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The Impact of Electronic Management on Ministry of Culture Employees and Services

Master's Thesis 2018 54 Pages

Computer Science - Applied

Excerpt

Content

Chapter 1: Background of the Research.
1.1 Introduction.

Chapter 2: Literature Review.
2.1 Introduction.
2.2 Research Environment.
2.3 Related Concept.
2.3.1 Foreign Related Concept
2.3.2 Local Related Concept
2.4 Related Studies.
2.4.1 Foreign Related Studies.
2.4.2 Local Related Studies.
2.5 Framework of the study.
2.5.1 Theoretical
2.5.2 Conceptual Framework.
2.6 Synthesis.

Chapter 3: Methodology.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Research Design.
3.3 Population and Sampling.
3.4 Research measurement and Instrument.
3.5 Validity of Instrument.
3.6 Data gathering procedures.
3.7 Statistical Instrument of Data.

Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Discussions.
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Quantitative Data Analysis.
4.3 Statistical Data Analysis.
4.4 Qualitative data analysis.

Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation.
5.1 Introduction.
5.2 Summary.
5.2.1 How Electronic Management System (EMS) assist in easy access of data records at the time of requirement
5.2.2 How EMS is helping organization or sector of Bahrain in improving service quality of employees (by reducing workloads, maintaining suitable numbers of employees in each departments, saving time and efforts and reduces expenses)
5.2.3 How EMS facilitate the services provided by Ministry of Culture of Bahrain.
5.2.4 Recommendation for dealing with problems facing while implementation of EMS within an organization or sector
5.2.5 There is no relationship between the implementation of Electronic Management System at the Ministry of Culture (BACA) and helping employees for collecting data, speed recovery of data and assisting in decision making.
5.2.6 There is no relationship between the implementation of Electronic Management System at the ministry of culture (BACA) and improve accuracy of work process and employees, provide better quality of service, speed recovery of data, security and reduce of expenses on budget
5.3 Conclusion.
5.4 Recommendations.
5.4.1 Creation of EMS Research Team.
5.4.2 Distribution of work load to different employees.
5.4.3 Implementation of Tide-over approach.
5.4.4 Proper training and scheduling sessions.

Reference List

Acknowledgement

I want to extend my gratitude towards all those individuals who have helped me in conducting and concluding the study successfully. The study helped me to develop various skills in different aspects in relation to impact of EMS on organization.

I want to specifically mention and convey my gratitude toward my adviser Dr. Abdulameer Mansoor Almutawa who helped me and guided me all through the research.

Deepest gratitude is also due to the members of the evaluation committee; Dr. Jeena Ann John and Dr. Joy Winston Without their knowledge and assistance this research would not have been successful.

I am heartily thankful to Dr. Lina A. Calucag, Head of Research Center and Dr. Manolo L. Anto, Programme Head Master of Business, whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the final level enabled us to develop an understanding of the research.

Also I would like to thank the employees and managers of the Ministry of Culture, Bahrain for giving their precious time while answering the questions.

I would also like to convey thanks to AMA university for providing the means and laboratory facilities.

At the end, I want to thank my parents, wife and friends for their constant support during the completion of the research.

Jassim Ali Alattawi

Abstract

Electronic Management System is one the invention of the technological revolution in the world of business. It help in maintaining the regulating the efficacy of employees and achievement of the organizational objectives. It has a direct link with the human resource development process. The traditional process of record keeping in all organization was using paper. However, it was seen it was not an efficient and effective way of record keeping. In modern world, the human resource is given the utter most importance in order to effectively facilitate the process and activities of organization. Thus, to improve the efficiency of the workforce, electronic management system came into force.

The study was successfully conducted to understand the impact of electronic management on organization specifically on the Ministry of Culture, Bahrain. This will help in understanding the comprehensive factors related to EMS implementation. The switch over of paper format to electronic format is a tedious job in any organization. Various organizational culture has been discussed in the literature review section. This has enabled the researcher to understand the relationship between EMS models and organizational culture. The theoretical aspect of EMS literature helps the researcher to understand the barriers related to implementation of EMS in the organization and investigate the significance and devise EMS implementation models

In this study, both qualitative and quantitative research methodology was implemented in order to understand various issues related to EMS in the Ministry of Culture in Bahrain. The study employed positive, deductive and descriptive methods in order to conduct the research. A set of 10 open-ended, quantitative survey questionnaires was given to 131 employees in order to understand the awareness level of the employees. Whereas, 6 questions where to 5 different managers of the organization were asked to understand the importance and significance of EMS, problems while implementation and recommendations.

Analysis of the data was done which showed reliable construct. The findings showed that there are various problems faced by the organization in case of implementation of EMS. In the conclusion, the researcher gave few recommendations that include creation of EMS Research Team, distribution of work load to different employees, implementation of Tide-over approach and proper training and scheduling sessions. The future scope of the study is also being discussed so the reliability and validity of the study can be extended.

Chapter 1: Background of the Research

1.1 Introduction

Technological revolution in business world has injected electronic management in organizations for maintaining of employee’s efficiency in business world. In light of modern human resource management different electronic management are used in developing employees and to upgrade their knowledge according to market trends.

Development of human resources of an organization involves continuous process of monitoring and optimization process. Thus, electronic management has become one of the important aspects in business world for management of employees and delegate task according to the needs and preferences of customers. The following study has been developed with the aim of revealing impact of electronic management of employees in one of the government sectors of Bahrain.

In order to evaluate the impact of electronic management on efficiency of employees, Ministry of Culture, also known as Bahrain Authority for Culture and Antiquities (BACA) has been selected which was established in the year 2008. In the following section the aims and objectives of selecting the topic will be presented, and rationale of study has been mentioned.

The traditional system of preparation of reports by employees to represent it to their upper hierarchical level has been omitted from the business world with implementation of electronic management software to record the activities performed by an employees. In modern era of business, the workforce of an organization is given importance to provide effective services to customers and to satisfy their needs accordingly (Laudon & Laudon, 2016) [21]. In order to enhance the performance of employees electronic database system and electronic performance monitoring system are implemented in business organizations.

The goal of workforce of an organization is to perform activities to reach the goals of business. Implementation of electronic management systems in work place has enhanced the efficiency of employees because it has imposed systematic business environment which assist employees to delegate task within given deadline.

Electronic management system keeps eye on the activities of employees and reminds them to perform activities according to the requirements of customers (Laudon & Laudon, 2016) [21]. It increases capability of an employee to take more work load because all complex and reasoning thinking will be done by the technical system.

Discussion about Project Management

Subsequently, in the modern time, the competition has been greatly increased therefore, to achieve success in the highly competitive business world, the organizations have to manage their operations effectively. Likewise, in the modern time, the effective project management is regarded as a key success factor for an organization because in the modern world, almost every organization has an easy access to the advanced tools, therefore, they are capable of developing good products and to deliver good services, in this situation the effective project management used as competitive advantage to create difference among the organization process of the organization.

In this regards, to effectively manage a project, organizations are now tending to use the electronic project management tools and system that enables the organization to increase the speed of the business operations and to reduce the chances of mistakes by making system more accurate. With the help of the modern electronic project management systems, the organizations can manage more work in less that has not merely increased their productivity but at the same time, it also have improved the quality of the products and services.

Subsequently, by addressing the importance of the electronic project management systems, the following study aimed to shed light on the advantages that are associated with the implementation of EMS in Ministry of Culture (BACA). Furthermore, the research will also focus on how the electronic systems support the managers to develop an effective system to motivates employees and encourage them to work harder to achieve the goals of Ministry of Culture. Furthermore, the research will also discuss how organization can improve the implementation of the electronic project management system to take full advantage of the emerging technology.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

The researcher in this chapter emphasizes on the idea and notion that has been taken from the past research articles, journals, books, and many more. The researcher and the findings in support to proceed the work mainly are related to the impact of electronic management system in organizational culture. The discussions are related to the Ministry of Culture in Bahrain to analyze the implementation of electronic management to keep the records safe. Furthermore, the section majorly highlighted the concepts that the research gained from the previous studies. The study holds the discussion about the concept of organizational culture and electronic management. Different types of theories and models have been studied in relation managing records to build safe organizational culture. In addition, impacts and results of electronic management on the Ministry of Culture have been illustrated. It brought the discussion of factors that affected the implementation process. The gap in literature has been specified to distinguish previous studies with the present research.

2.2 Research Environment

In this study, Ministry of Culture of Bahrain has been selected to evaluate the impact of Electronic Management System (EMS) in improving employee’s efficiency. This sector of Bahrain government comes into active mode in the year 2008 whereas Ministry of Information and Culture was dissolved into Bahrain Authority for Culture and Antiquities in the year of 2015 (Ministry of Culture - Kingdom of Bahrain, 2017) [24].

2.3 Related Concept

2.3.1 Foreign Related Concept

Internationalization has turned out to be the key strategy for the companies that are intended to grow their business worldwide. Globalization has carried out the cultural identities at the working environment that creates impacts on national culture. It provides importance to the behavioral activities of an individual. As stated by Alvesson & Sveningsson (2015) [4], organizational culture is mainly represented as the personality of the organization. Culture interpreted to include values, norms, assumptions, and different tangible signs. The members present in the organization can easily sense the culture practiced within the organization. Organization culture holds a distinct essence that is hard to explain but is known to all. The concept of organizational culture is regarded to be important at the time of attempting organizational change management. Despite the best-laid plans, practitioners were seen to involve different changing processes and structures.

The workplace culture is important in order to maximize the productivity and profitability of the organization. It controls the behavior of the employees as well as the other people outside the organization. As asserted by Lee & Kramer (2016) [22], organizational culture model is considered to be important and a strategic tool that aims to help organization for becoming more productive. It assures a detailed picture of the importance of organizational culture from the influence of electronic management system. In the effectively driven culture of the organization, the major importance of the Ministry of Culture focuses on to meet the customer requirements. The results have been considered to be vital and pragmatic to raise the company’s overall profit.

2.3.2 Local Related Concept

The Bahrain Authority of Culture and Antiquities represented the true organization culture of the city, Bahrain. It has added compete and real value based on the international level. The main role is to develop, protect, and promote the national identity of the culture. The Bahrain society is highly influenced by the traditional value of the Arab and Islamic world. It resulted to define the behaviors and beliefs of an individual that in turn influences strongly in the business performance. The change efforts of the organization have been studied to fail the most of the time period that is credited to the lack of acknowledging organizational culture.

Al-Mamary & Shamsuddin & Nor Aziati (2014) [6] says management information systems is the one of the most important achievements in the area of departmental work, which aims to provide reliable, accurate, relevant and complete information to managers toward enhancing of organizational performance in organizations.

Diverse aspects of the Gulf Arabian countries, management style vary between countries and their cultures, but also that managers of Gulf Arab Countries adapt different styles depending on the situation and context. Jackson, W. S. (2014) [19].

Organizations have regarded to face many difficulties as well as challenges and the constant development occurs to stay strong. The two trends of the organizational trend include the concepts of organizational culture and interpretative nature. Valmohammadi & Roshanzamir (2015) [36] asserted that the organization culture in Bahrain society reflected the management advocating by the culture that seeks to intervene in all the factors of symbolism. Interpretative nature reflected the symbolic and cultural manifestations based on differences, interests, and improvement. Organization culture and the concept are well reflected through the look to the arrangement of furniture that dominates the employees’ attire, conversations, personality, and behavior. The Bahrain society is highly supportive in creating initiatives and cultural development planning. Moreover, it includes the organization seminars, cultural activities, conference, etc. The right culture is reflected and assumed to fit in one direction or strategy of organizations. It aims generally to offer own challenges and issues to deal accordingly over a particular period of time.

Organizational behavior and performance highly manifest pre-defined strategies that help to build the organizational structure. The organizational structure input effective patterns in order to facilitate EMS and its services. Electronic management system has already been seen to keep the eye on different activities of the employees. As a result, it reminds in order to perform activities based on the customer requirements. Generic theory helps in classifying strategies for the entire organization that relates to maximizing behavioral and cultural background. Organizational culture directly linked to the electronic management system that allows receiving the proper management to keep the records safe. System of record management helps to manage all the preserved documents. It aims to use in future or as a part of the evidence to offers to the customers (Mokhtar & Yusof, 2016) [25].

2.4 Related Studies

2.4.1 Foreign Related Studies

Electronic management represents the recording system through an electronic medium in organizations. Record management in this regard represents to the management field that holds responsibility for controlling the systematic receipt, maintenance, creation to capture the evidence. According to Chaudhry et al. (2016) [10], Electronic Record Management makes sure that the organization is aware and stores all records that need during an emergency. The concept of electronic management in organizations involves assigning distinct identifiers that safeguard unauthorized changes. Moreover, it creates unbreakable audit trail for accountability. Within a system administration database, unique identifiers get started for the purpose of tracking. According to Craig, Dibrell & Garrett (2014) [15], the concept of electronic document and records management in Bahrain organizations revealed to help the organizations in managing documents as well as records. The electronic system considered a document that intends to work-in-progress till the review has undergone through approval or publication.

Once a document gains the record status, the organizations in Bahrain have intended to apply the enforced policies that are best practiced. It states the next step of record life-cycle to include retention and safety until any other even occur in relation to record. Chaudhry, et al. (2014) [10] opined that Electronic management in Ministry of Culture also includes a wide range of software vendors that offer electronic document management system. Unique identifiers, in this case, are regarded to be very important and thus should not be confused with reference codes. In addition, unauthorized changes due to the use of electronic documentation are highly avoided. It is done in regards to maintaining organizational culture through manual process implementation. According to Laudon & Laudon (2016) [21], Electronic Record Management enables to keep the recorded document safe from being further modified. An enforceable chain of custody has been studied to represent as the concept of electronic management that audit trails guarantee.

2.4.2 Local Related Studies

Abyan A. (2014) [7] conducted a study aimed to identify the obstacles in traditional management and how to avoid them through implementing a new electronic management system. This study was conducted on many male and female leaders in Riyadh. An in-depth scientific study showed that training employees to use the electronic management system well helps managers and officials in reducing the paperwork and rapid development in the completion of work.

The study " An Investigation for Electronic – Management Use in Educational Projects Management by Shakkah and AlGamdi (2015) [34] aimed at the possibility of shifting toward electronic management in educational project management in AlBaha at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it used the descriptive analytical approach. The study population was 74 employee and engineer, out of 13 administration unit managers. Most of them agreed on the importance of the electronic management. The study recommended launching a strategic plan for the educational projects management in AlBaha area, and this requires the support from higher administration, the availability of the financial support, provide the internet services to all projects site, prepare training and workshops, and hold meeting to raise the awareness among the employees regarding the electronic management.

Al-Dahwan, A. (2015) [5] conducted a study aimed at revealing the importance of electronic feasibility studies, motivating employees and training them in use of modern technology. The study used the questionnaire method to conduct it. This study was conducted on a number of government institutions that implement the electronic system in the city of Riyadh. The study showed that if government institutions are equipped with the appropriate electronics, the application of the electronic system is one of the types of education that contributes greatly to accelerate human rehabilitation and development of existing cadres.

2.5 Framework of the study

2.5.1 Theoretical

As per the view of Sheraz (2012) [33], provides the view and dull process about Electronic Records and management process in e-government which is important to carry on maintenance and implementation of particular things. For example, in case of the maintenance and preservation along with the implementation process of national and cultural heritage of a country, the respective sectors need to collect information, need to analyses those and based on the analyses their need to step forward to the implementation process. The details about the e-government models are following:

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Figure 2: Electronic Management System on e-government

(Source: Sheraz, 2012)

The Electronic Management System on e-government model provides the process of electronic management in four steps. Some steps are also divided into sub-steps.

E-government goals, which states about the situation in order to mitigate the issues. which involve the identifications step which states the sources of information. The sources need to be potential in order to carry on effective e-government management procedure.

E-government attributes is showing the services of the government which are provided. In order to manage electronic services and to convert it into the appropriate presentable form in order to maintain the electronic management, the organizations or sectors like Ministry of Culture of Bahrain, need to follow each step of same model.

2.5.2 Conceptual Framework

Record management theory is related to the importance of electronic management impact on the organization. The context of record management has been described below:

Functional Context: The aim of electronic management is to serve the needs and wants in relation to the supportive mission of the organization. Along with other organizational parts, the role of electronic management is to play to meet the needs and activities of the employees. It aims to preserve the confidential records of the customer to leak out to other companies. Furthermore, it relates to management Information system and data processing to upgrade the productivity of the employees.

Professional Context: Records management to a large extent is based on the retrieval information system that contains common features. As mentioned by Joseph et al. (2017) [18], both theoretical and practical advantages are seen as records that have been adopted as a comparative approach.

Intellectual Context: Intellectual context refers to one of the core ideas of record management. The archival theory is one of the major sources of electronic record management. Intellectual context applied to the system of record management helps to manage all the preserved documents. It aims to use in future or as a part of the evidence to offers to the customers (Mokhtar &Yusof, 2016) [25]. Record management of electronic documents resulted to be less complex and adopted within filing and fetching of documents. Thus, it intends to turn out to be a non-trivial theory to improve the organizational culture. It is mostly believed in Bahrain society.

Electronic Management System helps mainly to preserve the link between the procedure and the record to keep all the records safe and secure from getting lost. Louise Lemieux, Gormly & Rowledge (2014) [23] asserted that record management solution in the Bahrain organizations has been considered to be vital to support the long-term view of the procedure. Furthermore, electronic documentation in current advanced technology years has turned out to be the most important for all organizations. This gives all the information that is widely related to those terms identified by the management industry of document. Such industries describe best about the technology that is underlined as per the requirement of the organization. Studies have encountered with the facts that Electronic Document Management is needed almost now in every enterprise. It holds the aim to capture as well as store large number of documents within the Ministry of culture that include sales orders, invoices, phone interviews, etc. Recorded documents majorly help at the time to reserve all the confidential messages and links that could be in use either as an evidence or future use (Oliver &Foscarini, 2014) [27]. Furthermore, EDM gets combined with other applications in order to combine the workflow speed based on the management approach.

The concept of electronic management represents that Electronic Document Management System is mainly considered as the software program. As stated by Penn & Pennix (2017) [29], it intends to manage the storage of files and create new capacity electronically. The key functions of this system in order to improve the productivity of the employees and Bahrain organizational talent include:

- Document management
- Text retrieval
- Workflow
- Imaging

However, electronic document management system provides the importance of the employees due to:

- It provides security control that mainly accesses information and records publically.
- It offers version control that would help in permitting the users to add documents to the electronic system. It resulted to automatically designate a document that assigns the true designation version.
- It provides metadata capture so that that the system could permit the users in order to capture. Furthermore, it enables to use the proper metadata.

Here is a framework created by the author to clarify the process of electronic system.

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Figure 3: Conceptual Framework

As the conceptual framework showed above, using electronic management system on the organization will develop the skills of human resources and speed up the work process, it’s also helping the organization to build a huge IT infrastructure that can be uses in the future, as well as its increasing the market share in organization area. All those absolutely affect the performance of the organization and guide to achieve the goals of the organization successfully.

2.6 Synthesis

The greatest challenges identified in today’s digital system are both creations as well as maintenance of confidential records. The Ministry of Culture and other organization do not maintain their culture only with behavioral or productivity approach. Additionally, electronic management is vital because to let the organization achieve the positive culture within the organizations. It enables the organization and employees to use it for preserving their authenticity and privacy over time. For every organization, electronic management holds the importance to keep their records stands for the facts in relation to trustworthy. As opined by Meyers & van Woerkom (2014) [25], Ministry of Culture in order to meet the challenges have implemented electronic management and developed influential standards, strategies, and procedures.

As per Coronel & Morris (2016) [11], there are various social and human factors that are creating barrier in front of the implementation process of electronic management. Those barriers are following:

First of all the political barrier is affecting the electronic management process. In each organization, there is workplace politics. The implementation of electronic management involves the change management procedure which provides threat to some people about the chance of losing their position at workplace. For this reason, the implementation faces difficulty.

The second barrier is the chance to lose the productivity of the company. As the implementation and addition of electronic management can provide negative impact on the productivity, so, for this reason, the implementation process faces obstacle.

Thirdly, the skills of employees are also related to the implementation procedure. The electronic management requires appropriate knowledge of the people in order to provide positive impact on the activities of business and remove the chances of lose in productivity. The lack of appropriate skills of the staffs creates barriers for the implementation process of electronic management.

On the other side, another barrier to the implementation of this management system is the infrastructure. Basically, lack of appropriate IT infrastructure within organization creates difficulties for its implementation. For example, if an organization is using old technology, then it is not possible for them to implement the electronic management without affecting the productivity of organizational performance. The electronic management implementation requires appropriate IT structure and infrastructure.

Apart from this, another issue is related to the hardware limitation which creates dimension for the implementation of electronic management. The hardware limitation crease problems for the long-term privacy of the information or preservation of the old information.

On the other side, the dimensions also include the cost. Though the electronic management reduces the operational cost, however, it requires the startup cost and the maintenance cost. In order to maintain the electronic management and electronic record keeping process the organization also need to maintain its functions along with premium up-gradation of the software or technologies.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This chapter is discusses different choices and appropriate methodologies to conduct the research. Different tools have different roles and contribution in various ways to complete the research in an effective manner. This chapter is based on different methodologies, through the discussion detail analysis and detail information can be identified. Adaptation of appropriate methods and tools helped the researcher to have a successful outcome of the research. Different research methods were used by the researcher to finish the study. It is easier for a researcher to conduct and outline a research with the help of appropriate methods. Data collection, data analysis technique as well as the sample size of the research discus in this part of methodology.

3.2 Research Design

Three different types of research philosophy are there. With the help of these philosophies, the researcher conducted the research to identify detailed information. Each of the research philosophies has significant advantages and disadvantages. The researcher had chosen the positivist research philosophy to conduct this particular research. This philosophy is related to research background, different model and theories to support the research. As in this case, the researcher focused on the impact of electronic management on organization.

As the research is based on the electronic management, therefore in the literature review part the researcher discussed different models, and theories that discussed the detailed information about electronic management. Moreover, the electronic management, its impact on the organization also needs to be developed and discussed in this research. Therefore, the researcher had chosen the appropriate research philosophy for this research. Bodie, Kane & Marcus (2014) [9] suggested, in case of reducing the time for the research the positivist research philosophy is the best.

There are two different types of research approach, one is inductive and the other one is deductive. In case of inductive research approach, the researcher needs to develop original research model. In the deductive approach, the researcher has the freedom to use the existing models and the theories to complete the research.

The research focuses on the important and influence of electronic management on an organization. It is important for the researcher to conduct the research with the help of different theories and management model. Therefore, it is evident that the researcher relies on the existing models and theories to complete the research. Moreover, as the researcher adopted this research approach, then the researcher has the scope to identify unidentified information about the electronic management as well (Bodie, Kane& Marcus, 2014) [9].

Research design uses to identify the correct outline of the research. Alonsoet al. (2016) [2] commented it is very important for the researcher to choose an appropriate research design to explain the research topic in the most effective manner. Bodie, Kane& Marcus (2014) [9] identified, research designs are of three different types. With different types of research design, it is easier for a researcher to complete the research in different manner. The first one is the descriptive, this methods deal with the description and interpretation of the research topic in an effective manner. On the other hand, the explanatory research approach has the scope to use different theories and different models to discuss completely the impact of electronic management on organizations. The other one is the exploratory.

In this case, the researcher had chosen the descriptive research design. Bryman& Bell (2015) [8] identified that if any researcher has chosen the descriptive design, then the researcher has all the scope to discuss the research topic in a describe manner to identify all the aspects related to this topic. In this case, the researcher identified the impact of electronic management on organization.

3.3 Population and Sampling

Ministry of Culture of Bahrain is one of the most important ministries in the Bahrain government. The population of employees at the Ministry of Culture of Bahrain is 181. The researcher had chosen 131 staffs from more than 12 departments at the Ministry of Culture of Bahrain to do the quantitative survey to complete the research. Moreover, qualitative methods collected by used interview for 5 managers within the organization. Hence, the researcher had chosen the random sampling method to choose the needed respondent to complete process of data collection for the research.

3.4 Research measurement and Instrument

Two different types of data collection can be identified in case of research methodologies. Through these data collection methods, the researcher can collect the data needed for the research. The data collection methods are known as, the qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods.

Qualitative data collection method

In order to collect the qualitative data, the researcher had chosen interview. Through the interview process, the researcher can collect the qualitative data. Here in this case the researcher had chosen 5 managers from Ministry of Culture of Bahrain to complete the interview process. In order to complete the qualitative data collection process, the researcher needs to determine the sample size and research population. Apart from this, the researcher also collected archive data as the secondary data.

Quantitative data collection method

The survey can help a researcher to collect the quantitative data. Therefore, in this case also, the researcher had chosen survey to complete the research. In order to complete the research, the researcher has set a questionnaire for the representatives of Ministry of Culture of Bahrain from more than 12 departments.

3.5 Validity of Instrument

Vermeersch, Estibals & Alonso (2016) [35] commented that choosing relevant and appropriate data collection tool to collect the data in an appropriate manner is a key to conduct a successful research. There is a concern that the Ministry of Culture of Bahrain and their personnel are not available all the time. Therefore, it is important to choose data collection tools accurately. If any of the data is missed then the researcher cannot get successful outcomes. The researchers usually use the qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The researcher needs to choose different data collection tools for both types of data collection methods. In this research, the researcher had chosen survey questionnaire to complete the research with the representative therefore, in this case the questionnaire used as a research tool. On the other hand, for the interview, the researcher used the interview questionnaire. Therefore, in this case, these are the research tools.

In order to make sure that the collected data are relevant and reliable, the researcher needs to identify the collection source. In case of the Ministry of Culture of Bahrain, the researcher got permission from the organizational head to make it possible to distribute the questions. On the other hand, the secondary data needs to be collected by ensuring relevancy and authenticity of data. In this process, the researcher can maintain the reliability and validity of the collected data.

3.6 Data gathering procedures

Wright et al. (2016) [38] identified that the collected data needs to be analyzed in an effective manner with the help of correct data analysis techniques. In this particular research, the researcher had chosen the quantitative as well as qualitative research to complete the research on the impact of electronic management on Ministry of Culture of Bahrain. This is one of the most important governmental sectors of Bahrain.

However, In order to complete the research and the data collection method, the researcher needs to choose a specific sampling method. From the discussion of Zarranz-Ventura et al (2014) [42] it is identified that the researcher cannot take the overall research population as the sample size for the research. Hence, the researcher had chosen the random sampling method to choose the needed respondent for the research. Zainal (2017) [41] identified that if the researcher chooses the random sampling method, then the researcher can assure an unbiased choice of people. Through the random sampling method, the researcher collected diverse types of data. Here the researcher had chosen 131 staffs from more than 12 departments at the Ministry of Culture of Bahrain for the survey.

3.7 Statistical Instrument of Data

Zarranz-Ventura et al. (2014) [42] opined specific population size and sample size help a researcher to conduct the research in a systematic manner. On the other hand, it also can be identified that the sample size and the population need to be chosen through correct selection process. Here, the researcher selected 131 employees of Ministry of Culture of Bahrain for the survey process. On the other hand, for the interview process 5 managers were also chosen to identify the same manner.

The data collected by the researcher to complete and conduct the researcher were not easy to collect. It was very important for the researcher to be aware of the accessibility issues while conducting a research. Moreover, this research was based on the Ministry of Culture of Bahrain that made it crucial to conduct the interview and survey process. The researcher conducts the survey with 131 employees. In this process, it is very important to make sure that the employees were not forced to give their response to any of the questions. The researcher had chosen the exclusion and inclusion data collection process. According to this process, the researcher had chosen the books and journals from the year of 2013. Hence, the researcher could not collect many books and data before 2013.

The books and journals that have been used for the research collected in an ethical way to avoid any kind of ethical issues in the research process. Many books and journals are secured with for ethical consideration and many of them demand subscription. Therefore, in these processes the researcher had faced different issues to collect the data. However, all the data that the researcher has collected all are secured and safe to use.

Choosing the appropriate data analysis tool is very crucial to the research. The quantitative data will analyze through the statistical data analysis technique. Anova test had taken by researcher to make sure the identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the data has been collected by the researcher. Moreover, the archive data of the organization and the data collected by the researcher will be compared to make sure that the collected data are right. From the data analysis process, the researcher can identify the exact impact on the organizational management.

Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Discussions

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the researcher aimed to analyze the data were collected through different methods. The quantitative data collected using survey of 131 staffs of Ministry of Culture of Bahrain, whereas qualitative methods were collected using interview of 5 managers within the organization. The analysis of the study was done using statistical data method and analysis of the transcript in order to obtain the results. The use of tables and graphs are done in order to give a graphical view of the result of the study.

This chapter presents the result of review and analyzing of the data obtained through the quantitative methods. The analysis has yielded result that the electronic management system is a necessary implementation for an organization in order to manage and maintain the effectiveness of the employees and their services towards the clients. It is essential for a government sector organization to acquire the electronic management system for effective management of the organizational process yielding maximized outcomes.

4.2 Quantitative Data Analysis

*Data Record

1. Are there any electronic record policies within the organization in Bahrain?

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Table 1: Response related to awareness of electronic record policies in the organization

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Chart 1: Response related to awareness of electronic record policies in the organization

Discussion:

From the above analyzed data given in the table, it can be depicted that most of the employees are aware of the fact that their organization had employed electronic record policies in order to strengthen and achieve the common objectives of the organization. From the above survey, 63.56% from the employees they awareness of electronic record policies in the organization, it can be concluded that there are numerous official policies that are being segment under different categories such as office level, agency level or can be combination of both. According to the views of the staffs it was clear that a draft or “in process” policy is one such policy that was not considered to be a part of official policy thus it has been exempted from the survey. This is in conjunction to the statement given in the literature review that it helps in preserving the confidential records of the customers that can leak out to other companies.

2. Are the electronic record policies based on the norms of ISO 15489?

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Table 2: Response related to awareness of electronic record policies based on the norms of ISO 15489

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Chart 2: Response related to awareness of electronic record policies based on the norms of ISO 15489

Discussion:

From the data obtained it can be seen that there is no clear view about the standard of the electronic record policies used in the organization. Among 131 staffs, only 45 or (34.35%) were aware that the electronic record policies is based on the norm of ISO 15489 though the federal and state government is not obliged to comply the norms of ISO 15489. It can be observed that most of the staffs of the Ministry of Culture in Bahrain are unaware of the regulatory norms of the policies being attempted to comply within their organization. This supports the fact that there is an immediate need of implementation on international compliance and cognizance of electronic management on a large scale.

3. Do the staffs get regular training and scheduling in respect to the record management?

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Table 3: Response related to regular training and scheduling of electronic management

Chart 3: Response related to regular training and scheduling of electronic management

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Discussion:

From the data formulated above, it can be seen that there is a provision of regular training and scheduling process of electronic management in the Ministry of Culture in Bahrain. Only 13 or (09.93%) employees did not receive any form of training because either they are new employees or they are lower division employees. The formal procedure involves training and scheduling of the employees in respect to their roles and responsibilities of electronic record management or it involves a regulatory training that is given to new employees.

4. Is there any formal record system that holds claim or litigations?

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Table 4: Response related to formal record system that holds claim or litigations

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Chart 4: Response related to formal record system that holds claim or litigations

Discussion:

According to the respondents, there is a well-defined and formal recording system that holds litigations and claims. Among 131 employees about 50 or (38.17%) said that there are aware of a formal record system. Different recoding systems that are being implemented include agency-wide policies, in-process developing policies and support that are being taken externally. The formal record system that hold claims or litigations help in serving evidence or proof in case of judicial purposes.

5. Is there an effective in the methods of finding the records?

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Table 5 : Response related to the methods of finding the records

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Chart 5 : Response related to the methods of finding the records

Discussion:

From the data obtained during the survey in relation to different methods of retrieval of records, 59.54% of the staffs are conscious about the effective ways of finding records within using the system. The importance of electronic management as viewed by the staffs has been discovered.

*Impact of Electronic Management System

6. Are you aware of any retention and disposition scheduling management?

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Table 6: Retention and disposition scheduling management

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Chart 6: Retention and disposition scheduling management

Discussion:

From the given data it is showed that 92 or (70.23 %) are aware that there is a retention and disposition scheduling management. It is clear from the result that there is a well-defined retention and disposition scheduling management. From the above obtained survey, there is a written retention schedule that provides information to the employees related to disposition of old or unnecessary data within their lifecycle.

7. Is there any IT expert assigned that takes care of the electronic management system in the Ministry of Culture?

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Table 7: Response related any IT expert assigned that takes care of the electronic management system in the Ministry of Culture

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Chart 7: Response related to any IT expert assigned that takes care of the electronic management system in the Ministry of Culture

Discussion:

From the above obtained data. Out of 131 respondents, 77 or (58.78%) staffs said that there is an Information Technology (IT) expert that has been assigned the responsibility of taking care of electronic management system in the Ministry of Culture. The role of IT expert is to provide consultation by analyzing the records of the staffs and identification of any external support which can help and improve the quality of electronic management system. In the support of fact referred in Literature review, electronic management is an integral part that helps in enhancing the productivity of the employees.

8. Is there any recovery plan in case of system failure?

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Table 8: Response related to any recovery plan in case of system failure

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Chart 8: Response related to any recovery plan in case of system failure

Discussion:

From the above analyzed data, 58 or (44.27%) of the staff do not have any clue related to recovery plan of the recorded files in case of system failure. There are certain underlying policies and procedures that are maintained by the higher authority in order to direct appropriate measures so as to recover all the vital records and mitigate any catastrophic effect that can hinder in achieving the goals of the organization . From the information obtained that the higher officials the Ministry of Culture maintain two different ways for recovering the vital records. These include transfer of data to archive and inactive storage.

9. Are there any inactive storage facilities for future use?

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Table 9: Representation of responses related to inactive storage facilities

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Chart 9: Representation of responses related to inactive storage facilities

Discussion:

From the data obtained it can be concluded that more or less equal number of staffs are aware of the inactive storage and vice versa. Active storage is a mode of data storage that transfers data that did not expired their retention period. According to the literature review section, it can be summed up that it maintains the confidentiality of data on a long-term basis.

10. What are the methods used to maintain the records?

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Table 10: Response of respondents in relation to methods used to maintain records

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Chart 10: Response of respondents in relation to methods used to maintain records

Discussion:

Out of 131 respondents, 68 or (51.90%) of them had an opinion that both written and electronic formats were used to maintain the records. 18 or (13.74%) staffs said that only written format is used whereas 36 or (27.48%) said only electronic format is used. The hand written format keeps another duplicate copy of that record electronically on a shared drive.

4.3 Statistical Data Analysis

The below table shows the correlation analysis for the variables found by SPSS method:

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* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level.

From the above correlation and regression analysis, it can be stated that most of the variables related to electronic system within the organization are correlated with the impact of this system in terms of awareness, recovery plan and inactive storage facilities for future use. There is positive correlation between electronic record policy and awareness of retention and deposition scheduling, recovery plan in system failure and inactive storage facilities for future use. At the same time, training and scheduling in respect to record management is also positively correlated with awareness of retention and deposition scheduling and presence of electronic methods is also positively related with awareness of retention and deposition scheduling, recovery plan in system failure.

The below table shows the regression analysis for the variables including regular training and recovery plan in case of system failure:

Model Summary

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a. Predictors: (Constant), Is_there_any_recovery_plan_in_case_of_system_failure

ANOVAb

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a. Predictors: (Constant), Is_there_any_recovery_plan_in_case_of_system_failure

b. Dependent Variable: Do_the_staffs_get_regular_training_and_scheduling_in_respect_to_the_record_management

Coefficientsa

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a. Dependent Variable:Do_the_staffs_get_regular_training_and_scheduling_in_respect_to_the_record_management

The above regression analysis shows that the significant value is greater than 0.05 as the results are statistically significant in relation to the impact of regular training and scheduling in respect to the record management. It means it can be discussed that there is significant relationship between the execution of electronic management system at the ministry of culture (BACA) and helping employees for collecting data, speed recovery of data and assisting in decision making.

4.4 Qualitative data analysis

Qualitative research Questions posed to 5 managers of Ministry of Culture of Bahrain.

Q1. What is the reason to acquire the electronic management system in the organizations of government sector?

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Q2. Why do you think that EMS can manage the employees in the government sector organizations?

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Q3. How EMS has helped your organization to improve service quality of employees?

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Q4. Why do you think EMS can facilitate the services provided by Ministry of Culture of Bahrain?

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Q5. What are the problems faced during implementation of electronic management system in the Ministry Of Culture?

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Q6. What are you going to do for the improvement of electronic management in the organization?

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Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter of the study presents the results that were obtained in the previous chapter and the link between the results. It helps in presenting a distinctive and simpler view of EMS and understanding of the relation between literature review and data obtained. The researcher present forward certain recommendations that will help in understanding the changes related to EMS and the future scope of the study.

5.2 Summary

The impact of electronic management on the Ministry of Culture – Employees & Services. The study is concentrated only on the importance of the EMS and help in services and employees. However, very little research is done on this topic. In the near future, researchers can focus on the other problems related to implementation and adoption of EMS in other sectors. Various data analysis techniques can be implemented in order to understand the perspective and attitude of employees and managers. The organizational culture can be studied in deep details in order understand the importance of EMS and the critical issues related to its implementation. The researcher faced some problems during the preparation of the study. However, the researcher will discuss these problems and find solutions to them in a similar study in the near future.

5.2.1 How Electronic Management System (EMS) assist in easy access of data records at the time of requirement

The first objective of the study is to understand the ways in which electronic management help in accessing the data records when required. The objective is linked with the quantitative questions 1 and 2. In both the question, the employees were asked about the policies and norms of the electronic management. In this case, the answer correlates with the understanding of the employees in relation to electronic management. The electronic management help in resolving various barrier thus achieving the goals of the organization within the given time period. The barriers include political, inefficiency of employees, less skilled employees. Other than these, it also helps in managing the internal communication system that helps in developing the business by enhancing the information technology of the organization. It helps in building a positive relationship between employees, employers, business partners and other external associates. It smoothen the communication issues thus improving the satisfactory level of employees by reducing their work load.

5.2.2 How EMS is helping organization or sector of Bahrain in improving service quality of employees (by reducing workloads, maintaining suitable numbers of employees in each departments, saving time and efforts and reduces expenses)

The second objective is to understand the importance of electronic management system within the Ministry of Culture of Bahrain. The quantitative question 1, 2 and 3 are linked with this objective. The interview question deals with the importance and improvement of EMS within the organization. As mentioned earlier, EMS helps in enhancing the service quality of employees by reducing their work load. The EMS provides an output which is being analyzed in order to take a decision at the time of requirement. It also keeps and maintains certain data record that will help in future use. The EMS helps in maintaining suitable number of employees in different department of the organization. The electronic management helps the employers to understand and evaluate the needs and requirement of each department based on the work load. This facilitates suitable distribution of employees in individual department. This will help in both in reduction of expenses and efficiency of employees.

5.2.3 How EMS facilitate the services provided by Ministry of Culture of Bahrain

The third objective is to analyze in EMS helps the Ministry of Culture to facilitate their services. The objective is linked with quantitative question 4, 7, 10 and qualitative question 4 by understanding the ways by which EMS help to maintain and monitors the operations of the Ministry of Culture of Bahrain. According to the analyzed data, it can be said that EMS help in regular working environment without skipping any essential process or activities. It helps in recording and facilitates the services of the Ministry of Culture. It also helps in understanding the latest advancement of technology that can be utilized in order to enhance the operational process of the organization.

5.2.4 Recommendation for dealing with problems facing while implementation of EMS within an organization or sector

The fourth objectives deals with the recommendations that will help in overcoming the problems faced while implementation of the system within the organization or sector. This objective is directly linked with qualitative question 4,8 and 9 which help us to understand the problems of implementation of EMS within the organization and its solutions. From the data obtained, it can be said that the problems involving implementation of EMS are insufficient funding, different competing priorities, issues related to security that include threats to database, cybercrime and data loss. Other issues are lack of technical skills and lack of efficient strategies for implementation.

In order to resolve these problems of implementation, the organization require sufficient funding from government and non-government agencies that will help in enhancing the performance of organization. Training and scheduling process will help in overcoming the issues of skills and strategies. Implementation of cost effective EMS will help in both enhancing the performance and reduction of organizational cost.

5.2.5 There is no relationship between the implementation of Electronic Management System at the Ministry of Culture (BACA) and helping employees for collecting data, speed recovery of data and assisting in decision making

The researcher reject the null hypothesis, the research results are confirmed that there is a relationship between the implementation of Electronic Management System at the ministry of culture (BACA) and helping employees for collecting data, speed recovery of data and assisting in decision making. These objectives are directly linked with quantitative question 4,5,6,8 and 9 which help us to understand that there is certain relationship with implementation of Electronic Management System at the ministry of culture (BACA). From the quantitative data obtained, In this case, the answer correlates with the understanding of the employees in relation to electronic management.

From the information obtained by the respondents in quantitative question no. 4. It’s showed that the formal record system that hold claims or litigations help in serving evidence or proof in case of judicial purposes. no. 6, Show us that there is a written retention schedule that provides information to the employees related to disposition of old or unnecessary data within their lifecycle. No. 8, clarifying that the higher officials the Ministry of Culture maintain two different ways for recovering the vital records. These include transfer of data to archive and active storage. From the data obtained, in question 9, it can be concluded that more or less equal number of staffs are aware of the inactive storage and vice versa. Active storage is known as a mode of data storage that transfers data to University achieve or State Record Centre (SRC) that did not expired their retention period.

The electronic management help in resolving various barrier thus achieving the goals of the organization within the given time period. The barriers include political, inefficiency of employees, less skilled employees. It also helps in managing the internal communication system that helps in developing the business by enhancing the information technology of the organization. It also helps in building a positive relationship between employees, employers, business partners and other external associates. It smoothen the communicational issues thus improving the satisfactory level of employees by reducing their work load.

5.2.6 There is no relationship between the implementation of Electronic Management System at the ministry of culture (BACA) and improve accuracy of work process and employees, provide better quality of service, speed recovery of data, security and reduce of expenses on budget

The researcher reject the null hypothesis, from the information obtained by the managers in qualitative question, it is confirmed to us that there is a relationship between the implementation of Electronic Management System at the ministry of culture (BACA) and improve accuracy of work process and employees, provide better quality of service, speed recovery of data, security and reduce of expenses on budget. Those objectives variables are directly linked with qualitative question which have been addressed to the managers, which help us to understand that there is certain relationship with implementation of Electronic Management System at the ministry of culture (BACA). From the qualitative data obtained from questions no. 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 , In this case, the answer correlates with the objectives getting by implementing Electronic Management System at the Ministry of Culture (BACA).

Improve Electronic Management System at the ministry of culture (BACA) is improve accuracy of work process and employees, qualitative question no. 1, 4th manager said that “This makes easy access to the information whenever required from any place with the help of advanced information technology.” Question no. 2, 2nd manager mention that “EMS is quite effective in managing the employee payrolls”, as well in the same question 5th manager said “We think EMS can be helpful for performance management. The electronic management system has the options to plan, coach employees, evaluate their performances and provide rewards”.

Electronic Management System at the ministry of culture (BACA) provides better quality of services. 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th manager in question no. 3, all agreed in their answers that “The system enhances the performance of the employees and hence the services provided by the organization become satisfactory.”

The electronic management helps in reducing expenses on budget. From the information obtained by the managers in qualitative question. 3rd manager in question no. 1, said “EMS is the advanced technology that enables managing the human resource of an organization. Managing human resource is an important aspect on which the entire organization is based on for the ultimate outcomes. Managing employees and their aspects becomes easier with the help of such technology. This reduces cost as well as time.” 5th manager said “This system saves time as well as resources”. All that confirms that the use of the electronic system reduces expenses in terms of the number of employees and the saving of resources such as: stationery, reduce paper usage “that will help environment to apply go green and safe world.

As well as through the expert's, the Chief Executive Officer of the Authority of Information & E-Government in the Kingdom of Bahrain, through an awareness lecture published in the Alayam [1] newspapers on 7th August 2018, he confirmed that the step taken by the Ministry of Youth and Sports to stop using documents paper based products and replace it with modern technology by January 2019 is working to lay the foundation for the next generation and ensure its adoption of the concept and importance of information technology in raising production efficiency and reducing costs on budget and following the highest standards of environmental standards.

He pointed out that all Government institutions must adopt electronic services to achieve the objectives of the economic vision of the Kingdom of Bahrain 2030 to support Bahrain's efforts in the field of electronic transformation and sustainability in all areas of organizations to enhance the performance and efficiency of the services provided. He mentioned that supporting smart initiatives will contribute to the electronic transformation of all processes provided by the government sector, which will contribute to enhancing the working environment while reducing costs, reducing paper use, and preserving the environment.

Also the CEO mentioned that the Bahrain Government offering more than 350 electronic services through its various channels, in efforts of cooperation between the Authority of Information & E-Government and government institutions to achieve electronic transformation through which is helps the government retain the electronic data records in safe area and distributed documents by reducing operating expenses, complete their transactions electronically with clients faster and to avoid hardship, As well as to accurately distinguish time, effort and enhance electronic security, as well as reduce the environmental impact and risk of loss and damage as the result of papers.

In this regards, the electricity and water authority stop printed the monthly bills were transferred to electronic bills, which was estimated at 3.6 million bills per year, which led to the provision of direct cost of BD 1.3 million, including printing, distribution and mail delivery to subscribers. Moreover, it’s Contribute to preserving the environment “Go Green” by reducing the emission of carbon dioxide in the air, resulting from the use of cars to distribute bills.

Electronic management system one of the successful projects in the process of electronic transfers and stops the circulation of paper. At the Council of Representatives its contributed 84% on items of paper expenses, printing inks, and fuel expenses to deliver printed documents to the concerned and save printed materials. It’s also effective in distributing the materials of meetings of committees and meetings of the Office, which is attending by more than 60 people, which is estimated about 24,249 consumption of paper in the legislative session. The system was activated in a number of Government Institutions.

It is worth noting that the Global Information Technology Report for the years 2017 ranked Bahrain as the third globally in the government's vision to promote the spread of ICTs and the provision of electronic services, and ranked 13th in the global social impact indicator for ICT.

5.3 Conclusion

It is evident that electronic management plays a critical role in the organizational culture of the Ministry of Culture in Bahrain. From the discussion and analysis, we can conclude that it have greatly influenced the organizational culture and have revolutionized the business world. It can be mentioned that Human Resource Management is one of the most essential asset of an organization. In order to manage and effectively utilize the functions of employees, the organization has implemented the electronic management. The main objective of electronic management is to monitor the activities of the employees and help in increasing the efficiency of each employee. The system helps in reducing the work load by helping the employees to analyze and take thoughtful decisions as its shown on the statically correlations in previous chapter .

In the current study, different research techniques have been applied in order to analyze the impact of electronic management on the organization. The literature review was conducted in order to help the researchers to understand the roles and responsibilities of electronic management in the due course of time. The different organizational cultures are being analyzed in order to understand the characteristic and mode of operation within the organization. From the analysis section, the researcher understood that the employees of the Ministry of Culture, Bahrain are well aware of the fact that the organization is utilizing electronic management, however most of them are unaware about the policies, procedures and other underlying factors related to it.

5.4 Recommendations

It is unfeasible for the Ministry of Culture, Bahrain to completely abandon the system of paper recording keeping. From the responses of both the employees and manager of the organization, it is clear that they are more comfortable in keeping paper records due to lack of understanding and technical help, as well as it shown same results from the correlation between the effective in the methods of finding the records and the awareness of any retention and disposition scheduling manage.

However, in today’s world the records are digitally accepted and created electronically. Thus, creation of EMS will improve and enhance the management of records in both paper and electronic format.

In this regards, the researcher made some recommendations that could help the Ministry of Culture in the Kingdom of Bahrain to achieve the highest standards of quality at work area as well as to achieve the objectives of the ministry and improve their services to the public.

5.4.1 Creation of EMS Research Team

The transition of paper to electronic based system will help in serving as official records. This implementation will require the help of authority from government officials along with the employees and staffs of the Ministry of Culture, Bahrain. This require office management and Budgeting planning which will effective help in adoption of EMS as discussed in the study. The organization needs to create a EMS Research Team that will consult and recommends a file plan that will integrate with the existing retention and disposition strategies used in the organization. The team also needs to abide all the policies and regulations that are imposed by the government in order to effective implement the system.

5.4.2 Distribution of work load to different employees

It is important for the Ministry of Culture to distribute the work load equal to different employees. It is not feasible for a team to monitor and manage the entire EMS from their ends. The role of the team is to consult and implementation the system in an effective. However, there are certain other responsibilities such as storing recording in different drive, retrieval, setting up identical drives and maintaining the general convention in the organization. Thus, individual employees from different department need to be chosen and assigned for effective working of the organization. This will help in achieving the goals and objective of the organization.

5.4.3 Implementation of Tide-over approach

As stated earlier, it is impractical for the organization to shift to EMS with a short period of time. This is being backward step that can affect the process and activities of all department of the Ministry of Culture, Bahrain. Therefore, it is advisable to duplicate the file plan on the shared drive. This will help in minimal investment and operational cost. It will also help in record keeping of each file on a long term basis.

5.4.4 Proper training and scheduling sessions

Proper training and scheduling process on a regular basis is an important step towards implementation of EMS in the organization. It can help in reducing use of paper for record keeping process and lack of technical skills. This will ultimately develop the widespread of electronic use of record system.

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Details

Pages
54
Year
2018
ISBN (Book)
9783668870338
Language
English
Catalog Number
v452629
Grade
Tags
impact electronic management ministry culture employees services

Author

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Title: The Impact of Electronic Management on Ministry of Culture Employees and Services