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Development and Performance Evaluation of Mini Tractor Mounted Clod Crusher

by Chintan Ginoya (Author) Dr. Rajvir Yadav (Author)

Master's Thesis 2018 100 Pages

Engineering - Mechanical Engineering

Excerpt

CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

CERTIFICATES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF PLATES

ABBREVEATIONS AND SYMBOLS

I INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
1.2 Tillage
1.2.1 The tillage operations
1.3 Loosening of Soil
1.4 Clod Formation
1.4.1 Clod size reduction
1.4.1 Clod sorting
1.5 Compaction and Consolidation
1.6 Smoothening
1.7 Practical Utility of the Research Problem
1.8 Objectives

II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Tillage and Seed Bed Preparation
2.2 Clod Crusher
2.3 Soil Physical Properties
2.3.1 Bulk density
2.3.2 Soil strength
2.3.3 Clod mean weight diameter
2.4 Frame
2.5 Economic Analysis

III MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Location of Experiment
3.2 Conceptual Design of Clod Crusher Attachment to Cultivator
3.2.1 Design consideration
(a) Assumptions considered in design
(b) General considerations
3.2.2 Assessment of draft and power requirement
3.2.3 Design of functional components of clod crusher attachment to cultivator
3.2.3.1 Design of clod crusher
3.3 Constructional Details
3.3.1 Cultivator
3.3.2 Clod crusher
3.3.2.1 Clod crusher with square spike
3.3.2.2 Clod crusher with round spike
3.3.2.3 Clod crusher with square spike of spiral arrangement
3.3.2.4 Window
3.4 Fabricated Clod Crusher Attachment to Cultivator
3.5 Experimental Procedure
3.5.1 Design of the experiment
3.5.2 Layout of experimental plot
3.5.3 Statistical Analysis
3.6 Climatic and Weather Condition
3.7 Soil Parameters
3.7.1 Moisture content of the soil
3.7.2 Bulk density of the soil
3.7.3 Clod mean weight diameter
3.8 Machine Performance Parameters
3.8.1 Depth and width of cut
3.8.2 Measurement of wheel slip
3.8.3 Field capacity
3.8.4 Theoretical field capacity
3.8.5 Effective field capacity
3.8.6 Field efficiency
3.8.7 Forward speed
3.8.8 Fuel consumption
3.8.9 Draft of implement
3.9 Economics of Clod Crushing Method
3.10 Cost of Operations
A. Fixed cost
a. Depreciation
b. Interest on investment
c. Taxes, housing, and insurance
B. Variable cost

IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Parameters Selected for the Study
4.1.1 Independent parameters
4.1.2 Dependent parameters
4.2 Field Testing
4.3 Field Parameter
4.3.1 Soil moisture content
4.3.2 Bulk density
4.4 Operating Parameter
4.4.1 Width of cut
4.4.2 Depth of cut
4.4.3 Speed of operation
4.4.4 Wheel slip during field operation
4.4.5 Draft requirement
4.5 Performance Parameter
4.5.1 Clod mean weight diameter
4.5.1.1 Effect of types of roller on clod mean weight diameter
4.5.1.2 Effect of weight of roller on clod mean weight diameter
4.5.1.3 Combined effect of types of roller and weight of roller on clod mean weight diameter
4.5.2 Fuel consumption
4.5.2.1 Effect of types of roller on fuel consumption
4.5.2.2 Effect of weight of roller on fuel consumption
4.5.2.3 Combined effect of types of roller and weight of roller on fuel consumption
4.5.3 Clod crushing field efficiency
4.5.3.1 Effect of types of roller on clod crushing field efficiency
4.5.3.2 Effect of weight of roller on clod crushing field efficiency
4.5.3.3 Combined effect of types of roller and weight of roller on clod crushing field efficiency
4.6 Economics of Clod Crushing Method
4.7 Economical Comparison of Clod Crushing Methods

V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusions

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDICES

ABSTRACT

Keywords: Tillage, Clod crusher, Performance, Spiked roller

In tillage tools used in India faces problem like, poor soil-tire interface, clod formation, compaction due to heavy traffic and timeliness in operation. Hence, it was planned to fabricate three different types of clod crusher and to evaluate its performance with clod crusher implements. To achieve this objective a prototype implement consisting of three different types of clod crusher cylinders’ like as square spike, round spike and spiral arrangement of spike were developed costing Rs. 7000/- per each cylinder. The newly developed implement was tested in field condition to evaluate its performance. Their performance results were analyzed in terms of tilling quality of soil and machine parameters. The effects of treatments on soil physical properties like soil bulk density, clod MWD were evaluated. Machine performance parameters like fuel consumption, field efficiency and cost of operation were also studied.

Better performance in terms of tilling quality of soil was obtained using clod crusher (square spike) attachment to cultivator. The optimum values of clod MWD, clod crushing field efficiency and fuel consumption were found 13.64 mm, 78.37 % and 7.02 lit/ha respectively. The operating cost were found 882, 1050 and 988 ₹/ha in square spike, round spike and spiral arrangement respectively. Using clod crusher attachment to cultivator a farmer can save more rupees against another implement which is used for seed bed preparation.

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CERTIFICATE - I

This is to certify that the thesis/project work reported entitled “DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MINI TRACTOR MOUNTED CLOD CRUSHER” submitted by Mr. GINOYA CHINTANKUMAR JAYANTILAL (Reg. No. 2050216005) in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Technology (Agricultural Engineering) in the subject of FARM MACHINERY AND POWER ENINEERING to the Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh is a record of bonafide research work carried out by him under my guidance and supervision and the thesis has not previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma or other similar title. The candidate had fulfilled all prescribed requirement. The assistance and help received during the course of investigation have been dully acknowledged. He has successfully completed the comprehensive/preliminary examination held on May 16, 2018 as required under the regulation for post-graduate studies. He has submitted kachcha bound thesis on July 31, 2018.

Place: Junagadh

Date: 31/07/2018

Dr. R. Yadav

Major Guide and

Professor and Head,

Dept. of Farm Engg.,

COA, JAU, Junagadh

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I offer million gratitude to God, the almighty who made me do this task and made every job a success for me. He was the greatest source of all resources and provision, moral or without whose grace nothing is possible.

It is my proud privilege to express my devout gratitude and indebtedness’ to my major Guide Dr. R. Yadav, Professor and Head, Department of Farm Engineering, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University (JAU), Junagadh for his thoughtful guidance, constant fomenting, punctilious and impeccable advices throughout the course of present study, which inspired me to carry out the research work in time.

I express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. A. R. Pathak, Hon’ble Vice chancellor, Dr. V. P. Chovatiya, Director of Research and Dean P. G. Studies, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh and Dr. N. K. Gontia, Principal and Dean, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh for providing necessary facilities during the course of the study.

I feel deep sense of gratitude to express my heartfelt thanks to Dr. P.N. Sarsavadiya (Minor Guide) Professor, Dept. of REE, CAET, JAU, Junagadh & Dr. K. K. Jain (Member), Professor, Dept. of Farm Machinery & Power Engg., CAET, JAU, Junagadh & Prof. V. R. Vagadia (Member), Assistant Professor, Dept. of Farm Engineering., COA, JAU, Junagadh & Prof. N. K. Mishtry (Member), Associate Professor, Dept. of REE, CAET, JAU, Junagadh for his constant encouragement and kind help in providing necessary facilities in time made the research study an achievement.

It is proud privilege to offer sincere and well devoted thanks to Dr. V. K. Tiwari, Professor & Head, Dept. of Farm Machinery & Power Engg., CAET, JAU, Junagadh & Dr. K. B. Jhala, Research Engineer, Dept. of Farm Machinery & Power Engg., CAET, JAU, Junagadh & Dr. T. D. Mehta, Associate Professor, Dept. of Farm Machinery & Power Engg., CAET, JAU, Junagadh & Dr. M. S. Dulawat, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Farm Machinery & Power Engg., CAET, JAU, for their help and support which give me inspiration to do something pioneer in the field of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering.

I gratitude and very hearty thankful to Mr. Hiren Sekhada, Lab Technician, Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, JAU, Junagadh.

I Express great thankful to Dr. H. M. Gajipara, Professor & Head, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, JAU, Junagadh for great moral during my study.

Sky is the limit to express a deep sense of gratitude to Sweet & lovely friends Vimal, Sachin, Daksh, Abhay and all other M. Tech. students and all well-wishers for their help, encouragement and cooperation. It may not be possible to mention name of all my friends. I am sincerely thankful to those who helped me directly and indirectly.

I would like to thank my all of family, especially my Mother Mrs. Manjulaben, Father Mr. Jayantilal for their undying support for my return to world to complete this task, their unwavering support in all of my endeavors continues to provide me with the confidence that I can complete whole study.

Place: Junagadh

Date: 31/07/2018 (Ginoya Chintankumar J.)

LIST OF TABLES

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LIST OF FIGURES

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LIST OF PLATES

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>ABBREVEATIONS AND SYMBOLS

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CHAPTER - I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

India is vast and agriculture-based country. It has covering about 3.29 million hectare geographical area and out of that about 166 million hectares is cultivable land. Net area sown is about 142 million hectares. The gross cropped area increased to about 189.5 million hectares. The farm holdings in India are classified as: (a) Marginal (< 1 ha), (b) Small (1-2 ha), (c) Semi medium (2-4 ha), (d) Medium (4-10 ha), (e) Large (> 10 ha). Agricultural mechanization refers to interaction of improved tools, implements and machines between farm workers and materials handled by them. More than 75 per cent farmers belong to marginal & small category, with more than 70 per cent area under rain fed crops. India has very promising farm machinery industry, producing yearly more than 2.5 lakh tractors, 10,000 power tillers, 4.5 lakh sprayers & dusters, 9.5 lakh pumping sets and 2000 combine harvesters. Due to simultaneous combination of tillage operations 10 h/ha of tractor operation can be reduced by combination of tillage tool as compared to conventional field preparation (Kumar and Manian, 1986). Besides, other farm machinery population in India is estimated at about 150 million which includes about 3 million tractors and other self-propelled equipment’s. Farming operations need some type of power unit at the farm to operate machineries for: (a) Seed Bed Preparation, (b) Sowing, (c) Water Pumping, (d) Spraying, (e) Interculturing, (f) Harvesting, (g) Threshing and (h) Hauling work.

These operations demand tractive power to pull the implements, rotative power to drive attached equipment’s, pulley power to operate stationary machines and automotive power for transport work (Sahay, 2008).

Independent India ushered in a process of agricultural mechanization and revival of rural agro processing which got acceleration during post-Green Revolution period. India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 17 per cent of the GDP in 2012. Despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP, it is still the largest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall social-economic development of the country. Although, India ranks second in world in crop production, still, there is a need to increase the agriculture production as well as productivity to feed the population which is increasing at very fast rate. International comparisons reveal the average yield in India is generally 30 to 50 per cent of the highest average yield in the world. Indian states Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat and Maharashtra are key agricultural contributing states of India (Ahluwalia, 2002).

Farm Power is an essential input in agriculture for timely field operations for operating different types of farm equipment and for stationary jobs like operating irrigation equipment’s, threshers/ shellers/ cleaners/ graders and other post-harvest equipment’s (Gurumurthyu and Singa, 2000).

During last 50 years the average farm power availability in India has increased from about 0.25 kW/ha in 1951 to about 1.68 kW/ha in 2011. Over the years the shift has been towards the use of mechanical and electrical sources of power, while in 1951 about 97.4 per cent farm power was coming from animate sources, in 2011 the contribution of animate sources of power reduced to about 18 per cent and that of mechanical and electrical sources of power increased from 2.6 per cent in 1951 to about 82 per cent in 2011 (Srivastava, 2015).

1.2 Tillage

It is a mechanical manipulation of soil to provide favorable condition for crop production. Soil tillage consists of breaking the compact surface of earth to a certain depth and to loosen the soil mass, so as to enable the roots of the crops to penetrate and spread into the soil. Tillage may be called the practice of modifying the state of soil to provide favorable conditions for plant growth. Tillage operation is most labour consuming and difficult operation, compared to all subsequent operation in the field (Bukhari et al., 1988).

1.2.1 The tillage operations

The tillage operations defined as mechanical manipulation of soil performed to achieve the desired seedbed to provide optimum environment of seeding germination and plant growth. Seedbed preparation for sowing / planting of different crops is done through primary and secondary tillage operations. The optimum seedbed preparation for raising upland crops, involves the following unit operations (Ahaneku et al., 2011).

The animal-drawn wheeled tool carrier which was a multipurpose machine but designed to perform agricultural operations and provide transport where animals are the main source of power. It could perform virtually all the operations of a tractor, thus providing to many farmers the versatility and precision previously available to only a few. The wheeled tool carrier has been designed to be pulled by oxen (bullocks) although it can also be pulled by buffaloes, horses, mules, and camels (Bansal and Thierstein, 1988).

1.3 Loosening of Soil

This is done to achieve a desired granular soil structure for a seedbed and to allow rapid infiltration and good retention of moisture, to provide adequate air exchange capacity within the soil and to minimize resistance to root penetration and shoot growth. Local plough (Hal) and blade harrow (Bakhar) are traditional implements used for loosening of soil. These are simplest tools designed to break the topsoil and multi-passes are carried out to prepare seedbed. Mould board plough, disc plough, soil stirring plough, ridger plough, tool frames/carriers with mouldboard plough or tillage sweeps, etc. are improved implements designed for breaking soil. Ploughs are used to break soil and invert furrow slice to control weeds, etc. The moldboard plow has energy efficient for loosening soil and therefore, shallow moldboard plowing may be an interesting concept for reducing energy requirement while maintaining the benefit of a moldboard plough (Al-Janobi and Al-Suhaibani, 1998).

1.4 Clod Formation

Soil clod refers to a natural lump of soil that exists as an isolated entity in the field. Some workers define soil clod as a natural lump of soil carefully dugout so, that its shape is not altered in the process. Clods are formed possibly by two mechanisms; (1) coating of soil lumps with deflocculated clay paste and (2) due to soil compaction. The number, size-distribution and breaking strength of soil clods are closely related to clay content, bulk density and cracking pattern of soil, soil-water content at the time of tillage, and tillage implements (Sinmura, et al., 1974; Campbell, 1976). Clod formation is a serious problem to prepare the seed bed. Tillage of a compacted soil results in greater cloddiness than of an uncompact soil (Johnson et al., 1979; Sharma, 2001).

Puddling causes compaction in rice soils. Thus, clod formation is directly related to the puddling intensity. Upon drying, puddled soils usually shrink in volume, develop surface fissures, become compact and hard, and are difficult to till. Their draft-power requirement is high. Sometimes the draft requirement is so high that it becomes impossible to till these soils with the countryside, animal-drawn ploughs or even with small tractors. When tilled, these soils break into hard and massive clods of varying sizes and shapes, having high breaking strength. To crush these clods into fine tilth is labour, time and energy intensive process. The cloddy soil is unfavorable for wheat crop. It affects wheat emergence due to poor seed soil contact. In one study emergence of wheat and maize was positively correlated with soil clods of size less than 2 cm (Takashi et al., 1986).

1.4.1 Clod size reduction

Clod breaking operation is required to produce a granular soil structure in the final seedbed. Tine cultivator and disc harrow are used for breaking of clods. Generally, these are operated after one pass of mouldboard plough or ridger plough. Direct harrowing or cultivator operation is also performed when the fields are clean and free from plant residues of previous crop. The land development, tillage and seedbed preparation together account for a major share of power utilization in the crop cycle. Clod crushers, patela harrow, etc. are very effective for clod crushing under favourable soil moisture conditions but their effect is confined to soil surface only. Power driven implements like rotavators disintegrate the clods over a wide range of soil moisture and provide uniform and fine size clods or aggregates in seedbed (Patil et al., 2009).

1.4.2 Clod sorting

Operation of tools with narrow tines such as comb harrow and spike tooth harrow, in loosened soil, produces a sorting effect, bringing larger clods and aggregates on surface. The sorting effect increases with increasing forward inclination of tines and share width and decreasing speed and soil moisture. Large size clods on the surface are recommended because of their stability under rainfall, which helps in reducing soil erosion. Clod breaking strength may be defined as the energy required to break the clods into fine tilth. In simple words, it refers to the friability of clods. Some idea about clod friability may be obtained by crumbling soil in hand, but it is a qualitative approach. Quantitative measurements are needed to compute energy requirements to prepare seedbeds (Sharma and Bhagat, 1993).

1.5 Compaction and Consolidation

Wide, backward inclined implements compact soil as well as break clods in top surface of soil. Direct compaction at seed depth can be achieved using narrow press wheels/discs. Planking is widely used to compact the soil at the surface. The study attempted to give an overview of previous works toward development of animal drawn tillage tools and to identify the areas having most potential for future improvement. The socio-economy, natural resource situation, historic perspective of animal traction in eastern and southern Africa and more specifically and plough history in Ethiopia were presented. From the review, it could be concluded that previous developments in animal traction tillage implements relied on cultural, trial and human experience. With the recent development in farm technologies and mathematical modelling techniques supported by computer-based simulations, new methodologies in research are available to improve animal traction tillage implements. When adopted, these methodologies could significantly assist in optimizing the implement designs and operational conditions aiming at minimum draught requirement and best soil manipulation performance (Gebregziabher et al., 2006)

1.6 Smoothening

Smoothening of seedbed is required for proper operation of sowing machines, better distribution of irrigation water and quick disposal of excess rainwater. Smoothening can be achieved by using wide backward inclined blades, such as levelling boards, floats and patela harrow with closely spaced shallow working narrow tines. Wooden planker, patella harrow is recommended for smoothening operation.

Indian context has the second largest population in the world and contribute near about 17 to 18 per cent of total population of the world. So, it is clear that land system of traditional farmers is being changed due to pressure of growing population of the country. Now a day, majority of the farmers in our country comes under small marginal lands (area) system. These fragmented lands have lower productivity due to the inadequate operation and merger use of the precise farm machineries (Karale et al., 2008).

Agricultural productivity is linked with the availability of farm power. Bullocks meet power requirement of marginal and small farms (less than 2 ha) while tractors meet requirements of large farms (above 6 ha). Mini tractors are appropriate source of farm power of medium farms (2 to 6 ha). The use of animal power is becoming costlier and working rate of draft animals is very slow. The tractors and the other large machineries are beyond the reach of small and medium farmers. Mini Tractors are quite popular in the world. Utility wise comparison of mini tractors with bullocks indicated that the tillage operations by using bullocks is slow and consumes more time (Veerangouda et al., 2011).

Bullocks require more time for tillage operation in field so small land holder farmers turned to medium size tractor i.e. 30 to 45 hp. Farmer get tractor on rent and their dependence causes delay in sowing. Small land holder farmer can purchase small tractor, but smaller tillage implements suitable for mini tractor are not available in market. Rotavator is available but its wear and tear are more to the rotavator blade and cost is also high, so it is not always beneficial for small farmer (Sahay et al., 2011).

1.7 Practical Utility of the Research Problem

Clod formation after ploughing or disking is a major problem in arid and semi-arid zones of India. Clods create obstruction to penetration of furrow openers of seed drill and do not allow intimate contact between seeds and soil. Pulverization of clods is necessary to avoid the above problems (Agrawal and Singh, 1988).

Looking to the present practice of seed bed preparation among the farmers and implements used to perform different operations, there is need to study the best alternative, either operation wise or equipment wise, by which we can reduce the time, cost of operation, and improves the efficiency of the system.

Soil is the major problem while making seed bed preparation and make soil easy to field operation. Keep it in view this topic is undertaken with following objectives.

1.8 Objectives

Looking to the above justification, the objectives of this study are as follows:

1. To develop a mini tractor mounted clod crusher.
2. To evaluate the performance of the developed machine.
3. To work out economics of the machine.

CHAPTER - II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

There have been a number of research projects which utilized the concept of combined tillage tool. In order to study various combined tillage tools and their working principle; past work done on these across the world by several scientists was reviewed. The relevant literature reviewed in this context has been highlighted in the following major heads:

2.1 Tillage and Seed Bed Preparation

The unit draft varies with type of soil and he recorded a highest value of 1.05 kgf/cm[2] in soils having heavy clay content. The maximum draft requirement for disc harrowing is 150 kg/meter width (Agricultural Engineers Year book, 1968). There is no theory available to determine the draft of these implements (combined implements) from the knowledge of individual implement sets used, soil and operating conditions (Bernacki et al., 1972).

According to Datt and Mishra (1981) numbers of models of tractors are being manufactured in India, having a production capacity of around 150 units per annum. The horse power range of these tractors varies from 15 to 50. Most of tractors are of 35 horse power capacity.

Carman (1997) observed that different methods produced different yields, which appeared to relate to the soil conditions produced by tillage There was a significant (P < 0.01) effect of the four different tillage systems on moisture content, bulk density, penetration resistance, aggregate mean weight diameter and surface roughness.

Singh et al. (1997) concluded that it has been estimated about 16-25 percent of the total energy available for rural sector is used for agricultural production of which, about 20 per cent energy is consumed only in seedbed preparation. And the cost of seedbed preparation of one hectare with treatments was minimum than control one. Combining pulverizing roller with disc harrow helped in reducing clod size and in increasing yields and benefit.

Taniguchi et al. (1999) reported that the draft increased with increases in travel speed but that the rate of change differed with speed levels. Within the practical and economical tillage operations speed range, however, the assumption of a linearly increasing speed-draft relationship seemed to be quite valid. Increases in speed and the use of a cover board and a plough extension resulted in more soil pulverization

Mansouri et al. (2002) designed and developed rotary tiller implement for a two-wheeled tractor. The tiller was designed based on some measurements and data collected by the manufacturers. The machinery specifications were: machinery width- 80 cm, forward velocity- 30 cm/s, maximum working depth- 15 cm and rotational speed- 200 rpm.

Mohanty and Painuli (2004) reported that tillage practices affect mechanical characteristics of seedbed considerably and thus crop emergence. Tillage operation is also defined as a procedure for breaking up soil; the soil failure depends largely upon the soil properties, tool parameters, and cutting speed. Also, it is one of the highest power-required processes of the agricultural production. In addition, the high cost of energy, makes the farmers to find alternative economic tillage methods.

Sahu and Rahman (2006) stated that it was found that no mathematical equation is available to predict the draft requirement of combination tillage implements. And also found that the draft of all the tillage implements increased with increase in soil compaction, depth and speed of operation.

Patil and Sheelavantar (2009) studied that land development, tillage and seedbed preparation together account for a major share of power utilization in the crop cycle. The implements used for seedbed preparation needs to be evaluated for maximum field capacity with reduced cost of operation. The implements for tillage operation usually pass the farm four times or more which causes soil compaction, increases cost of labour and energy.

2.2 Clod Crusher

Gupta and Yadav (1978) examined that the seedling emergence was fast under no rainfall conditions after sowing while in low rainfall intensity and high rainfall intensities, the emergence was lower and poorer due to soil crust formation of low and high strength in former and latter cases.

Awadhwal and Thierstein (1983) developed rolling type soil crust breaker. It was simple in construction. Soil crust could be broken easily by using crust breaker without any damage to crop seedlings. It could be manually operated in single row or multi row and also could be pulled by animal as well as by small tractor.

Chandegara (2003) developed an implement for tillage, sowing, interculturing arid digging operations in clay loam soils of West Gujarat. During the field testing, cost of cultivation was ₹ 2063.88/ha for local implements, while for this implement it was ₹ 1471.17/ha. Thus, this implement saved, ₹ 592.71/ha and time also. The hourly cost of a pair of bullock was ₹ 39.62.

Pannu et al. (2003) experimented four treatments namely control i.e. no crust formation; second crust formation but no crust breaking; third crust breaking with inclined bar; and fourth crusting breaking with vertical double bar type shovel in cotton crop. The crust was formed by applying irrigation after sowing of cotton. The plant germination count per meter row length was about 24 per cent of the control in case of crust formed soil. It was about 84 percent of control in case of crust broken by the implement using inclined bar shovel and about 76 per cent of control in case using vertical double bar type shovel after 7 days of sowing. The field capacity of the crust breaker was about 0.12 ha/h. Its cost of fabrication was about ₹ 500. The crust breaker solved the problem of crust formation.

Maheshwari et al. (2005) evaluated tractor-drawn cultivator-spiked clod crusher with planker. The cultivator-spiked clod crusher saved time 18.5, 23.47 and 15.60 percent compared to cultivator planker in soybean field, manually harvested paddy field and combine harvested paddy fields respectively. The total tractor hours saved with cultivator-clod crusher as compared to cultivator planker combination was about 1.43, 4.25 and 4.80 h/ha, which amounted to a saving of about ₹ 179, 531 and 600 per hectare at assumed tractor hiring cost of ₹ 125/h for complete seedbed preparation in soybean field (loam type light soil), manually harvested paddy field and combine harvested paddy fields (silty-clay-loam type heavy soil), respectively.

Ebubekir et al. (2006) evaluated the effects of different types of furrow openers and operation speed on soil properties and draft force. The experiment was conducted on a clay-silt textured soil using hoe, shoe and shovel type furrow openers with 2.02, 3.28 and 4.50 km/hr operation speeds respectively. After planting, soil penetration resistance increased with increasing operational speeds for each furrow opener type. The draft force requirement of furrow openers increased with operation speeds. The lowest soil penetration resistance, draft force and high percentage of emerged tuber seedling was found with shovel type furrow opener.

Mouazen et al. (2006) worked towards development of animal drawn tillage tools and to identify the areas having most potential for future improvement. With the recent development in farm technologies and mathematical modelling techniques supported by computer-based simulations, new methodologies in research are available to improve animal traction tillage implements. When adopted, these methodologies could significantly assist in optimizing the implement designs and operational conditions aiming at minimum draught requirement and best soil manipulation performance.

De Vita et al. (2007) reported that by ploughing with mouldboard plough, the bulk density of soil was reduced, through making the large of lumps and disarrange of soil and for the rotary plough, because of complete disruption the soil increased soil porosity and decreased the bulk density.

An animal-drawn wheeled tool-carrier with attachment of tools for tillage, seeding and intercultural was developed at IGKV, Raipur (C.G.). The unit consisted of main-frame, toolbar and wheels (pneumatic/iron wheels) with provisions for attachment of tools and lifting of tools on turns. This tool-carrier showed advantage in terms of higher command area (2.0-2.5 times) over conventional implements. The unit with attachments may cost ₹ 20,000. Its performance as work rate (ha/hr) for sowing, weeding and seed bed preparation was 0.10, 0.15, 0.10 compared to 0.03, 0.07, 0.10 by MB plough, seed drill, cultivar blade hoe respectively. The tool-carrier permitted higher command area per season (4-5 ha) (Anon., 2008).

Karthikeyan et al. (2009) studied various traditional tools used for agricultural operations by the farmers of Tamil Nadu. Agricultural tools were as old as Stone Age. Traditional agricultural tools were economical in terms of labour, money and time saving. These tools were made up of locally available materials like stones, wood, etc. Traditional tools could be operated easily without any special skills. The study was conducted in Coimbatore, Krode, Salem, Krishnagiri, Villupitrain, Dindigal, Madunti, Kovilpatty, Artippnkollai and Virudhunagar districts of Tamil Nadu.

Pacharne et al. (2009) developed a tractor drawn V blade harrow which consisted of a mild steel frame and a V shape blade fitted to the frame. The blade was strong and made up of high carbon steel. Due to its V shape its penetration in soil was easy which required 35 or more hp tractor. Study was conducted over 20 ha area with following results 0.46 ha/hr effective field capacity, 95 per cent field efficiency and 416.00 ₹ /ha cost of operation. It was reported 40 percent saving in labour cost, 40 percent field coverage, 3.78 per cent field efficiency, 95 per cent weeding efficiency. The V blade harrow was found very useful for removing weeds and grasses, clod crushing, uprooting and breaking the stubbles.

Mohammadhossein et al. (2012) concluded that intensive tillage practice requires multiplication of energy input in an agricultural production system. Energy requirement for seedbed preparation are important objectives of sustainable farming. The reduce tillage operation also known as conservation tillage operation require lesser energy efficiency for sustainable agriculture. The results showed that all treatments had no significant effect on wet forage corn yield.

2.3 Soil Physical Properties

2.3.1 Bulk density

The range in density required for optimum plant growth was unknown for most soils. Density lower than optimum reduces water holding capacity, and higher bulk density leads to poor aeration which may limit root extension (Cassel, 1982). Tillage generally tends to decrease the density and increase the total porosity of the surface soil (Croney and Coleman, 1954). At the same time, the soil just below the ploughed or tilled layer may become denser due to the stresses applied to that layer by tillage machinery. The pore space geometry produced in the surface soil is usually very unstable and changes of the pore geometry with time are common (Klute, 1982). Statistically significant differences in density changes by tillage have been recorded but the effects of this density change on plant growth and/or yields were not well understood (Flocker et al., 1960; Singh and Ghildyal , 1977).

Gill and Vanden Berg (1968) reported that soil physical properties included the soil water content (or moisture content), bulk density, texture, temperature, colour, and pore (void/ porosity) space. The soil moisture content, bulk density and soil texture affected mechanical behaviour and strength of a soil.

One soil physical property that is nearly always altered by tillage operations is bulk density. This has often been used as one measure of the effects of tillage practices. Density is a temporary condition that changes with time and rainfall. In field studies, density measurements exhibit both spatial and temporal variability (Cassel, 1982). Temporal variation in bulk density of freshly tilled, non-trafficked soil occurs due to shrinking and swelling of the soil (Berndt and Coughlan, 1976).

Bauder et al. (1981) observed that bulk density was lower in the plots prepared by mouldboard plough than those prepared by chisel plough and spring disk, and those with no tillage in the 0-10 cm layer.

Hillel (1982) reported that bulk density was nearly always altered by tillage operations. An ideal soil contains about 50 per cent solid particles and 50 per cent pore space by volume.

Some researchers have observed significant differences in soil bulk density under conventional and conservation tillage treatments (Dickey et al., 1983; Mulvaney and Paul, 1984), whereas other researchers (Shear and Moschler, 1969) found non-significant differences.

Core sampling has been used for measuring soil bulk density (Voorhees and Lindstorm, 1984). Undisturbed core samples have been used successfully for the determination of bulk density of undisturbed soil or soil which has settled to a firm condition. But, difficulties arise in determining the bulk density of freshly disturbed soil. Published bulk density values from tillage studies, based upon soil core samples, range from 1.0 to 1.7 g/cc (Buchele, 1961).

Singh and Panesar (1991) reported that the bulk density of a typical mineral soil was about 1.3 g/cc.

Buschiazzo et al. (1998) determined that the soil physical properties change resultant from soil tillage treatments could influence the yield level of grown crops. Aggregate size, moisture content, penetration resistance, and bulk density are important soil physical properties.

2.3.2 Soil strength

Values of penetration resistance at in situ field capacity, as measured by the cone penetrometer and reported as the cone index, range from zero in a subsoil slit to values >900 kPa in a tillage-induced pan. The Cone Index was defined as the force required to push a metal cone of specified geometry into the soil, divided by the base area of the cone. For proper interpretation of penetration resistance data, related soil physical properties data must be made available (Cassel, 1982). Hence, whenever penetration resistance measurements are taken, it is also necessary to collect soil water content and bulk density data. Penetration resistance generally increases with both bulk density and matric potential (Singh and Ghildyal, 1977).

Lindstrom et al. (1984) reported consistently greater penetration resistance of soils under conservation tillage than soils under conventional tillage. Another important parameter usually reported in tillage research was the measurement of soil strength (penetration resistance or cone index).

Hill (1990) observed that soil strength had minimal effect on root elongation unless the cone index value exceeds 400 kPa. Soil strength was shown to increase with increasing bulk density and decreasing soil matric potential, but not independently.

Singh and Panesar (1991) concluded that penetration resistance is a measure of soil strength and an indicator of how easily roots can penetrate into soil, and thus a measure of plant growth and crop yield.

2.3.3 Clod mean weight diameter

Allmaras et al. (1965) showed that the geometric mean diameter of aggregates in the row zone varies with the type of tillage and the type of soil.

Gupta and Larson (1982) told that the major reason for tillage is to create soil physical conditions that are conducive to good seed germination. Generally, this means desirable temperatures and favourable water and aeration conditions in the seed zone for a given plant species. Soil physical conditions, in turn, affect microbial activity, root growth, and other biological processes in the soil. During tillage, a part of the soil is broken into various size clods by the implements; depending upon the soil type, water content at the time of tillage, and stresses exerted by the tillage implements and equipment, soils are affected differently by the breakup processes.

Yassen et al. (1992) reported that with low soil moisture content the cohesion force between particles of soil is very strong and a lot of energy is needed during tillage. The ploughing depth is a very important and effective parameter. Increasing the ploughing depth raise the clod mean weight diameter (MWD).

Carman (1997) conducted an experiment on clay soil to understand effect of tillage system and found that penetration resistance was observed to decrease from 830 kPa to 333 kPa depending on tillage depth. Rotary tillage produced a smaller aggregate mean weight diameter (12.18 mm) than other tool and before tillage (16.94 mm). Bulk density reduced from 1.27 mg/m[3] to 0.985 mg/m[3].

2.4 Frame

Richy et al. (1961) stated the importance of the frame design. The design of frame is particularly important in field machines because they must be as light as possible to reduce the cost, soil compaction and propelling power but yet strong enough to resist the shocks due to rough ground or obstacles. With light weight construction, there is often considerable deflection and as a rule self—aligning bearings are necessary. Tubes or closed box sections are strongest for their weight and arc welding of connecting members make it possible to take full advantage of their strength both in torsion and bending.

Smith and Wilers (1977) have given some guidelines in fabrications of planter frame. The frame is usually made of mild steel angle, well braced and reinforced at the corners. It is necessary that the frame should be strong enough to prevent sagging and to hold the parts in alignment as all parts are connected to the frame. The axle is carried beneath the frame with the wheels on each end of it. The seed box is carried above the frame while furrow openers are suspended below.

Guruswami (1986) concluded that the tyne type cultivators were much better than that of conventional method of cultivation. Effective use of implement helped to improve moisture retention capacity of deep black soil and enhanced the crop yield when implement was used single or in combination.

Singh et al. (1997) concluded that it has been estimated about 16-25 percent of the total energy available for rural sector is used for agricultural production of which, about 20 percent energy is consumed only in seedbed preparation.

2.5 Economic Analysis

Possible savings depend on how much cultivation and, therefore, machinery use can be reduced. It is evident that every extra pass on the field means additional costs.

Witney (1988) reported that, the machine fixed costs include the interest on capital, which is invested in the machine. If the capital is borrowed, an expected inflation is included in the interest rates. A charge is made even if the capital is already owned, because money could be earned from an alternative investment. The costs when owned capital is invested are called opportunity cost of capital. Interest charges can be calculated as an equal yearly charge through the life of the machine. The real cost of borrowing can be reduced by both inflation and tax allowances.

Hunt (2001) and Witney (1988) reported that, machinery shelter increases resale value, as earlier surveys showed. Especially complex machinery, such as combine harvesters, is stored under a roof for at least part of the year. The shelter can be a roofed construction with open sides or enclosed building including workshop facilities. Depending on the type of the shelter, the annual storage costs are equal to 0.5% to 1% of the machine purchase price.

Godwin (2007) reported that the cost of tillage operation is a vital component to determine farm profitability and recent years have seen a significant move to reduce tillage operation. It was also observed that machinery costs are one of the key components distinguishing tillage systems. Those techniques which are less energy and time demanding can be advantageous to the farmers. More advanced, more efficient and thereby more expensive machines are being developed, but the yield targets also continue to increase. This and other factors in today’s agriculture, as higher prices for parts and energy together with decreasing product prices put more pressure on machine management to adopt smart policy of owning and using farm machinery. It is, therefore, important to fully exploit expensive high-output machinery as well as to monitor their costs to improve their performance.

CHAPTER - III

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This chapter deals with the procedure followed and materials used to achieve the objectives of the research problem. Developed implement was evaluated and its performance and comparison with existing implements was done. Design of implement was done by using Auto-CAD software. Materials and methods used for this project are noted sequentially in the subsequent text.

3.1 Location of Experiment

To fulfill objectives, the clod crusher attachment to cultivator was designed and developed in the department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. Field experiments were conducted on Research, Testing & Training Centre farm (RTTC), Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the academic year 2017-2018. Some laboratory experiments were conducted in the department of Farm Machinery and Power.

3.2 Conceptual Design of Clod Crusher Attachment to Cultivator

A clod crusher attachment to cultivator was developed to ensure timeliness in seed bed preparation. The clod crusher to cultivator consist of a frame with cultivator tines, spike tooth, framework to mount roller and three-point linkage unit.

The working principle behind the clod crusher attachment to cultivator which is having clod crusher as active unit behind implement and in front cultivator tines are attached as passive unit. Cultivator tines open furrow and spike tooth with roller cut and pulverize the soil at optimum condition for tillage. Clod crusher break the clod and converted into small size of the soil particles.

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Fig. 3.1: Conceptual model of clod crushing device with square spike

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Fig. 3.2: Conceptual model (side view) of clod crushing device with square spike

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Fig. 3.3: Conceptual model of clod crushing device with round spike

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Fig. 3.4: Conceptual model (side view) of clod crushing device with round spike

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Fig. 3.5: Conceptual model of clod crushing device with square spike (spiral arrangement)

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Fig. 3.6: Conceptual model (side view) of clod crushing device with square spike (spiral arrangement)

3.2.1 Design considerations

The components of clod crusher attachment to cultivator were designed and fabricated based on the parameters like functional requirements, engineering and general considerations.

(a) Assumptions considered in design

The assumptions made in the design of pulverizing attachment to cultivator are as follow:

1. Average speed of operation of tractor in the field was in range of 3 to 4 km/h during field testing.
2. Maximum soil resistance was considered as 0.75 kg /cm[2].
3. A seven-tine cultivator having spacing 18 cm and working depth 15 cm was considered.
4. Coefficient of friction in unploughed soil was taken 0.85.

(b) General considerations

It should be simple in design, safe in operation and have sufficient power requirement compatible with 15-20 hp tractor. It should cut the uniform furrow slice and converted into small size of soil particles. It should be cost wise cheaper as far as possible. At the same time, it should be strong enough and durable.

3.2.2 Assessment of draft and power requirement

The draft requirement of the tractor operated clod crusher attachment to cultivator would be estimated using factors related to implement and the type of soil. The specific soil resistance of medium black soil of the area was considered as 0.75 kg /cm[2] (Kepner et al., 2005).

Total working width of cultivator = No. of tine × tine spacing … (3.1)

= 7 × 18 = 126 cm = 1.26 m

Cross section area of 7 furrows = 126 × 15 = 1890 cm[2]

Maximum draft = 1890 × 0.75 = 1417 kg

Speed of travel = 4 km/h = 4000 m/h =1.11 m/s

The power required for the designed draft was estimated using formula suggested by (Kepner et al., 2005)

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3.2.3 Design of functional components of clod crusher attachment to cultivator

The detailed design of the components and different mechanisms were carried out. The machine consists of frame, cultivator tines, clod crusher. The design of following components was taken up:

3.2.3.1 Design of clod crusher

A clod crusher of a length of 135 cm and diameter of 21 cm was fabricated. Socket was fabricated to facilitate moment of axle unit and was connected with the main frame. Its weight was 50 kg and which of the clod crusher was increased by sand inside the roller. The total weight was increased from 50 kg to 150 kg with external weight, which was found suitable for crushing soil clods (Anon., 2017).

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3.3 Constructional Details

The mini tractor mounted clod crusher implement consisting parts as following.

3.3.1 Cultivator

Cultivator is much popular implement used as primary as well as secondary tillage operation and it requires relatively less power per meter of width in these conditions. Frame was made by 50 mm x 50 mm x 5 mm hollow square M.S. square section with sufficient strength to withstand various forces acting on it. It was used to extract the clod from the soil. Cultivator was taken from the college for the testing purpose. Cultivation is done to accomplish the following objectives:

1. To control weeds so that they do not compete with crops for water and nutrients.
2. To prevent surface evaporation losses.
3. To maintain the seedbed in a good tilth during the growth of the crop.
4. To achieve rapid infiltration of rainfall and adequate aeration.

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3.3.2 Clod crusher

3.3.2.1 Clod crusher with square spike

A clod crusher behind the cultivator was provided to break the clods and to develop the seed bed having fine land levelled tilth. It was made of 21cm diameter M.S. pipe. On pipe, 4 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm standard size square M.S. piece as peg. Each peg was welded 10 cm in one row and row to row distance was kept as 9 cm. 2-inch diameter M.S. pipe with 5 mm thickness was used as axle rod through 21 cm diameter of the clod crusher roller. Design of clod crusher with square spike is shown in Figure 3.7. Fabricated clod crusher with square spike and its specifications are in Plate 3.1 and Table 3.2 respectively.

Table 3.2 Design specifications of clod crusher with square spike

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Fig. 3.7: Top view of the clod crushing device with square spike

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Plate 3.1: Fabricated clod crushing device with square spike

3.3.2.2 Clod crusher with round spike

A clod crusher behind the cultivator was provided to break the clods and to develop the seed bed having fine land levelled tilth. It was made of 21cm diameter M.S. pipe. On pipe, 4 cm height and 1.5 cm standard size round M.S. piece as peg. Each peg was welded 10 cm in one row and row to row distance was kept as 9 cm. 2-inch diameter M.S. pipe with 5 mm thickness was used as axle rod through 21 cm diameter of the clod crusher roller. Design of clod crusher with round spike is shown in Figure 3.8. Fabricated clod crusher with round spike and its specifications are in Plate 3.2 and Table 3.3 respectively.

Table 3.3 Design specifications of clod crusher with round spike

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Fig. 3.8: Top view of the clod crushing device with round spike

Plate 3.2: Fabricated clod crushing device with round spike

[...]

Details

Pages
100
Year
2018
ISBN (eBook)
9783668924024
ISBN (Book)
9783668924031
Language
English
Catalog Number
v463060
Institution / College
Junagadh Agricultural University – College of Agril Engineering & Technology
Grade
Tags
development performance evaluation mini tractor mounted clod crusher

Authors

  • Chintan Ginoya (Author)

  • Dr. Rajvir Yadav (Author)

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Title: Development and Performance Evaluation of Mini Tractor Mounted Clod Crusher