Loading...

A Systems Analysis Course Exploration

Systems Analysis Final Exam

Written Test 2018 14 Pages

Computer Science - Software

Excerpt

Table of Contents

1. List of Questions

2. Question 4

3. Question 6

4. Question 7

5. Question 9..

6. Question

7. Literature Analysis

8. Bibliography

Questions

1. This semester, our discussions highlighted the concept of a user interface using the goals, operators, methods, and selection (GOMS) model. Please explain the history of GOMS, identify and describe three derivative GOMS areas, and explain how GOMS was useful regarding interfaces within your favorite systems analysis video that we viewed this term.
2. This semester, our discussions highlighted the concept of process improvement using the Capability Maturity Model (CMM). Please explain the history of CMM, identify and describe three derivative CMM areas, and explain how CMM was useful regarding interfaces within your favorite systems analysis video that we viewed this term.
3. Our discussions examined the potential of systems failure. Based on our course readings, discussions, and videos this term, identify and discuss briefly three case examples of systems failure that occurred because of human error. Also, within your response, incorporate a legal consideration of failure’s consequences.
4. This semester, we examine the importance of user interfaces. Please define the basic concept of a user interface, explain its significance, and the primary design questions that affect its eventual development. Select and discuss a practical answer to substantiate your response.
5. Our course delineated the methods of ranking and selecting project investments through capital budgeting. Please identify and discuss the concept of capital budgeting, its methods, and how project investment would occur with respect to mutual exclusion. Within your response, incorporate two examples from our videos this term.
6. Our course introduced the concept of architectural design involving cultural and political requirements. Explain the primary considerations of cultural and political requirements that were discussed in class, and integrate two examples from our videos this term.
7. We discussed a specific process for creating a physical data flow diagram from a logical concept. Please delineate each step of this process. Within your response, please incorporate a high-level data flow diagram for one of the processes we discussed or viewed within one of our videos.
8. Our discussions highlighted the necessity of communication throughout all stages of the systems development life cycle (SDLC). Based on our discussions, readings, and videos, please discussion the successes and failures of communication throughout two of the practical examples we considered this term.
9. Required: How would you assess your performance this term throughout the course of the simulation? What opportunities for performance improvement do you see regarding your simulation experience? How do you plan to take advantage of these opportunities to generate positive outcomes within the simulation? Refer to your answers from the preceding questions to support your answer. Include literature as necessary.
10. Required: Include a literature table and corresponding references that incorporate the basic topic areas that you used throughout the course. Using the course template, within each topic area, include a minimum of two additional literature references that reinforced our discussions this term. Include these items in your reference listing. After the enhanced table, please include a brief discussion that explains how the literature reinforces the concepts we considered during the course this term.

4. This semester, we examine the importance of user interfaces. Please define the basic concept of a user interface, explain its significance, and the primary design questions that affect its eventual development. Select and discuss a practical answer to substantiate your response.

Response:

Imagine a world without computer technology. Can you visualize how slow, monotonous, and inefficient that even the simplest day-to-day activities would be. Think about sending and receiving mail. Although this activity is still formally used in its purest form, it can take up to several days to receive important credit card and banking information, bills, and eve local news updates. For my generation, this is difficult and almost frightening to comprehend. However, this is exactly how daily life was performed before the invention of the computer in the 1930’s. This single invention sparked a whole new world of imagination and gave man-kind the most powerful tool to its day. Not only did could we construct machines to perform one specific task, but now we had a machine that could digitally read, comprehend, and perform any task that it is commanded. This ability drives the importance of user interfaces that are used in the advanced technology of today.

A user interface represents the way in which a user interacts with the system through a series of navigational, input, and output mechanisms. The navigational mechanisms refer to the way in which the user gives instructions to the system and tells it what to do. Navigational operations are commonly performed through a series of menus, buttons, and application icons that guide you through every individual step until the final product is obtained. Input mechanisms are important to computer interfaces because they describe the way in which the system will receive the information. This is often performed through forms, natural language, and keystroke commands; however, because of the compatibility constraints upon different devices, some ways are more effective than others. The previously listed navigational and input commands would be pointless if they didn’t provide a desired outcome to the user. Herein lies the importance of output mechanisms. Such components describe exactly how the system will provide the desired information of a user. They are often found in the form of reports but can also be in the form of receipts and lists. The goal of these mechanisms is to minimize the effort that users extend to accomplish their work through an attractive and simple to use interface.

Now that computer technology can be used in almost every aspect of life, there are several examples that I could discuss regarding the user interface process. Some of these interfaces include: email, texting, playing games, taking pictures, GPS navigation, and even education. However, I would like to discuss the importance of the Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) interface because it is used to perform important and confidential banking requirements. The ATM interface allows you to perform common teller responsibilities such as deposits, withdrawals, and account statement readings. The process mostly contains incremental navigational mechanisms such as card/chip/check reading to begin the process and a series of touch screen icons that guide the user through a proper banking transaction. This device performs identification and withdrawal amounts through one physical or virtual keystroke input command. After the transaction is complete, the machine will either updated account information or dispense a receipt or money to the user as an output. Performing these transactions at the ATM not only satisfies the goal of user interfaces as mentioned above, but it also reduces the need for human interaction. As a result, banking is now time convenient and allows you to perform these tasks outside of business operation times.

6. Our course introduced the concept of architectural design involving cultural and political requirements. Explain the primary considerations of cultural and political requirements that were discussed in class and integrate two examples from our videos this term.

Response:

It is a common practice for people to trust the tangible and visible things of this world. We don’t like to put our faith in things that we cannot see or understand completely. This is why most people only see the finished product of a project and never personally evaluate the time, effort, and detail that goes into its creation. However, every major project consists of a Systems Development Life Cycle that drives it to completion. The SDLC contains four iterative, sometimes repeated, steps that accomplish this task: planning, analyzing, designing, and implementing. Each phase accomplishes a specific set of tasks and produces a set of deliverables that clarify all necessities of the system. With all of this in mind and provided the nature of humanity as described above, it is a valid statement that the design phase of any project fosters the quality of trust in the product.

In chapter 8 we discussed the components and importance of the architectural design and how it describes the systems hardware, software, and network environment and the type of logic that is stored on each structure. The architectural design originates from the non-functional requirements of the system and is further confined a specific list of parameters. Two such examples that describe the non-functional standards of a system are known as cultural and political requirements. Although these qualities sometimes reflect intangible qualities, these requirements are necessary because they must follow specific legal standards and clarify operational details for the country in which the system is provided.

When a new system is installed by a foreign country there are many precautionary details that must be considered. The cultural and political parameters of the system describe these details as multilingual and customization requirements, uninstalled norms, and the specific legal regulations it must follow. One of the most obvious parameters comes in the language barrier between the country who built the system and the country who is installing the system. As a result, multilingual requirements explain the language or languages that the system must operate in. Another common feature of an operating system is the ability that it provides the user to customize material to personal preference. This is normally delineated by the customization requirements so that it is clear which aspects of the system can be changed by local users. In continuation, there are often unstated cultural norms that must be specified as well. Such cultural norms are often represented by date formats, weight and measurement field preferences such as kilograms, meters, feet, etc. Sometimes a system is confined by political laws and regulations of a specific country. These standards are outlined by the legal requirements of the system that often enforce humanitarian regulations. When each of these requirements are installed, the system will effectively meet the needs of every user and business processes can operate smoothly.

Throughout the semester we were able to witness the importance of the cultural and political requirements at the hand of two educational videos. The first example was relative to the legal requirements of a system as we witnessed the Therac 25 court case. In this case, six cancer patients died at the hand of a radiation machine malfunction. This malfunction caused the patients to be over-treated with radiation to the point that healthy skin cells were destroyed, and other functioning organs began to shut down. Although this likely happened through an engineering malfunction, the Therac 25 machine failed to meet the legal radiation requirements and ultimately cost the company millions of dollars in law suits and the weight of six deaths on their shoulders.

A second example was exemplified in the story of Edward Leedskalnin and his famous Coral Castel in Homestead, Florida. This video featured Ed’s extraordinary stone smith and engineering capabilities that have been closely compared to the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge mysteries. Ed was able to forge many functional house furniture pieces in the form of rocking chairs, tables, a crescent moon, a water fountain, and a balanced swinging gate that turns at the push of a finger. I believe this video exemplifies cultural requirements specifically because it is still a mystery. Obviously, Edward had specific cultural requirements, unknown by any other, that allowed him to not only build this castle once, but twice. Several eye witnesses and countless engineers cannot explain how a tiny man of his stature could stack tons of sedimentary stone by himself. Hence lies the mystery of the Coral Castel.

7. We discussed a specific process for creating a physical data flow diagram from a logical concept. Please delineate each step of this process. Within your response, please incorporate a high-level data flow diagram for one of the processes we discussed or viewed within one of our videos.

Response:

When a large business wants to incorporate a new system of great magnitude there are often many different departments and networks that the system must be compatible with. Every department has a specific job that they must achieve; therefore, the system must operate under standard qualifications of each department while strategically working together to accomplish daily business processes. Before a project can be designed, the analyst must create a logical process model that provides a clear picture of the as-is business model and represents how each use-case of the system should operate to satisfy specific needs. A common practice for analysts is to create a logical Data Flow Diagram (DFD) to accomplish this task.

A Data Flow Diagram is a logical process model that uses a series of shapes, identifiers, and arrows to describe the hierarchical steps of a use-case. Every DFD contains rounded edged squares that represent a specific process within the use-case. These processes are recognized by a short descriptive name and number that clarify a function to be performed. However, a process cannot be performed without an external entity to input an operational command. Every entity represents the person, organization, unit, or a separate system that operates with a desired system. The next element is called a data store that represents the specific data bases that information is to be requested from and updated to throughout a process. Data stores are often identified by the content stored in the database and a number preceded by a D. The most important feature of a DFD is the series of data flow arrows that provide directional guidance between every listed component. Data flows are uniquely identified by a single fact or a logical collection of facts that describe the input and outputs related to each process.

Although a Data Flow Diagram seems easy to envision, they are actually very detailed and require iterative steps to create. The first step in creating a DFD is to show all external entities and the data flows that originate and terminate by these entities throughout one high-level business process. This context diagram is created by unifying all the necessary use-cases into one common system name.

The next step is called DFD fragmenting because it decomposes the original contextual diagram from step one. During this procedure, the analyst is to create individual DFDs for every use-case that is performed by the system. These fragments will contain one process, all the external entities, and all the data stores that are necessary for the use-case. This process may require important name modifications and additional data flows separate from original use-case material.

After fragmenting the contextual diagram, we can now combine each piece into one Data Flow Diagram that will ultimately become the level zero DFD. Clarity is key during this step. When combining this information into one diagram, many data flows will be repeated and will cross paths several times. Therefore, it is important for the analyst to reduce redundancy and to clarify directional arrows so that it is easy to comprehend. There is no specific layout that the official DFD must follow; however, most analysts start chronologically in the top left-hand corner and move right and down with every new component. This also helps create a clear visual for the design team in the future.

[...]

Details

Pages
14
Year
2018
ISBN (eBook)
9783668696433
File size
523 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v424003
Institution / College
University of West Alabama
Grade
95
Tags
systems analysis course exploration final exam

Author

Previous

Title: A Systems Analysis Course Exploration