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Growth and Yield Performance of Watermelon. Applied With Fermented and Non-Fermented Goat Manure

Academic Paper 2019 78 Pages

Instructor Plans: Agriculture / Forestry / Gardening

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Page

i. TITLE

ii. ABSTRACT

iii. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iv. DEDICATION

v. TABLE OF CONTENTS

vi. LIST OF TABLES

vii. LIST OF APPENDICES xv. CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION
Nature and Importance of the Study
Objectives of the Study
Significance of the Study
Statement of Hyphothesis
Time and Places of the Study
Scope and Limitation
Definition of Terms

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Manure
Benefits of Animal Manure
Sweet 16 F1 variety
Benefits of Watermelon as Cucurvitaceae Crop
Major Pests and Diseases of Watermelon
Animal Manure as an Organic Material
Advantage of Fermented Goat manure

III. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
Methods
Experimental Set- up
Procurement of Materials
Soil Sampling and Analysis
Land Preparation
Preparation of Growing Media and
Sowing of Seeds
Care of Seedlings
Transplanting
Preparation of Fermented Animal Manure
Application of Fermented Goat manure
Application of Non-Fermented Goat manure
Care of Transplant
Harvesting
Data Gathering
Plant Length of vine
Number of Leaves
Number of Fruits
Diameter of the Fruits
Length of the Fruits
Weight of the Fruits
Pests and Diseases Occurrence
Data Analysis

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
General Observation
Growth Parameters
Plant Length of vine
Number of Leaves
Number of Branches
Yield Parameters
Number of Fruits (at first harvest)
Diameter of the Fruits (at first harvest) 32 Length of the Fruits (at first harvest) 32 Weight of the Fruits (at first harvest)
Second Harvest
Number of Fruits
Diameter of the Fruits
Length of the Fruits
Weight of Fruits
Incidence of Pests and Diseases

V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary
Conclusion
Recommendation
Bibliography
Appendix I

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented and non-fermented goat manure on the growth and yield parameters of watermelon. Two treatments were considered: treatment one, fermented goat manure applied by drenching and treatment two, non-fermented goat manure applied by side-dressing.

Fermented and non-fermented goat manure verified the effect on the growth parameters specifically plant Length of vine, number of the leaves, and number of the branches and also the effect on the yield parameters namely number of fruits, diameter of the fruits, length of the fruits, and weight of the fruits.

Both treatments namely fermented and non­fermented goat manure did not significantly affect the growth and yield parameters and also the occurrence of pests and diseases of the watermelon.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This piece of work would not come into reality without the help of others.

First of all, the author would like to express her thanks to God, for His unending love, blessings, and care throughout her study in this institution.

Heartfelt thanks and acknowledgement to his family in cluding his tatay, inay, ate aand lola for financial and moral support.

J.C.B.

DEDICATION

This work is wholeheartedly dedicated to our Lord, his family and loveonce

LIST OF TABLES

Title

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented and non-fermented goat manure on the growth and yield parameters of watermelon. Two treatments were considered: treatment one, fermented goat manure applied by drenching and treatment two, non-fermented goat manure applied by side-dressing.

Fermented and non-fermented goat manure verified the effect on the growth parameters specifically plant Length of vine, number of the leaves, and number of the branches and also the effect on the yield parameters namely number of fruits, diameter of the fruits, length of the fruits, and weight of the fruits.

Both treatments namely fermented and non­fermented goat manure did not significantly affect the growth and yield parameters and also the occurrence of pests and diseases of the watermelon.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This piece of work would not come into reality without the help of others.

First of all, the author would like to express her thanks to God, for His unending love, blessings, and care throughout her study in this institution.

Heartfelt thanks and acknowledgement to his family in cluding his tatay, inay, ate aand lola for financial and moral support.

DEDICATION

This work is wholeheartedly dedicated to our Lord, his family and love once

Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

Nature and Importance of the Study

Watermelon(Citrullus lunatus L) is popularly grown for its fruits as a desert, use in food curving and food decoration. That is why most people eat watermelon. In the Philippines, it is usually abundant in high-end restaurant, hotels, and fast food chains. It is a sun- loving crop, with a coarse and hairy pinnately-lobed leaves, and smooth hard rind—usually green with dark green stripes or yellow spots and a sweet, juicy interior flesh—usually deep red to pink fruit. The stems are thin, hairy, and angular, grooved, and have branched tendrils at each node. The stems are highly branched and up to 30 feet long. Roots are extensive but shallow, with a taproot and many lateral roots, it required large amount of water for its growth {Silva et al., 2013}.

It is cultured for the mature fruits which are either used as delicacy, design and juice or eaten raw. Young fruits are also eaten raw. Watermelon supplies vital vitamins, minerals, and nutritional fiber to the human diet, especially in the summer season, when other fruits are in short supply for the rural and urban poor.

Watermelon have a variety of health benefits, including the ability to build strong bones and reduce symptoms of anemia, increase cognitive function, improve cardiovascular health, protect the digestive system, help lose weight, manage diabetes, reduce stress, protect infants from birth defects, and even prevent cancer, however it is a unusual vegetable. In the market, varieties of watermelon varying in size, shape and color are set for sale. It was stated that on the average, the round and dark shaped-fruited watermelon cultivars are rich in total soluble sugar, whereas free-reducing sugars, anthocyanins, phenols, glycoalkaloids (such as solasodine), dry matter and amide proteins. High anthocyanin content and low glycoalkaloid contents are stately essential regardless of how the fruit is used.

According to the production statistics of the Philippines, in terms of value production, watermelon is the country's top 7 ranking. It is grown in 10,000ha all over the country, but the main producers of watermelon are Bukidon (29%), Central Luzon (14%) and Southern Tagalog (13%).

In terms of volume, the watermelon is number 13 among the fruits produced in the country. The country ranks 27th among the world’s top watermelon producers. According to the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources and Development (PCARRD), the value of watermelon produced in the country in 2013 was P1.5 billion.

In 2003, according to project report of the University of the Philippines Los Banos Institute of Plant Breeding (UPLB), annual production hit P1.8 billion. The area dedicated to the cultivation of this crop was about 18 000 ha in 1997. By 2003, the area expanded to 19, 000 ha.

The Department of Agriculture (DA) and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) have identified the watermelon as a priority crop for research development. PCARRD studies showed that with proper cultural practices, farmers can harvest as much as 18,000 kilograms of watermelon from a hectare of land.

During a production accumulation, however, the farm gate price of watermelon falls to P15 a kilo or even less. In this case, the net income for the producer scales down. And there are times after as destructive typhoon or flooding, when watermelon sells for even higher at P50 a kilo. In December last year, selling prices rose to a record high of P80 a kilo due to spate of typhoons and flash floods that hit some part of Luzon. Per capita consumption of watermelon in the country has been placed at 12.27 kilograms a year, according to PCARRD studies.

The Central Luzon State University (CLSU) in Munoz City gave the following pointers to those who are interested to go and increase watermelon production (Roque A. et.al 2005).

Most of the farmers are now using organic fertilizer for their crops. For the reason that manure is an appreciated fertilizer for any farming procedure and has been used for centuries to supply necessary nutrients for crop growth (Rosen et al.2008) . Manures can be used as fertilizer or pesticide but except or strictly limit the use of synthetic fertilizer and pesticides. Manure is an important supply for crop production and soil sustainability. It is a source of almost all the essential nutrients (Ogunlela et al, 2009).

The effect of fermented and non-fermented goat manure by drenching and side-dressing application however, had never been studied in watermelon. Hence, this study focused on the growth and yield performance of watermelon.

Objectives of the Study

This study generally aimed to find out if the growth and yield performance of watermelon is affected by fermented and unfermented goat manure.

Specifically, this study aimed to:

1. determine the effect of fermented and non- fermented goat manure in terms of:

1.1 plant Length of vine;

1.2 number of leaves;

1.3 number of branches;

1.4 number of fruits;

1.5 weight of fruits;

1.6 diameter of the fruits;

1.7 length of the fruits;and

1.8 occurrence of pests and diseases

Significance of the Study

This study was conducted to determine if fermented and non-fermented goat manure are beneficial on the growth and yield performance of watermelon. The result can be used as reference for future researchers and will lead to practical application of vegetable farmers not only in watermelon but also to the production of different crops.

Statement of Hypothesis

1. There is no significant difference on the growth and yield performance of watermelon as affected by fermented and unfermented goat manure in terms of:

1.1 plant Length of vine;

1.2 number of leaves;

1.3 number of branches;

1.4 number of fruits;

1.5 weight of fruits;

1.6 diameter of the fruits;

1.7 length of the fruits; and

1.8 occurrence of pests and diseases.

Time and Place of the Study

This study was conducted from July 2018 to December 2019 at the Crop Science Experimental Area of the Mindoro State College of Agriculture and Technology, Main Campus, Alcate, Victoria, Oriental Mindoro.

Scope and Limitation

This study focused only on the growth and yield performance of watermelon using fermented and unfermented goat manure applied through drenching and side-dressing method.

Definition of Terms

For better understanding of the terms used in this study, the following are conceptually defined:

Animal Manure - This refers to animal excreta, usually with straw and that is being use to fertilize the land (Bitish Dictionary, 2016).

Drenching- This is a method of fertilizer application wherein the liquid fertilizer is applied through holes in the soil provided in designated place/s near the plant.

Watermelon - plant species in cucurbitaceae, a vine -like flowering plant originating in west Africa and cultivated for its fruits.(Merriam Webster Dictionary, 2016).

Fermentation - Any of a group of chemical reaction that split complex organic compounds into relatively small substances especially the anaerobic conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast (Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 2002).

Organic Farming - It is a production system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and livestock feed additives (Duram et al, 2010).

Side-Dressing application- It refers to the application of fertilizers in a thin furrow or band along the side of vegetable row crops or in a circle around individual plants (Steve Albert et al, 2008).

Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies that will be of great help for the interpretation and discussion of the results.

Manure

Goat manure showed a positive effect on the yield of watermelon and the quality of watermelon fruits. Poultry manure is an effective and efficient source of organic matter which improves soil nutrients and boosts the yield of Telfaria variety production since the highest fresh weight, number of leaves and vine length were recorded on plots that received the highest rate of poultry manure (Orji et al, 2007), goat manure showed a positive effect on the yield of watermelon and the quality of watermelon fruits (Abdalla et al, 2011).

Organic manures and composts have been found to have a direct anti-disease effect by stimulating competing microorganisms and also by inducing resistance to plant diseases ( Bri nton et al . , 2015) . Application of manure in the soil causes soil hollow, increased wate r holding capacity in soil and improved it physical properties besides increasing soil fertility, crop growth and thus the water use efficiency. Hence, animal wastes that result to animal manures is better alternative and a necessary option.

Manure is a valued enricher for any farming operation and has been used for centuries to supply needed nutrients for crop growth (Rosen et al, 2008). Manure and compost are sources of organic matter. Growing soil organic matter improves soil structure or tilt, increases the water­holding capacity of coarse-textured sandy soils, improves drainage in fine-textured clay soils, provides a source of slow release nutrients, lessens wind and water erosion, and promotes growth of earthworms and other beneficial soil organisms. Most vegetable crops, manures, composts and other organic amendments help to continue soil organic matter levels. However it also produce small amounts of crop residue to the soil.

Likewise, manures are supposed to be an effective treatment to lessen toxicity in acidic soils (Tang et al, 2012) . Animal manures not only provide nutrients but also offer organic substrate vital for improving primary productivity within aquatic environments, unlike synthetic fertilizer.

Moreover, some of the largest producers of organic fertilizers include Victoria's Milling Company, Sagana 100 Philippines, Galactic Resources Development, Sun Chemicals, and Dating Bayan. In many developing countries across the globe for many centuries, animal manure had been used as a source of native fertilizer. Proper use of manure and compost is essential for both production and environmental outlook. Animal manures and animal manure-based composts are rich in plant nutrients such as Nitrogen (N) , Phosphorous (P) and Potassium (K) and offer organic matter that conditions the soil. It is important to use them effectively and safely.

Also, manures contained nutrients that are released more slowly and are stored for a longer time in the soil confirming longer lasting effects, improved root development and higher crop yields (Abou El Magd et al, (2014).

It is important to note that with the help of overseas technology, Negros Occidental is building a plant for industrial pelletized organic fertilizer. The product is proposed to enhance with chemical fertilizers according to the requirement of specific agricultural crops and soil types. Apart from having better handling and storage properties, the fertilizer is requested to have superior nutrient availability and integrity (Abou El Magd et al, 2005).

Animal manure treatments provided a beneficial soil amendment for Oklahoma crops and forages with effects similar to commercial fertilizer treatments (J.D. Vitale et al, 2008).

According to many previous agronomic studies, animal manure was found to be equally effective as marketable fertilizers for the row crops and forage production (Kwaw- Mensah and Al-Kaisi et al, 2006).

Benefits of Animal Manure

Organic manure application is recognized as supplier of plant nutrients and developer of the soil structure. The application of organic manure presented that it increases the yield performance of watermelon production than the inorganic manure (Ullah et al, 2008) . The use of organic manure as fertilizer is essential in successful soil productivity and crop production (Dikinya and Mufwanzala, 2010). In form of compact fruit yield due to higher vegetative growth application of organic manure beyond the serious threshold of the soil on the other hand, may cause possible damage to the crop.

Furthermore, Del Amor et al (2006), stated that the chlorophyll and B-carotene of sweet pepper in organic farming increased antioxidant movement. Abd-El-Aty et al (2012) stated in his study on sweet pepper plants grown with organic fertilizer that adding of pigeon or goat manure increased plant vegetative growth, plant Length of vine, number of leaves, total leaf area, chlorophyll content, fresh and dry weight of whole plant and its organs. By increasing the level of organic manure, all vegetative growth factors increased. Result to the several benefits of organic manure, its use should be refreshed by government and other relevant non-governmental organizations (Nwaiwu et al, 2010).

It would be an expected practice in the years to come for sustainable agriculture if the use of organic manure encounter the nutrient requirements of the crops since organic manure generally improves the soil physical, chemical and biological properties along with conserving the moisture holding capacity of the soil (Maheswarappa et al, 2009). Local manure farmers were attained good quality and quantity of yields of theirs crops, vegetables and fruits due to its application (Allah Bakhsh Gulshan1 et al, 2009).

Manure and compost are also a valuable sources of organic matter, not only supply many nutrients for crop production, including micronutrients, (Kadiri et al, 2010) organic manure has been found to be of great economic value in food crop production. Although these benefits increase from organic manure use, they do not go without varieties of cost to farmers and non-farmers alike. Organic manure is easy to find and can be made available in all situations. Easy to store, manure does not require any special handling as it is not sensitive or burnable. Animal manure can also be prepared into slurry and is easy to use as well. The nutrients of the soil are not only replenished with the help of manures but are also taken for a longer duration. With its long lasting effects, the organic manure will stay balanced and stronger for a long time.

Sweet 16 F1 Variety

ASweet 16' Watermelon is a hybrid variety that can tolerate wilt, heat and can grow around summer season in the Philippines.

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Details

Pages
78
Year
2019
ISBN (eBook)
9783346103079
ISBN (Book)
9783346103086
Language
English
Catalog Number
v489997
Institution / College
Mindoro State College of Agriculture and Technology – MinSCAT-Main Campus
Grade
Tags
growth goat non-fermented fermented with applied watermelon performance yield manure

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Title: Growth and Yield Performance of Watermelon. Applied With Fermented and Non-Fermented Goat Manure