Rivalry, technological growth, lessening yields from current methods, and a change to creating prosperity through information require a new group that is innovative. Innovation is creativity that enhances worth. This paper offers a short-term indication of the Osborn-Parnes creative problem solving procedure, the eldest and most used in the creativity process.
Is creativity a character trait that is nearby to only a little? No. Study has shown everyone has some creativity, but it has been muffled by Freud's rational that creativity and imagination are related to mental illness and the methodical rank on greed and logical rational. Partridge notes that there are "One hundred and twenty dissimilar, special and quantifiable features of creative thinking which distinguish humans from extra classes. These extensive creative capabilities have been, thoughtful to mankind's ability to take to varying states, settings, and administrations. Lessons of creative thinking have documented that persons showing higher than usual scores in creative thinking also show higher than average sums in areas of mental, sensitive well-being. Systematic courses of teaching in practical imagination yield considerable advances in personality characters such as self-confidence, independence, influence, creativeness, and control (Partridge, 1997 p.157).” The challenge is to create an atmosphere that will bring out the creativity of everybody and make those who have established creativity even more creative in problem solving.
“Sidney J. Parnes, a professor at Buffalo State College, NY, work together with Alex Osborn to cultivate what is known as the Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Model. It contains of the six steps: recognize the objective, test, meet facts, explain the problem, produce ideas, and reinforce solutions plus plan for action (Vehar, 1997).” The actions in the first part of each step are designed to arouse divergent thinking, later the diverge symbol. The final part of each step converges this thinking for change to the next step. “Some people may find it more relaxed to think of divergent and convergent thoughtfulness as imaginative and applied thinking (Solomon, 1990 p.473).”
Divergent& Convergent Stage
The objective of the divergent stage is to make as systems as possible, using methods that deliver an inspiring atmosphere to upsurge one's exposé. The convergent phase purifies and understands these contacts into hands-on attitudes that can be taken to the next stage. The final convergence is actionable plan that will be familiar and applied by depositors. Each period makes widespread use of the Socratic review technique by asking requests to shorten idea collections. Examples of investigations that are used by organizers look external or outside the loop. This is the instrument for changing a team into a reforming one. I focused here on the Osborn-Parnes model for encouraging creativity because it is the eldest, broadly used, in a constant state of development, and my analysis of many following mockups, has yet to discover one that does not take its origins in the Osborne-Parnes model in creative problem solving.
Brief review and History of Osborn-Parnes
This brief review of the Osborn-Parnes model of the creative problem solving process leads to the assumption that it is scientifically sound, very applied, endlessly evolving, and can be readily modified to present decision procedures for rapid acceptance by teams. One need only look within himself or herself and to relations, administration, institutes, and companies to see the need for imaginings and creative problem solving. But the director of sessions in these locations should retell the group that the implementer is like an expedition's guide into the indefinite.
One scholar, Anderson defined creativity as "nothing more than going outside the current limits, whether those are limits of skill, material, existing practices, communal norms, or beliefs. Creativity is nonentity more than seeing and acting on new relations, conveying them to life (Anderson, 1992 p.41).” While there are many meanings of novelty, it is clear using imagination to add worth. Worth can be monetary, shared, psychological, or creative.
Osborn’s Creativity in saving the Goodrich account for the BBO
Osborn joined the advertising agency of Barton & Durstine in August of 1919 with an understanding that he would work primarily out of Buffalo; and the agency would become known as Barton, Durstine & Osborn (Osborn, 1966; BBDO, 1997). In 1928, Barton, Durstine and Osborn merged with the George Batten firm and would become known as Batten, Barton, Durstine and Osborn (BBD&O) (Osborn,” 1966). Osborn became general manager of BBD&O in 1939 and went on to become its chairman, then vice chairman until his retirement in 1960. He aided as a trustee for Western Savings Bank and Hamilton College (Osborn, 1966), and as a council member for the University of Buffalo from 1951-1959 (University Archives – State University of New York at Buffalo, 1998). Mr. Osborn died of cancer in Roswell Park Memorial Institute on May 5, 1966, at the age of 77 (Osborn, 1966).
After years of success and having survived the Great Depression, BBDO underwent a crisis in 1938, losing many of its clients and key personnel. Osborn commuted to New York City and eventually saved the company by securing the Goodrich tire account through early brainstorming methods. In 1939, he became BBDO's executive vice president after Durstine resigned. Osborn was crucial in recruiting many top employees, including Ben Duffy, who eventually became the president of BBDO.
Osborn became increasingly active as an author, and published several books on creative thinking. In 1942, How to think up was published, in which Osborn presented the technique of Brainstorming, which had been used at BBDO. I use brainstorming techniques as way to defer judgment and not to rush to conclusions which might hinder the problem solving process. Eventually, Osborn's writing career overtook his work in advertising, and in 1960, after more than forty years, he resigned from BBDO’s board of directors. Sidney Parnes, PhD, a psychologist who worked with Alex Osborn and designed methods for teaching CPS. I am grateful that these great minds have contributed to the CPS process because problems can now be viewed as opportunities.
Alex Osborn's breakthrough book published Applied Imagination. Here Osborn details the attributes of Creative Problem Solving. Dr. S. Parnes in various texts defines a prearranged process for CPS. In 1954, Osborn created the Creative Education Foundation, which was continued by the payments earned from his books. I have visited the Creative Studies library and read some interesting books and found articles which for me have been mind blowing.
Along with Sidney Parnes, Osborn developed the "Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process" He co-founded the Creative Education Foundation's Creative Problem Solving Institute, the world's longest running international creativity conference, and CPS has been taught at that conference as well as year round in other venues for more than 50 years (Chae 1997).
The six steps of CPS are
1. Objective Finding,
2. Data Finding,
3. Problem Finding,
4. Idea Finding,
5. Solution Finding
6. Acceptance Finding.
Cooperating these steps within each stage, (in my own life) one using CPS employs divergent thinking or Brainstorming and convergent thinking, focusing in on the "greatest" answer given the context of the situation. Many publications are available that include “Thinking Tools” to organize divergent and convergent thinking and that leader the process to a deduction. The goal of CPS is to find the "improved" answer to a problem, given the background of the condition (wikipedia.org). At my place of employment at meetings, on average problems that could have answers don’t get solved because no one took the time out to use divergent and convergent thinking tool styles into account for sheer lack of knowledge and loss of creativity.
In Summary, executives who want thorough cases that prove the competence of CPS may be surrounded in the Newtonian mechanistic idea that pressures cause and effects. Creativity, is outside this model. In reach for such proof the decision-making, will be missing opportunities. A short session on a small problem led by a trained facilitator should demonstrate that the process can move a society toward a state of continuous origination. I wish to someday teach companies to find solutions to work related problems. Osborn and Parnes paved the way for outside the box thinking based on what Torrance created. I learned in Principals in Creative Problem Solving class how to use CPS tools in every aspect of my life now.
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- State University of New York at Buffalo – University of New York