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Re-use and Recovery of Process Water Streams in the Food and Beverage Industry

A Comparison of Guidelines and Regulations of the Arabian Peninsula

Master's Thesis 2018 145 Pages

Food Technology

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Contents

Abbreviations

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Boxes

1. Introduction

2. Dissertation Purpose and Aim

3. Problems and Challenges

4. Drinking water- Definition

5. Water Re-use Terminology

6. Water scarcity and Water Crisis
6.1. Water Scarcity- Definition
6.2. Water Scarcity Classifications
6.2.1. Physical water scarcity
6.2.2. Economic water scarcity
6.3. Water Crisis and its factors
6.4. Water scarcity responds options and major policy domain
6.5. Water losses reduction in food chain

7. Quality of Recovered Water
7.1. Physical and Chemical Quality of Water for Indirect Food Contact Surfaces
7.2. Microbiological Quality of Water for Indirect Food Contact Surfaces
7.3. Microbiological Water Quality for No Product Contact

8. Water Quality Requirements for Re-used Water
8.1. Quality of Water for Intended use
8.2. Quality of Water for Direct Food Contact Surfaces
8.3. Quality of water for Indirect Food Contact Surfaces

9. HACCP for Recovered Water

10. Guidelines, Regulations, Legislations and Standards for Reused Water in Food Processing Sector
10.1. Water Re-use Guidelines of ILSI
10.2. Legislation of Potable Water
10.3. European Legislation for Water Re-use and Re-used Water
10.4. WHO Guidelines for Re-used Water
10.5. US EPA Guidelines for Re-used Water
10.5.1. Municipal Sewer Ordinances
10.5.2. Municipal Charges
10.5.3. UK Water Reduction
10.5.4. Benchmarking
10.5.5. Best Available Techniques (BAT)
10.6. Australian Water Guidelines for Water Recycling
10.6.1. Australian Recycling and Re-use of Water for Processing of Red Meat and Guidelines
10.7. NSW Food Authority Principles and Guidelines for Re-used Water
10.8. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines for Re-used Water (FAO & WHO)
10.9. US FDA Regulations for Re-used Water
10.9.1. FSIS Guidelines for Water Re-use (9 CFR 416.2 & FSIS 416.2 (g))
10.10. EHS Guidelines for Water Re-use
10.11. Indian Central and State Government Regulations for Re-used Water
10.12.1. The United Arab Emirates (UAE)
10.12.2. Oman
10.12.3. Saudi Arabia
10.12.4. Bahrain
10.12.5. Qatar
10.12.6. Kuwait

11. Comparison and Discussion
11.1. Comparison and Discussion between Australian and WHO Water Re-use Guidelines
11.2. Comparison and Discussion between CAC and NSW Water Re-use Guidelines
11.3. Comparison and Discussion between CAC and FSIS Water Re-use Guidelines

12. Conclusion

XIII. References

Article I.Acknowledgement

First and foremost, thanks to Almighty, the power of wisdom and the warehouse of knowledge provided me a wonderful opportunity to formulate and complete my thesis successfully and satisfactorily. My supreme belief in him opens up the door for continued blessings and enabled me to unlock essential and most relevant facts in a continuous phase to create inevitable and most innovative ideas; eventually, they became integral components of my final thesis.

I would like to express my ever sincere and profound gratitude to my Supervisor, Professor and (Head of Section) Susanne Knøchel, Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, persistently steered me in the right direction by providing invaluable guidance throughout my thesis work. I was greatly inspired by her vision, motivation, sincerity and immense knowledge.

I thank to the University of Copenhagen profoundly to be a part of the international prestigious institution. My dream is fulfilled through this thesis so that I can be a part of you always forever.

It is ever impossible to neglect mentioning Danish Ministry for Research, Innovation and Education for their huge contribution of financial assistance. My special and heartily acknowledgments to the Danish Ministry for Research, Innovation and Education awarded the Danish Innovation Scholarship under the project title “Safe Re-use of Water in the Food Processing Industry” for completing my Master’s program as well as its thesis program. Scholarship is one of the main and only reasons to pursue a Master’s program in the University of Copenhagen. I am highly indebted to the ministry and honored to be one of the recipients of this scholarship which provided me all sorts of fiscal backing for the entire program.

Last, but not the least, I would like to thank my pappa Antony Alosious, my mum Philomina Antony. It is impossible to do my thesis without their endless support and persistent encouragement throughout the thesis period. At this moment, I have to emphasize on how my mother support me immensely through her everlasting love, enormous care and irresistible passion for adapting a student like me in a foreign country, cultural differences and new environment even without her physical presence. I say a big salute to my mum respectfully. At the same time, I would like to say thanks to my wife Ancy Gain and my son Iyan Rony. They are the triggering force always steering me in a right direction for accomplishing anything in my life including this thesis. I also say thanks to rest of my family members and friends, without their encouragement and support, my entire work might be futile and unattainable.

RONY ANTONY

Article II.Abstract

This thesis is mainly focused on water recovery, national and international water re-use regulations and guidelines and their comparison for the food and beverage industry. Water treatment process is one of the integral steps to achieve desired water quality targets for the water re-use applications. Adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system and multiple-barrier approach play vital role to achieve the concept fit for purpose based on end-use application target. Every food processing unit is unique, so that proper tailoring of water treatment and system controlling all water re-use activities are highly essential. European regulation EC-852/2004 dealing foodstuff hygiene says that water re-use in food processing facility is possible to re-use water to be used for processing or as a food ingredient unless any risk of contamination. Current European regulations and guidelines of water re-use in the food processing sector are not stringent. Initially, they set high water quality standards as that of drinking water quality requirements. The Government of the United States has no federal standards for water re-use in the food processing sector. State authorities establish certain requirements only on the basis of case studies. FSIS adopted a general approach rather than product specific for the water re-use applications which involve several aspects such as zonation and general risk status of a specific zone. Codex Alimentarius commission proposed general and product specific water re-use guidelines for meat & poultry, fruits & vegetables and dairy processing facilities. According to ILSI, it is not possible to re-use water from all the sources in a food manufacturing unit and the applications provided by the ILSI are limited in nature. ILSI says that a company has to follow product specific quality parameters of water. Guidelines of the ILSI do not emphasize on blackwater re-use in the food processing industry. NSW guidelines only focus on applications of water re-use in the food business. The Australian and WHO guidelines are more or less similar in the principles used and approach is holistic for potable re-use applications. Responsibility fragmentation is one of the most critical problems prevents Indian and Middle East nations from taking initiatives for food industry water re-use practical applications. Middle East nations promote water re-use, but the reclaimed water is commonly re-used for irrigation and industrial cooling application. Here the emphasized global food industry water re-use guidelines need to be provided proper insights to set the degree of potability based on their requirement for direct, indirect and non-contact product water re-use applications. Many of the countries set higher water re-use quality standards that of potable water needed normally due to several reasons such as social, political and public acceptability factors despite the fact that WHO provided minimal requirements of potable water quality standards for minimal or indirect product contact water re-use applications. From these circumstances, there is a necessity to reinvestigate the present water re-use regulations and standards so that the findings may generate scope for future amendment of regulations and for the formulation of less stringent water re-use standards in the food industry.

Article IV.Abbreviations

ADWG- Australian Drinking Water Regulation

ADWQS & R-Abu Dhabi Water Quality Standards and Regulations

ADWS- Australian Drinking Water Supplies

AHMC- Australian Health Ministers’ Conference

AMPC- The Australian Meat Processor Corporation

APWA- American Public Work Association

AQIS- Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service

ARWA- Advanced Regulatory Wiki Application

AWRG- Australian Water Recycling Guidelines

BAT- The Best Available Techniques

BOD- Biological Oxygen Demand

CA- The Comprehensive Assessment of Water in Agriculture

CAC- Codex Alimentarius Commission

CCFH- Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

CDH- California Department of Health

CDM- Camp Dresser & McKee Inc.

CFR- Code of Federal Regulations

CFU- Colony Forming Units

CGIAR- Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research

CIP- Clean-In-Place

COD- Chemical Oxygen Demand

COMSATS- Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South (Pakistan)

CPCB- Central Pollution Control Board

CPHEEO- Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization

CRADA - Co-operative Research and Development Agreement

CSWRCB- California State Water Resources Control Board

CWC- Central Water Commission

DAF- Dissolved Air Flotation System

DAFF- Development of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

DALYs- Disability Adjusted Life Years

DAWR- Department of Agriculture and Water Resources

DEAP- Directorate of Environmental Assessment and Planning

DEWS- Department of Energy and Water Supply

DGSM- The Directorate General for Specifications and Measurements

DPR- Direct Potable Re-use

DW- Drinking Water

DWE- Department of Water and Energy

DWI- Drinking Water Inspectorate

DWQS- Drinking Water Quality Standards

EA- Environment Agency

EC- The European Commission

EEC- The European Economic Community

EED- Exposure Evaluation Divisions

EHS- Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines International Finance Corporation

EIA- Environment Impact Assessment

EIP- The European Innovation Partnership

EIPW- The European Innovation Partnership on Water

EMS- Environmental Management System

EPA- Environment Public Authority

EPD- Environmental Protection Department

EPHC- Environmental Protection and Heritage Council

EPR- Environmental Permitting Regulations

EU- The European Union

F & B- Food and Beverage

FAO- Food and Agriculture Organization

FC- Fecal Coliforms

FDA- Food and Drug Administration

FSIS- Food Safety and Inspection Service

GCCS- Gulf Cooperation Council Countries Standards

GDWQ- Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality

GER- General Regulations on the Environment

GoI- Government of India

GSMO- Standardization and Metrology Organization for Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

GWI- Global Water Intelligence

HACCP- Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

HPC- Heterotrophic Plate Count

HSE- Health Safety and Environment

IDF- International Dairy Federation

IE- Ion Exchange

IEC- International Electro-technical Commission

IED- Industrial Emissions Directive

IFC- International Finance Corporation

ILSI- International Life Sciences Institute

ILSIRF- The International Life Sciences Institute Research Foundation

IPPC- Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

IPR- Indirect Potable Re-use

ISO- The International Organization for Standardization

IWMI- International Water Management Institute

IWRM- Integrated Water Resource Management

KD- Kuwaiti Dinar

KEPA- Kuwait Environment Public Authority

LNNF- Lion Nathan National Foods

MAC- Maximum Allowable Concentrations

MAF- The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries

MAVs- Maximum Acceptable Values

MBR- Membrane Bioreactor

MDPS- Ministry of Development, Planning and Statistics

MED UWI- Mediterranean European Water Initiative

MEPA- Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration

MEW- Ministry of Electricity and Water

MF- Microfiltration

MME- Ministry of Municipality and Environment

MMRA- Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs

MPN- Most Probable Number

MRMEWR- The Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Environment and Water Resources

MWE- Ministry of Water and Electricity

MWR- The Ministry of Water Resources

N- Nitrogen

N/A- Not Applicable

NHMRC- National Health and Medical Research Council

NIEA- The Northern Ireland Environment Agency

NRDC- National Resources Defense Council

NRMMC- Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council

NSPRC- National Standards of the People’s Republics of China

NSW- New South Wales

NTU- Nephelometric Turbidity Unit

O&G- Oil and Grease

O&M- Operation and Maintenance

OSHA- Occupational Safety & Health Administration

P- Phosphorous

RCP- Recommended International Code of Practice

RO- Reverse Osmosis

RRR- Resource Recovery and Re-use

RSB- Regulation and Supervision Bureau

RWMP- Recycled Water Management Plan

SAR- Sodium Absorption Ratio

SASO- Saudi Arabian Standards Organization

SBR- Sequencing Batch Reactor

SEPA- The Scottish Environment Protection Agency

SEU- Sohar Environmental Unit

SI- Statutory Instruments

SL. NO.- Serial Number

SS- Suspended Solids

STP- Sewage Treatment Plant

TC- Total Coliforms

TDS- Total Dissolved Solids

TKN- Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen

TOC- Total Organic Carbon

TPC- Total Plate Count

TSE- Treated Sewage Effluent

TSS- Total Suspended Solids

UAE- The United Arab Emirates

UASB- Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket

UF- Ultrafiltration

UK- The United Kingdom

UN- Water-The United Nations World Water

UNC- The University of North Carolina

UNDESA- United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

UNESCO- United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization

UNU- United Nations University

US DHHS- The United States Department of Health and Human Services

USAID - U.S. Agency for International Development

USGS- The United States Geological Survey

UV- Ultraviolet

UWWTD- The Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive

WFD- Water Framework Directive

WG PoM- Water Guidance Program of Measures

WHO- World Health Organization

WLE- Water, Land and Ecosystem

WPCF MOP No. -Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Manual of Practice Number

WRC- Water Resources Council

WRRI- The University of North Carolina Water Resources Research Institute

WSAA- Water Services Association of Australia

WSP- Water Safety Plan

WWAP- World Water Assessment Program

WWDR- World Water Development Report

WWTP- Wastewater Treatment Plant

UNITS

cu. Ft.- cubic feet

L- Liter

M[3]/capita- Cubic meter per capita

m[3]d-[1]- cubic meter per day

mg/l- milligram per liter

Mm[3]- Million cubic meter

ppm- parts per million

List of Tables

Table 1.1. List of Published Investigations/Practices for Water Re-use in the Food Processing industry

Table 3.1. Food Industry Water Re-use Implementation- Issues, Drivers, Problems, Solutions and Challenges

Table 4.1. Definition of ‘Drinking water.’

Table 5.1. Definitions of Water Re-use with respect to Various Authorities

Table 6.4.1. Options of Water Scarcity Response through Major Policy Domain

Table 7.1.1. Various Process Water Re-use Options in the Food Processing Factories

Table 7.1.2. As per WHO GDWQ (4th Edition), Water Quality Guidelines for Potable Water: Parameters of Chemical Quality for Minimal or Indirect Product Contact

Table 7.2.1. The Recommended Guidance for Minimal or Indirect Product Contact Plant Applications

Table 7.3.1. Microbiological Quality of Water for No Product Contact

Table 7.3.2. Types of Water- Monitoring and Verification within the Food Processing Factory

Table 9.1. Consideration of Topics in HACCP/WSP Plan for Water Re-use

Table 10.2.1. Comparison of Drinking Water Quality Parameters of Different Countries

Table 10.3.1. Standard References of Water Re-use in the European Countries

Table 10.3.2. Criteria for Water Safety Standards

Table 10.4.1. Safe Drinking Water Framework of the WHO

Table 10.5.1.1. Municipal Sewer Model Ordinances for Wastewater Discharge

Table 10.5.2.3.1. Major Constituents and their Concentration in Normal Wastewater

Table 10.5.3.1. Commercial incentives and Legal Obligations for UK food and drink businesses for employing water reduction technologies and procedures

Table 10.5.4.1. Benchmarks of Water Use in Dairy and Meat Sector

Table 10.5.5.1. Guidance of Food and Drink Sector – Best Available Techniques (BAT)

Table 10.5.5.2. Sector Specific Indicative Best Available Techniques for Operator Concern

Table 10.6.1. Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling

Table 10.6.2. Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling (Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling, 2008)

Table 10.6.1.1. Recycling and Re-use of Water for Processing of Red Meat and Guidelines

Table 10.6.1.1.1. Non-potable Re-use Applications in Meat Processing

Table 10.6.1.2.1. Water Quality Parameters for Direct Contact and Non-Contact Water Re-use Applications

Table 10.7.1. NSW Guiding Principles for Re-used Water

Table 10.7.2. NSW Guidelines for Re-Used Water

Table 10.7.3. NSW Guideline Values for Water Supply

Table 10.7.4. Validation and Verification Monitoring- Minimum Requirements (Water Re-use of Direct Contact with Food or Food Contact Surfaces

Table 10.7.5. Operational Monitoring- Minimum Requirements (Water Re-use of Direct Contact with Food or Food Contact Surfaces

Table 10.7.6. Operational Monitoring- Minimum Requirements (Water Re-use- Non-food Contact Surfaces

Table 10.8.1. CAC General and Product Specific Water Re-use Guidelines

Table 10.9.1.2.1. Microbial Plan for Chill water Re-use

Table 10.9.1.2.2. Microbial Plan for Cook water Re-use

Table 10.9.1.3.1. Microbial Plan for Chiller Over-flow water Re-use

Table 10.9.1.4.1. Microbial Plan for Compressor or Condenser water Re-use

Table 10.9.1.5.1. Microbial Plan for Water Re-use to Flume Chicken Paws/Feet

Table 10.9.1.6.1. Microbial Plan for Re-use of Water for Washing Poultry Cages, Livestock Pens, Trucks, Cages, etc.

Table 10.9.1.8.1. Water Re-use Safety Parameters Required for End-use (Adopted from EPA)

Table 10.11.1. Indian water Use

Table 10.11.2. Standards of Water Quality for Re-used water with respect to various countries and comparison with Indian Standards

Table 10.11.3. Indian Water Re-use Policy Frame-works

Table 10.12.1. GCC Water Parameters

Table 10.12.2. Water Usage in GCC sector-wise

Table 10.12.3. Waste Water Usage in GCC sector-wise

Table 10.12.4. Available Regulations for the Treatment and Re-use of Waste Water in GCC

Table 10.12.1.1.1. Sanitary Quality Parameters of Recycled Water in Abu Dhabi

Table 10.12.1.1.2. Microbial Quality Parameters of Recycled Water in Abu Dhabi

Table 10.12.1.1.3. Trace Elements Quality Parameters of Recycled Water in Abu Dhabi

Table 10.12.1.1.4. Salinity Quality Parameters of Recycled Water in Abu Dhabi

Table 10.12.1.1.5. Approved Water Re-use of Reclaimed Water for Various Applications and Public Standards in Abu Dhabi

Table 10.12.1.2.1. Dubai Minimum Standards of Treatment

Table 10.12.2.1. OS. 8/2012 (Omani Standards) Versus WHO GDWQ, 2011, Chemical Quality Standards’ Differences for Drinking Water

Table 10.12.2.2. Microbial Requirements of Drinking water as per Omani Standard No. 8, 1978

Table 10.12.2.3. Omani Standards of Waste Water

Table 10.12.2.4. Sludge Re-use in Agriculture (Settings for Application to Land) in Oman

Table 10.12.2.5. Re-use of Waste Water; A-1 & A-2 Standards and Area of Applications in Oman

Table 10.12.3.1. SAS. 2000 (Saudi Standards) Vs. WHO. 2011. (For Un-bottled Drinking Water Quality Standards)

Table 10.12.3.2 . Maximum Allowable limits of contaminants for Restricted and Unrestricted Types of Irrigation Based on MMRA. 2003 & MWE. 2006 in Saudi Arabia

Table 10.12.3.3 . Treatment, Re-use and Disposal of Waste Water- Saudi Aramco Standards

Table 10.12.3.4 . Waste Water Treatment Requirements and Permitted Use in Saudi Arabia

Table 10.12.4.1 . Drinking Water Quality Specifications in the Kingdom of Bahrain in Comparison with the WHO Drinking Water Quality Specifications

Table 10.12.4.2 . Quality Parameters of Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) for the Unrestricted Re-use Applications in Bahrain

Table 10.12.5.1 . Qatar Environment Ministry Standards of Treated Waste Water for Irrigation and Landscape Application

Table 10.12.6.1 . Irrigation- Waste water Re-use Standards by KEPA in Kuwait

List of Figures

Figure 6.4.1. Options of Water Scarcity Response are placed within a Context of Broader Policy

Figure 9.1. A HACCP Plan Scheme for Food Processing Wastewater Reclamation for Re-using within the Food Sector

Figure 10.3.1. The European Innovation Partnership (EIP) Water Governance Structure

Figure 10.4.1. WHO Guideline framework and supporting information for safe drinking water

Figure 10.11.1. Sector-wise Water Utilization in India in 2010

Figure 10.11.2. Source-wise Water Utilization in India in 2010

List of Boxes

Box 6.1. Definition of Water Scarcity

Box 10.2.1. International Regulations for Potable (Drinking) Water

Box 10.3.1. Member State Guidelines for Reused Water in European Countries

Box 10.5.1. Definition of Sewer Ordinance

Box 10.5.5.1. Definition of Best Available Techniques

Box 10.6.1. Drinking Water Definition and AWRG (Australian Water Recycling Guidelines and ADWG (Australian Drinking Water Guidelines) Guidelines differences in Australia

Box 10.12.2.1. The Directorate General for Specifications and Measurements (DGSM) information in Oman

1. Introduction

Water is a fundamental element in food manufacturing and production in the F & B sector, as well as, sustaining of life. Water is an inevitable ingredient in the F & B industries, and it is mainly used for washing of raw material, cleaning of equipment, utensils and floors, and transportation purpose. Water can also be used for different purposes like cooling of refrigerators and heating of boilers. Food manufactures use process water as an ingredient within the food, and also for direct and indirect food contact applications (Poretti, 1990). One of the serious issues concerns with water is the water scarcity. According to the changes in people life styles, water consumption rate is escalating and there is a requirement to conserve water in a sustainability point of view. Water re-use is one of the remedies to address this problem. Regulator’s initiatives and public perception and concept of water re-use on food material have changed recently in a positive way in many countries to accept treated water on food and several strategies are adopted to address water scarcity, crisis and stress. Water optimization and wastewater characterization are important processes which are required for re-used water for meeting water quality specifications. An alternative source of water has to be identified besides normal water supply. For that water recovery may compensate the higher amount of water consumption and it can complement to food production business.

Water management is an essential aspect with respect to industries, humanity, and the environment (NRDC, 2013). Identification of risk is not only the process to improve the efficiency of water management, but minimum consumption and conservation of water through strategic approach are the essential requirements for the future use (NRDC, 2013; UNESCO, 2012). Hence, international supply chain leaders could harmonize dealing water within an integrated framework that embraces the application of several facts from a multi-stakeholder and multi-discipline cooperate methodology. Water is a highly valuable resource for the sustainability of businesses, societies, and the environment (UNDESA, 2014). Water is an indispensible component in the production of food, beverages, health and sanitation, as well as for the sustainability as a major production support for many factories in the F & B industries (UNDESA, 2014). For encouraging uninterrupted and sustainable production of water, FAO has identified restrictions in the control of water connected to satisfying best management practices (FAO; 2012a). UNESCO has also identified the significance of satisfaction of customer/consumer in relation to efficiency and conservation of water through incentive programs (UNESCO, 2012). Efficiency of water management is vital in F & B industries. Adoption and implementation of better management practices and sustainable technologies is crucial for circumventing the scarcity of fresh water (Von Korff et al., 2012). Policy formulation is an integral step to address water in the process of management of water (UNDP, 2013).

Integrated water resource management (IWRM) is an idea that anticipates the response from multiple perspectives to enable the decision-making process connected to water management. One serious characteristic of the integrated water resource management idea is to emphasize on planning, controlling, and developing novel water guidelines, regulations and procedures to address evolving complexities among different operators in a cooperative mode (Global Water Partnership, 2010).

Water, energy and chemical consumptions are common place in the food processing sector for cleaning equipment and utensils, and for the food processing lines. Pre-sanitation and post-sanitation processes need adequate amount of water as far as product safety, human health and hygiene factors are concerned. A multi-criteria approach is required to achieve quality and efficiency of the process, product and water management strategies for this type of complex system (Piepiorka-Stepuk et al., 2015).

In a food industry, water re-use is applicable; however what extent it is possible to apply re-used water on direct food or food contact surfaces is further questionable. There is little information and publications related to water re-use in the food sector (Palumbo et al., 1997). Process water may be re-used for some general applications like flushing of toilet, washing of floor, extinguishing fires and other peripherals unless those water come in direct or indirect contact with food or food contact surfaces (Katsuyama, 1979). As per the European directive 98/83/EC, process water must meet certain highest standards for food related applications (Directive 98/83/EC, 1998). Hence, applicability of water re-use by recovered water after reconditioning in a food processing unit is one of the greatest challenges as far as global regulations are concerned (Casani & Knøchel, 2002).

Table 1.1. List of Published Investigations/Practices for Water Re-use in the Food Processing industry.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2. Dissertation Purpose and Aim

This thesis is meant to provide an oversight of the current international regulations and guidelines, as well as national guidelines, and their comparisons within the food processing sector. “Australian guidelines for recycling and re-use of water in the red meat processing” is another highlight of this thesis, and the guidelines specially focusing on the red meat processing industry. Water is one of the essential natural resources under scarce conditions predominantly in the arid regions. Many of the food processing factories require huge amount of water and water utilization rate is high to meet water demand for various pre-processing and processing operations in the food processing sector. If water can be re-used through some mechanisms, then it would be highly beneficial both economically and environmentally. Water re-use can be applied with respect to various legislations, regulations and guidelines which may be either national or international and an institution can operate water re-use process only by means of those stipulated laws and regulations supported by law by the authority of particular country. Food processing company having a future consideration for water re-use process can explore sufficient information on various regulations, guidelines and their comparisons so that company can adopt most essential scientific and technical measures to meet certain demands with respect to the regulations. Guidelines enlighten a way to approach their goal more satisfactorily. This thesis is meant for any food processing and beverage companies who wish to implement water re-use applications because not only global and local regulations and guidelines, but most available scientific and technical water treatment aspects are also covered. This document may be used as a reference for the food processors, food processing related personnel, researching people within the food sector and consumers.

3. Problems and Challenges

One of the major problems faced during this thesis formulation was either limited accessibility of data or lack of information concerned with regulations and legislations from many of the countries since water re-use in the food processing sector is either not implemented or on the way of implementation, or under research.

Many of the countries lacking specialized government panels and authoritative department regarding water re-use.

Some of the countries in the Middle East, are highly focused on industrial water re-use but the part of water re-use in the food processing sector is almost negligible either because of lack of expertise of Governing authorities or because of no well-defined or lack of regulatory frameworks. In the middle East, they mostly carry out sanitary wastewater re-use mainly for irrigation purpose.

Responsibility fragmentation is one of the serious problems for initiating water re-use applications in the food sector which is predominating in India and Middle East nations.

Most of the international guidelines are more or less general than specific and an establishment need to further investigate and customize water treatment process and applications based on process and end-product applications.

Many of the documents dealing about water re-use in the food processing industry explain the water quality requirements of the re-use water, but the water re-use criteria and treatment criteria information for the process water are very limited.

Many of the guidelines have certain similarities and differences in their approach dealing with different principles and water re-use terminologies. Definitions of same terminologies by different countries are sometimes looked to have slight variations when comparing those terminologies for some relevant information. So some of the implications are insufficient which prevents the dissertation to cater proper guidance more precisely and uniquely. The term reclaimed water is used instead of recycled water and no distinctions between these terms are noticed in the WHO guidelines. But in the Australian guidelines, the terms recycled, reclaimed and re-used water are clearly defined.

Wastewater generated from bathing, laundry and dish washing process is termed as Greywater which does not cover toilet water. Some countries do not consider the wastewater from the kitchen as greywater. Based on Abu Dhabi regulations of Recycled Water and Biosolids, Greywater means Wastewater obtained exclusively from bathhouses, showers, hand washing sinks and domestic laundries.

Water deteriorated with human faecal waste is considered as blackwater which is not permissible for water re-use due to the presence of potential microbial contaminants. However none of the regulations clearly highlighting about animal faecal matter because it has proven that animal faeces also contains potential pathogenic micro-organisms which can greatly affect meat products when animal undergoes evisceration process. All the guidelines provide paramount importance to blackwater rather than animal waste water. It can be good at providing equal importance and control measures for both the cases related to water re-use for the health and safety of the consumers concerned.

Microbiological standards are set on the basis of public health. Most international microbiological standards are health based standards. In addition to the health based targets, public, political and technical factors need to be considered for developing microbial standards which may improve public acceptance, political support and technology support (technology specific microbiology studies) for the acceptability, workability and efficacy of innovative water re-use ideas and their implementations.

The Government of the United States has no federal standards for water re-use in the food processing sector. State authorities establish certain requirements only on the basis of case studies.

US EPA guidelines developed in 2004 only deal about waste water re-use from municipal sources and not for food industry water re-use.

Australian water recycling guidelines are highly technical and comprehensive.

According to ILSI, it is not possible to re-use water from all the sources in a food manufacturing unit and the applications provided by the ILSI are limited in nature. Guidelines do not emphasize on blackwater re-use in the food processing industry.

Limited case-studies and scientific publications of water re-use in the food sector may be some of the reasons which encumber the wide applications of water re-use, and their implementations in this sector. Researching options for water re-use are limited because of hygiene aspects and public concern about hygiene.

Current European water re-use standards are flexible. Even though, considering hygiene aspects, people are fear of accepting other standards which are less stringent than potable water quality standards. Lack of Public acceptance due to limited awareness program is also a reason at the same time.

Convincing regulatory authorities for the implementation of water re-use in the food industry that will not create problems related to hygiene and safety is a great challenge. Lots of research work and technical and technological data availability is essential to support water re-use projects with the consideration of adequate hygiene requirements.

Limited wastewater characterizations, lack of adequate technical and technological information, absence of better quality control for the treatment processes, insufficient guidelines for better water re-use practices are the other challenges.

Social and political factors may be some of the bottlenecks of many of the countries for food industry water re-use implementation on direct/indirect product contact applications.

Table 3.1. Food Industry Water Re-use Implementation- Issues, Drivers, Problems, Solutions and Challenges (Casani et al., 2005).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

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4. Drinking water- Definition

Drinking Water or Potable Water is defined almost similarly, but have some differences with respect to various nations. Globally, designated authorities and institutions define Drinking Water after focusing on its safety aspects, health risks, hazard control and quality parameters. Various definitions of Drinking Water are discussed on a global perspective.

Table 4.1. Definition of ‘Drinking water’,

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As per the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (NHMRC–NRMMC, 2004), the definition of drinking water is water intended primarily for human consumption, either directly, as supplied from the tap, or indirectly, in beverages, ice or foods prepared with water. According to FDA (US FDA, 2009), Drinking Water means water that meets criteria as specified in 40 CFR 141 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. According to Indian Standard Drinking Water Specification, Drinking Water is water intended for human consumption for drinking and cooking purposes for any source. Source means water supplied through pipes or any other means for human consumption by any supplier (IS 10500; 2004). Chinese Drinking Water definition based on Standards of Drinking Water Quality says that Drinking Water used as drinking water and domestic water in daily life (NSPRC, 2006). European definition of Drinking Water is the water intended for human consumption (EU Directive 98/83/EC). Based on UK definition of Drinking Water is the Water is free from any micro-organisms and parasites and from any substances which, in numbers or concentrations, constitute a potential threat to human health (Water UK). California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water’s Advisory Group on Direct Potable Reuse states about Drinking Water is the water conveyed through pipelines to homes and businesses that is safe for human consumption and meets all federal, state, and local health authority drinking water standards. Water treatment and distribution facilities that produce drinking water require an operational permit issued by the federal, state, or other designated permitting authority (CSWRCB, 2016). The United States Geological Survey defines Potable Water as water of a quality suitable for drinking (USGS, 2017). California's water supply definition of Potable Water is the drinking water that meets or exceeds state and federal drinking water standards (Delta Diablo). According to The Directorate General for Specifications and Measurements (DGSM), Royal Decree No. 39/1976 (established) & 1 /1978 (Omani Standards defined) in Oman, Omani Standards of Drinking Water definition is that the Water fit for human consumption obtained from any source which is supplied to the consumer through the public distribution system, or the limited water supply system and complying with all the specific properties mentioned in this standard (OS 8/2012). Most of the countries follow WHO guidelines for drinking water quality and its definition. Still there are slight modifications due to the requirements of national objectives and conveniences.

Overall analysis of different dimensions of Drinking Water definition, it is obvious that drinking water has to meet certain standards for the safe final consumption. DW has to meet or exceed federal or state regulations of drinking water. Most of the definitions are emphasized on water usage in domestic and industrial sector after a critical analysis of various microbial, chemical and physical hazards which have a direct impact on quality of drinking water. Most of the countries are adopted guidelines from WHO and EU, especially EU directives (98/83/EC) mainly deal about DW legislation part. Even though some nuances in the definition of DW can be noticed with respect to state wise, country wise and global wise, the central meaning and idea is not altered.

5. Water Re-use Terminology

Water re-use terminology has been recently standardized due to many reasons and requirements. But slight variations can be noticed because of some of the additional requirements required for specific countries which are based on several factors like challenges in the reclaimed, recycled or re-used water, and water quality standards with respect to a specific location. Water re-use is beneficial for certain purposes so that the wastewater is treated and it can be direct or indirect. In direct re-use, reclaimed water is directly used for re-use and other case indirectly by discharging effluent to ground or surface water after treatment (Asano et al., 1998; Exall et al. 2004).. Wastewater is mainly from different sources like water from residential area, commercial area, industrial area and institutional area which are collectively known as municipal water and from rain or storm water. Reclamation of Wastewater is carried out through treatment process for achieving a preset water quality which is further used for a specific re-use (Exall et al. 2004). Recycled or re-circulated water is mainly for the industries in which water recovery from the industrial effluents are treated and feed back into various industrial works (Asano et al., 1998; Exall et al. 2004). Water can be classified into stormwater (water by precipitation), whitewater, greywater, blackwater and clearwater based on its source, treatment and other physical, chemical and biological (microbial) parameters. Filtered or chlorinated water is generally known as Whitewater. Wastewater generated from bathing, laundry and dish washing process is termed as Greywater which does not cover toilet water. Some countries do not consider the wastewater from the kitchen as greywater. Based on Abu Dhabi regulations of Recycled Water and Biosolids, Greywater means Wastewater obtained exclusively from bathhouses, showers, hand washing sinks and domestic laundries (RSB. 2018). If water is contaminated with toxic chemicals and human wastes and also it is generated from sewage is considered as Blackwater. Solid free Wastewater is called Clearwater (Brain et al., 2011).

Table 5.1. Definitions of Water Re-use with respect to Various Authorities.

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6. Water scarcity and Water Crisis

6.1. Water Scarcity- Definition

According to FAO water reports, water scarcity means an excess of water demand over available supply (FAO water reports 38, 2008). E-mail conference of FAO on Water Scarcity, Winpenny defines water scarcity as supply imbalance and demand under existing arrangements of institution and/or prices in terms of value; demand excessiveness over soppy availability; increased utilization rate compared with supply availability (Winpenny, 1997). Winpenny’s definition has an explicit recognition of water scarcity through relativity of different factors affecting scarcity of water. This definition was modified by Abrams and he defines water scarcity as a concept stating the water demand relationship between water availability and demand for water (Abrams, 2009). By underpinning the definition of Winpenny (Winpenny, 1997), the World Water Development Report (UN-Water, 2006a) defined water scarcity as

Box 6.1. Definition of Water Scarcity

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The major strength of this definition is that water scarcity can occur at any level of demand and supply which can be either rectified or alleviated. Susnik and colleagues mention the definition of water scarcity. According to their definition water scarcity is the exhaustion and over consumption of water to extremely dangerous levels (Susnik et al., 2012).

6.2. Water Scarcity Classifications

According to Seckler et al., 2008, water scarcity is classified into two main categories.

6.2.1. Physical water scarcity

Seckler and colleagues say that physical water scarcity is mainly due to lack of sufficient water to satisfy all demands, including environmental flows. The major symptoms of this type scarcity are water allocations, declining ground water and severe environmental degradation that favor some of the groups and others are not favored (Seckler et al., 2008).

6.2.2. Economic water scarcity

Economic scarcity means a situation created by the deficit of investment in water or a lack of manpower to satisfy the necessity of water. The main symptoms are limited development of infrastructure so that limited availability of water for agriculture or drinking purpose (Seckler et al., 2008). Sub-Saharan Africa is a typical example of economic scarcity and poverty reduction is possible in a greater extent through further water development.

6.3. Water Crisis and its factors

The various factors of global crises of water have a major impact on water availability such as financial turbulence, climate change, economic recession, energy, food security, etc. World Water Development Reports studied and reported in which report says that for the sustainable development of an economy is depend on water availability which in turn satisfies the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) (UN-Water, 2009,2012). The present trends of water consumption for food productions and elaborated studies of environmental studies in relation to the water availability say that continuous usage of water as in the prevailing conditions will lead to water crises globally (CA, 2007). The major reason of water crises is the population growth which is an inevitable to some extent, resulting higher demand for water for industrial, municipal and domestic uses and food production. Demographic details from 1980s show a declining trend of population growth. Even though, most of the developing countries population growth is rapid. Steady economic development, increased living standard and new choices of diet such as dairy and meat products lead to an increased consumption of water which creates an additional pressure of water resources (UN-Water, 2012). Demand of potable water in the food production has tremendously increased due to the advancement in the technology and industries, and increased consumption of dairy and meat products (Pimentel and Pimentel, 2003). At the same time, the demand of public water increasing every year because of higher population growth (Kenny et al. 2009).

However, more potential crises can be mostly eliminated by proper water management and governance (Moriarty et al., 2004). (CA 2007; UN- Water, 2009, 2012). The Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture and United Nations World Water Development Reports (CA, 2007; UN-Water, 2009, 2012) reveal in detail about the scope of effective water management for basic human needs and livelihoods. Hence, human psychological factors and behavioral aspects have a greater impact on water scarcity.

6.4. Water scarcity responds options and major policy domain

Figure 7.4.1 depicts the different dimensions associated with supply and demand options. These options are largely located at the technical planning and investment economics level. These are mostly influenced by the policy environment, governance context and institutional frame work. Responses from the state at national level and local communities are the key responses to water scarcity. These two entirely different responses are mutually dependent. But the farmer level response is a crucial process for the adjustment of state level policies since local farmers are vital in molding the responses to water scarcity (Molle, 2003; FAO water reports 38, 2008).

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Figure 6.4.1. Options of Water Scarcity Response are Placed within a Context of Broader Policy (Molle, 2003; FAO Water Reports 38, 2008).

Table 6.4.1 shows water scarcity response options by major policy domain such as water, agriculture and national food security. Two broad option categories are distinguished which supply enhancement and other are dealing with demand management (FAO water reports 38, 2008).

The table provides information about three domains where there demand management and supply enhancement are applied. Initially, there is water and resource management and development are applied for the benefit of users in whole sectors in addition to environment. Secondly, the agriculture side, among the whole sectors, agriculture farmers is the major water user. At the end, the national food security is mainly focused on national food security and food self-sufficiency by enhancing and managing international trade and habits of consumption as well as the organization of its food sector.

Table 6.4.1. Options of Water Scarcity Response through Major Policy Domain (FAO Water Reports, 38, 2008).

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6.5. Water losses reduction in food chain

The major losses of water in a food chain occur right from the storage, transportation and packaging. Besides losses through those processes, during food processing, retail and wholesale trade and in consumption through household activities further losses are occurred. FAO evaluated that there is a loss and wastage of thirty percent of water from the ground and final user (FAO, 2011b). The losses caused by above factors are irrecoverable, even though a conscientious approach for the identification and assessment of the main constituents of wastage and losses is inevitable to reduce potential losses.

Diet choices of the society are also a vital factor determining the total consumption of water. Advancements in the society improve living standard of the people may result into an increased per capita food consumption which in turn provide enumerable choices of diets and these diets become more diversified (UN-Water, 2006b). Increased consumption of meat and dairy products led to the consumption of huge volume of water since for the production of these products require a greater amount of water (CA, 2007). Hence, the role of diets and selection of diets have more implications for controlling water consumption which further regulate water scarcity and national food security in a greater extent.

7. Quality of Recovered Water

7.1. Physical and Chemical Quality of Water for Indirect Food Contact Surfaces

GDWQ health based parameters as per (Table 7.1.2) have to be considered by the factory in order to ensure all the quality parameters are met, whether there are no such applicable domestic standards.

Sensible judgments can be made in favor of the monitoring and likelihood of the incidence of certain contaminants such as pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), hardness, Total Organic Carbon, etc., even though the water should meet these broad necessities. Otherwise, these may affect the product quality and aesthetic value of the product. Company has to follow product specific quality parameters of water (ILSI Research Foundation, 2013).

Typical examples of recovered water that has potential for contact with the end product or indirect and minimal contact are equipment and containers cleaned by recovered water, which is in direct contact with the finished product, any peculiar technologies of treatment like chlorine and silica residual for membrane operations, etc.

Food safety standards characteristically stipulate usage of potable water quality for food contact surfaces mainly categorized into several divisions such as direct food contact uses, indirect contact uses non-food contact uses, etc. In non-contact uses (steam production, refrigeration, firefighting, etc.), application and adoption of non-drinking water quality can be carried out for non-food contact applications. But for minimal or indirect contact uses, specifically minimal drinking water quality standards have to be applied (Codex Alimentarius, 2003; US DHHS, 2009; FSANZ). Drinking water standards and codes are used for the identification, classification and separation of potable water supplies from non-potable water supplies by unique labeling systems. Water quality parameters and the risks associated with various parameters leading to contamination are clearly mentioned and included under HACCP plans.

Table 7.1.1. Various Process Water Re-use Options in the Food Processing Factories (Casani & Knøchel, 2002).

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Table 7.1.2. As per WHO GDWQ (4th Edition), Water Quality Guidelines for Potable Water: Parameters of Chemical Quality for Minimal or Indirect Product Contact (ILSI Research Foundation, 2013).

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7.2. Microbiological Quality of Water for Indirect Food Contact Surfaces

Re-assurance of microbiological safety of end product is required for a particular technology and processes. The WHO GDWQ depends upon the HACCP/WSP to decide the suitable technical systems and operations. Escherichia coli are normally potential pathogenic bacteria associated with faecal contamination and are known as faecal indicators. Even though, Total coliforms are not inevitably related to faecal contamination, it is possible to determine the overall cleanliness of a particular system. Total Plate Count (TPC) or Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) microorganisms are able to regrow in the absence of disinfectant residues during storage time and affect quality of the product subsequently while storage (ILSI Research Foundation, 2013).

Table 7.2.1. The Recommended Guidance for Minimal or Indirect Product Contact Plant Applications (WHO GDWQ. 2011) is as Follows:

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7.3. Microbiological Water Quality for No Product Contact

The efficiency of HACCP & WSP designing and verification process essentially requires Water quality specifications. Two basic forms of these are:

Objectives of performance

1. Performance objectives description for the exclusion of exact kinds of pathogens (i.e., protozoa, viruses, and enteric bacteria). Performance objectives necessitate facts on pathogenic organisms and their concentrations in water and water quality requisites have to be well assessed in connection to end uses.
2. Indicated technology objectives as per qualitative organoleptic assessments of source water and final utility necessities have to be identified for suitable treatment practices.

Water quality provision that is suitable for intended use is an established standard under the guiding principle for reuse of water, which is from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA, 2012a), the WHO (2005), and the Government of Australia (NRMMC, EPHC, NHMRC, 2006 To 2009). They demonstrate the way for producing recovered water suitable for end use from the sources such as rainwater, sewage, stormwater and greywater. The major concern in this treated water is the presence of potential pathogenic microbes like bacteria and viruses, and other protozoans. The major final uses of recovered water such as tower cooling, flushing of toilet, suppression of dust and firefighting (Non-contact applications).

Table 7.3.1. Microbiological Quality of Water for No Product Contact (EPHC, NRMMC, NHMRC, 2006–2009).

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Recovered water guidelines include microbiological criteria for microorganisms such as somatic coliphage, coliforms, E. coli, Clostridium spores (EPHC, NRMMC, NHMRC, 2006–2009; CDH, 2009). HPC (Heterotrophic plate counts) provide information about infection level since HPC is considered as general indicators of how far disinfection is achieved (WHO, 2005). Any traces or presence or absence of disinfectant residual can be determined from the HPC result.

Table 7.3.2. Types of Water Monitoring and Verification within the Food Processing Factory (ILSI. 2008).

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8. Water Quality Requirements for Re-used Water

The fourth edition of the WHO GDWQ provides an insight of the minimum water quality requirements (reference line) for recovered water. Recovered water must meet the quality specifications as in the drinking water specifications if recovered water has the potential for minimal or indirect product contact (WHO, 2011).

8.1. Quality of Water for Intended use

F & B recovered water can be categorized into two major classifications based on the potential of product contact such as water with indirect product contact or water with minimal potential for contact of product, and recovered water with no contact of product. The minimum reference point for meeting water quality objectives for re-used water is the water having minimum potable or drinking water quality standards according to WHO GDWQ (WHO, 2011). One of the major challenges in a food processing factory is the maintenance of multiple distribution systems of water supply and several cross connections or incorrect water connections to one of the accessible water supplies which need active management and great conscientiousness. Besides, training of people responsible for maintenance, monitoring and controlling of water recovery process and allied tasks is essential for meeting the specifications. Many of the codes do not state requirements of water quality. Risks and objectives associated with water quality should also be incorporated in HACCP/WSP plan (ILSI Research Foundation, 2013).

8.2. Quality of Water for Direct Food Contact Surfaces

Recovered water can be directly used if the water meets minimum water quality specifications according to the WHO GDWQ (WHO, 2011). But there should have additional requirements and not all the requirements are listed in WHO GDWQ. These requirements and other quality specifications depend on specific technology used for water treatment process in a particular system.

Section 15.038.3. Quality of water for Indirect Food Contact Surfaces

Recovered water can be used for the application of non-in-plant process such as cooling, washing of trucks meant to safeguard personals and processing workers from exposure to pathogenic microorganisms, corrosive water to avoid skin contact and aerosol inhalation.

Sanitary Wastewater can be used in different purposes such as various applications for food processing factory, non-food processing industries, cooling, boiler feed, laundry, toilet flushing, landscape irrigation, dust control, firefighting, orchards and several other applications. California Health Department of California in the United States has standards (title 22 regulations) dealing about recycled water for different applications for non-food processing industries, cooling, boiler feed, laundry, toilet flushing, landscape irrigation, dust control, firefighting, etc. (CDH, 2009). Department listed out different applications on the basis of 2 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units) and 2.2 Most Probable Number (MPN) of total coliforms/100 ml., under Title 22 regulations, where the applications processed sanitary water are listed.

9. HACCP for Recovered Water

HACCP is a management system dealing about food safety and its regulations for the application of food processing, production and packaging of vegetables, fruits, meat, fish and dairy products (US FDA, 2014). Product and process risk assessment have to be carried out through HACCP/WSP plan in order to meet quality specifications and expectations of customers. It also aids to control physical, chemical and microbial hazards in a product and process through a comprehensive and structured approach. HACCP plays a vital role in water re-use process to prevent contaminants and associated risks.

Table 9.1. Consideration of Topics in HACCP/WSP Plan for Water Re-use (ILSI Research Foundation, 2013).

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A HACCP based generic model described by Casani and Knøchel is providing a clear insight how to implement HACCP for water re-use in the food processing sector, and the pre-requisite program associated with the HACCP implementation is also highlighted. The detailed study of various water and food borne pathogens, and their sensitivity to various water treatment processes are also mentioned (Casani & Knøchel, 2002).

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Figure 9.1. A HACCP Plan Scheme for Food Processing Wastewater Reclamation for Re-using within the Food Sector (Casani & Knøchel, 2002).

HACCP plan review and validation as per the schedule is essential for any changes in technology, equipment, personals etc. In addition to general plan of HACCP for an establishment, tailoring of HACCP is required for a particular process and product, since CCPs for a specific product developed on a specific line, or handled on particular machineries may be varying for another time or packaging operation. An adequate research and case-studies have to be conducted with proper HACCP implementation to generate required data for the targeted wastewater treatment processes.

10. Guidelines, Regulations, Legislations and Standards for Reused Water in Food Processing Sector

Regulation (EC) No 178/2002; Article 14.1 states that all the businesses related to food industry have an obligation to supply safe food. Usage of water is further addressed in Regulation 852/2004. Annex 2, Chapter 7 requires “an adequate supply of potable water, which is to be used whenever necessary to ensure that foodstuffs are not contaminated”. 852/2004 of the regulation has the definition of potable water which has to meet all the standards of the Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC). Potable water requirements in England are enforced in two different categories for public water supplies (SI 2000:3184) and private water supplies (SI 2009:3101) and these supplies must meet the requirements of water regulations as per SI 2000:3184 and SI 2009:3101 respectively. Food entrepreneurs also consider the environmental impact with respect to the usage of water. The Environmental Liability Directive (Directive 2004/35/EC) put forward a number of obligations for the reduction of water and other raw materials use. These may be the reason, most food industries are aware about re-use of water for minimizing water consumption. Even though, in the European Countries, re-used water has to meet minimum requirements of Drinking Water Quality Standards (DWQS) for potable re-use as per Council Directive 98/83/EC dealing about water quality intended for human consumption. Paragraph 2 and 3, Chapter VII, Annex II, Regulation (EC) 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs says that, only potable water can be used for food manufacturing and handling purposes and non-potable water can be used for non-food contact purposes only. Non-potable water line should be identified and categorized separately and there should not be a connection with potable water line.

Water optimization is essential in order to meet different requirements and standards of various water regulations nationally and internationally. Guidelines emphasized below are based on the WHO, 2011 for Quality of Drinking Water 4th Edition (GDWQ). However, many of the national quality requirements of water are on the basis of WHO GDWQ guidelines (ILSI Research Foundation, 2013).

10.1. Water Re-use Guidelines of ILSI

Guidelines as per ILSI Research Foundation, 2013 for the water recovery and reuse are formulated based on number of focuses. For that, a series of systematic steps are formulated to meet number of requirements in the food processing field such as

a) The source water is treatable and suitable to gain the necessities of the final use.
b) Water treatment process for the recovered water is suitable to meet the requirements.
c) Both quality and quantity of required water assure fitness for the final use.
d) Final product and process performance will not be affected by the use of recovered water.
e) Product aesthetics and safety will not be affected by treated and recovered water.
f) Workers safety will not be affected in the processing factory.
g) It will not be a center for customer apprehensions.
h) A cost-effective and systematic reasonable approach for attaining objectives are achieved through water re-use by food producer.

Direct application of recovered water into product is possible.

According to ILSI Research Foundation, 2013 recommended steps for the implementation of water re-use are

a) Water survey performance to determine the total water quantity and quality required for the establishment.
b) Calculate the obtainable composition and quantity of water available both from internal and external sources.
c) Estimate water associated expenditures with the existing process.
d) Develop a HACCP plan that will be the model for the plan and implementation of the water recovery program and its regular process.
e) Determine the native, domestic, international, and enterprise water quality stipulations for the estimated final uses that will be the least performance objective for the recovered water, and that will be integrated in the HACCP plan.
f) Develop an appropriate monitoring strategy to ensure process control in accordance with the HACCP procedure.
g) Recommend a number of individual treatment trains on the basis of source waters, amount and constituents and the water quality targets for meeting those governing requirements.
h) As per scientific articles as well as the technologists’ experience, minimize the choices for combinations of treatment into one or two by using the better combination of achievability in addition to the consideration of performance under the factory’s existing facility conditions.
i) Conduct pilot studies at various conditions to assess the designated choices and assemble all essential monitoring and cost data to support a finding that will decide the ultimate treatment train.
j) Renovate or construct the full-scale factory for the initial observations and studies to ensure performance and process of the factory.
k) Receive regulatory authentications from approved organizations and continue the process as per HACCP plan.

10.2. Legislation of Potable Water

Box 10.2.1. Shows International Regulations for Potable (drinking) Water.

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Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption (EU Directive 98/83/EC, 1998), is the directive states about potable water. Regarding the Treaty establishing the European Community and, in particular, Article 130s(1), the proposal from the Commission (1), the opinion of the Economic and Social Committee (2), the opinion of the Committee of the Regions (3), and acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 189c (4) Of EU, council directive 98/83/EC is established. The former Council directive was Council Directive 80/778/EEC of 15 July 1980 concerning to the quality of water intended for human consumption which was further revised into 98/83/EEC after considering the natural and socio-economic differences between the regions and the revised directive implemented with more flexible laws for assisting leaving member states.

Table 10.2.1. Comparison of Drinking Water Quality Parameters of Different Countries

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10.3. European Legislation for Water Re-use and Re-used Water

European regulation EC-852/2004 dealing foodstuff hygiene says that water re-use in food processing facility is possible to re-use water to be used for processing or as a food ingredient unless any risk of contamination. Hence the standard addresses the same components of potable standards they have before. Current European regulations and guidelines of water re-use in the food processing sector are not stringent. Initially, they set high water quality standards as that of drinking water quality requirements (98/83/EC). However, the quality and wholesomeness of the final product should not be affected by the implementation of water re-use applications. The new regulation of this aspect is inserted to the directive dealing about general hygiene EC/93/43 which was only referred to potable water use before. Wastewater Directive (EC. 1991) 91/271/EEC, article 12 states that treated wastewater shall be reused whenever appropriate Membrane filtration technique (UF as the first treatment step and RO as the final treatment step) can be applied to improve the quality of Wastewater (Tsagarakis et al., 2004; Van Houtte et al., 2005).

Six of the European countries have developed standards and guidelines and/or legislative framework for recovered water to reduce risks related to the environment and health. Six out of eight member states developed are Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain (BIO, 2005). These standards are legitimately obligatory for all except Portugal. WHO has informed most of the standards developed to Member State Level (MED EUWI, 2007). Among six member states of European countries, four of them except Cyprus and Portugal refers standards of water re-use for urban and industrial waste water effluents whereas rest of the two member states refers only to urban waste water (Laura et al., 2014).

Table 10.3.1. Standard References of Water Re-use in the European Countries (Laura et al., 2014; WG PoM , 2015).

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Figure 10.3.1. The European Innovation Partnership (EIP) Water Governance Structure.

For the maximum utilization of European water resource, a European Innovation Partnership (EIP) has been established (Figure. 10.3.1) by the European Commission (COM 2012: 216; Laura et al., 2014). The main motto of this partnership is to tackle the problems related to the innovation part of demand and supply chain of water. Partnership is further collaborated with the Europe 2020 Resource efficient Europe flagship initiative which is mainly focused on the relevant factors concerning with water management sustainability (COM 2011: 21; Laura et al., 2014). In November 2012, EC adopted (COM 2012: 673; Laura et al., 2014) an Eco Innovation Action Plan in response to the water environment vulnerability of Europe and commission identified as innovation is an integral tool which supports various options of policy formulated by the Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources. In 2002, EC identified major challenges in the EU water resources and finalized that water management has more relevancy rather than focusing only on water distribution and treatment which is under the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC; Laura et al., 2014). The transformation of topography and management has a huge impact on quality and quantity of water in that area (COM 2012: 673; Laura et al., 2014). The European Innovation Partnership on Water (EIPW) is concentrating on strategic approach for implementing water re-use (EIPW. 2012; Laura et al., 2014) and maximization of water re-use through European Blueprint for Water is the main objective in the future (COM 2012: 673; Laura et al., 2014).

Water re-use application is significantly increased in worldwide, and many of the applications are carried out by the European countries so that a significant amount of drinking water is saved (GWI, 2010; Bixio et al., 2006; Laura et al., 2014). More than two hundred water recycling schemes are located in Europe. Fresh water replacing potential of Europe by re-used water is estimated as high as 17 percentages which is mostly concentrated in regional and local areas (Hochstrat et al., 2006; Laura et al., 2014).

In general, European standards are developed on the basis of following criteria even though no homogeneity between member states (Laura et al., 2014). Reclaimed water is mainly intended for agriculture, and aquaculture use, irrigation of private gardens and golf course, crops and trees, used as fire hydrants, used for street cleaning, vehicle washing, cooling towers, evaporative condensers, etc. (Laura et al., 2014). As per European Commission (Laura et al., 2014), major criteria are

Table 10.3.2. Criteria for Water Safety Standards.

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The highlighted portions of Table 10.3.2 refer guideline aspects of industrial application and references taken from the European Commission (Laura et al., 2014).

Central Europe and Western Europe have different focus on the intention of water re-use in food processing sector. The former region adopts water re-use mainly as part of cost reduction point of view, while latter considered as part of energy saving options in a perspective of natural energy conservation. Legislation of EU does not enact any restrictions for water re-use in food processing sector. However many of the member states set standards of drinking water quality for any water re-use application importantly for product contact applications (GE Power and Water, 2008; EC. 2015). Italian regulations allow any food or cosmetics related water re-use applications other than direct or indirect contact with food/cosmetics or their surfaces whereas Spanish regulations do not allow any water re-use applications in the food sector especially which are potentially hazardous to the public health. According to EU regulations an advanced system for monitoring, inspection, validation and verifications are critical. For that HACCP system implementation is an integral part of the whole process. However, a large proportion of the food entrepreneurs are not willing to implement water re-use strategies because of public concern, acceptability and reputation of their institution (EC. 2015; Seneviratne, 2007). Country like Denmark completely relies on ground water as drinking water source. Denmark has a great interest on water re-use applications in the food processing sector. For that, country is investigating water re-use strategies and applications within the food sector. The main focus is to produce and re-use water from wastewater generated within the food processing factories and water produced with a quality other than that of potable water quality parameters with less requirements, but applicable to the food industry applications. Hence, it is evident that within the European countries, interest on water re-use in food processing sector is highly variable (EC. 2015).

Box 10.3.1. Member State Guidelines for Reused Water in European Countries

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10.4. WHO Guidelines for Re-used Water

The WHO Guidelines of Drinking Water Quality is based on some certain principles which are mainly for the application of potable re-use (WHO, 2017a). The implementation of principles depends on several issues related to the origin of the water and complexity meant for further treatment and potable re-use applications. Water quality of re-used water by the guidelines satisfies the normal requirement needed in the food processing sector (WHO, 2011). Guidelines describe about normal quality requirements of water and processors need to address special requirements of water quality if they need certain product characteristics to ensure the special requirements are satisfied. For example, heat treatment level (temperature applications) for the destruction or reduction of pathogens for public concern, accurate analysis of experimental data and implementation of ideal process has to be carried out by food processing companies. Correlation between drinking water quality and treatment level has to be assessed and implement the most effective processing application to achieve the best result (WHO, 2011).

Table 10.4.1. Safe Drinking Water Framework of the WHO (WHO, 2011).

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Figure 10.4.1. WHO Guideline framework and supporting information for safe drinking water.

Table 7.1.2 (page no. 18-19) provides detailed description of WHO GDWQ standards and parameters.

10.5. US EPA Guidelines for Re-used Water

The Government of the United States has no federal standards for water re-use in the food processing sector. State authorities establish certain requirements only on the basis of case studies (AWWA. 1996). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has formulated and developed up to date guidelines of water re-use in favor of state and other authorities. As a part of the report of technical research, the first guidelines of US EPA for water recovery and water re-use was formulated in 1980 by Research and Development wing of US EPA office (US EPA, 1980). Guidelines were updated for the regulatory requirements of state regulatory officials and project development team for the systems of reclaimed water in all states in 1992 (US EPA, 1992). Summarization of over-all purpose of the update was issued in 2004 by providing information about research and results for the benefit of authoritative agencies and utilities particularly in the US (US EPA, 2004). The updated version of water re-use guidelines provides clarifications of some of the variations in the frame-work of regulations in different regions of the US. US EPA formulated 2012 Water Re-use Guidelines for incorporating the information with several agencies. As the demand of water increases due to technological advancement and higher living standards of people, US EPA established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Camp Dresser & McKee Inc. (CDM) and agreement of inter-agency with USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development). According to the recommendations of the US EPA, water has to be secondary or tertiary treated to achieve results of BOD and TSS levels less than 30 mg/l and water should be well disinfected with chemical disinfectants like chlorine water or other chemical disinfectants, other treatments like ozonation, UV radiation and membrane treatment (US EPA, 2004).

New implementation of recycling and reclaiming loops in water treatment systems of Coca-Cola in Europe and North America facilitated to re-use processed water within the system especially for cleaning, boiling and cooling of equipment, so that this implementation aid to save an average of fifty-seven million gallons of water (two hundred and twenty million liters) per system yearly (US EPA, 2012). Rainmaker® beverage process water recovery system is introduced by Coca-Cola company for bottle washing and clean-in-place. UV (ultraviolet) disinfection, ozonation, RO (Reverse Osmosis) treatment and MBR (Membrane Bioreactor) ultrafiltration are used for the water treatment. This process was experimented and then applied in Hermosillo (Mexico) and Ahmedabad (India). A reduction of almost thirty-five percentages of water consumption is achieved (Gadson et al., 2012).

F & B industry was primarily unwilling to use recovered and treated water because of public concerns. As more research and knowledge in the water re-use and its principles increased, public is more aware about the utility of highly treated re-used process water, even though there has limited trepidations and concerns about public health (US EPA, 2012).

ILSIRF (The International Life Sciences Institute Research Foundation) came forward for developing guidelines for re-used water in food and beverage production side. F & B industry experiences a huge amount of water loss during the production process and most of the food processors searching for a remedy for this critical issue to minimize the amount of water consumption in a convenient way and reduce the total cost of the production unit. These guidelines enable the processors to meet their requirements in various products such as beer, carbonated waters, sodas, milk or juices. The technologies adopted are the same technologies used in the existing public drinking water bottling system (ILSIRF, 2012).

There are numerous applications of recovered and treated re-use water in food industry. Since the water demand increases periodically, processors want to utilize water in an optimum way. The major applications of re-used water are cooling and boiling of equipment, cleaning and sanitation of equipment and utensils, cleaning of raw food materials, etc. Use of water is different in each food sector and it varies from 22% of water re-use (for jam production) to 70% (for bakery production) (East Bay Municipal Utility Division, 2008).

US EPA has implemented two areas of regulations under the public Law Authority, law 92-500 for dairy industry. Firstly, limitations and specifications of discharge or effluent requirement for dairy plant Wastewater treatment. Secondly, the prerequisites that municipalities receiving federal levies attain a justifiable retrieval of charge from all industrial effluent dischargers will place a new financial encumbrance on the dairy industry (Carawan et al., 1979).

As per the ordinance, and considering different factors such as pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), hydraulic loads and/or suspended solids, the production unit has to pay for waste load discharge and processing plants with a lesser monthly water and sewer charge experienced a high amount of sewer charge bill (quadruple with respect to the initial bill before the passage of the ordinance) (Carawan et al., 1979).

Box 10.5.1. Definition of Sewer Ordinance.

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Industrial contribution is required before any municipal sewer use ordinance is introduced. Factory administrators must support in the improvement of a "pragmatic and sound governing ordinance tailored to indigenous settings"(Anon, 1975a). According to Harper and colleagues (Harper et al., 1971), an active participation for the waste management by the industries can be achieved through imposing stringent legal limits and increasing surcharge use on Wastewater by the municipality.

10.5.1. Municipal Sewer Ordinances

Table 10.5.1.1. Municipal Sewer Model Ordinances for Wastewater Discharge (Carawan et al., 1979).

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10.5.2. Municipal Charges

In the United States, municipal charges are mainly categorized into three categories such as water charge, sewer charge and surcharges (Carawan et al., 1979).

10.5.2.1. Water Charge

Water charge is calculated on the basis of the quantity of water consumed for the factory operation. Meter reading provides the water consumption details on a diminishing block scale basis. Higher the water utilization rate means lower the water bill in the factory (Carawan et al., 1979).

10.5.2.2. Sewer Charge

Wide survey in the United States in 1969, says that eighty percentages of the discharges from dairy units paid a sewer charge which is a charge with respect to purchase of water and is normally ten to two hundred percent of water bill (Carawan et al., 1979).

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Details

Pages
145
Year
2018
ISBN (eBook)
9783346094834
Language
English
Catalog Number
v453840
Institution / College
University of Copenhagen
Grade
2.0
Tags
re-use arabian regulations guidelines comparison industry beverage food streams water process recovery peninsula

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Title: Re-use and Recovery of Process Water Streams in the Food and Beverage Industry