METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS
OF ARYAN ORIGIN
1. 1. The origin of the phonetic system to the Indo-European protolanguage (based on "Energy Theory of Speech»)
1. 2.The place of "diachronic constant" in the problem’s research
1. 3. The phenomenon of substrates in Indo-European languages
THE AFFINITY OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN PROTO-LANGUAGE AND THE LANGUAGES OF AFRICA
2. 1. The formation of the phonetic system of proto-speech and ancient pre-Indo-European characteristics
2. 2. The migration of Aryans from African continent
2.2.1. Existence and neighborhood with Semites, Sumerians and Mediterranean people
SECTION 3. EASTERN EUROPEAN HYPOTHESIS OF ARYAN ORIGIN
3.1. Contact with the Uralic peoples
3. 2. Migration of Aryans to the Black Sea and the influence of Trypillian substrates
3.2.1. Tendencies for open syllables and phonetic change
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This study is related to Indo-European linguistics and examines the problems affecting the Aryans, their origins, migrations and the peculiarities of Indo-European speech. The latter is based on these problems of the ethnos and forms the hypothesis of the original location of the Aryans, the origins of which reach the oecumene of Africa. Thanks to linguistic signs, in our opinion, it is possible to speak with a high degree of certainty about the first settlements of Indo-Europeans, to determine the ways of their migration and including substrate phenomena to affirm the places of long habitation. These attributes include the primary evidence of the emerging phonetic system in the Aryans, among which the leading constants and peculiarities of the influence of Trypillian substrate are distinguished. All these initials postulate the emerging Indo-European proto-language form, in our study, the methodological foundations for the consideration of the origin of the Aryans and their migration (section 1).
Obviously, these linguistic features are of great importance when considering the above-mentioned problems. Since these signs are certain facts and are proto-languages derived from a comparative-historical study, it would be quite logical to call them diachronic, thus highlighting the "diachronic constant" (according to M. M. Gukhman). There is no doubt that all this was preceded by the study of the results of modern and ancient studies. Since the birth of comparative historical linguistics, which opened the way to the existence of a related Indo-European group of languages and their development, the problem of the origin of these languages and their carriers - the Aryans - also appeared. The affinity of European and Indo-Iranian languages also gave rise to the first hypothesis of the primacy of the latter and the corresponding localization of this ethnos (Haarmann, 2010, p. 7): It is known from literature that the affinity of Indo-European languages was first established by comparing word forms (Wilhelm Jones, 1786), but even earlier the languages of Europe and India were compared in the 16th century, in 1767 Jesuit Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux conducted lexico-grammatical comparisons between Sanskrit and Latin, seeking a proto-language in the 18th century was Lorenzo Hervás.
In general, a number of scientists adhere to the concept of convergent development of people (Trubeckoj, 1987, 44-59), according to which the Aryans, emerging from the Indo-European precambrian community, were a primordially heterogeneous ethno-speaking community that formed on the basis of territorial and pagan proximity in a relatively unified ethnos and superstitious (koine), which arose in the form of Indo-European proto-language. Studies in the field of general linguistics have confirmed the reality of this hypothesis (J. Baudouin de Courtenay, F. de Saussure, W. Porzig, G. P. Pivtorak, O. N. Trubachov, Y. Shevelev), the understanding of which could be extended to the time of formation of separate Indo-European subethnos and languages. It is from these positions that we consider the problem of the origin of the Aryan people and its language, which was formed during the existential period of these tribes and dialects and, consolidated on the basis of adjacent propinquity and proximity of faith, gradually led to the formation of the people with a single language. This understanding of the evolution of ethno- and glottogenesis is corroborated by our research and the preliminary results of the study of the history of Indo-European common people and their languages.
The basis of the study regarding the problem about the origin of the Aryans are composed of different theories, many of which are linguistical as well as archaeological, ethnical, genetic and other types of complex approaches. However, to date, the above problem concerning the origin of the Aryans has not found its final solution. In our point of view, the formulation of linguistic criteria in the first place, as noted by many authors of the theories, gives tangible results of advancing towards the solution pertaining to the problem of the origin of the Aryans. This is particularly noteworthy at the present stage of research, on which it is needed to highlight the most progressive achievements of scientific research in the past. The study of the problem, stated above, by national and foreign scientists is shown in the text below.
Consideration of the above-mentioned problems led us to the formation of the African theory of the Aryan origin and their proto-language. This hypothesis passes the main line in the monograph, covering all its sections (sections 2 and 3). According to the material, the initial signs of phonetic realization in Indo-European proto-languages have their origins in the languages of Bantu and other languages of Africa, which explain the prevalence of old Indo-European language structures of open syllables and the action of the Slavic "Law of Open Syllables". Something especially clear, in a relatively late hour for the Aryans, was particularly manifested in the "recent" tendency to the open syllable, caused by the substrate influence of the language of the Trypillian population (IV millennium BC). The same substrate also led to changes in the Indo-European language * k ṷ in the phonetically related consonants /р/ and /t/, which hypothetically, through the Trypillians, reach the time of the placement of these tribes in African terrain.
In general, "diachronic constants" indicate the paths of migrations of the Aryans, which lead to the African continent near the VII millennium BC and headed towards Asia Minor and the Mediterranean coast, as evidenced by the Anatolian hypothesis of the Aryan dispersal. At this time, the Aryan community was divided into two groups: the western group, which left Asia Minor to the Balkans while creating in the process the languages of the Hittite, Armenian, Greek and Albanian, and the eastern group that traversed the Caucasus from the East and met the Finno-Ugric tribes, evidenced by the Uralic theory of Aryan origin.
The Eastern group, divided into two subgroups, dispersed in opposite directions: the eastern part went towards China, forming the ORDOS region (the Tocharian language), and the second part went west, occupying the northern Black Sea region and the forest-steppe of Ukraine to the Carpathians. This time the life of the Aryans is reflected in the theory of the Eastern European origins of the ethnic group. In this area, around the ІІІ millennium BC, the disintegration of the former ethnic group of the Aryans took place and the Slavs, the Balts, the Germans, Italians, Celts, Illyrians and Thracians emerged in the direction of Central and Northern Europe. Beforehand, Indo-Iranians went in the direction of Northern India through the Caspian lands, later forming Pakistan, India, and others. This time is certified in Sanskrit texts dating from the ІІ millennium BC.
Deep gratitude goes to the rector of the International Humanitarian University A. F. Kryzhanivskyi, corresponding to the Academic Council and the collectives of the departments of the faculty "Linguistics and Translation" for spiritual support in the preparation and publication of this monograph. A hearty thank you also goes to the reviewers V. I. Kushnerik and F. Nanitelamio (an expert on the Bantu language) for the careful reading of this text and the comments made that contributed to it’s significant improvement and the logical affirmation of the author's concept regarding the origin of the Aryan ethnic group and it’s language. We are grateful to Polina Novytska for translating the Ukrainian source text into English (Taranets, Stupak, 2017).
Significant support in solving disputed issues gave us conversations and consultations with scholars, among which we are deeply grateful to M. P. Lesyuk, G. K. Kozholjanko, O. A. Martynyuk, O. V. Yakovleva. Great help was provided to us by colleagues and friends in accessing domestic and foreign literature, for which we are very thankful and among them we want to name I. G. Kulyna, L. P. Sannikova, B. V. Maksymchuk, N. V. Petlyuchenko, I. V. Slobodtsova, I. V. Peresada, I. O. Nechepurenko, N. I. Kozak and L. M. Zoshchenko, T. Kara. We express gratitude to L. Je. Taranets for the spiritual and physical support in this intense work. We are deeply grateful for the good printing of the work and the employees consisting of publishers and typists, in particular O. V. Patik (head of the publishing house) and J. I. Brikalina (head of the printing house). We sincerely thank V. D. Rome for the artwork of the cover.
SECTION І.Methodological basis of research on problems of the Aryan origin
1.1.The origin of the phonetic system of the Indo-European protolanguage(based on «The Energy Theory of Speech»)
The aforementioned research is based on the results of the sound aspect study of indo-european vocabulary operation and etymologization, according to its analysis over the last two centuries (F. Bopp, K. Brugmann, J. Grimm, H. Paul, I. O. Baudouin de Courtenay, L. R. Zinder, L. V. Bondarko, T. V. Gamkrelidze, О. S. Melʼničuk, L. G. Skalozub). In the basis of the above material are these phonetic features, which are considered to be conceptual when examining the origin of indo-european protolanguage.
One of the principal tenets of our research is the “Energy structure” of speech, which is the basis of V. G. Taranets “The Energy Theory of Speech” (ETS) (Taranec, 1997) work. It is believed that this structure existed at the origination of speech units in the creation period of human language.
As a result of experimental research of the speech units, in the Laboratory of German and Odessa universities (Prof. Dr. G. Lindner, Prof. Dr. T. Mehnert та Prof. Dr. Т. О. Brovchenko, Prof. Dr. V. D. Taranenko) V. G. Taranets defined energy (physiological) structure that resembles ascending-descending tension change of articulation, the top of which is shifted to the “left” (positive asymmetry). The basis of this structure is a physiological unit, typical for a single muscular contraction and nerve fiber renewable energy. It is assumed that it was becoming a part of the original structures (CV), word (Wort), phrase (Satz) and expression (Ausspruch) in different languages. (see Fig. 1). Similar structure is implemented on a single muscle contraction, as shown by A. V. Hyll (Hyll, 1972, p. 84).
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Fig. 1. Energy impulse structure (similar to the structure of single muscle contraction, and the structure of the speech units – ECV, EW, ES, EA) (Taranec, 1997, p. 14)
According to the study, the time of ascending compared to the time of descending in energy structure is 1:2 (Taranec, 1997, p. 20). Rising curve is called “working phase” during the muscle contraction, and downward curve is called “phase of relative calm”. Such alternating rhythm, which happens during the realization of polysyllabic units, makes the muscles of speech, in principle, unable to be tired out, enabling them to work constantly.
Beginning of the ascending of the energy accounts for sound, where consonants or their combination is made, and descending curve is the place of the vowel realization. The aforementioned primary ECV structure was considered a “sylabophonema”, which did not differ individual phonemic sounds – consonant and vowel. Strong physiological nature of the initial sound in the speech unit served as a basis for the first written fixation of the speech and created so-called “consonantal” writing. Because such speech unit was developing in the “complex phoneme” → “sound phoneme” direction, later within this articulation originated a contrast of phonemic unit “consonant + vowel”, which is the prototype of modern CV.
Our experimental studies have provided the groups of consonants with E0 own energy, which were implemented in the initial position of energy structure. This data is presented in Table 1 and shows the relationship of articulatory tension between individual consonants in modern Ukrainian and German languages (Taranec, 1997, p. 22). We assumed that the relative characteristics, in the sense of “more/less”, between the groups of consonants, reflect the general condition of their articulation and can be transferred to other languages and to the earlier times of their existence.This thesis is further confirmed by typological studies in other languages, done by various authors (see: Appel, 1957/1958; Shevoroshkyn 1969; Grynberg, 1964, Borgström, 1954, Martynov, 1968).
Table 1. Consonants’ own energy (Е0)
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This aforementioned energy structure is also inherent to highly developed animals, including monkeys (Vojtonis, 1949; Bunak, 1951). M. I. Žinkin points out that “the monkeys have monosyllabic communicative system” (Zhynkyn, 1958, p. 210), in which units of “communication” are sound segments the size of a syllable. As shown by V. G. Taranets, speech structure is implemented on a single muscular contraction, representing a single pulse in the energy system. Sound complex of animal languages exists in syllable units and cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units. It is explained by the physiological inability to divide a syllable, and individual sounds, which are made out by humans in animal communication, are created linguistically (Zynder, 1979). Because of this a syllable in animal language is indivisible. Phonation in animals is purely physiological manifestation of its state. Thus, animal language is characterized by syllabic system of communication, which served as original in human speech development.
After examining sound signals of hamadryas baboons, M. I. Zhynkin notes “… the lack of use of consonants in conjunction with vowels” (Zhynkyn, 1958, p. 202), as in, in one syllable segment. This is because “…pharyngeal tube of hamadryas baboons cannot modulate (p. 211), so there is no alignment of acoustic power of different in strength sounds, so the sound systems can contain only consonants, or only vowels.
The anthropological evidence suggests, writes V. Bunak, that “ancient people” were distinguished by high positioning of the larynx and, of course, fewer opportunities for oral (mouth) phonation (Bunak, 1951, p. 220). Further “lowering of larynx, palatal shortening, lengthening of the tongue”, along with the development of a second signal system, had decisive importance in the creation of human language. “Language activities could receive sufficient development only in people of modern type (Homo Sapiens) (Bunak, 1951, p. 221), which significantly differs it from the structure of primitive people.
The same structures occur in periodic muscle contraction in articulation of human sounds. It is typical for rhythmic contractions of the nerve fiber and serves to convert energy characteristics into the mechanical ones during the work of organs of speech. Its main characteristics are as follows:
1. Since the function of muscles in humans (and animals) does not change from ontogenesis, the proposed structure of energy conversion can be transferred onto the period of birth of human language.
2. Experimental-phonetic comparative studies of sounds in Ukrainian and German languages prove, that more intense within the syllable in Ukrainian language are consonants, and in German – vowels (Suchasna ukr.lit. mova, 1969, p. 193; Lindner, 1969, с. 196; Prokopova, 1973, p. 95). This is because the maximum energy in Emax in the structure of ECV can be implemented in two types: it can follow a consonant or it can appear at the beginning of the next vowel. Accordingly, we call such languages “consonant-strong” and “vocal-strong”. Hypothetically, Slavic languages are attributed to the first, Germanic languages – to the second. Languages “consonant-strong” have following attributes: primary syllable structures have initial compounds with “rising” energy, in particular ST-, TR-, SR-, STR-, ZDR-, over time combination of consonants with “non-rising” energy appeared, they are historically secondary, namely: RS-, RT-, RST-, RSTR-, SS-, TS-, RR-, etc. In these languages it is grammatically possible for words with no vowel or sonant (prepositions, conjunctions) to exist, for example: ukr. в, з, б, й, ж /w , z, b, j, ž/, rus. с, в, к /s, v, k/ , same in roots - ph -, - tk -, - mk - wordforms: ukr. w -ph-nu-w, w-tk-nu-w, w-mk-nu-w (Nechepurenko, 1992).
3. Languages “vocal-strong” have syllable structures which historically have existed since the creation of languages and to this day, for example: ST-, SR-, TR-, STR-, syllables with distinctive “not-rising” tension can only exist in words of foreign origin: ger. Psalm , Sfinx . Prepositions, conjunctions, particles are used in Germanic languages with full pronunciation style only if used with vowels, for example: (dt.) in , aus , und , doch , ja , (engl.) in , out , and , but , yes .
Examinations of the characteristics of the speech segment showed that the ascending-descending movement of muscle contraction in the vocal apparatus happens during the pronunciation of a syllable as a minimum articulatory unit (L. R. Zinder, L. V. Bondarko). Similar changes in the muscle work – raising and lowering of their tension were observed in the structure of the syllable by the various representatives of the syllable theories. (O. Jespersen, R. I. Avanesov, J. Storm, R. H. Stetson, E. Sievers, M. Grammon, L. V. Ščerba, F. de Saussure, H. G. Tillmann).
This excurse into the realm of the research of sound aspect of speech, especially its creation and peculiarities of development in different languages across the world, allows us to pin-point two common features, which existed during the genesis of language, and are therefore universal for all languages, they are – 1) the origin of the primary structures of type CV syllable (syllablephoneme → soundphoneme) and 2) existence of the open syllable structures in the ancient speech from of CVCVCV.
1.2.The place of “diachronic constant” in the problem’s research
The studies on vocabulary material of different indo-european languages in history show that there are changes of sound that have been accompanying, for a long time, specific languages or their group, thus being a typological feature of these languages. So, for example, one such indicative of indo-european protolanguage is a feature of consonant system, velar consonants as labial-velar (* k ṷ , g ṷ , g ṷ h) (Brugmann, 1897). Observations show, that labial-velar consonant is usually realized in the beginning of a syllable, as in, according to ETS, it takes place in quite a tense region of physiological structure of given unit.
The studies of these indo-european labial-velar consonants, in particular their origin and evolutionary features, allow us to view these consonants as a “diachronic” constant, and that confirms the birthplace of these sounds and their subsequent spread. This approach shows us the beginnings of indo-european protolanguage to be on African continent, notes W. Merlingen, which is further proved by languages of New Guinea and Caroline island (Merlingen, 1982, p. 290).
This row of palatovelars, as opposed to kentum languages, was not preserved in satem languages, where it lost the labial element and sound and was transformed into a pure consonant, and with time, through palatalization, into whistling.
Another “diachronic” constant is related to the speech link features and is responsible for existence of exclusively open syllables of CVCVCV type, which are inherent in Polynesian and Austronesian languages that came from Africa. It is considered, that from this region, came tribes of farmers, which in V-III millennium B.C. settled on Balkans and partly in Ukraine, representing one type of archeological culture (Gimbutas, 1975; 1992). The research of Y. L. Mosenkis showed the existence of open syllables in Trypillian culture (Mosenkis, 2001; 2002), as reflected in the IE protolanguages substrate (Taranets, 2009a). This allows us to accept the sign of open syllables as the “diachronic” constant at the origin of IE protolanguages.
Here are some more examples regarding “diachronic” phonetic constants in Slavic languages, which allow us to talk about migrations of Slavs or some of their tribes to various parts of the globe. These include one of the prominent features of Ukranian and other languages, such as Elbe, Sorbs, Slowinski, which allows for transition of Slavistics old PSL. *ô/*ê > і through diphthong (Taranets, 2013, p. 160-170). In this instance the dominant of vowel /i/ , under given conditions, shows that Polab, Serbian, Slovints and Ukrainian ancestors existed on the same terrain, and this, in turn, demonstrates their singular language union or prolonged contact in the neighboring territories.
The aforementioned and similar sound features in diachronicity are called “diachronic constants”, a term taken by analogy from similar grammatical feature in a historical typology sphere (Guhman, 1981). It is obvious that the ways these “diachronic constants” spread across various languages and territories also serves as evidence to the fact that these societies traveled to different geographical places. Such a typical feature serves as a dominant characteristic of respective ethnic group. It allows for us to take a closer look at a controversial question regarding genesis of language, the origin of certain tribes and their migrations in various habitats.
Detecting the diachronic constant of IE language or languages takes priority in our research, which with time crop up in respective regions and plays the role of a dominant in migrations of Aryan tribes. The indicative in this case is the observation of one of the diachronic constants, which was discovered during the studies done on the lexical material of “Veles book” monument (VB), authenticity of which is proven by the recently done works (Slatyn, 2000; Lukoms'kyj, 2012; Klesov…, 2015; Taranets, 2015). Let’s illustrate one of these phonetic features from the aforementioned point of view.
The analysis done on the most used lexeme – Slavs Prince named Óra, which was well represented in ancient Slav (ancient Ukrainian) monument (from here and onwards the text is taken from VB text, allowed for reviewing of the variants on the name Ó r, which are the function of the subject, and grammatically in the nominative singular. Nine such forms were found, in particular: ORIE, ORIE (table 4-G), ORIE (t.10), OREA, ORE, ORE (t.24-B), OREO (t.26), OREI, OEREI (t.35-A).
According to the text from VB, differently timed layering led to multiple variants of writing Or, in particular in anlaut position. One of the variations is represented as OEREI (t.35-A), where in anlaut a combination /oe-/ is present. In general the indicated form is used in the context of “came to them father Orei”. Compared to the labial /o-/, which is typical for the name Or, the variation /oe-/ is a delabialized /o/ and belongs to the sounds of front row. Such a change in a quality vowel – change from back row to the front row – existed in, for example, ancient Ukranian dialects: bojk. jablyko (ukr. jabluko), lemk. bivo (ukr. bulo) (Matvijas, 1990, p. 91, 104). This phenomenon is especially apparent in Slavic languages after iotated /j/, when, as noted by A. Meye “Every simple back vowel has changed into the appropriate vowel of front row”, for example, o > e, u > i, etc. (Meye, 1951, p. 95).
A. Meye notes that in prehistorical times Slavic languages did not differentiate the timbre of vowels /a/ and /o/, but still in words of IE origin ancient *â was transmitted through PSL *a, as, for example, suffix of name-figures - arj ь comes from goth. - âreis, lat. – ârius (Meye , 1951, p. 44) (compare: ukr. plugatar, vivchar, stoljar). At the same time, */o/ corresponds to */a/ in other languages (compare: os'l ъ and goth. asilus, topor ъ and Iran. tapara) (ibid). Thereby, the root * âr - was transferred into Proto-Slavic at first as * а r -, and later as о r -, as in, the name Or is responsible for its origin from IE * âr meaning ʻariaʼ (Taranets, 2009, p. 27-28). Its obvious that primary semantic of the word Or was ʻariasʼ, or ʻarias-Slavʼ, which started the Slavic family, according to VB tablets.
Such changes from the vowel of back row into the vowel of front row also take places in other languages, besides Slavic, in particular in German and its ancient dialects, when the development of the sounds /o/ led to the creation of new phonem in the modern German language: ô > œ > ö (OHG. scôni > MHG.. schoene > germ. sch ön ‛niceʼ) (Duden, 1963, p. 131).
Thus, in relation to the development of back row vowels in different periods of the Slavic languages existence we can derive these sound changes: IE * â > PSl.* а > * ô > slav. /оі/ > o.ukr. /і/.
Similar to the aforementioned spelling, distinguished from the name Or, was also shown as OIRYAN (t. 5-a). Phonetically initial /oi-/ does not differ from aforementioned delabialized and refers to the front row vowels. This form is used in context with the meaning of «Shhek – od orijan buv vin» (= Chick - he was from the Oriana) where OIRYAN represents an anthroponymic creation (not the name Or) and refers to the oriyan tribe. As Prince Schek, according to the VB texts, was the son of the father Or (like Kyi and Khoryv), the oriyans ethnonym is also associated with the name Or. It can be assumed that the name Or and oriyans directly correlate to ethnonym Aryans. This assumption is confirmed in the following analysis of the other variants of Or spelling.
The analysis generally shows that there is a need to talk about the root Or- with the /a-/ beginning, which gravitates towards the word Aryans, and root form with /o-/ represents the grandfather Ora – first ancestor of the Slavs. The further change of the initial vowel /a-/ in the direction of /o-/ > /i-/ belongs to the same name, but in the speech of only some tribes, among them ancient Ukrainian, /i/ was created. In the text proper nouns are clearly distinguished, with the roots ar-, or- and ir-, from which first one relates to Aryan ethnic group, and others – to the Slavs that came from the Aryan community.
Therefore, the root of the name Or developed in such direction: IE * âr - > PSL [* а r- ] > * ôr - > S lav. ôr- > oir- > o.ukr. ir - (for example: ARSTIJ - ARIUV - OREA - OIRJaN - YR Ѣ J). In Slavistics it is noted that PSL * ô - transformed into /i/ through the stage of diphthong, as is the case in the VB texts. Moreover, these roots chronologically reflect different periods and have a sense of derivation: ʻAryanʼ > ʻAryan-Slavʼ > ʻSlavʼ > ʻAncient Ukrainianʼ. Both in form and content the author of VB quite faithfully describes their settling into the Slavic languages. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the phonetic aspects of the name Or showed these following diachronic changes, which could be represented in this chronological order: IE *AR- > Slav. OR- > OIR- > IR-. Obviously, the earliest form is forefather of Slavs Or with the meaning of ʻaryan-slavʼ. As evidenced by the corresponding root in the names of the Slavic princes: SVENTORE (t.4-B), BILOYAR (t.4-C).
In general, the proper noun Or underwent following development: Or > Orey > Oriy, the latter being derived from the original cognate form Or. The reality of the latter, in our opinion, is confirmed in G. L. de Beauplan, who, describing Crimea, the land of Tatarstan, recalls the city with no walls on Perekop isthmus, which tatars called Or (Boplan de, 2004, p. 207). Arab-Persian monuments also evidence about Ruses in the Don delta with similar names: Orthani (Arthani), Arni, Orni, Arna, Orna and cities Artha, Orna (Ibn-Foszlanʼs, 1823, p. 141, 162).
All of the above indicates that the Slavic or - comes from IE root * âr(ə)- which is also semantically related to the field of agriculture, in particular ʻplowʼ, ʻfarmerʼ etc. (see: Pokorny. 1959, p. 169-170: arm. araur, gr. ἀρόω, lat. ar ô, m.ir. ar, kimr. ar, bret. arar, goth. arjan, o.scand. er đ r, lith. á rti, ltv. ara, o.prus. artoys, toch. АВ ā re). As we can see, in none of the above languages root *or- is being realized, but in Slavic languages related to ancient forms we can mee only root or-, for example: ukr. oraty, rus. orat', o.rus oraty, p. ora ć, cz. orati, slv. orat ʼ, vl. wora ć, nl. wora ś, bulg. orá, m. ora, east. òraty, o.sl. oraty, PSl. * orati (from IE * ar - ʻ oraty ʼ) (ESUM , t. 4, p. 207-208).
Thus, based on the analysis mentioned above and comparison between variants of languages of realization of IE * âr- with the meaning ʻariasʼ, ʻfarmersʼ, we can say that original root in a form of *or- with the same meaning is reazlized exclusively in Slavic languages, as in, mentioned phonetic feature in these languages plays the role of diachronic constant. And obviously, where *or- related words has such realization, it is safe to presume the existence of Slavs in these places. Later we will return to this question during the review of migration of IE tribes, in particular Slavic tribes.
1.3. The phenomenon of substrate in Indo-European languages
The concept of substrate exists since the first half of XIX cent. thanks to the scientific justification in the works of Danish scholar J. H. Bredsdorf and later in the studies of Italian philologist G. I. Ascoli, later Russian scientists I. O. Baudouin de Courtenay and O. О. Shakhmatov also turned to this concept. The word substrate comes from lat. sub - ʻunderʼ and stratum ʻlayerʼ and includes the presence of traces of the defeated language “as part of the winning speech during the crossing of two languages” (Ahmanova, 1966, p. 461-462).
The problem with studying substrate is reflected in the consequences of prolonged contact of two languages, which is manifested in the bilingualism of their speakers. This linguistic phenomenon provides “broad ethnic mixing and linguistic assimilation of indigenous people with newcoming people” (Vynogradov, 1990, p. 497). The action of substrate is shown during the contact of different languages, including unrelated ones. V. Vinogradov noted that substrate is a “set of features of the speech system, which are not derived from the internal developmental laws of the language” and are related to the language that was widespread earlier across the given linguo-geographical territory” (p. 497). Bilinguinism entails the changes in the languages which are in contact with one another (Dongauzer, 1980). The result of bilinguinism is “deep mutual permeation of different speech systems” (Bernshtejn, 1973, p. 5). So, Celts language in Gaul, as noted by S. B. Bernstejn, significantly influenced the Vulgar Latin, and as a result French language got such a variety of features that distinguish it among others in Roman group. Among the examples is the element of Gaullian twenty-count system in Old French numerator six-vingt ʻ120ʼ, meaning ʻ6 x 20ʼ, while latin has a ten-count system. Galli, who once inhabited France, are genetically related to the French. “The history of language, - writes O. B. Tkachenko, - is intertwined with the history of the people”, as a whole this is “ethnogenetic process, accompanied by respective linguistic consequences” (Tkachenko, 1989, p. 4). At the same time “speech substrate implies ethnic substrate” (Abaev, 1956, p. 58).
U. Vajnrajh identified interference as a “deviation from the rules of each language” in bilinguals (Vajnrajh, 1979, p. 17). Y. O. Zhluktenko considers as interference “all changes in the structure of language, as well as meanings, properties and compositions of its units, which appear due to interaction with the language which is in contact with its interlanguage links” (Zhluktenko, 1974, p. 61). In general, the researchers consider interference as a social-linguistic phenomenon for which duo- and multilingualism are typical, which on the linguistic level results in the different types of interaction.
Substrate phenomena exist on the level of phonetics, grammar and vocabulary (Svetozarova , 2002; Hvozdyak, Melika, 2003). The field of phonetics includes to substrates “the most common phonetic tendencies, mostly manifested in vocalism and rhythmomelodism (so called accent)” (Tkachenko, 1989, p. 27). O. B. Tkachenko gives examples of borrowed individual sounds or the whole groups in Balkan languages from substrate Paleo-Balkan. The whole group of guttural consonants was borrowed from Ibero-Caucasian by Ossetians and Armenians (same, p. 87). However, O. B. Tkachenko rightly remarks that the effect of the substrate could occur not only in borrowed sounds, but also in “stimulating it with phonetic system of those sound processes, which could take place in the receiver-language all by themselves” (p. 88). Such understanding, in our opinion, is confirmed by the contact between language more often than accepted by researchers. Thus, from the history of development of neighboring languages – German and Frech – can be concluded, that uvular consonant /R/ appeared in German language under the influence of the French language, which had such sound in its system. However, despite the widespread bilingualism among the nobility of Russia in XIX cent., in a form of Russian and French, such /R/ did not appear in Russian words under the influence of French. Obviously, in such cases it is not about borrowing of /R/ by German language, but about French language stimulating, as noted by O. B. Tkachenko, consonant system of German language, which in those times developed phonetic conditions for the emergence and spread of laryngeal /R/ (Taranets, Slobodcova, 2005). The same understanding is shared by Y. Shevelov while reviewing the transition g > γ (>h) in ancient Ukrainian language, in which the presence of γ in Turkic languages “could play the role of catalyst” (Shevel'ov, 2002, p. 180).
We believe that such interpretation must be accepted in relation to the creation of consonant /f/ in Slavic languages under the influence of Greek alphabet. Such conditions were more prominent in the creation of /f/ in Russian language, rather than in Ukrainian, where in place of Greek /ph/ more commonly were used /khv/ and /ch/ especially in colloquial speech.
In ancient Germanic languages existed the first person pronoun of * ik, which changed into the – ch (ger. ich) or completely disappeared (engl. I). There takes place a sound change (once with the change of articulation). At the same time we can encounter the form ä t ʹ in Low-German dialects of Altai region (Jedig, 1966, p. 76). Obviously, in the latter example we can see the substitution of ancient k with serried t in russian-speaking environment. Other examples can be seen in languages in word doublets: Kartoffel and Tartoffel, ukr. tisno and kisno, tisto and kisto; rus. shpaklevka and shpatlevka etc. Actually, it should be noted there is a fairly common in languages phenomenon of substitution, especially of /k ~ t / sounds and vice versa, acoustic spectrum of which is very similar, hence the auditory impression they give off. The reasons for the substitution of the velar consonants by dorsal ones and vice versa could be intralingual and substrate influences of sounds (Taranets, 2013, p. 170-183).
Research done by O. B . Tkachenko, Y. O. Jhluktenko, C. V. Semchinskiy and other scientists allow us to make a conclusion about primary systemic impact one language has on another as a result of their long-term interference, and only after the influence changes in sound occur. Phonetic influence of the substrate appears “not only in the field of individual phenomena, but also as systemic facts, covering either phonetics in general, or large areas of it” (Tkachenko, 1989, p. 88).
Phonetic impact of the substrate is dependant on various sociolinguistic factors, including “influence of literary (official) language and (closely) similar languages, the presence/absence […] of written tradition, greater or lesser split in dialects of language” and so on (Tkachenko, 1989, p . 91).
V. P. Donhauzer, after examining the influence of Russian language on Frankish dialect of German, came to the conclusion that the development of language happens in accordance to social conditions of society. This factor determines the “general trend of sound, grammar and lexical development of structure of language” (Donhauzer , 1980, p. 20).
O. B. Tkachenko deeply and thoroughly reviewed historical and sociological foundations of Merya language, which belongs to Finno-Ugric group and which existed in the central part of Russia until XVII century. It is interesting that some signs of this language crop up in Russian language, since a long time ago as a result of contact with ancient Slavic and ancient Finnish languages.
The scientific research shows, that historically the first contacts between proto-Merya and proto-Slavic population happened around the second millennium BC. Its obvious that there were initial contacts between proto-Merya and Proto-Slavic languages and, more broadly, with the various indo-european languages, which existed at that specific time on the territory stretching from the Volga to the Carpathians. Facts gathered from the research of proto-Merya and proto-Slavic languages point to the existence of the respective indo-european ethnic groups around the second millennium BC, so on the territory of proto-Slavs we can identify other Indo-European tribes.
O. B. Tkachenko believes that the borrowing of proto-Slavic *setseman “seven” (from IE *septeman), which transferred into the Merya language during the times Finnish-Permian language unity existed (finn. *seitsemän), is quite archaic (Tkachenko, 1989, p. 120-121). It is obvious that a simplification took place in proto-Slavic language of IE */-pt-/ into the consonant /-d-/ (<-t-). At this time the Slavs occupied territory further to the east than expected from their ancestral home. (same, p. 124). “It was Slavs and not Balts who were supposed, after Indo-Iranians, to be the first Indo-European people who Finno-Permian tribes encountered during their migration to the west (p. 124). In the lands, where Slav-Merya population settled, existed bilingualism, which ultimately culminated in “full proto-Slavs transition to the Merya language” (Tkachenko, 1989, p.125).
Going back to the characteristics of substrate phenomena, O. B. Tkachenko, based on the long-term contacts between proto-Slavic and proto-Merya languages and later on Eastern Slavs and Merya, came to a conclusion, that “in general the phonetics of substrate languages, especially in the consonants system, shows a great degree of resistance” (Tkachenko, 1989, p. 168), even later, after the disappearance of substrate language, “the force of influence of substrate depends on the socialogical qualities of society, a native speaker, that became the substrate (same, p. 179).
According to the point above, the influence of substrate can linger on for some time, after its speakers have assimilated in their new environment, therefore, words forms, in which a substrate influence can be noted, belong with their new qualities to the same language, in which they existed before. The phenomenon of bilingualism is a prerequisite for interference of languages, but as a result of this interaction between two languages a third one is never created, but instead the same stratum continues to exist, but with the influences of substrate. In this case we still have to keep in mind, that prior to the creation of Slavic language it was preceded by one of the Indo-European dialects and its speakers could name ponds, rivers, habitats, mountains and so on, in their dialect, which despite the similarities within Indo-Europeans proto-languages still had its unique characteristics.
The above could be considered to exist in the early years of ancient Indo-European society on the Trypillian territory, when the language of outsiders Aryans was not yet affected by the substrate. The collapse of ancient indo-european proto-language led to the creation of separate branches, which were already affected by the substrate, but with the collapse of main language this influence kept growing on the other languages, if the native speakers remained within the autochthonous population. As our analysis has shown, Slavic language that stayed on the Trypillian territories for the longest time were influenced by the substrate the most, and among the Slavic languages it was Ukrainian language, native speakers of which remain here to this day.
 In our opinion, the authenticity of the book convincingly features the letters in the texts of the Veles book, which we considered recently in the article (Taranets, 2017).
- ISBN (eBook)
- ISBN (Buch)
- 1 MB
- Institution / Hochschule
- Internationale Universität für Geisteswissenschaften Odessa
- Indoeuropäistik arier herkunft phonetische merkmale migrationen substrate