Expanded Designer. Modern Eco-Design

Essay 2019 9 Pages

Design (Industry, Graphics, Fashion)


Expanded Designer

In connection with the complication of the world, the expansion of the information field of culture, not only the object-spatial medium of the human environment changes, but also the value-semantic and aesthetic parameters of its functioning. In the third millennium, the problems affecting the human environment were aggravated due to the growing environmental crisis, etc. However, at the same time, new opportunities have opened up in improving information systems and intercultural integration which is gaining the pace, that allow expanding the possibilities of transforming living space, finding more adequate ways of adapting a person in adverse conditions. Hence, modern human pays special attention to the form of arrangement of his life activity, which has received the name "design."

In recent years, the question of the essence of design and its role in contemporary culture is increasingly drawing interest of not only practical designers, but also sociologists, culturologists, philosophers, and other representatives of social and humanitarian knowledge. Design, expressing the 'project culture' of a post-industrial society, emphasizes the process of changing aesthetic criteria and improving the industrial form (Parsons 2015). Strengthening the role of modern design is associated with the growth of global problems, and its tasks depend on solving ecological, urban, ethnographic, humanistic problems of culture (Grant & Fox 2007).

In the theory of design activity, a significant place is given to the substantiation of new approaches in design. Modern technology is changing the usual forms of all types of human activity: labor, education, management, research, and also aesthetic. Namely, this kind of activity requires that the design should apply a fundamentally new approach to the transformation of the environment and the objective world. Changing forms of activity is also an activity that, by definition, must be conscious and responsible (Heller & Vienne 2003). Consideration of design as a world of activity, its products, conditions, and forms of organization, sheds light on the very nature of design and the changes that occur in it.

Since the 80s of the 20th century, design has been considered within the framework of a new, environmental, approach, which is based on designing not individual things, but elements of the reality surrounding human. A person is no longer just a consumer of a design product - he is included in the project himself, as an object of study and projecting. In the process of changing paradigms, the outlook on the entire world order changes (Whiteley 1997). The world is perceived not as a set of separate things, but as a subject-spatial environment. The properties of this environment are not reduced to the sum of the properties of the objects that make it up, but represent the result of a change in its state in time and space. The development of the environmental approach in design puts the focus on projectivity as a special quality of culture. The positions of environmental design are increasingly gravitating towards a wider cultural context. Design is considered as an active force of "gathering" the socio-cultural space (Koo 2016).

Thus, with the help of design, new values, norms, and meanings are formed in the cultural space of a society; issues of personality and individual freedom are raised; spatial orientations, actions, and forms of existence of each person and society as a whole are expanded.

Not only a change in the socio-cultural environment entails a change in design, but also design, in turn, also influences the development of society, in which the civic position of the designer is expressed. A designer, as a representative of a complex profession which includes project and artistic aggregates, a carrier of social consciousness, can take responsibility for the formation of the sociocultural environment of society. A designer creates a design of products for a human according to his needs, preferences, and tastes, determined entirely by the culture of society (Highmore 2008).

In the last third of the 20th century, design has become a global phenomenon of post-industrial society, covering new areas of project practice. Currently, the issue of design development is being considered along two lines: humanization and humanitarization. The first one is associated with the expansion of ecological horizons of design, while the second one is connected with the growth of interest in project culture observed throughout the world (Vermaas et al. 2008). At the beginning of the 21st century, design is the organization of a creative environment, i.e., a way to bridge the gap between technical civilization and spiritual culture, and design engineering is a way to harmonize human life in the urban environment (Frascara 2002). Especially, this provision concerns environmental design, which was formed in the context of postmodern ideology.

It should be especially noted that today the term "ecological design" is widely used both in the scientific literature and in everyday design practice. Ecological design represents a special sphere of life and project culture, associated not only with solving design problems, but, mainly, with solving sustainable development problems and the need to purposefully change the design culture according to humanistic and ecological values, shaping the ecological culture of society, and motivation to harmonious coexistence with nature by means and methods of design (Palazzo & Steiner 2011). Ecological design is the direction and paradigm of projecting, the purpose of which is to harmonize relations between society and the environment, to shape the world view, consumer and aesthetic requirements of a person according to the possibilities of nature, ensure its preservation and minimize harmful effects at all stages of a design object’s life.

Socio-cultural role of design is manifested in the function of goal-setting, reflecting the relationship of humanitarian and technical culture in shaping the image of the subject and spiritual environment. From this point of view, the boundaries of research in the field of design should be expanded from highly specialized to fundamental - socio-philosophical and culturological. It should be noted that aesthetic and ecological ideals are historically changeable and dynamic. The industrial landscape with smoking pipes and powerful reinforced concrete buildings of plants and factories fit into the aesthetics of the "conquest of nature" (Palazzo & Steiner 2011). It did not cause environmental concerns either - it was believed that the resources of nature are limitless and the regenerative forces are enormous. Everything was subordinated to the goal of achieving social well-being with the help of industrial power. Nowadays, such or similar landscape causes great ecological concern and aesthetic rejection, aversion. In the projecting, along with the principle of goal-setting, the principle of value orientations is increasingly involved. The axiological component gradually becomes the center of project activity, determines aesthetic preferences and guidelines, and participates in the formation of artistic taste (Anker 2010). Design as one of the ways of spiritual and object reflection and learning of the world is forced to take into account environmental values.

Below, there are some examples of ecological design.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

PicNYC table. Designer H. Cornelissen.

Source: Architect, Web. https://archinect.com/firms/project/45558295/picnyc-table/90842531

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Favela armchair. Designers Fernando & Humberto Campana.

Source: Scandium. Web. https://www.skandium.com/miniature-favela-chair

An interesting approach involves the replacement of metal or plastic with plant material, as in the Biomega bicycle of R. Lovegrove, made using bamboo, which is essentially an inexhaustible source of wood (illustration below).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Biomega bike. Designer R. Lovegrove.

Source: Pinterest. Web. https://www.pinterest.ru/pin/230950287111830505/



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expanded designer modern eco-design




Title: Expanded Designer. Modern Eco-Design