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Analysis and comparison of German and Japanese culture with special focus on leadership

Term Paper 2017 17 Pages

Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance

Excerpt

Table of contents

List of Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Cultural theories and definitions
2.1 Culture and leadership
2.2 Main Cultural theories
2.2.1 Theory of Edward T. Hall
2.2.2 Theory of Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner
2.2.3 Cultural dimensions according the GLOBE-Study

3 Cultural Dimensions in Germany and Japan
3.1 Cultural theory of Geert Hofstede
3.2 Analyze by using the dimension “Power Distance”
3.2.1 Germany
3.2.2 Japan
3.3 Analyze by using the dimension “Masculinity versus Femininity”
3.3.1 Germany
3.3.2 Japan
3.4 Comparison of both cultures with focus on leadership 4 Conclusion Bibliography

Index of internet sources

List of Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1 Introduction

The world of business continues to change rapidly due to the further sustained globalization resulting in an ever increasing level of interconnectedness between countries. Whilst this could result in major benefits for the economy and quality of living, confrontations resulting from different cultures are becoming more frequent, which can have material impact on business. It is therefore essential to pay particu­lar attention to cultural differences from a business perspective, to avoid disastrous outcomes such as the merger of Daimler Chrysler1, or BMW and Rover.2

The aim of this paper is to analyze the differences in business leadership in Ger­many and Japan, based on widely known and academically respected cultural frameworks. This is particularly important for globally operating firms in order to have the greatest possible success, to motivate the employees, and avoid business failure due to cultural clashes.

The intention of chapter 2 is to provide the reader with an understanding of the terms culture and leadership. Furthermore, this chapter focuses on the description and explanation of the cultural theories of Edward T. Hall, Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner, as well as the Globe study.

Chapter 3 focuses on the description of Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theo­ry. In order to distinguish the German and Japanese culture and its leadership styles, two selected dimensions of his theory will be applied. At the end of this chapter, both cultures are differentiated again, and it is determined which style of leadership suits to which culture.

Finally, the term work in chapter 4 comes to a conclusion that refers to the gained knowledge of the previous chapters.

2 Cultural theories and definitions

2.1 Culture and leadership

The two most important terms in this paper are “culture” and “leadership”. In order to better understand these crucial words, this paper describes them as following:

Because of the many different interpretations of the term “culture”, it is difficult to be defined. The term “culture” has its seeds in the latin word “cultura“, where it stands for farming and the care of body and mind.3 Nowadays “culture” is more defined as “the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, defined by eve­rything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts”.4

To define the word “leadership” it is essential to separate it from the word “man­agement”. Management is related to administration or captaincy of a certain situa­tion, whereas a leader provides a vision and leads the way forward. Hence, Lead­ership means to inspire and motivate the guided with a vision.5

2.2 Main Cultural theories

In order to be able to understand, depict and compare cultures, different theories have been developed in the past. Cultural theorists constructed plans to explain a culture such as their different ways of thinking, their actions or their behavior.

The most important and respected theories are the ones defined by Edward T. Hall, Fons Trompenaars/ Charles Hampden-Turner, Geert Hofstede and the GLOBE- Study.

The analysis of this paper grounds on the cultural theories of Geert Hofstede and the GLOBE-Study, which and are explained in greater detail in the following chap­ter.

2.2.1 Theory of Edward T. Hall

Edward Twitchell Hall (1914 - 2009) was an American anthropologist and ethnol­ogist, whose books were published between 1959 and 1990.6 In contrast to other famous cultural researcher like Hofstede and Trompenaars, Hall explained his theory successively, defining the four cultural dimensions below.

- Context
- Time
- Space also known as Proxemics7
- Speed of Information

2.2.2 Theory of Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner

Fons Trompenaars (born 1952) is a Dutch-French organizational theorist, man­agement trainer and motivational speaker in the area of intercultural communica­tion. He is also known as an author of many books about culture and business.8

Together with Charles Hampden-Turner (born 1934), Trompenaars published sev­eral books on the subject intercultural communications, such as “Riding the Waves of Culture”. Hampden-Turner is also known as a recognized key business thinker. He has consulted companies like Shell, KMPG and British Airways.6

In their book “Riding the Waves of Culture”, published in 1993, they identified seven dimensions of culture. To define these, they interviewed about 15,000 managers from various companies in 47 countries.9 The seven dimensions defined are Uni­versalism versus Particuralism10, Individualism versus Communitarianism11, Neutral versus Affective12, Specific versus Diffuse13, Achievement versus Ascription14, Se­quential versus Synchronic15 and Internal versus External control16.

2.2.3 Cultural dimensions according the GLOBE-Study

The Global Leadership Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research (GLOBE) is the result of a ten year survey-based study of societal culture, organizational cui- ture, and attributes of effective leadership. About 200 researchers have studied 17,300 mid-level managers in more than 900 organizations of several branches from 62 countries. This study redefines the scientific understanding of how culture and leadership styles differentiate between countries or whole cultural groups. The result of this study is published in the book “Culture, Leadership, and Organiza­tions: The GLOBE study of 62 Societies”.17

The respondents were not only asked about their current organization, they also had to explain how the values should be in their organizations. As a result of this survey they analyzed nine dimensions of cultures18 and six types of leadership.19 Six dimensions of culture used in the GLOBE study have their origin in the studies of Hofstede:

- Uncertainty Avoidance
- Power Distance
- Collectivism (institutional collectivism)
- Collectivism (in-group)20
- Gender Egalitarianism21
- Assertiveness22

In addition to these six dimensions, three additional ones were explored within the GLOBE-Study:

- Future Orientation23
- Performance Orientation
- Human Orientation24

As mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, the Globe study has researched six different types of leadership styles:25

- Charismatic and value-based leadership
- Team-oriented leadership
- Participative leadership
- Human-oriented leadership
- Autonomous leadership
- Self-protective leadership

3 Cultural Dimensions in Germany and Japan

3.1 Cultural theory of Geert Hofstede

Geert Hofstede (born 1928) is a Dutch expert on cultural sciences. He is an emeri­tus Professor of Organizational Anthropology and International Management at the University of Maastricht. He gained global recognition for the work and analysis he conducted of IBM employees around the world and the recognition of the connec­tions between culture and corporate culture. Geert Hofstede collected data from about 116,000 IBM employees in more than 70 countries from 1967 to 1973 and 1987. His research is one of the most elaborated and acknowledged of the com­parative studies of culture. He published his results in the book “Cultures and Or­ganizations: Software of the mind” in 1980.26

[...]


1 Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (DaimlerChrysler, 2007): Daimler verkauft Chrysler, http://www.faz.net/aktuell/wlrtschaft/unternehmen/ende-elner-ehe-dalmler-verkauft-chrysler- 1281175.html (Access: 30-07-17 12:01 MEZ).

2 Spiegel (BMW, 2000): BMW trennt sich von Rover, MG und Land Rover (2000-03-16), http://www.splegel.de/wlrtschaft/ausverkauf-bmw-trennt-slch-von-rover-mg-und-land-rover-a- 69315.html (Access: 30-07-17 11:56 MEZ).

3 Bibliographisches Institut (Duden, 2017): culture, http://www.duden.de/rechtschrelbung/Kultur, (Ac­cess 24-07-17, 13:57 MEZ).

4 Zimmermann, Kim Ann, (Cultur, 2017): What is Culture? I Definition of Culture, https://www.llvesclence.com/21478-what-ls-culture-deflnltlon-of-culture.html, (Access 24-07-17 14:00 MEZ).

5 Hegele-Ralh, Cornelia (Leadership, 2004), Leadership?,

http://www.harvardbuslnessmanager.de/heft/artlkel/a-620896.html, (Access: 24-07-17 14:04 MEZ).

6 Changing Works (2002-2016), Halls cultural factors,

http://changingminds.org/explanations/culture/hall_culture.htm (Access: 24-07-17 14:10 MEZ).

7 Müller, Barbara, Dynamics of International Advertising: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives,

2011, p. 127.

8 Trompenaars, Fons; Hampden-Turner, Charles, Riding the Waves of Culture, 2011, p.390.

9 Trompenaars, Fons (Cultural Diversity, 1993): Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business, 1st Ed., Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 1993, p. 2.

10 Trompenaars, Fons (Cultural Diversity, 2012): Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversi- tv In global Business, 3th Ed., Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2012, p. 11.

11 Trompenaars, Fons (Cultural Diversity, 2012): Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Divers¡- ty in global Business, 3th Ed., Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2012, p. 11.

12 Trompenaars, Fons (Cultural Diversity, 2012): Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Divers¡- ty in global Business, 3th Ed., Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2012, p. 11-12.

13 Trompenaars, Fons (Cultural Diversity, 2012): Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversi­ty in global Business, 3th Ed., Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2012, p. 147.

14 Trompenaars, Fons (Cultural Diversity, 2012): Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversi­ty in global Business, 3th Ed., Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2012, p. 173.

15 Trompenaars, Fons (Cultural Diversity, 2012): Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversi­ty in global Business, 3th Ed., Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2012, p. 12.

16 Trompenaars, Fons (Cultural Diversity, 2012): Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversi­ty in global Business, 3th Ed., Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2012, p. 12.

17 GLOBE (GLOBE-Study, 2016): About the studies (No Date), http://globeproject.com/studies, (Ac­cess: 26-07-17 18:51 MEZ).

18 House, Robert J.; etai. (Culture, 2004): Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, 1st, SAGE Publications, p.3.

19 House, Robert J.; etai. (Culture, 2004): Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, 1st, SAGE Publications, p. 13.

20 House, Robert J.; et al.(Culture, 2004): Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 Societies, 1st, SAGE Publications, p.12.

21 House, Robert J., etai. (Culture, 2004): Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, 1st, SAGE Publications, p.12.

22 House, Robert J., etai. (Culture, 2004): Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, 1st, SAGE Publications, p.12.

23 House, Robert J., etai. (Culture, 2004): Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, 1st, SAGE Publications, p.12.

24 House, Robert J., etai. (Culture, 2004): Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, 1st, SAGE Publications, p. 13.

25 House, Robert J., etai. (Culture, 2004): Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, 1st, SAGE Publications, p.14.

26 The Hofstede Centre (Geert Hofstede, 2017): Research, https://geert-hofstede.com/research.html (Access: 25-07-17 23:04 MEZ).

Details

Pages
17
Year
2017
ISBN (eBook)
9783668781405
ISBN (Book)
9783668781412
Language
English
Catalog Number
v437692
Institution / College
University of applied sciences, Munich
Grade
2,0
Tags
analysis german japanese

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Title: Analysis and comparison of German and Japanese culture with special focus on leadership