61.1%) performed satisfactorily in the given multiple test prior to the utilization of task-based strategy in Oral Communication in Context. Likewise, the data reveal that there were 11 students (30.6%) whose performance in the test was found poor. Only 3 students (8.3%) proved to be outstanding in terms of performance in the test before the exposure to scaffolding strategies.
3.2 Performance of the Students in Oral Communication After Exposure to Task-based Strategy
The level of performance of the students in Oral Communication in Context was assessed after their exposure to task-based strategy. These results are organized and presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Performance of the students in Oral Communication in Context after exposure to task-based strategy
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Results of the 60-item multiple choice test administered to the students after the utilization of task-based strategies turned out favorably as evidenced by the data in the table. The results of the posttest show that of the 36 total number of students in the said group 35 or 97.2% proved to be outstanding and only 1 or 2.8% was found satisfactory.
3. 3 Performance of the Students in Oral Communication Before and After Exposure to Task-based Strategies
The students’ performance in Oral Communication in Context was assessed after their exposure to the utilization of task-based strategies. Table 3 shows whether there was a difference on the performance of the Grade 11 GAS students before and after the utilization of task-based strategies.
Table 3 Difference on the level of Oral Communication Skills of the Grade 11 Students Before and After the Utilization of Task-based Strategy
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
The data in the table indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in their mean scores before and after utilization and/or exposure to task-based strategy. This is because the computed t- value is -4.41168 while the p - value is .000022 which means that the result is significant at p<.05.Thus, there is a significant difference in the performance of the students in Oral Communication in Context before and after the intervention or utilization of the innovation, the task-based strategy.