Pupil school participation as seen in attendance, performance and class participation is related to their psychological and physical state which in turn could be influenced by family relations including domestic violence. Domestic violence is almost always accompanied by psychological abuse and in many cases by forced sex as well. Although the family Is a place where people are expected to maintain intimacy and experience greater emotional support in their relationship, domestic violence presents itself as a paradox. It is ironical that this very supportive social unit is also the arena where intimate partner violence (IPV) is more often experienced. Children from slum areas, who witness violence between their parents on top of other social challenges, are exposed to the aftermath of domestic violence such as anxiety, depression, poor academic performance, low self–esteem, disobedience, nightmares and physical health deterioration all of which may negatively impinge on their academic performance and school participation. The extent and magnitude of domestic violence cannot be precisely measured because there are many cases whereby victims fail to report thus making this vice an inter-personal and family secret. Violence between spouses or intimate partner violence (IPV) usually has far reaching consequences on children. Besides the scenes of violence being traumatic, the children may suffer short-term as well as long-term emotional imbalances, which not only affect their behaviour and performance in schools, but also may adversely affect their social and inter-personal relationships. These children may then end up being abusers themselves in what can be seen as continuity hypothesis. Children who witness violence between their parents often develop many of the same behavioural and psychological problems as children who are themselves abused.
Academic performance is an important parameter in measuring success in student. The concept of academic performance is inevitable in any formal educational institution. It expresses the learning achievement of an individual or a group at the end of an academic programme. It is a criterion for ascertaining the capabilities of student from which his potentials could be assimilate, retain, recall and communicate his knowledge of what has been learnt (joe, Kpolovie, Osonwa and iderima 2014). This concept has close relationship in meaning with academic achievement and academic attainment. Academic performance is demonstrated achievement as knowledge attained or skills developed in school subject usually designed by test scores or marks assigned by the teacher or both. These definitions imply that academic performance is observed and measured aspect of a student’s mastery of skill(s) or subject content(s). It suggests that academic performance is one of the three required aspects of a properly composed learning objective as noted in Singh(2010) and it denotes an expression of a learner’s attainment in properly stated behavioural objectives. Meanwhile, poor academic performances of secondary school students’ have been affected by many factors which domestic violence is among.
The domestic violence is such a factor which is the foundation for children’s development, as such in terms of family problems, family’s socio-economic status plays a vital role in educational achievements of the students. The home has a great influence on the child’s psychological, emotional, social and economic state. This is because the domestic violence in context to the child’s performance affects his reaction to life situations and his level of performance. The success at school is associated with domestic violence factors, as these factors can greatly affect young children’s cognitive skills. Disadvantaged children (children with poor social background and facing more number of domestic violence factors) start schooling with significantly lower cognitive skills than their more advantaged peers (Sharma, Basad and Gupta 2015). Dutton (2012) defines physical abuse as any behaviour that involves the intentional use of force against the body of another person that risks physical injury, harm and or pain. It includes pushing, hitting, slapping, choking, using an object to hit, twisting of a body, forcing the ingestion of an unwanted substance and use of a weapon. He further sees sexual abuse as form of domestic violence defines it as any unwanted sexual intimacy forced on an individual by another. It may include oral anal or vaginal stimulation or penetration, forced nudity, forced exposure to sexual explicit material or activity. Compliance may be obtained through actual or threatened physical force or through some other form of coercion.
Domestic violence is threatening many Nigerian families and is unfortunately increasing in our society. Many people, the vast majority of them children have been injured, disabled and killed as a result of domestic violence. Following the recent happenings where domestic violence, it has become a great priority that domestic violence is a menace that needs to be addressed as soon as possible and accorded with all seriousness that it deserve. It was further notes that domestic violence does not recognize social classes or educational standards (Wopadovi,2014). Domestic violence is assuming national and international attention and it is a type of violence that is prevalent in many homes, and the world over. It is a form of defilement, assault, sexual harassment, and rape or battering, child abuse, for example denial of right, necessities and opportunities, threatening patterns of communication such as insults, harassment, neglectful lack of action. Domestic violence has been outlined by Amnesty international as most violent attacks on an individual or group of people or women. It involves physical, sexual and psychological violence in the family including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to any member of the household. Domestic violence may be exhibited by any member of the household (Sharma, Basad and Gupta 2015).
Adejobi, Osonwa, Iyam, Udonwa and Osonwa (2013) asserted that one negative aspect of family’s life is the effect of domestic violence on children, either as witness to, or victims of conflict which is determined by inter-parental relationship child could be severely traumatized by witnessing domestic violence or themselves being victims of this violence. According to them, domestic violence is a pattern of assaultive and coercion, the adults or adolescents use against their intimate partners. Toda domestic violence is not recognized as a serious societal problem in Nigeria (Imtionde, Aluede and Oboite, 2012). Yet, children in families in which such violence occurs have remained largely invisible as victims. Children who live in households with domestic violence are said to be at higher risk for maladjustment than children who do not live with such violence.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Literatures have revealed a growing trend towards violence and brutality towards pupils from their parents and homes. Often this violence plays out in other forms towards fellow pupils. Further investigation revealed that the perpetrator of this crime had suffered domestic violence. This has resulted in a trend where many families are pre-occupied with the pressure of daily living to the extent that some hoes are witnessing indiscipline among pupils. The propensity for pupils to be violent is also in part influenced by domestic ecology. While domestic violence has been recognized as one of the most entrenched and pervasive forms of violence in Nigeria today, its influence on school going children have yet to receive the same degree of attention (Tony,2012). Children who are victims or witnesses of domestic violence may develop physical, psychological and behavioural problem as a result of physical, verbal, psychological and other forms of violence. This may affect their participation in school as they may go to school when they are too scared to learn and a good number of them may lag behind in class as well as in life due to exposure to domestic violence. The short-term and long-term emotional and physical aftermath of domestic violence may affect pupil’s school attendance, academic performance, and behavioural patterns in school and class participation. It’s unclear how types extent of domestic violence cause student’s poor academic performance, but this study seeks to investigate this scenario.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to examine domestic violence as predictors of secondary school students’ poor performance in Obafemi Owode Local government.
The specific objectives of the study include, examining:
I. The influence of domestic violence on students’ school attendance in secondary schools in Nigeria;
II. The influence of domestic violence on academic achievement of students’ in secondary schools in Nigeria;
III. The influence of domestic violence on school behavioural patterns of students’ in secondary schools in Nigeria;
The influence of domestic violence on students’ class participation in secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on above study objectives, the following questions were raised:
I. What is the influence of domestic violence on students’ school attendance in secondary schools in Nigeria?
II. Would there be significant influence of domestic violence on school behaviour patterns of students’ in secondary schools in Nigeria?
III. What is the influence of domestic violence on school behavioral patterns of students’ in secondary schools in Nigeria?
IV. What is the influence of domestic violence on students’ class participation in secondary schools in Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following null-hypothesis were postulated in line with above objectives:
H01 : there is no significant influence of domestic violence on students’ school, attendance in secondary schools in Nigeria.
H02 : there is no significant influence of domestic violence on academic achievement of students’ in secondary schools in Nigeria.
H03 : there is no significant influence of domestic violence on school behavioural patterns of students’ in secondary schools in Nigeria.
H04 : there is no significant influence of domestic violence on students’ class participation in secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study may assist different education sector stakeholders in addressing domestic violence as a social vice and to improve the academic achievement and school participation of student coming from the low socio-economic levels. Education sector policy makers, school administrators and teachers may use the findings of this study to formulate strategies for implementing and promoting participation of student coming from families vulnerable to domestic violence.
The local administration and social workers as well as non-governmental organization(NGOs) may use these findings in identifying such families, abused children and in formulating strategies for addressing the ills of domestic violence and encourage socially inclusive interventions mechanisms within slum areas. The study may also benefit the legal legislative framework by providing information needed to incorporate protective las against domestic violence and school participation, basic education rights and regulations.
The results may also contribute to the national debate on domestic violence and its control as well as insights into more research on the causes, impacts and relationships of domestic violence with other element of economic and social well-being of society
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study examined domestic violence as predictors of secondary school students’ poor performance in Obafemi Owode Local Government. In terms of contents coverage, the study further examined influence of domestic violence on the students’ school attendance, academic achievement, school behavioural patterns and class participation in secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms were defined for the purpose of this study:
Academic performance: this refers to the level of performance in school, accomplishment or success in school in terms of general average scores in examination.
Domestic violence: this refers to physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse and abuse to property and pets.
Physical abuse: this refers as ay behaviour that involves the intentional use of force against the body of another person that risks physical injury, harm and or pain. It includes pushing, hitting, slapping, choking, using an object to hit, twisting of a body part, forcing the ingestion of an unwanted substance and use weapon.
Sexual abuse: this refers to form of domestic violence which is defined as any unwanted sexual intimacy forced on an individual by another. It may include oral anal or vaginal stimulation or penetration, forced nudity, forced exposure to sexual explicit material or activity.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter presented different views of related studies on the domestic violence as predictors of secondary school students poor performance. The chapter is divided into: conceptual review, theoretical review, review of related empirical literature and summary of the literature review.
2.1 CONCEPTUAL REVIEW
2.1.1 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Child maltreatment and child abuse are major forms of domestic violence in Nigeria. Child maltreatment has been defined by the African network for the prevention and protection against child abuse and neglect (ANPPCAN) as the intentional and unintentional acts which endanger the physical, health, emotional, moral, and the educational welfare of the child . abuse of a child is anything that cause injury or puts the child in danger of physical injury . child abuse can be physical(such as burns or broken bones), sexual (such as touching of private or incest), or emotional (such as belittling or calling the child names) (Ada and Mbua, 2015). They also described child abuse as any maltreatment or subjection that endangers a child’s physical,, emotional and health development. Child abuse and neglect consist of any acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that result in harm, or the threat of harm to a child ( 0-18 years of age ) even if the harm is unintentional. The five main types of child maltreatment are: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, neglect rarely occur in isolation and violence . evidence suggest that different types of abuse and neglecting rarely occur in isolation and children who experience repeated maltreatment often experience multiple forms of abuse. They affirmed that child maltreatment include not only physical assault but also malnourishment, abandonment, neglect abuse and sexual abuse.