Water Re-use in the Food Processing Sector
Re-use and Recovery of Process Water Streams in the Food and Beverage Industry: a Comparison of Guidelines and Regulations in Different Countries
Presentation slides 2018 11 Pages
This presentation is mainly focused on water recovery, national and international water re-use regulations and guidelines and their comparison for the food and beverage industry. Water treatment process is one of the integral steps to achieve desired water quality targets for the water re-use applications. Adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system and multiple-barrier approach play vital role to achieve the concept fit for purpose based on end-use application target. Every food processing unit is unique, so that proper tailoring of water treatment and system controlling all water re-use activities are highly essential. European regulation EC-852/2004 dealing foodstuff hygiene says that water re-use in food processing facility is possible to re-use water to be used for processing or as a food ingredient unless any risk of contamination. Current European regulations and guidelines of water re-use in the food processing sector are not stringent. Initially, they set high water quality standards as that of drinking water quality requirements. The Government of the United States has no federal standards for water re-use in the food processing sector. State authorities establish certain requirements only on the basis of case studies. FSIS adopted a general approach rather than product specific for the water re-use applications which involve several aspects such as zonation and general risk status of a specific zone. Codex Alimentarius commission proposed general and product specific water re-use guidelines for meat & poultry, fruits & vegetables and dairy processing facilities. According to ILSI, it is not possible to re-use water from all the sources in a food manufacturing unit and the applications provided by the ILSI are limited in nature. ILSI says that a company has to follow product specific quality parameters of water. Guidelines of the ILSI do not emphasize on blackwater re-use in the food processing industry. NSW guidelines only focus on applications of water re-use in the food business. The Australian and WHO guidelines are more or less similar in the principles used and approach is holistic for potable re-use applications. Responsibility fragmentation is one of the most critical problems prevents Indian and Middle East nations from taking initiatives for food industry water re-use practical applications.