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Can Molecular Gastronomy Help Alleviate the Prevalence of World Hunger?

Thesis (M.A.) 2017 156 Pages

Instructor Plans: Gastronomy / Hospitality / Tourism

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FRONT COVER

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

INTRODUCTION

PART I: WORLD HUNGER: ITS GENESIS
POVERTY IS INEXTRICABLY LINKED TO HUNGER, MALNOURISHMENT, STUNTING, WASTING AND HEALTH DEBILITATING DISEASES
THE GLOBAL MONETARY DIVIDE
MEASURING WORLD HUNGER IN KCALORIES
PROGRESS OF SOME COUNTRIES ON THE HUNGRY LIST
FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF POPULATION GROWTH, FERTILITY RATES AND MORTALITY RATES
THE IMPACT OF TRADITIONS, GLOBAL TRADE PRACTICES, GLOBAL POLITICS
BIOTECHNOLOGY, BIO ENGINEERING, TRANSGENETICS, TRADITIONAL BREEDING, PHARMING, AND GENOMICS
EDUCATION, MARGINALIZATION OF WOMEN AND THE POOR

MAN MADE SOURCES THAT AGGRAVATE WORLD HUNGER
ARMED CONFLICTS, REFUGEES AND MIGRATIONS
CORRUPT AND AUTHORITARIAN GOVERNMENTS
REPRESSED HOSTILE SOCIETIES
DISEASES
GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS, GLOBAL AGRIBUSINESS APATHY, ATTITUDES, CLASS DISPARITIES, POST COLONIALISM
ENVIRONMENT, BIODIVERSITY, CLIMATE CHANGE, FOOD WASTE
WATER AND SANITATION

THE GLOBAL REALITIES OF WORLD HUNGER FAMINE IS PREVENTABLE BECAUSE IT IS PREDICTABLE
THE PARADOXES AND TRAPS OF FAMINE
FOOD SECURITY ACCESS TO FOOD AT ALL TIMES

GLOBAL PROGRESS : MANKIND'S MARCH TOWARDS ALLEVIATION OF WORLD HUNGER
THE KERNEL OF FOOD SHORTAGE: FOOD PRODUCTION
BIOTECHNOLOGY EMBRACED OR SHUNNED
TRANSPORTATION: THE GREEN COLD CHAIN, GRAIN CHAIN, SUPPLY CHAIN REVOLUTION
WOMEN SMALLHOLDER FARMERS:PRESENT PICTURE

PART II: MOLECULAR GASTRONOMY ITS ROLE IN HELPING ALLEVIATE WORLD HUNGER

CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
PERIODICALS AND CIRCULARS
JOURNALS FROM DATABASE

APPENDIX I
UNDERNOURISHMENT AROUND THE WORLD

APPENDIX II
COUNTRIES GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

APPENDIX III
COUNTRIES LOWEST KCALORIES IN MACRONUTRIENTS

APPENDIX IV
PROPORTION OF UNDERNOURISHED IN TOTAL POPULATION

GLOSSARY

ABSTRACT:

CAN MOLECULAR GASTRONOMY HELP ALLEVIATE THE PREVALENCE OF WORLD HUNGER?

The first recorded famine in ancient Rome was in 411 BC. Through centuries, famines have routed villages, towns, and countries. In this new millenium, 795 million people still go to bed hungry. The irony is that the world produces surplus food - more than enough to feed everyone of the 7.2 billion people in the world.

Around 35 years ago, world humanitarian organizations pledged to cut the 1 billion hungry people into half its number by 2015. The world fell short of its promise. Millions still die from starvation and millions of children, under 5 years old are stunted and wasted.

World Hunger's disastrous never ending loop of cyclical poverty, starvation and malnourishment are primarily caused by natural disasters, like drought, floods and pestilence; by ignorance; by con- tinuous wars; and by poor living conditions wrought from negligent and corrupt national governments. World Hunger persists inspite of many helping hands, well funded philanthropies, dedicated world oriented charities, world driven humanitarian food aid, advocative non-governmental groups, and powerful world health organizations.

Exhaustive research on World Hunger have revealed several paradoxes: complexities in food aid programs served by best intentioned, well heeled, multi-layered world aid organizations and developed countries have compounded difficulties wrought by unfair world trade practices and politically driven and inflexible national policies that deter timely distribution of food aid.

Huge, expensive ceremonials, summits, conferences and movements are expensive and are hampered by gauntlet of heavily organized operations and sadly unrealistic millenium goals.

World Hunger persists because there are still too many poor people living in countries that are governed by weak, or corrupt, or apathetic or selfish leaders. Hunger is concentrated within marginalized smallholder farmers of Sub Saharan Africa, South Asia and Central America who need guidance and training in modern techniques of agriculture. Most need to go to school if only to learn of their rights. They need a fair trading field and if one felt benevolent, a helping hand in farming skill devel- opment, not always through patronizing gifts from an overfull barrel of goods.

Molecular Gastronomy has the invaluable ability to apply its basic scientific processes to transform per- ishables, grain and every form of fresh produce into portable, nutrition filled food with long shelf lives that can weather drought, flood and pestilence.

Molecular Gastronomy possesses knowledge of the processes, mechanisms, techniques to manage waste of perishable, bulky foods, reducing these to its barest components without losing foods' nutri- tive value. Measures can start in our own homes. The world can harness food waste and pollution, indirectly reducing negative impacts of climate change.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Madame Catherine Baschet of Le Cordon Bleu, Paris encouraged with her abiding friendship and her confidence in me.

Thank you to 'Hautes Etudes du Gout': Monsieur Remi Krug, Madame Colette Padet and Madame Edwige Regnier. The program, designed and so nurturingly monitored, filled to the brim with vibrant and inspiring lectures from famous scientists, outstanding academicians, and culinary luminaries, inspired and enlightened.

It was a life changing two weeks, gilded with flights to unparalleled gastronomic heights, each memorable grand dining experience, impaled in the cache of superb culinary memories. Thank you, for the fortune of immersion into the sublime and exclusive, the noble houses of Champagne, and flowing abundance of superior vintage wines at our table. The Krug!

The Yquem!

Thank you for the mentorship during these last six months of thesis research and writing, for your endless patience and warm friendship: Edwige Regnier.

For the able guidance, wisdom in the development of this thesis, my heartfelt gratitude to Professor Herve This and Professor Christophe Lavelle.

INTRODUCTION:

“Think of the hundreds of children in other parts of the world who do not have food to eat,” - was a normal reprimand we heard growing up facing an unfinished plate of food.

World Hunger has been a global concern for more than five decades. In 1948, United Nations adopted a Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “the right to access to food is an inalienable human right”. In 2000, the United Nations reiterated its position with a Millennium Declaration to “cut the number of people around the world who suffer from hunger into half measure.”[1]

Out of 129 countries that were included in the 1992 Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO)[2] Hunger List, 72 countries have met their goals in 2015.[3] From 1,011 million hungry people of two decades ago, there are still 795 million left in the world who go to bed hungry.[4]

An extensive research was undertaken to uncover events from the past that have led to this present world hunger situation. The premise is to find explanations to this global conundrum : the persistence of world hunger in the midst of world produce surplus.

In the end, we might even be able to attempt and cast a trajectory of world hunger's progress in the future.

The second part of the thesis dwells on Molecular Gastronomy: a branch of physical chemistry that explores the results of phenomena that occur during culinary transformation.[5] Then, in the process, connect Molecular Gastronomy's role in the arena of World Hunger.

Founded as “Molecular and Physical Gastronomy” in 1988 by both Oxford physicist, the late Nicholas Kurti and French chemist, Hervé This, it was renamed “Molecular Gastronomy” by Prof.This in 1998.

The thesis was developed with the invaluable guidance of Prof. Hervé This, also, director of International Center of Molecular Gastronomy at the Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique, in Paris and Prof. Christophe Lavelle, biophysicist, reseacher and lecturer for the National Museum of Natural History and at the French National Center for Scientific Research in Paris.

The thesis writer has a Masters Degree in Nursing, founded a travel agency, operated it for 34 years and is an alumna of "Le Cordon Bleu". Alongside, the last three decades was spent on philantrophic and medical work with the indigenous people in the Philippines, and the production of five published books.

The mission of this thesis is to reach a two pronged resolution to the thesis: ' Why has World Hunger prevailed?' and, ' Can Molecular Gastronomy help alleviate the prevalence of World Hunger?'

This thesis asks: Can Molecular Gastronomy help alleviate the Prevalence of World Hunger? The goal is to answer with a resounding yes!

WORLD HUNGER: ITS GENESIS

POVERTY IS INEXTRICABLY LINKED TO HUNGER, MALNOURISHMENT, STUNTING, WASTING AND HEALTH DEBILITATING DISEASES

Hunger and poverty are bound together - hunger being the most severe and critical manifestation of poverty.

"Not every poor person is hungry, but almost all hungry people are poor.” [6]

Holistic perspective defines hunger as a symptom of poverty, dependence and inequality. Hunger is the “gnawing pain in the stomach, eliciting anguish, grief, humiliation and fear”; a physical emptiness; and a powerlessness to protect oneself and loved ones.[7]

“Extreme poverty,” as defined by United Nations[8], “includes complete deprivation of monetary income and all human needs like food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information."

In 2001, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)[9] per capita in the world was an average of $21.00 a day. More than half of the world’s population lived on less than $2.00 per day and more than 1 billion lived on less than $1.00 a day.[10]

Niger, with a GDP capita of $359.00 - an average of $0.983 per person per day - is the third poorest country on Earth. It is in dabaryban condition: “desperate”; “where “all hope is lost”; “where there is nothing else to do”.[11]

Sixty percent of Niger's population might have food for 6-7 months' subsistence if the storage bins were not attacked by pests. When faced with civil unrests, or floods and droughts, lives deteriorate and a spiral into famine conditions. Exacerbated by extreme poverty, starvation and death follow promptly.[12]

Three million children under five years old in Sub-Saharan Africa[13] die every year - double the world's mortality rates. Fifty percent of its pregnant women lack proper maternal care causing 300,000 maternal deaths annually.[14] Four out of five people in poverty die from chronic malnourishment. In the Sub-Saharan Africa, 33 million children, under five years old, are malnourished.[15]

World Health Organization (WHO)[16] called the Sub- Saharan African countries - "nations of Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM)[17] " - where high rates of malnutrition exceeded crisis threshold.[18]

Chronic poverty is an extended period of extreme poverty that pre-empts acute malnutrition.

In chronic poverty, series of droughts have cost millions of lives in Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Eritrea in 1984, 1989,1990-1994, 2011 and 2017.[19] Chronic poverty means chronic hunger - “Invisible Hunger”-. It is an insidious prolonged hunger with little food and sparse nutrients to maintain energy needed to maintain good health.[20]

Chronic undernutrition, measured in Global Hunger Index (GHI)[21], lead to "stunting"[22], a condition that is constantly below median deviation[23], the number prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). At its worst, acute undernutrition always lead to "wasting".[24]

United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)[25] reported: 39% of developing world’s children are stunted.[26] From the 292 million stunted children of the world, 40% are found in Sub-Saharan Africa; 50% are in East and South Asia.[27]

In Ethiopia, six out of ten stunted children are also intellectually stunted, with little cognitive abilities; all are constantly weak from chronic diarrhea and chronic coughs.[28]

More than 500,000 malnourished mothers and children in the Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from Vitamin A and B12 deficiencies. Vitamins, minerals and nutrients cost $2.3 million annually, money that the poor do not have.

The US spends $60 billion a year for lottery; Americans spends $60 billion on fast foods annually. If Americans were to pay 17 cents per gallon tax on gasoline, it would raise $30 billion, exactly the amount needed to share with the poor to help end World Hunger.[29]

“Hunger is measured in squandered lives.”[30]

THE GLOBAL MONETARY DIVIDE

To increase understanding of the economic disparities in the world, it is inevitable to address global economic strata that divides the world into regions, clustered according to each country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).[31]

Developed countries , or “Global North”, are industrialized, market oriented economies, mainly democratic government in structure, and technologically advanced with well maintained infrastructures. GDPs rise as high as129,000, as it is in Qatar and 101,450.00, in Luxembourg. Average numbers are 57,300, for US and 50,800, the Netherlands. "Low" numbers are at 36,300, for Italy and 26,800, for Greece.

Developing countries, or “Global South”, or the "Third World" - have low living standards, with less developed industrial base, with economies mainly based on agriculture. Global South GDPs, under 1,000 are: Liberia 900, Democratic Republic of Congo 800, Burundi 800 , Central African Republic 700 and Somalia 400.

While a person in Qatar lives on $353.42 a day, a Somalian lives on $1.09 a day.[32]

In 2010, rapid growth of emerging economies[33], notably Singapore, HongKong, Taiwan and South Korea had shifted economic power to the east. Economist Angus Maddison suggests that the aggregate weight of these developing economies is about to surpass that of the countries that currently make up the advanced world.[34]

A new category caused by wars and conflicts in the world, “fragile and conflict affected situations” has 172 million people who are affected hsve an average GDP of 1538.10 or 4.21 a day. Within this group are, 18 million internally displaced (IDPs), 5 million refugees; and 149 million conflict -affected refugees (CARs).[35]

MEASURING WORLD HUNGER IN KCALORIES

The world produces more than ample amount of food for every single person in the world to live on. Abundance, not scarcity, best describes our supply of food today.[36]

World Agricultural System (WAS)[37] reported: the world produces all crops to meet the kcal requirements for everyone in the planet. Per capita food availability is close to 3000 kcal/person/day. However, Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia[38] have less than 2500 kcal/person/day available to them.

Food and Agricultural Organization Hunger Report, in 2008, showed global food production rose from 2,220 kilocalories (kcal)[39] per person per day in 1960's to 2,790 kcal in 2008.

Global agriculture produces a total kcal for top 50 crops, sufficient to feed as many as 10 billion people. Even developing countries recorded a leap of food production from 1,850 kcal in 1990 to over 2,640 kcal, in 2013.[40]

The FAO Hunger Report clarified the difference between the dietary energy supply requirements for people in the developing countries from those who live in developed countries. In the former, a person needs more kcalories to build up energy to go about heavy daily physical activities as well as for maintainance of health. Women need 2400 kcal/day/person and men, 3000kcal/day/person, an average of 2700kcal/day/person. In the latter group, women need 1800 kcal per day and men, 2200 kcal per day assuming that these urban people spend their days in a sedentary lifestyle.

All caloric intake per person in Sub-Saharan countries fall below the 2700kcal/day/person threshold.[41]

Countries with the lowest average caloric intake/person/ day are: DR Congo 1500 kcal/day/person; Eritrea 1530 kcal/day/person; Burundi, 1630 kcal/day/per person; Haiti,1840 kcal/day/person; Angola 1880 and Zambia, at 1890 kcal/day/person.

Hunger is a chronic deficiency in macronutrients - carbohydrates, protein and fats - in the diet. The crux of hunger is low intake of protein, dietary fats or both in people’s diets. Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO), Institute of Medicine’s (IOM)[42] standard for dietary macronutrient intake must have these portions: 45-65% carbohydrates; 15% protein; and 30% fats.

Majority of hungry people might have sufficient carbohydrates for survival in their diets but would still be in a “state of hunger”, malnourished from lack of proteins and fats in their diets. Only a small segment of the world has an actual low intake of carbohydrates. The fact is, many of the hungriest nations consume higher than recommended carbohydrates in their daily lives.[43]

The FAO -IOM contends that one should have 1215 kcal/day/person of carbohydrates as part of the total average of 2700 kcal/person/day in a diet.

The following "hungry countries" exceeded the daily threshold of carbohydrates: Zambia,1399 kcal/day/person, Haiti,1398 kcal/day/person and Burundi,1369 kcal/day/person.

The following countries, however, fell below the threshold for carboydrates in their diets: Eritrea, at 1071 kcal/day/person/day/person; Central African Republic at 1159 kcal/day/person ; and Democratic Republic of Congo at 1200 kcal/day/person.[44]

Carbohydrates are needed to metabolize fats for energy. Intake of less than 225 grams/day/person of carbohydrates in a diet over an extended period of time will make the body metabolize protein from the muscles for energy, resulting to an extreme, for a body to "waste" away.

Also, lack of ample carbohydrates intake will make the body break down fatty acids into by-product, ketones. When ketones accumulate, ketosis[45] occurs. In severe starvation, there is severe accumulation of keto acids in the blood, substantially decreasing the body's pH level, ending in a fatal stage, ketoacidosis[46].

Carbohydrate factor (CF)[47] is a true measure of carbohydrate kcalories. Fiber from a crop is subtracted to get a true CF value. Sugar’s CF is 3.87 kcal/gram; brown rice has 4.12kcal/gm; and snap green beans has 3.57 kcal/gm. The top crops rich in carbohydrates containing proteins and fats that can be grown in subsistence farms[48] are the Nerica rice, sugar beets, chufa and daikon.[49]

Carbohydrates, on the other hand, are not as vital to a body recovering from undernourishment. Actually, oftentimes, fibers in grains and legumes even hinder the amount of protein absorbed, hence the need for a higher protein intake.

For proteins, all essential and non-essential amino acids build upon each other for maximum efficiency neccesary for growth and development especially among children: methionine, cysteine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine and arginine.[50]

FAO requires an average of 411 kcal/day/person protein in a 2700 kcal diet/dsy/person. These countries fall below the daily individual's protein threshold: Democratic Republic of Congo, at 90 kcal/d/p; Eritrea 184 kcal/d/p, Burundi 179 kcal/d/p and Haiti, 166 kcal/d/p. Six million children have died from Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM).[51] [52]

Thailand’s PEM was reduced from 36% to 13% between 1975-1990 after food supplementation, health care development programs, and government investments in improving water supply, sanitation and by making education opportunities accessible to all.[53]

Protein, ideally, must be eaten in its pure form. Leaf Protein Concentrate (LPC)[54], was first produced by Hillaire Marin Rouelle (1718-1779),[55] by mashing green leaves, then straining the juice to heat until curd or foam is formed on top. This was the precursor of leaf fractionation.[56]

After the World War II , Dr. N.W. Pirie[57], in Rothamsted Research, developed equipment and technique for extracting protein from green leaves of alfalfa, wheat, and mustard between 1960s-70s.

Drawbacks on the assimilation of this discovery are: extracting protein from leaves requires a large scale of machinery using complex high pressures; its efficiency is low; to produce 1 kg of LPC, 50kg of leaves are needed; moreover, the curd/foam is unpalatable and expensive.[58]

Duckweed, mushroom, broccoli, kale and pumpkin seeds are good protein concentrate (PC)[59] sources. US Department of Agriculture found Achyranthes aspera (Achyrantha feuilles rudes), or Tephrosia purpurea, common wasteland weeds of the pea family, to be the best source in arid zones for Leaf Protein Concentrate (LPC).

Malnourished children recover much more quickly from having high fats than having carbohydrates in their diets.[60]

The worst afflicted nations falling under the recommended 822 kcal fats /day/person are Burundi, 98 kcal/day/person; DR Congo 210 kcal/day/person and Eritrea 275 kcal/day/person. The rest of the countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa have daily individual protein intake falling dismally under the daily threshold.[61]

Top sources of crops rich with fats are palm fruit oil, soy bean oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and peanut oil. Chufa, a high source for carbohydrates, fats and proteins, is cheap and easy to grow. Ghana was successful in its production of chufa (Cyperaceae Cyperus Esculentus), cultivated as a tuber to make milk-like beverage horchata de chufa.[62]

Carbohydrates is the easy staple of choice in the global agriculture because it ensures reliable profit in the world market. Crops rich in dietary fats, and proteins are produced in low quantities because these are expensive to produce and give small profit. Scandalously, much of macronutrient-rich global produce are fed to livestock in the meat-focused rich countries, oblivious to the dietary needs of hungry people in Sub-Sahara Africa and South Asia.[63]

People in the Western and Eastern Asia, Northern Africa, and Latin America have improved food consumption due to urbanization and increased income. Roots, tubers and coarse grains have been replaced by wheat, rice, sugar, vegetable oils, meat and dairy products in their diets.

World Food Program (WFP)[64] concluded: “If global food harvest were distributed equitably among all the people of the world, it could provide a vegetarian diet for over 6 billion people by getting protein from plants, not from animals.”[65]

PROGRESS OF SOME COUNTRIES ON THE HUNGRY LIST

Of the 842 million hungry people in the world, 798 million are in Africa, Asia and Latin America.[66]

Brazil, Chad, Guinea, Namibia and Sri Lanka have increased its food production; some have had less natural disasters, giving them better prospects for great improvement.[67]

In 1940-1960 - recipients of agricultural feats of Nobel Laureate Norman Borlaug - Mexico (1956), Pakistan (1968) and India (1972) - became self sufficient from the high yield production of potatoes, corn and wheat .[68]

During the “richest decade” (1990-2000), China dropped its percentage of undernourished population from 20% to 17% through a progressive green revolution.

China invested in biotechnological crops, opened up its food markets and played on an even trading field by possessing it’s own credit.[69] Now, China controls its own currency; it is no longer prey to global financial speculations and the authoritarian control of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).[70]

Brazil’s ' Zero Hunger Program' under former president Lula de Silva, decreased population percentage of undernourished[71] from 12% in 1990, to 9% in 2000 through subsidies (cash cards) given to poor families in workplaces, schools and public places. Progressive educational programs resulted in high income jobs and food production rose exponentially.[72]

Vietnam succeeded, from 1/3 of its population who were hungry, in1979. After an active national program to grow vegetables and fruits and after making education available for all, the country reached relative prosperity where everyone had balanced meals on their tables.[73]

Before 1972, with US surplus as Bangladesh' safety net,[74], the country had food to eat. The price of grain rose when US made its first grain sales to Russia, food aid to Bangladesh was dramatically reduced that led to 200,000 Bangladeshis dying from starvation.

Later, the international community sent Bangladesh $30 billion in aid, lifting it from acute food insecurity. Now- after being plagued by cyclones, much flooding, and being overpopulated - the country has risen above its difficulties through its own initiatives: a blooming garment industry and from increased remittances of Bangladeshis working abroad. Now, Bangladesh has recovered and is able to feed its own people.[75]

Guatemala suffered from a weak economy caused by national political instability, hurricanes and droughts. The country was bypassed for food aid, as it was believed that poverty in Central America was not as urgent as it was in Africa or Asia. Guatemala became the only Latin American country that remained in the Hungry List.[76]

Because of a repressive, politically insulated hostile government and the volatility of natural disasters, North Korea saw its dismal 18% malnourished population in 1990-1992 rise to 24% in 2001. Six and a half million still need food aid for survival.[77]

India received 5 million tons of wheat per year from the US’, Canada’s and Australia’s , “Food for Peace Program” in 1964-65. With the help of Norman Borlaug's agricultural wheat and corn programs, India became self sufficient in production of all cereals in 1974.

Under India's largest safety net in the world, Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS)[78] provided consistent, subsidized rations and was able to reduce the number of undernourished people by 20 million in 1990-92 and in 1995-97.

However, the numbers rose by 19 million due to unprecedented population growth, less than a decade later. Half of India’s children under 4 years old are malnourished. Here, Thomas Malthus'[79] theory might apply, when population growth rose unchecked and exceeded its growth of production, hunger among the people multiplied .[80]

There are abundant food resources in Nigeria, Brazil and Bolivia, but there are still pockets of famine in some parts of their countries.

In Niamey, there had been an abundant overflow of fresh meat and vegetables while their neighbor Niger remained one of the poorest and hungriest nation in the world. South Africa harvested 12.4 million tons of maize crops while 12 million people in neighboring nations, Zimbabwe and Malawi needed emergency food.[81]

In Ethiopia, the harvest of cereal and pulse crops was estimated by the UN, FAO and WFP to have been “very good” in 2005; they even had exportable surplus in 2006. However, a large number of pastoralists[82] in Southeast Ethiopia still faced pre-famine conditions due to absence of seasonal rains in the area at the end of the year.[83]

In 1974, at a World Food Conference in Rome, the then US Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger promised: “In a decade, no child will go to bed hungry.”[84]

In just over 35 years, another food summit in Rome announced: a billion people went to bed hungry. The same underlying problems the last five decades that had also spurred price spikes in food prices in 2007-2008 had not gone away.[85]

The percentage of proportion of undernourished in 2008 showed that 76% of Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo’s population were hungry; Eritrea had 68%; Burundi had 63%; Togo had 37% and Haiti had 58%.[86]

However, in 2012, dramatic changes saw Burundi's rates rise to 73.4%, and Haiti's fall to 44.5%. Togo cut its numbers almost half to 16.5%.

By 2050, it is predicted that the world population growth will exceed 9 billion people. The demand for agricultural goods will rise by 70%, especially demand for more meat and fat in their diets. Ironic since need for meat and fat are signs of a growing wealth among the hungry. Another downside is that there will still have the need for water to drink and water to irrigate their farms; they still have to face the challenges of climate changes as well as hope for less natural disasters.[87]

FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF POPULATION GROWTH, FERTILITY RATES AND MORTALITY RATES

" Hunger is not caused by too many people sharing the land.”[88]

There is no direct correlation between population growth and prevalence of hunger; they might occur together at the same time, in the same place, as seen in the Sub-Saharan Africa, and in India, but sociologists Frederick Buttel and Laura Raynolds[89] in 1989 found no evidence that rapid population growth in a country caused an increase in its state of hunger.[90]

There is no direct correlation between wealth of a nation, fertility rate and numbers of hungry people, as it is in China. Even with it’s economic upsurge and with a very low fertility rate of 1.6 children per woman per family, China is still listed in the moderately hungry list due of its high population density.[91]

Globally, for the past 40 years, women have been giving birth to fewer children averaging 4.7 per women. Today the average of childbirth per woman is 2.5. Total fertility rates (TFRs)[92] range from 1.1 in Taiwan to 7.4 in Niger. Africa’s low TFR of 6.5%, in 1990, is skewed as it reflected the heterogenous societies of Botswana, Nigeria and Kenya. Change is minimal in Sub-Saharan Africa where women still give birth to an average of 5.2 children in one lifetime.[93] The challenge for Sub-Saharan Africa, with 44% of the world’s hungry people lagging behind in crop production, is to reduce its Replacement Level Fertility Rate (RLF)[94] from 6.6, in 1980 to 2.1 by 2050.

Reducing fertility rates increases economic dividends where there are fewer children to care for and individuals receive more share of profits. This has been proven with the demographic shift seen in the economic growth of East Asian’s “tigers”[95] through two and a half decades, from 1965-1990.[96]

The trend in global population growth assumes that birth rates will decline due to lower fertility rates and there would be a longer life expectancy. Hence, there will be a growing aging population. The global population under 20 years old fell to 35%; the 20-64 age segment rose to 58%. The rest, 7%, are over 65 years old. Counter to this are the young populations below 15 years old in Africa, still at 41%, and Asia, at 25%.[97]

Brazil and Mexico, both account for more than half the global population’s low fertility rates. Brazil’s average TFR is 1.8 and Mexico has 2.2 because of rigorous family planning. The population in Latin America and the Caribbean is predicted to increase only slightly, from 618 million to 773 million in 2050.[98]

Ann Margreth Bakilana, Senior Economist at the World Bank, reported a reduction of child mortality[99] from 183 out of 1000 live births in 1950-55 to 69 per 1000 live births, in 2000. Bangladesh's child mortality rate fell from 144 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 41 deaths per 1000 live births in 2012 - a reduction of 72%.[100]

Globally, maternal mortality rate (MMR)[101] dropped from 380 to 210 deaths per 100,000 live births within 1990-2013. Rwanda saw a decline of its MMR from 1,400 per 100,000 to 320 - a reduction of 77%. Maternal deaths in developing countries (230 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) are 14 times higher than in developed countries with 16 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births as published by Food Outlook.[102]

THE IMPACT OF TRADITIONS, GLOBAL TRADE PRACTICES, GLOBAL POLITICS

Global agriculture produced 17% more in kcalories per person today than thirty years ago; it can feed the world even with a projected 70% rise in world population.[103]

Despite these statistics, misplaced resources guided by greed, or indifference, do not help in the distribution of food aid and do not lift up the needy from abject poverty.

For example, developed countries spend thirty times more on domestic farming subsidies than it spends on Food Aid. USA subsidizes $3.9 million a year to its 25,000 cotton farmers -far more than the entire GDP of Burkina Faso at $ 589.80 in 2015, - where 2 million of its people depend on cotton agriculture, for livelihood .[104]

Europe is the second largest sugar exporter in the world even if production cost of sugar in the European Market cost twice more than it would if sugar were produced in the Third World.[105] The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)[106] countries subsidize their domestic farmers at the rate of $365 billion a year; not a cent is given to smallholder farmers in Africa.

The economic inequality prevails when one observes US farmers "dumping" surplus produce on the world market causing world prices to fluctuate, making it impossible for smallholders farmers[107] from developing countries to compete and engage on even playing field in global trade.

Still, support for local markets in third world countries exist: European market procures 90% and Canada 50% from the developing countries' local food markets to distribute as food aid. However, this is not so with the US national policy of, “ buy US produce only ”, "use US owned companies" which does nothing to help local food markets in the developing countries.[108]

To boot, there is apathy. World Trade Organization (WTO)[109] had, at multiple times in the past, abandoned any pretense that trade negotiations have anything to do with the development of a country. “No one cares.”[110]

Uruguay Round[111] was once established to control neoprotectionism - abuse of fair-trade laws where governments foisted unilateral quantitative restrictions on other trading partners. The progress of this initiative was slow, and ineffectual that led eventually to its demise and the establishment of the new World Trade Organization which is incentivized to monitor and control international trade rules .[112]

Oxfam[113] had criticized Uruguay Round for the insufficient attention to the special needs of the developing countries as a main factor in its failure.

Developed countries pledged 0.7% of their Gross National Product (GNP) as financial help to Third World countries in the 1970 Millennium Project to meet the Millenium Goals. Only seven countries have met their pledges.[114]

Surplus food, meant as emergency food aid, do not all filter down to smallholder farmers in "marginal" need when these groups of farmers are deemed unqualified to receive emergency food aid because they had been able to farm and have produce, albeit, not enough for to last for the year. Eventually, these farmers and their families suffer from extreme food insecurity at year's end.

Urban citizens of poor countries would buy grains from low-priced world markets, not from local small farmers of their own country. So, in Dakar and Senegal, the urban rich would eat baguettes while rural farmers and their families went to bed hungry.[115]

Eighty percent in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are managed by small holders farmers, and most of them

are women. They will need to grow into larger and stronger vocal units to compete with large industrialized farms.[116]

Single crop farming is one old, worn-out tradition the smallholder farmers cling to tenaciously, a certain deterrent to their progress. They hold on tight to superstitions from their ancestors, for want of anchor in their daily lives. In Niger, farmers keep on planting millet- a poor source of nutrients - for family subsistence that only lasts for 6-7 months. Morever, from habit or from ignorance, they plant only on wet season due to the land’s aridity so things become disastrous when uncertain climate change weather occurs.[117]

“Tradition,” claims Kristen Wenzel[118] “can impede human progress by blocking acceptance of new technology. Mindless superstitions are taking them away from adapting new forms of values toward a full realization of their human potential.

Tradition, has in fact caused and continues to cause hunger in the world.”[119]

BIO TECHNOLOGY, BIO ENGINEERING, TRANSGENETICS, TRADITIONAL BREEDING, PHARMING, AND GENOMICS

Iron-clad attitudes and unfounded fear of health risks, environmental activism and gross misinformation have wreaked havoc on the agricultural global food system.

The Green Revolution[120] of the 1950's-60’s introduced new agricultural technology along with chemical fertilizers, pesticides, new irrigation prospects, modified grains to spur the growth of high yield crops. Its "father", Nobel Laureate Norman Borlaug, catalyzed the stagnant world of agriculture and prevented famine in Mexico, Pakistan and India. Borlaugh went on to extend his acumen and resources to the rest of the world, including China, South and East Asia and Africa.

Borlaug, in a G-8 Summit in Scotland, July 2005, offered to send “double aid to Africa by $50 billion by 2010." He said, "Africa desperately needs these simple, effective, high yielding farming systems or we are likely to see tens of millions more undernourished African children by 2020.”[121]

Borlaug had encouraged China to pursue biotechnology[122]. In 1970, China purchased a high yielding wheat crop from Pakistan; it doubled its crop yield in 1980 to 2.8 metric tons per hectare or 285 million tons harvested from 1.4 metric hectare. A decade later, it had produced 4.2 metric tons of grain per hectare, or 389 million tons.[123]

Biotechnology's roots date back centuries in industrial microbiology. It expanded into zymotechnology, focusing on beer making, to expand into larger industrial issues in World War I. Post war industrial fermentation had given rise to biotechnology .[124] Biotechnology expanded into genetic engineering to improve staple crop yields, like cassava, cowpeas, and sweet potatoes in South Africa. Uganda used biotechnology to farm bananas. Bananas became the 4th most important crop of the country contributing to its relative prosperity after its production of rice, corn, wheat.[125]

Gene Revolution[126] employed biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops[127] to fight world hunger. Borlaug said, " the food crisis in Africa is the result of the longtime neglect of agriculture by political leaders. The population growth will require that the world food production be increased by 57% by 2025."

Ignorance and mis-information do not help reduce hunger. Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Zambia (by well fed leaders) refused international food aid even after their countries experienced a slew of drought, and floods that destroyed crops leaving 15 million to starve. They had claimed that US's food aid contained genetically modified (GM)seeds, as was proclaimed by anti-GM Europe.

Another time, UN World Food Program (UN-WFP) offered hungry Zambia, 52 million of unmodified wheat and rice GM foods. Zambia refused the aid. Zambia had exported horticultural products to Europe. They "did not want to contaminate their local crops with GM crops "was their irrational claim.[128]

It did not help when human errors and natural movement of the winds caused abnormalities fueling controversies and adding fear and distrust among the public. GM-approved corn for animal feed had been mistakenly mixed with corn for human consumption, a scandal, called the “starlink disaster”.

Another was the Mexican gene flow[129] from American corn, in 2001 maize landraces in Oaxaca were found to contain transgenes. Believed to be part of natural evolution, transgenes resulted from fallow weed diversity over time. Nevertheless, this misinformation spurred anti-GM sentiments. Also, in France, a gene flow was discovered between sugar beets and wild cherries.[130]

Anti-GM activists, “Greenpeace”, a trans-national non -governmental (NGO)[131], claimed people were being poisoned with new-found allergies. New super crops ,they claimed, had unleashed superweeds.[132] [133]

Borlaug said: “Farmers have been genetically modifying crops so they could grow and thrive; this has been done for thousands of years. Plants were selected for faster growth, larger seeds, sweeter fruits, by hybridization of Mother Nature. Crops fit their needs from naturally occurring mutations that had contributed to genetic variations in the wilds.” He introduced QPM, Quality Protein Maize[134] to improve corn production and shared technologies in Ghana, Uganda, Mozambique, Burkina Faso and Malawi, impetus to the Sasakawa Global 2000.[135]

Finally, world acceptance arrived. After US filed suit in the World Trade Organization to overturn de-facto European moratorium on new crop approvals, EU joined the Gene Revolution in 2004. Rice yielded crops in cold, dry and high salt conditions; GM tomatoes were used as medicine and potatoes that contained protein. Europe approved imports of two varieties of genetically modified corn by Monsanto and the Swiss Syngent.[136]

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)[137] approved GE[138] and GMO foods " to meet the same safety standards as foods in non-engineered crops and have been evaluated for toxicity, allergenicity and long-term safety."[139]

Borlaug said the "motivation of rich countries to ban food import from GMO crops could be genuine or it could be for economic protection of their farmers." Activists have resisted research and governments have over-regulated the market. Furthermore, all crops strains, potentially express traits of generated forms from induced mutagenesis .[140] "To date, no adverse health effects are attributed to genetic engineering that have been documented in the human population.” Still, research as well as attention to ethical and pluralistic issues in biotechnology, bioengineering, genetic modification, or gene splicing[141] is vital as a monitor to ongoing progress in GMO crop production.

Research succeeded in incorporating genes to resist drought, frosts, and different fungal and viral diseases, in maize, and cotton. It also facilitated weed control in soybean varieties. The first plant genome[142], mustard plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), helped farmers plant and harvest the crop twice in a year[143]

US biopharming[144] made medically important proteins cheaply from the kernel of the corn cob versus production in expensive fermentation factories.[145] Drugs were produced to treat lysosomal storage disorder, control immune responses in infants, stem bleeding during surgery, and saved lives of aid workers stricken with Ebola.[146]

Traditional breeding[147] uses the plant’s own genes to awaken slumbering genes already in the plant, hence no alien genes could trespass.[148]

Hybrid seeds use traditional breeding techniques. The Program for Africa's Seed Systems, PASS,[149] reaped 57,000 tons of seed in 2012 enough to plant 2 million hectares of land in Africa. The goal is to harvest 200,000 tons of seed using traditional breeding in 2017.[150]

Human intervention, as seen since the inception of biotechnology either facilitated and spurred more production of grains and lifted countries like India, Pakistan, Mexico and China from their ranking in the hunger list. More progress in man's active role in increasing grain production had been positive.

US' and Germany's research have succeeded in making grain plants produce their own nitrogen fertilizer (as legumes now do) and boost the protein content of corn.[151] Studies at Sussex, University of England came up with a sweet potato that is virus resistant with a 100% yield increase using conventional breeding.[152]

Spun protein from soybeans are good meat substitutes. Foods are fortified with low cost nutrients from natural plants like Stevia, coconut palm sugar, barley malt syrup, brown rice syrup, agave nectar, maple syrup and honey. Also, synthetic sugar[153] costs more than a fraction from the cost of natural production.

Desalination of sea water for irrigation and fish protein concentrate production have maximized the use of biotechnology in oceans and waterways.

Farmers in Kwa Zulu Natal province, or garden province, in South Africa, planted genetically altered cotton, and the sales from it were used to buy food .[154]

Hungry Zambians, whose leader had refused food aid, took things into their hands, and forced UN aid workers to open warehouses where GM crops were sequestered, in open defiance against the admonishment of their agricultural minister, Mundia Sikatana who had proudly said: “The outside world has no responsibility for our failures. They will not feed us - we must feed ourselves with what we grow.”[155]

Developing countries have expanded food production that have led to success: Southeast Asia with rice; India and Pakistan with wheat, rice, corn and sorghum; Latin America with wheat and potatoes; and East Africa with corn, wheat and sorghum.[156] The way progress goes, the promise of biotechnology to produce food in the African deserts and wetlands of Asia would certainly come into fruition.[157]

EDUCATION, MARGINALIZATION OF WOMEN AND THE POOR

Ninety percent of the hungry in the world are marginalized- living in poverty, almost always in rural areas. Most of the time, the country's rich living in urban areas eat substantially. Unaware of their rights, marginalized people are cast out of the mainstream of knowledge and access to information, vital for their self sufficiency.

Marginalized people have no access to the latest improvements in agriculture; and training is sparse, if at all. There are no schools. Government leaders neglect them and focus instead on the educated, articulate and informed citizens in the urban areas.[158]

A foreign aid worker had remarked: “ Starve the city people and they riot; starve the rural people and they die from starvation.”[159]

UNESCO ’s (United Nations Educational Scientific and Culture Organization)[160], in 2015 stated: 70.2% of the 774 million illiterate people, -15 years and older- , live in West[161] and South Asia. Sixty four percent (64%) of illiterate people in Africa live in Sub- Saharan Africa.

South Sudan has the lowest literacy rate at 27%, Afghanistan at 28.1 %, and Burkina Faso and Niger at 28.7%. Mali ranks at 33.4%, Chad at 35.4%, Somalia at 37.8 %, Ethiopia, 39%, Guinea, 41% and Benin 42.4%. Surprisingly, some countries in the hungry list have high literacy rates: Congo(Republic) at 79.3%, Ghana at 76.6%, Sudan at 75.9%, even Eritrea at 73.8% and Rwanda at 70.5%.

There seems to be a small direct correlation between a country's literacy rank and hunger; the existence of pockets of population suffering from hunger still stem from its marginalized smallholder farmers.

North Korea is at the top of the Literacy List of Countries, with 100%. This defies any direct kinship between literacy and hunger. The prime reason to North Korea's hunger status is its insulated geo-political status. Moreover, most of its farming area is not arable; not enough fertilizers are available; natural disasters accost the farmers relentlessly resulting in food shortages and famine. North Korea had previously even halted its aggressive nuclear activities at one time, in exchange for food aid.

North Koreans have no freedom to practice their literacy.[162] Their attempts to “feed themselves through their own market activity” might reflect some educated minds overcoming handicaps in a repressive government risking theirs and their families’ lives. But, these attempts prove futile as the government remains repressive and isolated from the rest of the world.[163]

Human Development Index[164] places developed countries led by Norway with an index of .943 , Australia, .929 and Netherlands .910 at the top of the list.

In contrast, number 177 in the Human Development Index list is Sierra Leone with a -1; number 176 is Niger with a -8 and number 175 is Burkina Faso with a -20. Such notable discrepancy is atrocious.

Nobel laureate economist Amartya Sen counts the "lack of entitlement” of the marginalized poor as a cause for famines. Famines are the result of “underlying inequities that deprive people of economic opportunity and security. Rapid population growth and hunger are endemic to societies where land ownership, jobs, education, health care and old age security are beyond the reach of the poor.”[165]

Low income food deficit countries, in 'less developed countries' (LDC)[166], operating small tracts of lands with low - end machinery, or none at all, is called “subsistence farming”; they can not compete in the world market. Small scale farmers are unlikely to negotiate, let alone participate and supply food to the World Food Program (WFP) because they can not afford imposed global marketing costs. In Africa, 3/4 of the population are farmers, most are women left behind by husbands who leave for work elsewhere.[167]

Women comprise 80% of the developing world’s small- holder farmers who need to work against handicaps of poverty, illiteracy, isolation, malnourishment, and lack of gender equality. They desperately need access to education, training in agriculture, and food support until they can stand on their own.

In most societies, women, in poverty, are powerless; they suffer from low esteem and are often abused.

Of the world’s hungry, 60% are women. They are vulnerable to starvation and malnutrition as culturally, they are the last to eat, after children, men, the elderly and the sick. If women were given the same recognition and advantages given to men, women would easily rise to the occasion.[168]

The 'Hunger Project'[169] firmly believes that empowering women is key to end world hunger and poverty. Women and children are the countries’ best chances to create an infrastructure that will defeat hunger.[170]

The Gender Equality Index[171] shows most developing countries rank low in making strides towards gender equality.

Investing in women is smart economics. Women spend 90% of their income on family and communities, called, "multiplier effect". The last few years, there have been strides in employing women in bigger organizations and the future looks hopeful in the horizon for women employees.

Presently, women are hired by big conglemerates. Northern Ghana Shea company hires 4,000 women out of 9,000 farmers. In rural Vietnam, women's income increased by 50-70% in a mushroom social enterprise.[172]

MAN MADE SOURCES THAT AGGRAVATE WORLD HUNGER

ARMED CONFLICTS, REFUGEES AND MIGRATIONS

World Food Program (WFP) in 1992 reported - food crises attributed to human causes has more than doubled from 15% to more 35 %. Fighting in wars has displaced millions of people from their homes leading to the world’s worst hunger emergencies. In war, food becomes a weapon; soldiers will starve enemies by seizing food and livestock; fields and water wells are contaminated and destroyed, forcing farmers to abandon their land.[173]

In South Sudan, a long civil war has kept farmers from working continuously in their fields for years. UN reported that 4.9 million people are in urgent need of food and assistance. The corrupt and greedy local government has exacerbated the situation by charging food aid agencies up to $10,000 in visa fees per foreign aid worker [174] making it more difficult for the rest of the world to help the people in need of food aid and help in agriculture.

About 800,000 refugees from South Sudan have fled to Uganda since July 2016, the figure should surpass one million by the middle of 2017. Refugee camps are packed to the brim; food and health supplies are low and a growing strain on Uganda's services and infrastructure.

According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)[175], Uganda’s approach to dealing with refugees has been progressive but is in serious chronic and severe underfunding. The UN agency is in urgent need for more than $250 million to support South Sudanese refugees in Uganda.[176]

The prevalence of increased migration these last few years, from the war-torn countries of Syria, Libya, and South Sudan have led to numerous refugee camps all over the world. Approximately 3/4 of a million people have left the region for North America and Europe each year, since 2015.[177]

Aryn Baker, Time Magazine, March 27, 2017 wrote:

“Concurrent famines have a common disturbing theme: they are man-made, precipitated by conflict and perpetuated by political jockeying”.

The terrorist group Boko Haram has displaced more than 2 million people. Nigerians have fled to refugee camps; there is not enough water for drinking and for bathing. The Nigerian military has succeeded in pushing insurgents back, but the threats of terrorist attacks and army operations keep people cut off from emergency food supplies.[178]

“New wars”, wrote Mary Kaldor, a British academician and economist in her book, “New and Old Wars are Organized Violence in a Global Era, “ involve not only state armies and insurgents, but also paramilitaries and ethnic militia, criminal gangs, mercenaries and international forces”.

Civil wars spill over borders with intractable and persistent, seemingly patternless violence from which no one is safe.[179]

From Global Trends[180] 2015, US National Intelligence Council (NIC)[181] noted 65.3 million people were displaced in 2015, 5 million more from 2014. Out of these, 21.3 million are refugees[182], 3.2 million are seeking asylum, and 40.8 are migrants.[183]

Measured against the world’s population of 7.4 billion, one in every 113 people in the world is displaced from his/her home. Those who arrived in the shores of Europe in 2015-2016 were refugees or migrants or both. The treatment of either groups of migrations depended on the national and international laws that applied to their situation of the country that they landed.[184]

CORRUPT AND AUTHORITARIAN GOVERNMENTS, REPRESSED HOSTILE SOCIETIES

Africa is on its fifth decade of descent into Famine, disease and violence due to corrupt governments. International Monetary Fund (IMF)[185] and World Bank granted loans to Nigeria, Uganda and Zimbabwe, on conditions that the nations make adjustments in government spending. The governments went ahead and spent profligately on items not directed at helping the poor farmers in the rural areas. They were unable to pay back their debts, hence they have earned compounded interests that had cost Africa $148 billion per year.[186]

In Zimbabwe, total cereal production fell from 3 million tons in1996 to 800,000 tons in 2000 when it's President Mugabe gave farmlands to disinterested parties whose agricultural practices ruined the country’s economy. Inflation edged over 900% at a time when HIV/AIDS became an epidemic in the country.[187]

The first president of Malawi, Hastings Banda's[188] single crop cultivation policy left a trail of depleted soils. He subsidized seeds and fertilizers to farmers but he looted the country’s grain reserves and sold these for huge profit.[189]

International politics worsened a pre-existing hunger crisis when IMF advised Malawi not to sell large amounts of its strategic grain reserves. When famine arrived, the emergency stockpiles were gone.This led donor nations and IMF to withdraw aid to Malawi.[190]

Under the repressive leadership of Kim Jong Un, North Korea’s food crisis has worsened. Water scarcity caused a drop in the country’s food production threatening to worsen food security in this reclusive nation. The country has to import 694,000 tons of food - 300,000 tons more than expected to be covered by government imports.[191]

Nobel Laureate Economist Amartya Sen stated: “ There is a need for democracy with private property rights to improve lands for farmers; free press will hold the government accountable. There is economic health where information flows. Lack of entitlement rather than lack of available food is the principal cause of famine.”[192]

Dambisa Moyo, a Zambian with degrees from Harvard and Oxford Universities said: ”Half of the battle is just convincing African governments to believe in their own agricultural scientists and entrepreneurs as viable agents for positive changes.”[193]

Botswana is a rare democracy in Africa; it has a relatively sound economy, albeit surrounded by extreme poverty in its neighbors. It had a national debt of 8.6% Gross Domestic Product (GDP) versus Zimbabwe’s 200% national debt GDP in 2003. Botswana's GDP for 2015 was 6,360 on par with Peru at 6,027.1 and even above South Africa at 5,724.0.[194]

It is almost de facto to believe that the entire global food system is gravely ill. British Economist Charles Kenny observed: ” there is reason to believe that global misery is an intractable problem that can not be relieved.”

DISEASES

HIV/AIDS, a highly communicable disease causing irreparable damage to the immune system, has unleashed families asunder and has afflicted 33.2 million people, worldwide. More than 95% of HIV infections are found in developing countries, 2/3 of them in Sub-Saharan Africa where 28 million are living with HIV, as reported by WHO/UNAIDS[195] in 2007.

Botswana experienced its worst epidemic of AIDS in the 1980s. It received increased AIDS funding from less than $5 million to $110 million a year for treatment and for preventive measures.[196] Now, 95% of its citizens with AIDS are receiving full treatments and medications.

Food is often cited by people living with and affected by HIV/AIDS as their greatest and most important need, said Elizabeth Mataka, UN Secretary General’s Envoy for AIDS in Africa. Surveys in Rwanda and Tanzania indicate that lack of food is a major reason for people not to seek treatment for HIV/AIDS. They fear that when they accept treatment, their appetites would grow and and they wouldn’t have sufficient food to meet their increased need.[197]

Anti-retrovirals - treatment of choice to counter the growing impact of AIDS in developing countries - are effective when people are adequately nourished. When a person lacks one single micronutrient -or a combination of minerals and vitamins- their immune system is compromised, and infections take hold.

Aside from HIV/AIDs, communicable diseases preventable by vaccination are rampant in developing countries. Most diseases, worsened by malnourishment, are life threatening. Vitamin deficiency often leads to anemia, beriberi, pellagra and scurvy. These diseases lead to physical debilitating symptoms like diarrhea, skin rashes, edema, and heart failure.[198]

World Health Organization's (WHO) data show, communicable diseases contribute slightly more to the total disability adjusted life years (DALYs)[199] lost in the Sub-Saharan Africa, about 42% versus 40% lost in the rest of the world.

UNICEF, in 2013 reported that 3.1 million children die annually from fetal growth restrictions- stunting, wasting and vitamin A and Zinc deficiencies in developing countries. Debilitation from undernutrition magnifies disastrous diseases where millions have died from Diarrhea (61%), Malaria (57%), Pneumonia (52%) and Measles (45). Tuberculosis, Malaria and HIV/AIDS contribute to 90% of deaths in the region, according to the Oxford Journals.

GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS, GLOBAL AGRIBUSINESS, APATHY, ATTITUDES, CLASS DISPARITIES, POST COLONIALISM

Norman Borlaug, Nobel Laureate, father of the “Green Revolution” observed: “There is donor fatigue. The World Bank has retreated from agriculture in 1990 because of changed ideology of the bank and also from fear of green political pressure in Washington.”

Investments to improve bad roads for the developing countries- a major hindrance to the delivery of grains in marketing systems - are at all time low. Education and training is woefully inadequate. Attention to the poor and marginal people in the hungry nations waver.[200] When the world media emblazons its pleas to pay attention to the world’s food crisis, it is usually too late. Hunger prevails beyond the media spotlight. It takes more than a year before food aid arrives, too late to stem starvation. [201]

Branko Milanovic of the World Bank, in his book, “ The Haves and Have-Nots, Brief and Idiosyncratic History of Global Inequality” cited how the glaring lifestyle differences of the economically secure people in developed countries drive the poor and the food insecure to harbor an “ anger in the belly.” Calamities, inequality and injustice widen the gap between the rich and the poor; heightened desperation and abject misery of the downtrodden had created platitudes of erratic fund drives and sporadic aid from the rich.[202]

Olivier de Schutter,[203] UN’s special rapporteur for food noted in a report in 2011: “Since the 1960s, food has been linked largely on increasing agricultural outputs and lowering food prices, while scant attention was paid to ensuring the availability and accessibility of a wide range of foods that children needed to thrive and that adults needed to lead healthy, productive lives.”

In 1993, La Via Campesina,[204] an international association of peasant organizations, with mostly women members, determined to resist the encroachment of global agribusiness. This group believed that “ the only kind of global food system acceptable to them was incompatible with the enlightened globalization of influential groups and the entire world system, in a post capitalist global system."[205]

The concentration in agribusiness[206] is crucial to the future of food systems in developing countries. Long the target of corporate investments from the industrial global food system, it has been subjugated and dominated in agriculture and domestic food markets by developed countries to the detriment of the developing countries.[207]

A shift occurred in 1980s -1990s in the patterns and extent of transnational corporate penetration of the agri-food systems in developing countries. A wave of new investments promoted “non traditional exports” like exotic and off-season seafoods, fruits and vegetables from the developing countries to the metropolitan markets. Free market approach by developing countries linked multinationals in agri-food systems like Brazil's,

Argentina's and Thailand's agribusiness firms when they became major suppliers working with multinationals like Nestle, Unilever, Anderson Clayton .[208]

Small holder farmers are learning to use sustainable agriculture[209] techniques to protect the environment. Cubic farming[210] is costly, but these machines are efficient in soil depleted lands in the developing countries. In developing countries, farmers’ immediate concerns include improving crop yield, increasing crop diversity and increasing income with a focus on efficient cropping systems, pest control methods, potable water supplies, support for agriculturally based industries and infrastructure.

International and national agricultural research centers are stepping up efforts to improve the productivity of subsistence farming using agroforestry,[211] alley and multiple cropping, improved genetic material, nitrogen fixing trees and crops and biotechnology with attention to the variability of soils.[212]

Agro-ecology is the application of ecology to agriculture and food systems- the old and sustainable way to farm. In Niigata, Japan, wheat and barley were planted in between watermelons; after harvest the plants became mulch, ready for the next planting. Plants that drive away pests are interplanted with primary crops. It is an alternative to monoculture[213] and is knowledge-based farming, customized to the land’s condition.[214]

In 1990, Zimbabwe’s poor was made up of 50% of its population. When it realized that agricultural growth did not benefit the small scale farmer against large scale farmers and agribusiness, it returned the market and its safety net function back to its own Grain Marketing Board[215]. Zimbabwe was able to produce, import and distribute over 1 million tons of food through its board ever since that time.

Smallholder farmers can not adopt and afford sustainable agriculture practices when their main concern is to feed their families; they revert to old traditional practices .

Few farmers are aware of this farming technique,they lack information, training and money to support agribusiness.

And, they still need the help from donors. Major western donors shrunk development agriculture aid from 17% in 1980 to 3.8% in 2006; this was the seed of discontent for the poor. Decades of little attention to the agricultural needs of developing countries, reinforced by unhampered world oil price hikes; by rich countries’ diversion of crops to produce biofuels; and by the virtual takeover of the commodities market’s increasing wild swings in food prices- all these took its toll.

"Crisis breeds opportunity” was the final judgment of the global food crisis of 2007-2008 when the top heavy global food system’s fragility and inefficiency were exposed. Those years, when the whole system broke down, and the food crisis occured, what seemed to be “something between anachronism and the afterthought” system practiced by selfish major western donors since the 1970s disappeared.[216]

The “perfect storm” arrived in an incipient way. Haiti 's Prime Minister was forced out of office; elsewhere, thousands of people were being killed for no reason.

Then, “Arab Spring” erupted and lasted from December 2010 to December 2012.

In August 23, 2015, Arab Spring[217] was a “revolution of the Hungry”. The throttle-like control of the Egyptian “dictatorship” was called the “bread politics.”

This uprising brought together a cast of political dissidents and the poor, uneducated, apolitical citizens against their state. The basic equation was stark: the Arab world could not feed itself. Food was expensive, people were poor and repressive regimes still relied on imported wheat, financed through expensive foreign aid. Commodity prices soared. Tunisia rioted, brandishing baguettes; Egypt called for “bread, freedom, social justice”. Poor Syrian farmers, displaced by a series of droughts from 2006-2010, joined and rose up, showed displeasure against Syrian leader Bashar Assad's neoliberal disinvestment from agriculture.[218]

The Arab states are the world’s largest net importers of grains, depending on exports from water-rich North America, Europe and Central Asia. Naturally, bread riots would break out every time there was disruption in the global food supply. When oil profits fell, it became harder to pay for grain imports . At the end of the day, the crisis can be explained in terms of unjust political economy: corruption, and crony networks in the urban regions favored over rural population

In 2008- 2009, four global summits were held focused on food security; $40 million was pledged for emergency relief in countries hit by the price hikes and the volatility of food staples. Investments were relaunched for the welfare of agriculture in the Global South.

The result of decolonization of 1950s-60s led to an “elite” class who took power after independence in developing countries. Income and class disparities between the urban educated rich and the rural poor were pronounced.

Homegrown attacks on the smallholder farmers, internal “land grabs” notably in Nigeria, Ghana, parts of Sudan and Kenya became the norm long before the World Bank and the IMF imposed draconian economic and social remedies on the governments of the Global South. Aid to improve national growth and doing good for the poor were not the same thing.[219]

For forty years, “increasing economic growth rates of the poor countries did not correlate very well with reducing poverty in the rural areas”. Mass migration of rural people to the mega-cities and rapid pace of industrialization of the Global South accelerated; the poor, who remained in the farms, remained poor. In Sub-Saharan Africa, almost 500 million people out of nearly 900 million of its population still live in rural areas where agriculture employs 65% of total labor force. Globally, smallholder agriculture and pastoralists today support almost 2 billion people globally- that is two out of every seven human beings alive today- remains to be the “backbone”, albeit fragile support, of Africa.[220]

Thomas Nagel, Philosophy, Law Emeritus at New York University concluded: “ If Hobbes[221] is right, then to hope for a significant reduction in poverty - not to speak of its elimination as the World Bank, UN, USAID, UK's Department of International Development (DFID), countless NGOs and philanthropies now argue is feasible- is chimerical still.”

Jacqueline Pfeffer Merrill, Philanthropy Daily, wrote: “The Hobbesian perspective on "Sluggish Charitable Giving,” wrote: “2/3 of people who have given to charity in the past year will “give more carefully or sparingly” in the coming years and one in ten will not give again until economy recovers.”[222]

ENVIRONMENT, BIODIVERSITY, CLIMATE CHANGE, FOOD WASTE

Seventy five percent of the world’s food is generated from only 12 plants and 5 animal species making the global food system high vulnerable.

Biodiversity[223] is the key to smallholder farmers , particularly, in East Africa, as guardians of biological species in protected areas. Their responsibility is to conserve these species for future generations. Biodiversity is also a way for them to cope with biophysical environments and play a role in the conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of the benefits of biodiversity and the world.[224]

When a crop gets infested, agricultural scientists would replace it from another variety of the same species harbored with care in that region. Keeping the integrity of air, water and soil play a role in the survival of the people at many levels.[225]

Climate change does not cause Famine and Hunger, but it makes these conditions inevitable in its wake. World Food Program (WFP) expects the number of malnourished children to increase to 24 million by 2050, 1/5 % more probability of chance even without the challenges of climate change.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Economist, Ben Olken, stated: “..by correlating half a century’s worth of weather data that every degree Celsius increase in the climate of a poor country over any given year lowered its economic growth by 1.3%.” Variations in the temperature however, has no significant effect on the economic fortunes of the rich countries.[226]

NASA’s Stoddard Institute for Space Studies‘ James Hansen claimed that a” 2 degree Celsius rise in the atmosphere in the developing countries is inevitable; it could tolerate at most 3 degree Celsius rise. However, with a 2 degree Celsius rise, extreme heat would bring on drought and leave 40% of farmland incapable of growing maize. It will destroy savannah grassland that are supportive of pastoral livelihood”.[227]

Carbon emissions[228] continue to increase more than 50% with strikingly high growth in US and China, unfortunately consequences of the incredible economIc and development progress.[229] These account for 3/4 of total emissions in the world atmosphere, increased by 42%.

Worldwide net emissions of greenhouse gases[230] from human activities increased by 35% from 1990 to 2010.

The carbon footprint[231] measured via greenhouse gases emitted throughout a plant's life, from planting, growing, and breeding, transport, processing, packaging, consumption and waste have the greatest impact on the environment. Mythbusters Lappé, Collins et. al. claimed:

“even with increase of greenhouse gas emissions[232]

undermining Earth’s capacity to absorb carbon is a far cry from its direct effect on Famine and Hunger.”

The food system has a unique capacity to help rebalance the carbon cycle by cutting emissions from food and agricultural systems, by storing more carbon in the soil for a balanced atmosphere carbon.[233]

Reducing emissions while maintaining a sustainable economic development without sacrificing the rigors of mankind's activities that affect the environment is a challenge that faces everyone on this planet.

Economic strides these last 40 years had been costly to the environment. Indicators of the planet’s health continue to decline from losses of biodiversity, little progress in reducing emissions and no effective measures in slowing down the negative effects of climate change.

People must consciously be active in turning back this threat of destruction: every little positive act counts.[234]

Cities make up 2.8% of earth’s total land area leaving the worst carbon footprint due to pollution and waste.

Increased migration to urban areas, in developing countries, is causing a growth of 180,000 people per day. Moreover, the poor migrants are distanced from sources of their daily food. It is forecasted that by 2050, 2/3 of the planet’s 9 billion people will be in urban areas or away from their homelands.

The mainstream view counters: the best informed people in politics, science, aid and development of the world who are thinking of hunger today believe that human beings now have the scientific knowledge to transform agriculture to such an extent that even if global warming turns out to be severe, these people are cautiously optimistic that not only can enough food be produced to a feed a world of 9 billion, it is also possible to secure greater access to the bottom 3 billion food insecure of the world.[235]

Food waste ranks as the third top factor causing the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. “The impact of food waste on hunger, climate change, natural resources and food security is enormous.” More than one billion metric tons of food is lost or wasted and will never even make it from the farm to fork.

If food waste were a country, it would be the largest emitter of greenhouse gases, behind China and the US. Sadly, if the 805 million hungry people in the world suffering from this profligate waste were their own nation, it would also be the third largest country in the world.

Oceanographer, Phillip Costeau in “Waste on Land and Sea” stated: “Managing food waste will go a long way toward fighting hunger; the environmental benefits are equally important.”

There is waste in retail markets before consumers can purchase it. Retailers throw 43 billion pounds of food because of oversupply and short shelf life of perishables. In developed countries, consumers buy too much and leave oversized large portions, unfinished.

World food waste at consumer level is 39% of all wastes seen in middle and high income countries. US discards 133 billion pounds of food annually, or 31% of its food supply or 90 billion pounds.[236]

Using a metaphor of a flowing river, food loss,[237] or “upstream” flow in the food chain occurs at the production level, versus food waste occurs “downstream”, in the retail and consumer level following the flow of the food supply chain.

In developing countries, food loss occurs in food decays in the fields before harvesting, or spoils in poor storage units or rotting through slow and poor transport with impassable roads, inefficient vehicles and extreme volatile weather.[238]

Asia, with the most fragile food delivery and storage systems, produces 1/5 of world’s fruits and 1/2 of world's vegetables. There are 1.3 billion tons of fruits and vegetables that are lost every year. The irony reverberates in WHO's prediction that an annual 1.7 million deaths will occur worldwide, due to low consumption of fruits and vegetables.

With the forecast of an increase of 45% in global crop production to meet consumption numbers and with the “business-as-usual-food- loss and -waste, 800 million metric tons of waste would add 2 billion metric tons of carbon emissions to the environment annually.

On another superfluous level, surplus produce in developed countries, instead of being distributed as food aid, is turned into biofuels.

Biofuel production grew in 2000-2010 by 450%; US and Brazil dedicate 460 million metric tons of maize and sugar to produce biofuels. If the crop calories used for this production were shifted to food for human consumption, agriculture could potentially feed 4 billion more people.[239]

Livestock Revolution[240], a trend that shifts from plant based to animal based products, catalyzed by urbanization where 75% of crop and pastureland is dedicated to animal production result in overgrazing, deforestation, more waste and an increase in greenhouse gas emissions.

In China, pork consumption is expected to peak in 2020 at 93 million tons; 50% greater than the average American consumption. More than half of the world’s feed crops will soon be eaten by China’s livestock.[241]

Africa's environmental challenges in the farmlands are erosion, desertification[242] deforestation, water shortage from drought, and land degradation[243] Forty(40%) of land currently farmed is degraded.[244]

Earth’s challenge is to support an increase of demand for global crops by 60%-120% while there is an increase in soil retrogression[245] - a deterrent in farm production.

Biodiversity in a sustainable agricultural environment can combat the deluge of food loss, food waste and climate change.

The Panel on Climate Change[246] in 2014 pointed out several causes for global concern: a decline in crop productivity by 13% in 2030 due to stress from heat and water shortage; drought; dense populations in Europe, East USA, Southeast Asia and Brazil; volatile extreme temperature changes in South Asia and South Africa; more pests from warmer weather; reduced nutrients like Zinc, and Iron in produce from elevated carbon dioxide in the air; and reduced seafood supply in acidic oceans.[247]

Half of biodiversity hotspots in peril of extinction belong to developing countries: Cape Floral Region, South Africa; Coastal Forests, Eastern Africa; eastern coast of Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique; Himalayas in Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. There are 325 million people living in 49 most hazard prone countries in 2030, especially South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.[248]

WATER AND SANITATION

Everything- agriculture, ecosystems, cities, biodiverse environments, global health depend on sustainable supply of clean fresh water. There are 663 million people without access to clean water and 2.4 billion people without adequate sanitation. Each day nearly 1000 children die due to preventable water and sanitation related diarrheal diseases.

More than 10% of people worldwide have to consume food produce irrigated with waste water which can contain chemicals, or disease causing organisms.[249]

Access to safe drinking water is essential to health, a basic human right and a component of effective policy for health protection. One in six people around the world lack access to safe drinking water; 37 countries are on water stress. Women of the Sub-Saharan Africa spend 40 billion hours per year doing nothing but collect water.[250]

United Nations, in 2015, reported demand for water globally will rise 55% in the next 15 years. Only 60% of the world’s water needs will be met in 2030. A quarter of Earth’s water are freshwater; much of it locked in glaciers, ice caps and permafrost, the total 1/3 remaining freshwater are available in rivers, lakes, ice and snow.

The Yellow River, China’s cradle of civilization, can dry up from overconsumption before it reaches the sea, a source of stress on China where 20% of available surface water is considered unfit for agriculture.

Aral Sea in central Asia, once the largest lake in the world is depleted from irrigation. In America South, Rio Grande stretching 1900 miles to the Gulf of Mexico trickles in some places and is predicted to lose 1/3 of its water by the end of the century. Lake Urmia, between Azerbajian and Iran, once a biosphere has shrunk 90% in the last decade; windstorms had exposed salt to neighboring farmlands in 10 of Iran’s provinces.[251]

More than a dozen countries are in need of clean water; its people do not have access to the first line of resources in the battle to keeping waters clean and safe for drinking.[252]

The Chain province of Thailand, facing the worst drought in decades, shifted from rice planting to other dry land crops. India’s Karnataka region are switching from planting rice to millet because of its arid land. In the Sub-Saharan Africa, only 6% of its cultivated land is irrigated. In Iran, where 1/3 global average of annual rainfall loses moisture from the rapid evaporation rate, had 20% decrease in rainfall these last 20 years.[253]

Water is a government’s most expensive commodity; so much as $45 billion are spent annually to ensure adequate water supply; it is forecasted that the number will increase to $200 billion by 2030. Catastrophic 70% water withdrawals[254] are used in agriculture; 20% in industry and 10% in domestic use. Without change of actions, agriculture will require what has been an unnatainable 2/3 of additional freshwater by 2030.[255]

Just as each food product has an embedded carbon footprint, it also has a quantity of embedded freshwater footprint.[256]

A wasted single head of broccoli had taken in 91% water while it grew; it had used 4-5 gallons of water. Globally, lost and wasted food account for 250 cubic km of surface and groundwater resources, equivalent to 38 times the annual US domestic water consumption or 3 times the volume of Lake Geneva.

Global freshwater loss related to food waste is higher than the national water usage in any developed country. China, India and US, together, use 38% of global freshwater.[257]

Mountains of food waste are altering the sea’s chemistry. The Oceans have 26% increase in level of acid, a threat to people's health.

Fishing ships burn fossil fuel and the carbon emissions to the rest of the atmosphere.[258]

Shipping food means shipping water; 1/5 of the world’s freshwater is in motion, crisscrossing with large, invisible virtual water flows[259] related to the food chain supply.

Water shares a global and mutual dependency with the entire world of nations. Pakistan, Australia, Uzbekistan and Turkey, are the largest virtual embedded water[260] exporters as well as freshwater importers along with UK, Germany and Italy.

The ocean covers 70% of the Earth. It remains one of the greatest underutilized resource. It provides only 17% of animal protein- only 2% of this is consumed. Ironic, that overfishing, and negligent fishing techniques in certain regions has caused 29% of the global wild fish stocks to be exploited at unsustainable levels.

The effect of the intensity of nitrogen emission from fertilizer, livestock waste and fossil fuel combustion is strongest in Europe, northeastern USA, India, Pakistan, Japan, Korea, Caribbean, Asia, Africa and Latin America where coastal marine eutrophication[261] is a concern.

The importance of water, sanitation, and hygiene for health and development is one of the Millennium Declaration Goals[262] adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 2000 action for “Water for Life”.[263]

Sanitation projects provide safe facilities, resources and services for proper human waste disposal with adequate access to toilets and basic latrines.

UNICEF said there are 2.4 billion people who have no access to improved sanitation. Every day, 800 children die from preventable diseases caused by lack of sanitation and hygiene.[264]

UNICEF’s WASH[265] program works over 100 countries to improve water, sanitation and basic hygiene practices providing nearly 14 million people with clean water and over 11 million with basic toilets.[266]

THE GLOBAL REALITIES OF WORLD HUNGER FAMINE IS PREVENTABLE BECAUSE IT IS PREDICTABLE

THE PARADOXES AND TRAPS OF FAMINE

In 1845 the Great Irish Potato Famine lasted six years; some fled and thousands died from starvation.[267] Famines, from history, ran its course in cycles, occurring at different times: northwestern England (1620), Ireland (1847), China (1960), Bangladesh (1970), Ethiopia (1985), Somalia (2004) are some examples. Famine in 1946 affected thirteen million in the Horn of Africa: Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Sudan, South Sudan, and Djibouti.

Today, vast majority of serial famines occur in the Sub-Saharan Africa exacerbated by chronic poverty, natural disasters, political corruptions and armed conflicts.[268]

In 2011, 260,000 people perished from famine; 300,000 fled from their homes because of civil conflict, extreme weather and fast rising food prices.

Islamist Militants limiting South Somalians’ access to food superimposed by a decade of poor rainfall, and 2 year drought pushed the people deeper into desperation.[269]

Delivering food aid, in times of natural disasters, wars, and civil unrest is a most challenging work. Most times, signs of famine arrive early but the response and food aid arrive almost always more than five months late. Late response is expensive. Slow food aid response costs four times more than delivery of immediate relief. United Nations claim that $1 per day might have saved a child’s life 2004; when the food and medicine aid arrived late, in 2005, the cost rose to $80 per day.[270]

In 2004, a short rainy season led to drought, then it was followed by a plague of locusts that devoured crops that drove the people of Niger to eat seeds, leaves and dirt. The pleas for help reached the world on time in 2004, food rescue arrived in 2005. Only 11% of the $16 million food aid collected for Niger was received. The rest were spent at premium costs of suppliers and commercial shippers Miren Gutierrez wrote:“Anticipating famine is an easy task.”

The factors fall into a domino effect of bad luck for the smallholder farmers. One can foresee the eventual situation. Initially, the small holders’ farmers lose their bid to sell to wealthy wholesalers who dominate and sell at low price allowed by unfair global market practices.

In cases when the farmers do sell, the crops have to go through poor impassable roads causing longer transportion time, further causing spoilage and loss. Whatever else is stored, grain rot due to poor storage conditions, or worse, crops are attacked by pests and rodents.[271]

The UN World Food Program (WFP) is mandated to prevent hunger at all times. USAID’s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET)[272] and FAO's Global Information and Early Warning (GIEWS)[273] are the bellwether bastions to sounding the alarm of an oncoming famine.

The warnings are sent on time, but reaction is almost always, slow. The bare truth is that when media covers food crisis, it is usually too late for those who need help the most.

“Famine is not fate.” Famine is a complex slow process, not a unique abrupt event.[274]

During the Irish Potato Blight, the entire Europe was affected, only Ireland became vulnerable. Ireland had wheat and beef in profusion and it chose to export these. When the blight assaulted Europe’s potato crops -everyone else used their food reserves. In Ireland, there was nothing left to eat.

The International Food Aid,[275] is the most publicized campaign against hunger beset by third party suppliers and organizations who stand to profit from the delivery of food aid. No one seems to be immediately responsible for instant funding when the call for food aid arrives. Humanitarian lottery could be instigated but with slow progress. In 2005, a commercial insurance company, AXA, set up a contingency fund to cover emergency aid. Most funds come from private individual’s pledges.[276]

James Morris of the World Food Program stated: “Famine is a gradual disintegration of social structures. Not every drought, or flooding, or pestilence has led to famine. Functioning democratic societies usually fare better in mitigating food crisis and avoid hardship.”[277]

FOOD SECURITY : ACCESS TO FOOD AT ALL TIMES

Kenya is challenged by “mitigation”: before recovering from one natural disaster onslaught, another disaster comes at the door. Droughts interspersed in succession of years from 1992-1993; 1996-1997;1998-2001 alternated with floods in 1997-2000, one more prolonged than the next.[278]

Mitigation leads to food insecurity prodding people to move from depressed farming conditions to urban cities.

Smallholder farmers provide 80% of food supply in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia. Most depend on subsistence farming, unable to diversify their produce. Worse they lose land, "land grabs”- viable land are poached usually by farmers with more resources to grow crops for fuel in place of consumable crops. They also fail to compete in the global farming where low prices of global crops are dictated by powerful world market participants nullifying their chances to compete in world trade.[279]

Internal corrective measures have failed. Forty African governments have pledged 10% of their budget to agriculture, only 9 reached the goal in 2014. Local governments support agricultural exports (for profit) more than their support of smallholder farmers. Local governments cater to the urban population's demand for meat and dairy products, an expensive market for the smallholder farmers.[280]

African Human Development Report[281], in 2012, stated: “If food available within Sub-Saharan Africa were equitably distributed, all Africans could meet their basic caloric needs.” Ironic, food production, in Africa, outstripped population growth between 1990-2013 by 22% (global average 29%). Still, the number of Africans suffering from long term severe caloric deficiency increased 22 % at the same period when food production rose 10%.

Food activists insist that food is simply a right and reject the idea that dominant global market forces should determine how- in what quantities, of what type and what markets should produce their food.”[282]

Activism started in Europe, in 1948, when lethal droughts caused food riots. A century later, thousands of women from New York, Philadelphia, Boston and London led revolts -"Occupy Movement" to sympathize with the hungry of the world.

There were food riots in Los Angeles, in 1992, in 2011 and in 2013. At the same time, the citizens of Santiago de Chile called for food reform. In 2005, French students led protests against food shortage.[283]

Walden Bello, a Filipino sociologist, critic of the unfair global food system, predicted the occurence of global food crisis that walloped the world in “the Perfect Storm” on 2007-2008, by two decades. No one paid heed to his predictions. Sure enough, in 2006, the prices of wheat rose by 130%; of rice, by 74%; of corn, by 31%; and of soy, by 87%. Prices peaked early, in 2008. The price of bread in Egypt doubled; the price of rice in Haiti rose by 50% and the price rose in South Africa by 28%. Food bills to the world’s poor rose by 40%. Inspite of food prices temporarily dropping to pre-crisis levels in 2009, rioting in 30 countries continued. Riots broke again in 2010 and 2011 in response to another food price hike.[284]

“You save a person’s life, you become responsible for him.” Direct food aid, wisely administered and in moderation help alleviate acute hunger but it becomes a problem if given all the time, in the long run. The recipients becomes too lackadaisical and in turn become resentful of their continued dependence for aid. As the poor and hungry continue to depend for aid, the donors get bogged down in their own political and economic quagmire; apathy and the selfish “me-first” mantra becomes the guiding light for disastrous food aid activities. These spiral into many failed food aid movements.

As less developed countries receive direct food aid, the price of their own products, if any, become depressed. Farmers become discouraged from improving their own farming practices; production decreases and their dependence on direct food aid increases and these people lose their autonomy altogether.[285]

GLOBAL PROGRESS: MANKIND’S MARCH TOWARDS ALLEVIATION OF WORLD HUNGER

THE KERNEL OF FOOD SHORTAGE: FOOD PRODUCTION

United States ex-president Barack Obama, in January 2017, signed the "Global Food Security Act" , a comprehensive food and nutrition security, to “reduce food insecurity for 800 million people who suffer from World Hunger.”

Seven billion US dollars for two years will fund food security investments, especially for smallholders and female farmers. It will respond to natural and man-made disasters. It strives to coordinate with government to help reduce food waste and to increase transparency.

Susan Rice, former United States National Advisor stated: “spikes in food prices can plunge millions into poverty and hunger as well as spark riots that cost lives and lead to instability. We have enough to feed 12 billion, yet 800 million are undernourished.”[286]

Drought is the most challenging weather condition that small holder farmers face. Its impact is far reaching to losses in agriculture and livelihood.

The Global Drought Information System (GDIS)[287] uses monitoring indeces like National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration's[288] STAR and Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin to make timely predictions of drought in different parts of the world.

Sometimes, droughts are predicted up to a month in advance. It is possible to predict drought more than a year in advance.[289] Yet, drought is one big cause of famine in the developing countries.

Elsewhere, in more informed sectors, dry farming has become the trend. Planting and producing dry farmed potatoes is becoming an important industry. “Dry farming”[290] is best done after the spring rains. Homegrown seeds are of highest value in dry farming.[291] Wheat , durum, winter wheats, oats, roots, Barley, Rye, corn and the sorghums are strong arid grain products tht respond to dry farming.[292]

Lucern - a prehistoric grain from Asia - and alfalfa are happy in calcareous loamy, or heavy and clay soils. Alfalfa, gathers nitrogen from the air and are ideal for deserts. Amaranth, ideal for subsistence farmers, is a grain and a good leaf vegetable that is easy to grow without watering.

Sanfoin -a perennial pealike herb - contains flavonoids and reduces greenhouse gas effects, is an excellent farm crop. In Vietnam, with seasonal little precipitation, farmers grow drought resistant green peas, peanuts, sesame and creamy beans. "If we water sesame plants, they die."[293]

Jerusalem Artichokes, Nopale Cactus or the prickly pear, and watermelon grow without irrigation. Sago lily plants upon which Utah pioneers have subsisted on for several seasons of famine can be cultivated in dry soil.

“We are on step closer to reducing the effects of drought," said Andy Pereira, from Polytechnic Institute and State University; "we have developed a genetically modified strain of rice that is able to withstand drought.”[294]

Ray Wheeler, plant physiologist in Kennedy Space Center’s Space Life Science Lab claimed hydroponics[295] will create advances in a bio-regenerative life support system for space travel.[296] Communities in Ecuador utilized simplified hydroponics to improve nutrition. The program proved simplified hydroponics to be “an effective alternative for integration into food security.” Hydroponics Kenya, a Nairobi based company sells hydroponic supplies and systems to the local community.[297]

Livingbox, founded by Israelis Solan, Cohen and Pollak, for Africans, is a mini farm that one can grow vegetables anywhere with a self sustaining “closed loop” of energy and nutrition and can help feed a billion needy people without the need of fertile soil, or running water and electricity and with minimal farming skills using hydroponics.[298] In 2012, two 14 year olds , Shongwe and Mahlalela, engineered a unique hydroponics system to help solve the food crisis in their homeland in Swaziland.[299]

Aeroponics[300] have shown that aerologically grown plants have an 80% increase in dry weight biomass (essential minerals) compared to hydroponically grown plants.

Fogponics,[301] is a derivation of aeroponics using nutritive elements for the roots.

Intensive Crop Farming[302] includes innovation in machinery, farming methods, genetic engineering technology, techniques in achieving economies of scale of production, and creation of new markets for consumption. Industrial agriculture[303] have innovations and techniques like multiple planting with increased use of fertilizers, pesticides and mechanized agriculture controlled by increased detailed analysis of growing conditions.

Critics to industrial agriculture, however, claim that it is responsible for loss of biodiversity, degradation of soil quality, soil erosion, food toxicity from pesticide residues, pollution through agrochemical build ups and runoff, and use of fossil fuels.[304]

Survival gardening in winter is limited by frosts, freezing temperatures and snowfall. Kale, lamb’s lettuce, mustard greens, arugula, turnip greens, collards, spinach, wild dandelions and its roots can all stand cold weather.[305]

Carrots, Daikon, or oriental radish, parsnips, salsify and scorzonera (black salsify), broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, leeks and cabbage, can all survive hard frosts. Flint corn can survive hard frosts; wheat can be planted in late fall for a spring harvest.[306]

Alternative energy has a long history on farms and ranches, with windmills, wind generators and solar gardening. Stand alone systems, for small farmers, built on portable equipment is becoming a powerful energy source.[307]

Beneficial management practices (BMP)[308], agricultural and horticultural system involve efficient cropping practices with a conscious regard for the environment as well as farmsteading, disposal of livestock mortalities that end up in symbiotic relationship to the soil, air and water of the land.[309]

Bog gardens are perfect for waterlogged areas. The use of cover crops for erosion protection, nourished soil structure, suppressed pests meet flooding problems. Spring cereals, winter wheat, fall rye and winter triticale are ideal in waterlogged soil .[310]

Europe's wet grasslands' palm oil and Asian rice fields sustain wetland landscapes. In Sub-Saharan Africa, lack of water is called, "economic water scarcity"[311] not so much the physical lack of water but lack of means to gather available water in the soil.

Water management systems are being devised to store rainwater, as well as retain water in soil to bridge dry spells. Agro-culture in Sub-Saharan Africa produce food on a small scale (Waters, 2007) using local group growing, fish production and grazing, leaving the natural hydrological processes intact.[312]

BIOTECHNOLOGY EMBRACED OR SHUNNED

Borlaug, in 2000, said: “The world has the technology well advanced in research pipeline to feed on a sustainable basis, a population of 10 billion people.”

Bioengineered crops have been planted in 40 million hectares in 12 countries in 1999 from only 2 million hectares in 1996. The seeds for food crops with improved attributes are owned and profit driven by companies like Dow, DuPont, Monsanto and Novartis. These companies should give the technology to poor farmers on royalty free basis.[313]

Catherine Ives, from Agricultural Biotechnology Sustainability Project, Michigan State University, believes a “technology trust” must be established to help “indemnify companies from liability suits and help negotiate the labyrinth of patent laws and intellectual property claims.” to ease the way to give technology free for everyone to use, without fear of reprisals.[314]

However optimistic the future looks for biotechnology being used by the rest of the world, there have been stumbling blocks and failures leading people to distrust biotechnology altogether.

Recently, experimental trials showed genetically engineered seeds do not actually increase yield of crops. USDA Economic Research Service claimed, in 1998, yields were not significantly different in engineered versus non- engineered crops.

Significant evidence demonstrated new proteins in genetically engineered food did alter the metabolism of food producing plant or animal causing it to produce allergens or toxins that could harm the body .[315]

The promise of transgenic plants producing their own insecticides failed due to pest resistance. Global and massive deployment of transgenic crops, 30 million hectares in 1998, without proper testing on human health and ecosystem, have not been accepted by the public.[316]

Whole Foods, a supermarket chain in the US, announced: “We are the first national grocery chain committed to providing GMO transparency for our customers by 2018. We offer more than 30,000 certified organic items and about 13,500 non -GMO project verified products in our stores. We are working with all our national suppliers to discourage use of GMO feed. We and other suppliers will be Non-GMO Project Verified.[317]

The heated debate about using bio manipulated crops and produce versus using only organic, and now, an increasing population of "gluten" perverse public is a regressive step towards making agriculture biotechnology available to the developing countries who direly need the knowledge and access to the possibility of finally getting off their below subsistence agricultural existence.

TRANSPORTATION: THE GREEN COLD CHAIN REVOLUTION

Take the banana - $44 billion worth of bananas are grown in 130 countries. Bananas contain vitamin B6 and C, manganese, potassium, and essential minerals and provide up to 1/4 of the daily calorie requirements. It costs $8.9 billion in export making it the 5th most traded agricultural commodity, behind cereals, sugar, coffee and cocoa.[318]

Bananas are highly perishable: it is vulnerable to insects, pests and pathogens; it ripens as soon as it is plucked from the tree. A most challenging crop to transfer, it is , however, the ideal crop to use in a cold chain.[319]

Other products needing exposure to cold air for at least 10 days to 1 month are fish, other fresh frutis and fresh vegetables. Today, 550,000 marine containers transport food throughout the world. If these cold chain transport system is maintained, food loss can be as low as 2% .[320]

India needs to export 3,000 to 190,000 containers of bananas benefiting 34,600 smallholder farmers in developing countries using the cold chain. Capacity of refrigerated warehouses grew 20% to 552 million cubic meters in 2012-14.[321]

Cold chain facilities have been prime in supporting China’s excess of $1 trillion grocery produce and Latin America’s segmented market share of 60% perishables. Solar energy is vital in charging refrigeration unit batteries to maintain peak performance. Solar panels on roofs of trailers, trucks, rail cars jumpstart energy when the batteries get weak.

WOMEN SMALLHOLDER FARMERS: PRESENT PICTURE

In 97 countries assessed by the FAO, female farmers received only 5% of all agricultural extension services. Only 15% of agriculture’s services were given to women; only 10% of total aid provided for agriculture, forestry and fishing were made available to women. [322]

The number of female-headed households is increasing as a result of civil wars, AIDS and the migration of men to cities in search for work. This is called the “feminization of agriculture “. It has both positive and negative effects .

The rush to invest in Africa has a direct impact on the women’s land-use options, on their livelihoods, on food availability and cost of living and ultimately on women’s access to land for food production. Gender based inequalities of access to and control of productive and financial resources cost Malawi $100 million, Tanzania %105 million and Uganda, $67 million every year. [323]

However, other parts of traditional laws and cultural norms are still cause of difficuties for women. There are still cases when women are forbidden to own and inherit land, obtain credit and manage their farms completely. There is hope now. There is an awareness and initiatives, worldwide, for women to have access to secondary education. [324]

Women will have the rudimentary ability of their rights and can stand for their just role in the society.

The "Adventure Project" is a success story where Kenyan women worked to have access to better irrigation pumps resulting in increased productivity of crops. Nowadays, in many farming communities, women are the main custodians of knowledge on crop varieties. In some regions of Sub-Saharan African, women may cultivate as many as 120 different plants alongside the cash crops that are managed by men.[325]

Agribusiness in Kenya, Laos, New Guinea and Indonesia have placed women in crucial roles as repositories of agricultural knowledge and are knowledgeable in sustainable agriculture.

"When women are empowered and can claim their rights and access to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, economies grow, food security is enhanced and prospects are improved for current and future generations," Michele Bachelet, Under Secretary General and Executive Director for UN Women, stated in a forum of World Farmers' Organization.[326]

Today, women are the backbone of the development of rural and national economies; they comprise 43% of the world's agricultural sector, but still have no access and control over all land and productive resources. The last ten years, many African countries adopted new land laws in order to strengthen women's land ownership right.

PART TWO: MOLECULAR GASTRONOMY ITS ROLE IN HELPING TO ALLEVIATE WORLD HUNGER

Molecular Gastronomy, defined by founder Hervé This, in his books, is the scientific discipline that studies the physical and chemical processes that occur in cooking.[327] Knowledge is gained to explain the physical and chemical transformations of living matter that is the essence of a phenomenon. Phenomenon is an event, a marvel, a miracle - in Greek, phaenomenon, is a fact, an occurence or observed circumstance.

Atoms reorganize and bind into chains and configurations of simple and complex molecules. When these molecules are linked, a transformation produces compounds that possess singular sapidity, consistency, even flavor, aroma, and pungency -a gustatory phenomenon.

The culinary acitivities like,"cutting, heating, grinding, filtering, assembling, melting, lending, emulsifying, mixing, expanding are also done in the laboratories of a chemistry as well. The end result of cooking would be a delicious dish, the end result of the laboratory scientific experiment is knowledge. Knowledge that explains fully the mechanisms involved in creating certain phenomena.[328]

Phenomena as convection, when it accelerates the exchange of heat in a liquid between a hot and a cold material by virtue of its particular densities is a knowledge that would aid the cook in the kitchen. Coagulation is a transformation observed in an egg white when becomes an opaque white solid. Conduction is a phenomenon by heating wherein the thermal agitation of mloecules on the food surface is communicated to other molecules which explains why the internal temperature of foods progressively rises as they are cooked and then let to rest.

"Cooking is a vast phenomena." [329] Chemistry and physics, judiciously applied, can tell us how to preserve the tenderness of meats, how to master the chemical reactions that gives the crust of roasted meat its wonderful flavor, and how to avoid the failures that are commonly encountered in making a variety of sauces, from mayonnaise to hollandaise, bearnaise, ravigote and others." Dr. This expounds.

This is an example of the difference between the science and cooking. The culinary expert can whip up mayonnaise, learned either from directions in a recipe, or from memories of watching a grandmother. Normally, it ends up with a fluffy, light but if one adds more oil, or whips a bit stronger than needed, the result could be disastrous; the mayonnaise could "break".

Now, apply the scientific process behind making mayonnaise. A drop of oil dispersed in a slightly acidified aqeuous solution of egg yolk and a light splash of vinegar, beaten into a viscosity can be solid, if left standing, or runs in fluid motion when enticed with an external movement is a scientific phase called a rheothickening liquid (mayonnaise).

The chemist can explain the whys and whereofs that brought about the viscosity of the solution. While the cook watches out that there is not much oil to avoid "breaking" the mayonnaise because when it does, the cook's only action is to throw away the contents of the bowl and re-start the process. The chemist, on the other hand would know how to "correct" the situation and save the day without having to throw away the "broken" solution because the chemist understands the cause and effect of the transformation and can retrace the steps in exact manner.

Chemistry, like any science, is a study of definites and absolutes. The scientific processes follow a straight path towards the goal- the phenomena.[330] Science can create and re-create phenomena repeatedly and always end with the exact result that does not allow other possibilities.

The mechanisms involved in the transformation to create a phenomenon is based on the what the chemist an physicist knows of the definite structural organizations and properties of atoms and molecules in an object that have definite physical and chemical properties.

Combining and re-organizing atoms into particular ways always will result in the the same precise way as the other times when the same configuration was done. Predictable, repeatable, accurate, rational science.

Chemists can grab an atom or two from air, mix them up together into a recognizable compound. Imagine. A drop of water from the sky drips with infinite number of small molecules, each molecule having two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. That is the natural phenomenon. The chemist, then, replicates nature by combining two gases- dihydrogen and dioxygen to react, a spark comes in contact with these two gases causing an explosion. The atoms then reorganize, rearrange and and blend to become a water molecule.[331] The water molecule remains a water molecule.[332]

Gastronomy investigates the culinary transformations of sensory phenomena associated with eating. Culinary phenomena that "generates transformations in foods are nothing more than process of chemistry and physics."[333] Gastronomy teaches curiosity, an enlightened food lover seeks to know more about a certain compound that caused the gustatory delight; it is the part that makes us human.[334]

Molecular Gastronomy seeks to investigate and explain the chemical reasons behind transformation of ingredients, as well as the social, artistic and technical components of culinary and gastronomic phenomena.[335]

Chemists know how to make compounds that are not found in nature. By rearranging natural compounds, they can construct more complex, and new compounds that might never had been previously identified.[336]

So, as a multi-science, Molecular Gastronomy, in its multi- faceted collection of knowledge, can, it its infinite possibilities of transformations of atoms into compounds creating phenomena, find ways to help reduce world hunger by techniques used in their laboratories like extraction, fractionation, diffusion, clarification, concentration, conduction, convection, concentration, decoction, infusion, dehydration, emulsification, evaporation, condensation, denaturation, expansion, maceration, nuclear magnetic resonance, precipitation, fermentation, filtration and practically all techniques that separate food and water into its basic component and turning these into forms that are portable and can have longer shelf lives. This is how Molecular Gastronomy is linked to the problem of world hunger.

These past few years, dozens of innovations are being produced, by creative and maverick scientists and engineers using knowledge of atoms and molecules, in nature and in science, to help improve the lives of the thirsty, the hungry, the disabled - the humane phenomenon.

In 2012, scientists from University of South California's Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute led by Nobel Laureate in Chemistry George Olah, captured carbon from the congested air and recycled it into an anthropogenic chemical carbon cycle to produce renewable fuel source. Dr. Olah said: "Carbon dioxide is not a problem. Nature recycles it. Mankind should too."[337]

A physicist, Peter Eisenberger, from Columbia University "scrubs" the sky with a patented machine and captures carbon atoms from air. All the excess carbons, deleterious to the environment, are captured in amines, forming carbamates that can be used to harness energy for factories.[338]

In one of the driest places of the earth, at the edge of the Atacama Desert, about 700,000 people have no access to clean water for drinking or for bathing. A billboard, ' water collecting board' - designed by engineering students of University of Peru, sponsored by a Peruvian advertising agency - produced 9450 liters ( about 2500 gallons) of water. Electricity is run through five condensers inside the billboard, creating air-conditioned air. When air in the atmosphere gets in contact with the cooled surfaces of the condensers, it cools down, creating water vapor that condenses into liquid water.

Through a reverse osmosis[339] water is purified, flows down into tanks, ready for human consumption. [340]

The 2012 Economist Innovation Awardee for P&G Pure Water, chemist Phil Souter produced a small sachet, that added to dirty water, can remove bacteria, viruses and pollutants in 15 minutes. Launched by P&G Pure Water, these sachets have been distributed to clean 5.5 billion gallons of water. It is estimated that these sachets have prevented 200 million days of disease and saved more than 26,00 lives.[341]

Thalappil Pradeep at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras created a water purifying system by filtration through nanotechnology[342] costing $2.50 a year for a family in poor villages in India.[343]

Chemistry contributes to innovative water treatments like turning saltwater into fresh water. In Singapore, seawater desalination[344] uses biomimicry by mimicking biological processes by which mangrove plants and euryhaline fish (fish that live in freshm briny or salt water) extract seawater using minimal natural energy.

Another approach has been used with a biomimetic membrane enhanced with aquaporin - proteins embedded in cell membranes that selectively shuttle water in and out of cells while blocking out salts.[345]

Filtration through membrane chemistry[346], is done by which saltwater is desalinated using ultrafiltration[347] through ceramic membranes that cost $1 per cubic meter to between $.80 and $.50 over five years. This membrane technology, used by the engineering firm of Black and Veatch, is important because of the system's integrity, longevity and affordability.[348] Seawater desalination using reverse osmosis, consumes around 4 kilowatt hours of energy for every cubic meter of water; one handicap is the expense.[349]

Fractionation[350], makes it possible to recover separately, fats, lactose,various proteins and mineral salts from milk.

Historically, separating milk fats into subfractions with various fusing temperatures, then mixing these with easily melted fats and other fats that melt at higher temeprature had led into industrial production of spreadable butter and shortening which has been done for many years.[351]

Together with "cracking",[352] food crops can be produced in a massive scale.

Early on, Dr. Herve This had recommended breeding, raising,and harvesting crickets (which would do our environment good to rid of them) on a grand scale to produce tons of protein into proteinacious fractions that can be distributed to the protein-deficient millions.[353]

Dr. This' idea became a reality years later. The VTT Technical Center of Finland took mealworms and crickets and developed a dry fractionation method to readily produce insect fractions with various flavors and textures. This have proven useful for the manufacture of meatballs and falafel balls. However, mass production requires legislative changes. Already, 2 billion people are known to eat insects in their daily lives, still US and Europe regulators are reserving their rights for regulation. [354]

Fractional Distillation[355] is commonly is used to separate ethanol from water, in the purification of water, also for purification and separation of organic compounds and for separating components of crude oil .[356] Commercial and small machine separators remove nearly all free and dispersed non-emulsified oil and settleable solids from waste streams .[357]

Half the mass of algae is made of lipids or natural oils and can be extracted[358] and used as crude algae oil or refined into higher grade hydrocarbon. Products such as biodiesel and biogel fuel are carbon dioxide neutral , recyclable carbons, and non-polluting source for heat and for electricity.[359]

Some types of algae that produce more carbohydrates than oil can be fermented to make biethanol and biobutanol, to replace petroleum fuels.[360] Microalgae, as raw material can produce bio-oil, methane, methanol and hydrogen, from corn, hemp, soybean, sunflower, castor, palm oil.[361]

Anjan Contractor of Systems & Materials Research Corporation earned a 6 month $125,000 grant loan to create a prototype of a universal food synthesizer[362], 3D food printer. His initial grant from NASA, under its Small Business Innovation Research printed food for austronauts on very long missions.

The earth's 12 billion people can feed themselves customized, nutritionally meals synthesized one layer at a time, from cartridges of powder and oils bought at the grocery store. This would solve food waste as the system is shelf stable for 30 years; each cartridge contains sugars, complex carbohydrates, protein and other essential fatty acids.[363]

Man has long been fermenting food since neolithic times harnessing the power of fermented fruit before the discovery of the wheel. Fruits, honey and grains can be fermented into wine, mead and beer.

Fermentation[364] preserves fruits, vegetables,dairy into pickles and jams, cheese, and yogurt. If the people in the hungry nations ferment their fresh crops and dairy, this will prolong the shelf lives of perishables.[365] As well, in the urban regions, excess produce can be stored to ferment instead of throwing these away. This will help reduce the quantities of urban waste.[366]

One of World Food Programs (WFP) innovations is Plumpy'Sup, a Ready-to-Use-Food (RUF), used for emergency situations to prevent and treat moderate malnutrition for children under 5 years old.

Peanut butter is infused[367] with a long list of micronutrients packaged in one-day sachets, ready to eat, small quantities as supplement to a regular diet. These are best distributed to hungry families to recover from acute malnutrition.[368]

Algae, leaf protein, and single cell protein produced from hydrocarbons are technically feasible sources of food.

All living cells are made out of hydrocarbon molecules[369] the simplest, methane, has one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms stuck to it. Bigger hydrogen molecules, from long chains of carbon atoms are amino acids which when combined make up protein molecules.

Maurice Moloney, University of Saskatchewan, Canada, at the Food 2030 at the 2015 Milan World Expo, EU Commissioner for Research and Innovation mentioned the need to reduce content or impact of health sensitive ingredients by replacing these with alternative molecules or micro-structures.[370]

A counter trend relevant to increased meat consumption is giving up meat altogether. Liquid extracted from soy beans can be processed into yogurt, cheese and tofu. Meat substitute, quinoa, containing amino acids, minerals, B vitmins and dietary fibers as well as amaranth are in demand. Quinoa burgers and grasshopper burgers are good protein sources.

With the uneven food distribution in the world, alternatives like farm-to-table concept foods are widespread. People learn to eat food foraged in nature, "wild foods". The Baobab, native to many countries including the Sub- Saharan Africa, has dry, fibrous fruits rich in Vitamin C; the seeds contain calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorous as well as saturated and unsaturated fats; its trunk stores water.[371]

WHO's program,"Micronutrients", distributes minuscule amounts of substances called "magic wands" that enable the body to produce enzymes, hormones and other substances essential for proper growth and development.

As tiny as the amounts are, the consequences of their absence are severe. Iodine, vitamin A and iron are most important in global public health terms.[372]

In his book, "Note-by-Note" (NbN), Dr. Herve This' inception of molecular cuisine - the deconstruction of food into a series of highly alchemized individual textures, flavors and compounds, in form of gels, foams, spheres, and other forms could easily bring nutritive and flavorful food to help eradicate world hunger.[373]

'Note-by-Note' makes dishes that contain both physical and chemical systems, with pure compounds and bio-active[374] compounds,some obtained by fractionation or cracking, to build up edible foods free of harmful impurities complete with the nutritive, aesthetic, consistency, odor and taste.[375]

For consistency, water, polysaccharides, proteins, lipids are used. For taste, mineral salts, saccharides and amino acids are used in smaller concentrations. For odor and color, essential oils or flavorings and colorants are utilized.[376]

When odorant compounds are dissolved in edible solvent, like oil, one might produce an "artificial meat", having the same chemical composition to real meat. 'Note-by-Note' can improve on this product by adding various lipids, glycogen, lactic acid, mineral, vitamins and others.[377]

The trajectory of 'Note-by-Note's' futuristic art and skill in producing edible food using pure compounds can have fascinating prospects for the future of feeding a growing world population with diminished natural and material resources but within limits of regulations and public acceptance.

Dr. This proposes that we stop shipping "wet" foods across the continents, instead , we can deconstruct these into a wide varity of powders, liquids and gels that can last for a long time, would be more portable and can enhance low nutritive diets to be available to remote hungry corners of the world.[378]

Molecular Gastronomy, after all, can utilize pure knowledge understanding all of the physical manifestations of transformations of food, from molecular and atomic arranging and rearranging, through bonding, extracting, fractionating, diffusing, infusing, distilling, filtering in insoluble and soluble environments to create that final food emergency phenomena.

It is obvious that the persistence of the world hunger is a conundrum that seems to nag at every decent person's sense of humanity. Everyone is finding creative ways of resolution, depending on their capabilities and resources. Molecular Gastronomy has the capability and the knowledge to apply and find ways to help. Such knowledge, utilized for the greater part of mankind who are hungry, a great part of whom has never heard of Duck l'Orange, nor have had the experience of savoring the creamy consistency of a homemade mayonanise, nor watch the magic of a souffle, would benefit much more from extracts, gels, salves, tinctures and powders- distilled, fractionated, filtered, extracted -packed and diffused with nutrients and pure compounds of nourishment that is the fated mission of Molecular Gastronomy, a humanistic phenomenon.

CONCLUSION

The Thesis asks: Can Molecular Gastronomy help alleviate the prevalence of World Hunger? The answer to the question is affirmative. Yes, chemistry and physics, the sciences involved in Molecular Gastronomy, in transforming atoms and molecules into molecules and compounds to produce portable nutritive packets that can easily be distributed in refugee camps and in famine areas to help assuage gnawing hunger and nourish people who are deprived of food and clean water is entirely possible. Yes, the future of decimating food waste by mechanisms involved in the transformation of food into compact, or powdered packages filled with amino acids, fatty acids,all essential vitamins and minerals that have long shelf lives for years can be sent, by drones, or dropped from airplanes, to nutritionally depressed regions of the world. And, yes, the future of the world can benefit from innovations that knowledge of the sciences of Molecular Gastronomy hold.

Now, dirty water, from past innovations, can be filtered to be purified so millions who are deprived of clean drinking water can be hydrated. Water can materialize from condensation of water vapor from a billboard run with condensers. Single cell proteins and algae can be produced from hydrocarbons; carbon atoms can be "scrubbed" from the atmosphere to reduce over loading the atmosphere from excessive carbon emissions. Captured carbon atoms are used for energy in commercial refrigerants in Europe. These are all innovations of scientists- chemists, physicists, biochemists- all focused in helping to alleviate the persistence of world hunger.

It is important to share the knowledge, in layman's terms, to everyone after they are convinced that they, too, have important roles in helping to reduce food waste, as consumers, as retailers and as producers of food. It has started in the urban neighborhood: grocers sell day-old produce at lower rates; they turn fresh produce into dried up snacks; they package perishables into sauces, pickles, croutons, bread crumbs, lardons, jerkies, dehydrated mushrooms,chopped fresh garlic and onions in oil, semolina into dried up pasta, dried cherries, strawberries, powdered mangoes, and the list goes on. Consumers are learning to buy less; small food dryers are available to be used in kitchens. Fish and meats are salted and dried.

The rural people in Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia can be taught, and encouraged to find ways to store grain. Once their imagination is stoked, they will use their own resourcefulness to find ways to store grain, maybe pulverize these into powder and stored in airtight containers for longer shelf life. They could learn to forage their land and find water from Boabab trees, dessicate the fruits for later consumption. With initial guidance, they could learn to farm in cubic farming, or dry farm during drought, or bog farming during flood times.

The world produces surplus crops. If the FAO,the WFP, UNICEF, INHCR, IMF, World Bank etc. can find ways to reduce the bulk of these crops into more portable, nutritive sizes that can stand long shelf life, these can still be shared, or sold for a fair price in the world market. There is no reason why shipping companies should take 5 months to send Aid if these crops are in more compact sizes that do not need refrigeration.

These are the lessons we have learned from Molecular Gastronomy. Reduce every living matter into its kernel: Atoms, molecules, compounds. Extract, fractionate, diffuse, infuse, filter, dehydrate, filter,centrifuge, desalinate, transform, absorb, evaporate, condense, concentrate from a natural state into a synthesized, artificial, yet nutritional, compact state- gels, powders, concentrated cream, bouillons etc. that can be consumed, and can be stored for a long time.

That perishables need not rot; grains need not be stored in ill constructed storage bins; water need not be scarce, nor dirty; the roots of plants need no soil sometimes, but air and some humidity, a natural attribute of the atmosphere; plants can survive dry soil and flood plains; and on and on. Everyone is responsible for helping in reducing hunger, and we can all start in our kitchens. Molecular Gastronomy can harness its resources and spread the word, share and educate the rest of the world and finally, not just reduce, but to finally eradicate world hunger.

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APPENDIX I

UNDERNOURISHMENT AROUND THE WORLD

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

SOURCE: FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (2014-16 PROVISIONAL ESTIMATES)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

APPENDIX II

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) PER CAPITA (PPP)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

SOURCE: THE WORLD FACTBOOK, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, US , 2016 CIA.gov

APPENDIX III

FAO HUNGER REPORT: COUNTRIES LOWEST KCALORIES IN MACRONUTRIENT

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

SOURCE: Ronald L. Conte Jr. Hunger Math, World Hunger By Numbers, self published 2013

APPENDIX IV

FAO HUNGER REPORT: PROPORTION OF UNDERNOURISHED IN TOTAL POPULATION

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

SOURCE: Ronald L. Conte, Hunger Math- World Hunger by Numbers, Self Published. 2013

GLOSSARY

(alphabetical)

Aeroponics is a system wherein the roots are continuously or discontinuously kept in an environment saturated with fine drops (mist or aerosol) of nutrient solution; it requires no substrate and requires the roots suspended in deep air with periodic atomized nutrients. (page 73)

African Human Development Report, Food First, works to end the injustices that cause hunger through research, education and action. it is a vast network of activist- researchers that utilizes available educational resources , support communities and social movements fight for food sovereignty in the world. First leader was analyst Raj Patel, a graduated of Oxford, London School of Economics and Cornell University. (page 68)

agribusiness is agriculture conducted on commercial principles , especially using advanced technology; engaged in producing operations of a farm, the manufacture and distribution of farm equipment and supplies , the processing , storage and distribution of farm commodities (page 48)

Agri-food systems are embedded in complex ecological, economic and social processes, showing the the dynamic interactions sustaining long term and short term shocks and stresses like climate change towards understanding the diverse rural worlds and potential pathways to sustainability through agriculture (page 48)

Agroforestry is the international integration of trees and shrubs into crop and animal farming systems to create environmental, economic, and social benefits. (page 49)

Anthropogenic impact on the environment includes impacts on biophysical environments, biodiversity and other resources; designates an effect resulting from human activity. Paul Crutzen, atmospheric scientist introduced the term anthropocene in context of pollution emissions produced by human activity that impacts the environment. (page 63)

Anti-GM discussion most probably was the result of a debate by US, Europe and South Africa when the last two nations concluded that GM foods were potential food hazards citing the recent Mexican contentional gene flow* from American corn and could contaminate African corn varieties. These groups believed that GM foods could produce unpredictable toxins, new allergens, and antibiotic resistant. (page 36)

Arab Spring in North Africa, Middle East, the Arab world caused by authoritarianism, energy crisis, political corruption, human rights violations, inflation, kleptocracy, sectarianism, unemployment. Goals: democracy, free elections, economic freedom, human rights, employment, regime change religion tolerance. By civil disobedience, civil resistance, defection, defections, insurgency, demonstrations internet activism, protect camps, revolution, riots, self immolation, silent protests, sit-ins, social media, strike actions, urban warfare, uprising. Results: Tunisian president Abidine Ben Ali ousted, exiled, govt. overthrown; Egypt president Mubarak ousted, arrested, charged, govt. overthrown; Libya leader Gaddafi killed from a civil war, government overthrown; Yemen president Saleh ousted power handed to national unity government, Syria President faces civil uprising with full scale civil war; Bahrain civil uprising against government crushed by Saudi led intervention and authorities; Kuwait, Lebanon and Oman government changes responsive to protests; Morocco and Jordan constitutional reforms in response to protests and Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Mauritania and other Arab countries are in protest. From 17 December 2010- December 2012) en.m.wikipedia.org (page 51)

Banda, Hastings, a graduate of University of Chicago, Indiana University Medical School and University of Edinburgh spoke against colonialism and advocated independence under a one party state, making himself the president for life. He supported women’s rights, improved the country’s infrastructure and maintained a good educational system. His government regularly tortured and murdered political opponents killing as many as 18,000 people. (page 42)

Beneficial Management Practice are science-based farm practices that minimize environment al risk while ensuring long sustainability of land and the economic viability of the producer. (page Bioactive compound is a compound that has an effect on a living organism, tissue and cell. In nutrition, these are distinguished from essential nutrients. (page 79)

Biodiversity is the variety and variability of life on earth. Variation of plant and animal species in an evironment ; variations in genetic and species and the ecosystem level.

Biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region that is both a significant reservoir of biodiversity and is threatened with destruction. There are 25 biologically rich areas around the world have lost at least 70% of their original habitat. The remaining natural habitat of the biodiversity hotspots amount to 1.4 % of the land surface of the planet and supports nearly 60% of the world’s plant, bird, mammal, reptile and amphibian species. (page 59)

Biofuel is a fuel produced through contemporary processes such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion; as opposed to fuel produced by geological processes such as fossil fuels- coal and petroleum from prehistoric biological matter. Renewable biofuels involve carbon fixation that occur in plants and micro-algae through photosynthesis. Can also be converted from biomass, living organisms, plant an plant materials (page 57)

Biopharming, since 1990s, biotech companies have proposed using food and food crops as miniature factories for producing pharmaceutical proteins and industrial chemicals that they do not make naturally. Involves insertion into plant cells of foreign genes coding for medically important proteins such as therapeutic proteins, monoclonal antibodies and vaccines. It offers economic and health benefits weighed against potential risks to the food supply system but must meet zero tolerance contamination requirements. (page 40)

Bio-technology is the use of biological processes using micro-organisms, such as bacteria or yeasts or biological substances, such as enzymes, to produce pest resistant crops, new bacterial strains or novel pharmaceuticals to improve the quality of human life. Earliest bio-technologists were farmers who developed improved species of plants by cross pollination or cross breeding. (page 35)

Buttel, F (See Frederick Buttel)

Carbohydrate factor (CF) - the amount of carbohydrate found in 1 gram of food, available to raise the blood glucose, does not include fibre. One way of calculating the carbohydrate in foods. Two forms of carbohydrates are sugars such as fructose, glucose, and lactose. Starches are found in starchy vegetables like potatoes and corn and grains such as rice, breads and cereals. (page 15)

Carbon emissions are both natural and human sources of carbon dioxide emissions. Natural sources include decomposition, ocean release and respiration. Human activity sources come from cement production, deforestation, burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas. (page 52)

Carbon footprint is the amount of carbon dioxide and other carbon compounds like Methane (in enteric fermentation of ruminants, i.e.cows and food degradation in landfill)and nitrous oxide (in fertilizers associated with vegetables and animal feeds) emitted due to the consumption of fossil fuels by people.Carbon footprint map of 2011 shows China with 8715.31 million metric tons followed by US with 5490.63; Russia 1788.14 and India 1725.76 Compiled by the Energy Information Agency of the countries’ Consumption of Energy, the Department of Energy. (page 56)

Center for Research on Epidemiology (CRED) research unit of Universite Catholique de Louvain, School of Public Health, Brussels; over 30 years in field of international disasters and conflict health studies , reserach, training rehabilitaiton and development.

Child Mortality is the number of deaths of children under 5 years per 1,000 live births. (page 22)

Cold chain is temperature controlled supply chain that protects perishable products during transport. It involves careful handpicked produce when it is green; wrapped and padded for protection with lightweight biodegradable materials; travel by mule from plantations; washed, inspected, cut, treated and boxed for transport; transported in trucks in shipping containers to cold distribution centers into warehouses and into retail outlets. (page 78)

Countries in need of Freshwater : in Afghanistan, only 13% has clean drinking water; in Ethiopia, 42% has access to clean water, 11% to clean sanitation; Chad has over 1 million children affected with water caused diseases; in Cambodia, 84% do not have access to clean water; in Laos, the Mekong River is in crisis at low levels ; in Haiti, 1 in 5 lack access to clean water and sanitation ; in Ghana, diarrhea and guinea worm, the worst water born diseases are frequent problems; India with its growing population is a strain especially when 21% of communicable diseases are water-borne; in Rwanda , there is high childhood mortality from diarrhea, typhoid and cholera ; and finally, in Bangladesh people who live in slums in the city and rural areas have no access to clean water and sanitation- only 16% of population have access to clean water and sanitation.(page 64)

Cracking, in petroleum geology and chemistry, it is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long chains of hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by breaking the carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors. (page 76)

Cubic farming machines with grow trays , with LED fixtures and automated hydroponic watering system for optimal growing environment while reducing labour. (page 48)

Desalination is the process that extracts minerals from saline water by removal of salts and minerals from a target substance. Salwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. A by product is salt. Soil desalination is a big issue in agriculture. (page 78)

Desertification is when persistent dehydration of dry land ecosystems by variations in climate and human activities ; home to a third of human population in 2000; drylands occupy nearly half of Earth’s land mass (page 53,57)

Deviation or Z scores (median value or standard deviation score (SD) of the reference population) is a descriptor of malnutrition and health. Nutrition feeding centers in refugee camps use this to assess level of care needed. Standards are prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). (page 7)

Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death. Developed in 1990, it is a way of comparing the overall health of life expectancy of different countries. (page 46)

Dry farming is crop production in a dry season utilizing the residual moisture in the soil from the rainy season when the soil is broken up to create a moist “sponge” then the top layer is compacted using a roller to form a dry crust (the cellophane) called the dust mulch and preventing evaporation. Deprived of any surface irrigation besides coastal fog, dry-farmed plants tend to develop deep and robust roots to soak up soil moisture; crops are smaller but dense with nutrients and flavorful. (page 71)

East Asian countries: Brunei, Cambodia,China, HongKong, Indonesia,Japan, Laos, Macau,Malaysia, Mongolia,Myanmar, North Korea,Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, TaiwanThailand, Vietnam (page 4)

East Asian Tigers are HongKong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, went through rapid industrialization, maintained high growth rates (7%) between 1950-1990. All have developed into advanced and high income economies, world leading financial centers with export led regimes, low taxes, major government investments in education in authoritarian political systems. (page 26)

Economic water scarcity, when public investments in water resources and infrastructure are not substantial to meet water demands whre people do not have the means to make use of their own available water resources. (page 78)

Emerging economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China; Mexico, Indonesia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia. (page 10)

Eutrophication an increase in the rate of supply of organic matter to an ecosystem. (page 62)

Extraction is a separation process of desired substance when mixed with others. The soluble mixture is brought into contact with insoluble substances with a solvent . organic compounds are extracted from an aqueous phase into an organic phase. It includes liquid-liquid extraction and solid-liquid extraction. (page 77)

Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is a leading provider of information and analysis on food security; created in 1985 by the USAID and the US Dept. of State, after devastating famines in East and West Africa; a valuable source to a vast community of governments, relief agencies, NGOS, journalists and researchers before and during humanitarian crises. (page 65)

Fermentation is the chemical breakadown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other micro-organisms, typically invovlving effervescence and giving off heat. It is a metbolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases or alcohol; it occurs in yeast and bacteria ; also in oxygen starved muscle cells, as in lactic acid fermentation. page 78)

Filtration in any various mechanical, physical, or biological operations that separate solids from liquid or gases by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass. (page 78)

Fogponics, a derivation of aeroponics wherein the nutrient solution is aerolized by a diaphragm with ultrasonic frequencies. (page 73)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). main goal is to achieve food security for all by : eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition; the elimination of poverty toward economic and social development and utilization of natural resources, for the present and future progress for all; sustainable management and utilization of natural resources, including water, air, climate and genetic resources for the benefit of the present and future generations. Headquarters in Rome, Italy. (page 1, 11)

Food and Agricultural Organization Food Hunger Report,also the State of Food Insecurity in the World Report, takes stock of the progress made towards achieving internationally established hunger targets and reflects what needs to be done,transitioning on the Sustainable Development Agenda started at the World Food Summit in Rome and formulated as the First Millenium Development Goal. (page 10)

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), a US agency within the Department of Health and Human Services controls and regulates Medical Products and Tobacco; Foods; Global Regulatory Operations and Policy and Operations. (page 38)

Food loss is the decrease of food mass during agricultural production, post handling and storage, called 'upstream' in the food chain (page 58)

Food waste the food discarded by retailers and consumers or downstream in the food chain (page 58)

Fractionation is a separation process wherein a certain quantity of a mixture- gas, solid, liquid, enzymes, suspension, or isotope- is divided during a phase of transition, into a number of smaller quantities, or fractions, in which the composition varies according to a gradient. (page 75)

Fractional Distillation is a process of separating a mixture of chemical compounds , each part is a fracion, of the mixture can be kept apart from other chemicals , each with a different boiling point. the mixture is heated and each fraction evaporates and condenses in its own compartment. (page 76)

Frederick Buttel and Laura Raynolds, both Cornell University Sociologists, published a careful study of population growth, food consumption and other variables in 93 third world countries- “Population Growth, Agrarian Structure, Food Production and Food Distribution in the Third World,” pages 325-61 from Food and Natural Resources, D.Pimentel & C Hall ed. San Diego CA 1989 ( page 25) freshwater footprint is the amount of water consumed by a human activity. (page 62)

Genetic Engineering (GE) the science of making changes to the genes of plants or animals. DNA has been altered by human manipulation to introduce new desirable traits to that organism; GE foods occur artificially in a way that would otherwise not happen in nature. (page 38)

Gender Inequality Index (GII) is an index for measurement of gender disparity ; it was introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Program. (UNDP) Its goal is to better expose differences in the distribution of achievements between women and men. Also used in tandem with Human Development Index. (HDI) (page 37)

Gene flow (Mexican) in a highly publicized report in 2001 reported on maize landraces in Oaxaca were found to contain transgenes. These transgenes were believed to be from natural evolution, results of fallow weed diversity over time. ( Kristin Mercer, Joel Wainwright, Science Direct, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Gene Flow from Transgenic raise to landraces in Mexico: An analysis, Vol 123, pp 109-115)January 2008

A landrace is a domesticated, locally adapted, traditional variety of species of animal or plant that has developed over time through adaptation to its natural and cultural environment of agriculture. (page 37)

Gene splicing refers to the process by which the DNA of an organism is cut and a gene, perhaps from another organism, is inserted. It is often used in industry to allow single-celled organisms to produce useful products such as human insulin. (page 42)

Genetic modification is the use of recombinant DNA techniques, in ways that are not desirable to nature; transfer genetic material between organisms. Genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques and human manipulation as a result of traditional plant breeding methods like selective breeding or cross breeding between plants within same species. (page 35, 38)

Genetically Modified seeds (GM) whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering, grow into plants that have certain desirable parts that sets them apart; they have been used by farmers for approximately 20 years using traditional plant breeding techniques from hundred years. Modern GM seeds use additionally foundational plant science.(modernag,org) Feb 1, 2017 (page 35)

Genetically modified crops (GMs or biotech crops) used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering techniques . The aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. (page 36)

Gene Revolution is the application of bio-technology in food production. It is of great potential for farmers as it provides them with disease- free planting material and develops crops that resist pests and diseases, reducing use of chemicals that harm the environment and human health. (indiatimes.com; times of india) (page 35)

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade,(GATT) since 1947, was replaced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 overseeing multilateral trading system with 129 countries as members. The Uruguay Round, in 1986 drafted policies that faced international trade issues like “anti-dumping, cutting import taxes, opening service markets, access markets was the platform for these treaties. (page 34)

Genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The genome includes both of the genes (the coding regions), the non coding DNA and the genetic material of the mitochondria and chloroplasts. (page 42)

Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM)is a measure of thresholds for height, weight, body wasting (marasmus) and presence of bilateral edema,& general weakness (kwashiorkor) as either moderate malnutrition (MAM) or severe malnutrition (SAM) in children from 6-59 months. It is crisis classification for emergencies in refugee camps. (page 5)

Global agribusiness accounts for more than 50% of the global economy, the world relies on the industry to produce, finance, market the food, fiber and energy products products that sustain life. (page 47)

Global Drought Information System GDIS is an international effort to pull together from local providers to compare drought information around the world.(page 70)

Global Hunger Index, a peer review publication, data from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF, World Bank, Demographic and Health Surveys, United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) and International Food Policy Research Institute estimates. (page 6 )

Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) continuously monitors food supply and demand and other key indicators for assessing food security in all countries of the world. Headquarters in Rome, Italy.

Global Trends, the National Intelligence Council’s report, released quarterly is an invitation to discuss, debate and inquire further about how the future will unfold. It pushes one to re-examine key assumptions, expectations and uncertainties about the future. (page 41)

GMO (genetically modified organism) is the result of laboratory process where genes from the DNA of one species are extracted and artificially forced into the genes of an unrelated plant or animal. The foreign genes may from bacteria, viruses, insects, animals or even humans, and are called “transgenic”.. The process maybe called either Genetic Engineering (GE)or Genetic Modification (GM) which are the same. (Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the US, Economic Research Service , US Department of Agriculture) (page 37)

Grain Marketing Board, (Zimbabwe) the country’s leading grain trade and Marketing Company, established under the Maize Control Act, 1931. To accord producers their fair share of the local and export markets; to provide them with guaranteed outlet for their excess controlled products and to ensure the availability of adequate supplies for the local demand either from internal production or from exports. (gmbdura.com) (page 49)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) gas in atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. The process is the fundamental cause of greenhouse effect. Primary gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methan,nitrous oxide and ozone. (page 56)

Greenhouse gas emissions released during combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal. oil, and natural gas (used to produce energy)also of solid waste, trees and wood products. Deforestation and soil degradation send carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, while forest regrowth takes it out of the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, make up the vast majority of greenhouse gas emissions; also smaller amounts of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O.) These are responsible for the greenhouse effect, absorbing infrared radiation, trapping and holding heat in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. (page 55)

Green Revolution is a set of research and development of technology transfer initiatives between 1930s and 1960s, with a prequel in 1920s and 1930s that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world. In the late 1960s , Norman Borlaug (Father of Green Revolution), Nobel Prize laureate saved a billion people from starvation with the development of high yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructures, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fibers and pesticides to farmers.(Jain HK, The Green Revolution: History, Impact and Future Stadium Press. Houston TX, 2010) (page 34)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period.. GDP per capita is calculated dividing a country’s GDP by its population. Used to gauge the health of a country’s economy; usually seems as the size of the country’s economy. GDP = C+G+I +NX (C being the private consumption, G, government spending(all of the country’s investment, including business capital expenditures) and NX as the nations net exports.) Initiated in 1937, World Bank. (page 4 )

Hobbes, Thomas, See Thomas Hobbes

Human Development Index, (HDI) , composite statistics to rank countries by levels of human development; it measures Health (Life expectancy by birth), education (expected years for school age children and average years of schooling in adults) and income (gross national income -GNI- per capita -PPP$). First published in 1990 under Pakistan’s former finance minister Mahbub ul Haq and facilitated by Nobel laureate economist Amartya Sen. (page 35)

Hunger Project is a global,non-profit women-centered strategic organization committed to the sustainable end of world hunger and poverty advocating widesparead adoption in countries throughout the world. (page 38)

Hydroponics, a subset of hydroculture, is the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in water solvent. Terrestrial plants may be grown with only their roots exposed to the mineral solution, or the roots may be supported by an inert medium such as perlite or gravel. (page 72)

Industrial agriculture matching discoveries in the industrial revolution deals with the identification of nitrogen and phosphorous as critical factors in plant growth leading to the manufacture of synthetic fertilizers.( page 73)

Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil, or alcohol byt allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time, or steeping. The resultant liquid is infusion. (page 79)

Institute of Medicine ( FAO- IOM), now, National Academy of Medicine (NAM), US non-profit organization, est. in 1970 as a congressional charter off US National Academy of Sciences. Provides evidence -based research and recommendations for public health and science policy; gives advice relating to issues on biochemical science, medicine and health. Non governmental and relies on volunteers of scientists and other experts under peer-review. (page 13, 14)

IntensiveCrop Farming refers to the industrialized production of crops that includes innovation in agricultural machinery, farming methods, genetic engineering technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale in production, the creation of new markets for consumption, patent production of genetic information and global trade. (page 74)

International Food Aid, INTERFAIS, is a dynamic system involved the interaction of users, represented by donor governments, international organizations, non-governmental organizations, recipient countries and World Food Program (WFP) field offices. They share information and data on food aid transactions. (page 67)

International Monetary Fund,(IMF) an international organization is headquartered in Washington DC with 189 member countries. It aims to promote international monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, foster sustainable economic growth make resources available to members experiencing balance of payments difficulties (page 48)

Kilocalories is the same as Calorie count. A kilocalorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water one degree Celsius. Kilocalories per person per day, or the measure of the depth of food deficit, the number of calories needed to lift the undernourished into a healthy state, everything else being constant.

According to the National Health Service (NHS), U.K., an average male needs approximately 2,500 calories per day to keep a constant healthy weight; an average female needs 2,000 calories. U.S. standards place the numbers to 2,700 calories per day for men and 2,200 per day for women. (page 11)

Ketones substances made when body breaks down fat for energy. Ketosis is a metabolic state where there are raised levels of ketone bodies in tissues and blood stream. (page 15)

Ketoacidosis , extreme and uncontrolled ketosis, is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by breakdown of fatty acids and the de-amination of amino acids producing aceto-acetic acid and B-hydroxybutyrate. It is pathologic when the pH of the blood is decreased, too much acid in the blood, leading to death. (page 15)

Kristen Wenzel, O.S.U, was Associate Professor of Sociology in University of New Rochelle, NY was Board of Directors for “Bread for the World”, spearheaded by Arthur Simon, author of “Bread for the World.” (page 33)

Leaf Fractionation, First reported 200 years ago, this has been the subject of extensive research and appication since 1940. The process breaks down the orginal leaves into residual fibre, the whey and leaf concentrate. The first two are used as fertilizers, substrates of fermentation and/or animal feed. This process can be more productive in terms of edible protein per hectare of land than any other agricultural method. See Rouelle, (page 17)

Leaf Protein Concentrate, concentrated form of proteins in leaves of plants, used for human or animal food source using the cheapest, most abundant source of (LPC) in arid and semi arid areas where prevalence of droughts and famines. Forest cover can be made to contribute to food security and provide income for the poor. Norman Wingate Pirie, British biochemist, Leaf Protein: And its By-Products in Human and Animal Nutrition, Cambridge University Press 1978) (page 16)

Livestock Revolution-more than 1.7 billion animals are used in production; the demand for meat and milk in the developing countries have doubled in the recent years adding stress to the fragile partoral areas and pressure in open areas close to cities. Seen as an increase in economic status but challenging to the poor. (page 58)

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. (page 26)

Millennium Development Goals (MDG), established at a Millennium Summit of UN in 2000 targeted 2015, renewed for 2030. The eight goals : eradicate extreme poverty & hunger; universal education; gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality rates; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; environmental sustainability; develop global partnership for development (page 26, 58)

Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human- induced processes acting upon a land. Any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable . Caused by floods an bush fires. Forty percent of world’s agricultural land is seriously degraded. (page 58)

La Via Campesina: group of peasants formed 1993) a strong voice and strategize on the issues in agriculture. Prioritizes women leadership; women as the backbone of agriculture must be consulted in formulating agricultural policies that directly impact food production. Issues like contract farming, harmonized seed laws, GMO seeds. Led by Elizabeth Mpofu of Zimbabwe Organic Smallholder Farmers Forum push for dialogue with national governments; 164 organizations 73 countries representing 200 million peasant, landless, indigenous small farmers. (page 47)

Less Developed Countries (LDC) vs. More Developed Countries (MDC). MDC farmers produce commercial agriculture and uses high end machinery and have access to technological advances in transportation that allows farming industries to export crops all over the world. LDC is considered subsistence farming and uses little or no machinery in their farms. (page 37)

Literacy Rate, as measured by World Bank, is the percentage of the population in a country of adults from 15 years old and up who can read, and can write a short statement on their everyday lives. These questions are asked in a household survery. (page 42)

Malthus, Thomas , See Thomas Malthus

Membrane chemistry, the cell membrane , or plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of the cells.a biological membrane that separates the interiro of all cells from the outside environment (page 79)

Migrants choose to move not because of a direct threat of persecution or death but mainly to improve their lives by finding work, for education, family reunion and other reasons. They face no impediment to return back to their homes. They are under the countries’ (where they land and settle) immigration laws and processes. (page 41)

The Millennium Project, commissioned by the UN Secretary General, supported by the UN Development Group, pledged in 1970, from the General Assembly Resolution, 0.7 of each country’s GNP as target. “Ours is the first generation in which the world can halve extreme poverty within the 0.7 envelope.” unmillenniumproject.org So far, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden have met the pledge. UK has given .48% ; France, .47%; Finland .47% ; Ireland .41%; Switzerland .41% Germany 35%; and all the rest have given below .30%. The U.S. has given 0.2% (page 23)

Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing a single crop, plant or livestock species, variety or breed in a field or farming system at a time. (page 49)

Mutagenesis is a process by which genetic information of an organism is changed, resulting in mutation. It may occur spontaneously in nature as a result of exposure to mutagens. It can also be achieved experimentally using laboratory procedures. In nature, mutagenesis can lead to cancer and various heritable diseases. Science developed based on work by Hermann Muller, Charlotte Auerbach and J.M Robson, first half of the 20th century. (page 39)

National Intelligence Council (NIC) , under the direction of the Deputy Director for Intelligence Integration. Established in 1979, it is a bridge between the intelligence and policy communities; officers are drawn from government, academia and private sector. (page 41)

National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA )USDA’s Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin; Global Soil Moisture Monitoring; NOAA’s Vegetation Health Index; Columbia University’s IRI Global Climate Monitor; Precipitation Index; Spain’s CSIC Drought Mapping Using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index STAR Center of Satellite Applications and Research is the science arm of NOAA Satellite Information that acquires and manages the nations operational Earth observing satellites. Its mission is to accelerate the transfer of satellite observations of land, atmosphere, ocean, and climate form scientific research and development into routine operations enabling NOAA state-of-the-art-data, products and services to decision makers. (page 70)

Non governmental, (NGO) non profit independent of states and international governmental organizations. Usually funded by donations , avoid formal funding and run by volunteers. (page 37)

Norman Wingate Pirie, British biochemist and virologist who along with Frederick Bawden discovered that a virus can be crystallized isolating tomato stunt virus in 1936. Author: N. W. Pirie, Leaf Protein: and the By products in Human and Animal Nutrition, Cambridge University Press. (page 17)

Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Founded in 1961, a forum of 34 countries with market economies working with 70 non-member economies to promote economic growth, prosperity and sustainable development. Headquarters, in Paris. Information help governments foster prosperity & fight poverty through economic growth & financial stability. (page 9)

OECD Members: Australia, Austria,Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,Iceland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain,Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK,US.

Oxfam International is an international of 19 organizations working with 90 countries to try and find practical innovative ways for people to left themselves out of poverty and thrive. Started in 1995 by a group of independent non governmental organizations. Presently in the forefront of the fight against the worsening discrimination of migrants and refugees around the world. (page 31)

Panel on Climate Change an international body for a balanced and scientific assessment of climate change, established by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988 to provide the world with clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Membership is open to all UN member countries and the WMO. Currently has 195 members. (page 57)

Pastoralist , are often nomadic person moving herds of animals for green pastures and water versus pastoral non nomadic farmers wo grow crops and improve pastures for their livestock. Mostly, tending less than 10 heads of cattle. (page 16)

Population Reference Bureau (PRB) informs people around the world about population, health and the environment and empowers them to use that information to advance the well being of current and future generations. Analyzes complex demographic data and research to provide the most objective, accurate, up to date population information. PRB is funded by private foundations, government agencies, individual donors and non profit org and universities. Based in Washington DC (page 25)

Program for Africa's Seed Systems (PASS), program by Joe DeVries, PhD Cornell University, with traditionallly bred seeds for increased yiled and drought resisitance; harvested 57,000 tons of seeds in 2012 in Africa. (page 33)

Protein Concentrate (PC) is a human or animal dairy supplement that has a very high protein content and is extracted or prepared from vegetable of animal matter. Most common are leaf protein concentrate (LPC) or fish protein concentrate (FPC). (Encyclopedia Britanica, Dietary Supplement, July 20, 1998) (page 17)

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM), a form of malnutrition with inadequate calorie of protein intake. PEM cause 6 million deaths of adults and children annually. Common in low-income countries, also in higher income urban communities in low socio- economic neighborhoods. Symptoms of severe PEM include kwashiorkor( edema, irritability, ulcerating dermatoses, enlarged liver); marasmus (emaciation occurs before 1 year old, shrunken wasted appearance, under weight) and marasmic kwashiorkor (wasting, severe tissue wasting, dehydration, loss of subcutaneous fat, lethargy and growth retardation). Affects mostly children and elderly adults. (Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Professional Edition) (page 16)

Quality Protein Maize (QPM) the grain contains nearly twice as much lysine and tryptophan, and essential amino acids. It is a product of conventional plant breeding, not genetically modified and an example of bio- fortification. Grew out of a pilot program by the Mexican government and the Rockefeller Foundation in 1940; Norman Borlaug worked with the Mexican researchers that developed hardier, short stemmed wheat varieties that resisted rust diseases and yielded more grain than traditional varieties. (page 38)

Refugees should not be expelled or returned to situations where their life and freedom would be under threat. Countries have specific responsibilities to those who seek asylum defined in international and national law. UNHCR defines refugees as persons fleeing armed conflict or persecution. They are defined and protected in international law: 1951 Refugee Convention, 1969 OAU Refugee Convention (page 41)

Reynolds, L (See Fredercik Buttel)

Reverse Osmosis is the process by which a solvent passes through a porous membrane in the direction opposite to that natural osmosis when subjected to a hydrostatic pressure greater thatn the osmtic pressure (page 75, 78)

Hillaire Marin Rouelle, French chemist, first isolated urea in 1773. Truth is Herman Boerhave discovered urea in 1727. Rouelle’s work on extraction of leaf and producing fecules that contains animal matter. This process is called Leaf Fractionation. (page 16)

Replacement Level Fertility (RLF) rate, also total fertility rate, is the average number of children born to a woman- at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to another, without migration. It is roughly 2.0 births per woman for developed countries, ex. UK 2.075 but ranges from 2.5- 3.3 in developing countries because of higher mortality rates. Globally, fertility rate at replacement level is 2.33 children per woman. (page 27)

Sasakawa Global 2000 Sasakawa Africa Association, founded in 1986, chaired by Ryoichi Sasakawa, of NIppon Foundation, with Norman Borlaug,(father of Green Revolution and agricultural researcher)and Jimmy Carter (former US President). Focused on the food security in Africa using its in Southeast Asia by supporting producers in improving productivity, processing and increasing market access as a means to enhance added value and fostering farmers’ income. Five different themes: crop productivity; enhancements; post-harvest and agro-processing efforts; public private partnership and market access. Sasakawa Africa Fund for Extension Education-SAFE; and Monitoring , Evaluation, Learning , Sharing (Dedicated to Ending Famine in Africa, The Nippon Foundation, Minato-ku Tokyo, nippon-forndation.or.jp (page 38)

Olivier de Schutter, Belgian legal scholar served as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food from 2008-2014; he is a Professor of international human rights law, European Union law and legal theory at the University Catholique de Louain, Belgium as well as College of Europe and Sciences Po in Paris. (page 45)

Smallholders farmers small farms, less than 10 hectares, that rely mainly on family labor; the backbone of agricultural production in the developing countries. 4/5 of developing world’s food is a product of small sized farms. (page 29)

Social safety nets programs are cash and in-kind transfers targeted to poor and vulnerable households to help the families from the impact of economic shocks, natural disasters and other crises. 55% of the world’s poor or 773 million people with acute needs still lack safety net coverage. (page 22)

Soil retrogression is another regressive in the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. Caused by erosion; its natural evolution reverts the land to its natural physical state or pioneer conditions. (page 58)

South Asian Countries, primarily Indo Aryan: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka (page 13)

Southeast Asian countries: Eight countries in southeast Asia that comprise 86.9 million: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

State Food and agriculture (SOFA) FAO extends social protection as a safety net through the fall into 3 categories: publicly provide non contributory transfers that can be provided in kind, like food as well as cash; social insurance, pooled contributory insurance programs ad labor market protection, provision of unemployment benefits, building skills and enhancing workers’ productivity and employability. SOFA, FAO’s flagship publication (page 49)

Stunted growth, also known as stunting, is reduced growth rate in the human development. (page 7)

Sub-Saharan Africa, area of Africa south of the Sahara; some are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros and Mauritania are geographically in Sub-Saharan Africa but are likewise part of the Arab world. Countries: Angola, Benin,Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo, (Democratic Republic), Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea-Biassau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Reunion, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Western Sahara, Zambia, Zimbabwe (page 5 and throughout)

Subsistence farming or agriculture is self sufficiency where the farmers are focused on growing enough food to fee themselves and their families with little or no surplus for trade. (page 37)

Superweeds are nuisance plants that have developed resistance to one or more herbicides. (page 37)

Sustainable agriculture is the production of food, fiber, or other plant or animal products using faring techniques that protect the environment , public health, human communities and animal welfare.(page 48)

Synthesis is when compounds extracted from natural substances or created on something new or on the basis of such substances by artificial means. (page 78)

Synthetic sugars have been closely investigated. Aspartame, used in Equal, and diet sodas is made from fermenting corn and soy, genetically engineered crops. Sucralose, in Splenda, cannot be broken down by bacteria in the digestive tract; the chemical leaves the body through human waste and enters sewage systems. Saccharine, in Sweet and Low, a petroleum derivative, has been taken out by FDA from its hazardous list but still warns pregnant women and infants not to consume these in large amounts. (page 42)

Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) is an Indian food security system; the target PDS is costly an gives rise to much corruption in the process of extricating the poor from those who are less poor. Established by the government of India , it distributes subsidized food and non food to India’s poor through the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food ad Public Distribution. (page 23)

Thomas Malthus, an English Economist from 1798 predicted in “Essay on the Principle of Population” that the world’s population growth would eventually outrun its food supply. His theory was further reinforced by Economist Paul Ehrlich, in 1968, “The Population Bomb” where he stated: “The battle to feed all of humanity is over when the world will undergo famine and millions will starve and die.” (page 23)

Total Fertility Rates (TFR) It is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime;. The number is the sum of the single year age specific rate at a given time. It is not birth rate. TFR is also called fertility rate, absolute potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR) or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population.(page 25)

Traditional breeding or plant breeding uses deliberate interbreeding (crossing) of loosely or distantly related individual to produce new crop varieties or lines with desirable properties. Plants are cross bred by physically transferring spores or dusting particles from one plant to another. Takes almost ten years sometimes to see changes. (page 40)

Thomas Hobbes, 17th century philosopher, speaks of “the uncertainty of private charity”. ”Whereas many men, by accident inevitably become unable to maintain themselves by their labor, they ought not to be left to the charity of private persons, but to be provided forth as the necessities of nature require, by the laws of the Commonwealth.” (page 52)

Ultrafiltration, water passes to be filtered and purified; the pores of the membranes can be 10-20 nanometers across-3000 times finer than human hair. (page 78)

United Development Report, UNDP (United Nations Development Program) global development network advocating change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help build a better life. Identifies countries in the developing world that have done better than expected in human development terms in recent decades; analyzes the causes and consequences of these countries’ achievements and the challenges that they face today and in the coming decades. Based in New York City, it is working with 177 countries towards solutions to global, national development. (page 38)

United Nations (UN)an intergovernmental organization to promote international cooperation ; replaced League of nations; established 24 October 1945. (page 5)

United Nations Children’s fund (UNICEF) is a UN program, in New York City, provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries. Est. in 11 December, 1945 (page 8)

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, (UNDESA) established in 1948, in NYC, is part of the UN Secretariat and responsible for the follow up of major UN Summits and Conferences as well as services to the UN Economic and Social Council and UN General Assembly’s second and third committees. Assists countries around the world in agenda setting and decision making to meet their economic, social and environmental challenges. (page 25)

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and cultural Organization, (UNESCO), est. in 1945, headquarters in Paris, with 195 member states contributes to peace and security by promoting international collaboration throuh educationa, scientific, and cultural reforsm to ensure justice, rule of lawand human rights. Formerly the League of Nations. (page 44)

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), established in 1972, headquarters in Nairobi,Kenya, an agency for the UN coordinates its environmental activities assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.Founded as a result of UN Conference in Human Environment in Stockholm. Has 6 regional offices and various country offices.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is often the first in and the last out in an emergency situation, supporting those forced to flee their homes through no fault of theirs. It future revives devastated communities and help displaced families return, recover and restart their lives.There are 462 UNHCR offices worldwide. Ten biggest operations are: Afghanistan, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Pakistan, Nigeria, South Sudan, Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan.

Urban footprint is the geospatial mapping ,via satellite data, showing human settlements, not only the cities but also smallest rural outpost in the world. The Global Urban Footprint (GUF) ,it can locate the most remote village in the world. (page 56)

Uruguay Round , a series of trade negotiations, attempts to liberalize trade in agriculture, texties, trade in service, intellectual property an dpolicy distortions. From 1986-1994 with deadlines in 1995-2000 under the administrative direction of the World Trade Organization, to regulate and liberalize trade practices. Extended into the Doha Development Round,in 2001 with an unresolved deadline. Trade negotiations within the GATT 's 123 members. (page 30)

US Agency for International Development,(USAID) from November 2, 1961, created by past president John Kennedy, independent but subject to foreign policy guidance of US president, secretary of state and the National Security Council. headquarters Washington DC, with 3893 career employees is responsible for administering civilian foreign aid. Operates in Africa, ASia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. (page 48)

Virtual water content of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce a product, measured at the place where the product was actually produced. (page 62)

Virtual water trade, or embedded or embedded water is the hidden flow of water of food or other commodities are traded from one place to another. It takes 1600 cubic meters of water on average to produce one metric tonne of wheat. (page 62)

WASH- Water, Sanitation and Hygiene issues , interdependent groups work to improve the health and development are UNICEf’s continuing work in schools and in emergencies. Collaboration wiith UN organizational support as well as public, and corporate partnerships, civil society partnerships, European Union, First Initiative, A Promise Renewed and UNGEI.(page 64)

Wasting away caused by protein deficiency leads to kwashiorkor; symptoms are apathy, wasting or cachexia-loss of weight, muscle atrophy and weakness and kwashiorkor -apathy, muscular wasting, edema. (page 3, 14)

Baseline water stress is the ratio of total withdrawals to total renewable supply any given area. A high percentage means more water users are competing for limited water supplies. Fourteen of the 33 most water tressed countries in 2040 are in the Middle East, including 9 considered extremely highly stressed with a score of 5.0 out of 5.0 are Bahrain,Kuwait, Palestine, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Lebanon. (page 60)

Water withdrawn is the total volume removed from a water source such as a lake or a river. Often, a portion is returned to the source and is available to be used again. Water consumed is the amount of water removed for use and not returned to the source. (page 62)

West Asian Countries: Bahrain,Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Palestininian territories (page 43)

World Agricultural Systems of the World (WAS) looks into prevalent characteristics and distribution of major agricultural systems of the world- shifting cultivation, wet rice cultivation, pastoral nomadism, Mediterranean agriculture, mixed farming, dairying, plantations, ranching and large scale grain production. To get an adequate account of the prevailing character of world agriculture, one must study the evolution of agricultural systems in the world. ( D.B. Grigg, The Agricultural Systems of the World, Cambridge Geographical Studies, Cambridge University Press, April 2011, (page 12)

World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital programs; it is a component of the World Bank Group, part of the United Nations system. It has two institutions- the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). Its primary goal is to reduce poverty, guided by commitment to the promotion of foreign investment and international trade and the facilitation of capital investment. Established in 1944; it is a treaty with a membership of 180 countries, headquarters in Washington DC.

World Farmers' Organization, (WFO), an international organization of Farmers for Farmers, aims to bring together all national producer and farm cooperative organizations to develop policies which favor and support farmers' causes in developed and developing countries all over the world.

World Water Day, an observance created by the United Nations in 1993 to start a global conversation around the world. Millions of people around the world participate in local events to educate people about sustainable water use and water stewardship.

World Food Programme (WFP), UN Development Group food assistance humanitarian organization provides food assistance to 80 million people in 80 countries annually. delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience. It is part of the United Nations and is voluntarily funded. Started in 1961. Goal is to end hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition by 2030. Headquarters in Rome and founded in 1961. (page 19, 38)

World Health Organization (WHO) since 1948, based in Geneva, an agency of United Nations, concerned with international public health; member of UN Development Group, its predecessor was the Health Organizations of League of Nations. Its parent organization, United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)is concerned with international public health. It has played a role in the eradication of smallpox; its current priorities include communicable diseases like HIV/AIDS, ebola, malaria and tuberculosis. Responsible for the World Health Report with a budget of $4 billion; $390 million from member states and the rest from voluntary contributions.(page 6, 46)

World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of United Nations, with 191 member states and territories; authoritative voice on the state and behavior of the Earth’s atmosphere, its interaction with the land and oceans, the weather ad climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.

WHO/UNAIDS issues annual reports, to monitor key components of the health sector response to the HIV epidemic, scaling up treatment and care to key populations at high risk,; work towards elimination of mother to child transmission and improving maternal and child health care in contact of HIV . Based in Geneva, Switzerland. (page 44)

World Population Data Sheet 2014 is an annual report on the world’s demographic, health, and environmental progress and challenges. Data provides detailed information on population, health and environmental indicators for more than 200 countries. Three indicators: mortality rate, fertility rate and life expectancy. (page 25)

World Trade Organization (WTO), intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade. Commenced on 1 January 1995, under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 123 nations (15 April 1994) replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)(1948). The only global international organization dealing with trade between nations. It ensures that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible. World Trade Organization’s agreements, are negotiated and signed by the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business. It has 160 members - accounting for 95% of world trade. The Secretariat is based in Geneva, headed by a director-general with a budget of 197 million Swiss francs. (page 30)

[1] Stein Claessens and Erik Felien, From Credits to Crops, Finance & Development, 2007. World

Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 17.

[2] Food and Agriculture Organization, (FAO) See Glossary

[3] Appendix I Undernourishment Around the World (1990-92 ) to (2014-16) page 119

[4] IFPRI Klaus Von Graebmer, et al, Synopsis: Global Hunger Index, IFPRI Issue Brief 88. Washington D.C, Bonn, Dublin, October, 2015. (pamphlet)

[5] Hervé This, Note-By-Note,The Future of Food, NY Columbia University Press. page 20.

[6] Emma l- Adams and Anastasia Andrzejewski, The Hunger Project, Hunger and Poverty: Definitions and Distinctions, 5 Union Square West, NY www.thp.org

[7] Frances Lappé, Joseph Collins, et.al. World Hunger Twelve Myths, NY, Grove Press,1998, p.3

[8] United Nations, See Glossary

[9] Gross Domestic Product (GDP) See Glossary

[10] Stein Claessens and Erik Feilen, From Credits to Crops, Finance Development, 2007, World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 17.

[11] Samuel Loewenberg, Millions in Niger Facing Food Shortage Once Again, The Lancet, May 6, 2006 World Hunger, ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 35.

[12] Claire Stanford, Famines in the World Today, World Hunger, H.W.Wilson, 2007, page 20.

[13] Sub Saharan Countries, See Glossary

[14] Miren Gutierrez, The Problem with Predicting Famine, Inter Press Service, May 3, 2006.World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, 2007, page 87.

[15] Michael Wines, Malnutrition is Cheating it Survivors and Africa ’s Future, NY Times, December 2006. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 100.

[16] World Health Organization, See Glossary

[17] Global Acute Malnutrition, (GAM), See Glossary

[18] Samuel Loewenberg, Millions in Niger Facing Food Shortage Once Again, The Lancet, May 6, 2006. World Hunger,ed. Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 35.

[19] Anna Badhken, Famine in East Africa-Littlest Victims of Drought and Poverty, San Francisco Chronicle, March 30, 2006. World Hunger, ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 104.

[20] William Byron, The Causes of World Hunger, NY, The Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle, 1982 p.2

[21] Global Hunger Index, See Glossary

[22] Stunting , See Glossary

[23] Median Deviation or Z scores , See Glossary

[24] Wasting, See Glossary

[25] United International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), See Glossary

[26] The Borgen Project, a blog, What is Stunting? Wikipedia.2013 www.borgenproject.com

[27] East Asian and South Asian Countries, See Glossary

[28] Michael Wines, Malnutrition is Cheating it Survivors and Africa’s Future, NY Times, December 2006. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 99.

[29] Ronald L. Conte, A Blog Hunger Math World Hunger by the Numbers, February 2, 2013 www.hungermath.wordpress.com

[30] Michael Wines, Malnutrition is Cheating it Survivors and Africa’s Future, NY Times, December 2006. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 101.

[31] List of the World's Countries' Gross Domestic Product,GDP, per Capita, PPP, Appendix II, page 120

[32] The World FactBook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2016 www.CIA.gov

[33] Emerging Economies, See Glossary

[34] Angus Maddison, British Economist, Quantitative Macroeconomic History, www.ggdc.net

[35] International Monetary Fund’s List of Developing Countries, 2013 www.imf.org

[36] France Lappé and Joseph Collins et al., World Hunger Twelve Myths, Food First Books, Small Planet Institute, NY Grove Press, 1998, page 8.

[37] World Agriculture System (WAS), See Glossary

[38] Southern Asian Countries, See Glossary

[39] kcalories, defined, See Glossary

[40] France Lappé and Joseph Collins et al., World Hunger Twelve Myths, Food First Books, Small Planet Institute, NY Grove Press,1998, pages 8-12.

[41] FAO Report: Countries Lowest KCalories in Macronutrients, Appendix III page 128

[42] FAO Institute of Medicine (FAO- IOM), See Glossary

[43] Ronald L. Conte, Hunger Math- World Hunger by the Numbers, self published June 2013, page 11

[44] Ibid, page 11-14.

[45] Ketones and Ketosis, See Glossary

[46] Ketoacidosis, See Glossary

[47] Carbohydrate Factor (CF), See Glossary

[48] Subsistence Farms, See Glossary

[49] Ronald L. Conte, Hunger Math- World Hunger by the Numbers, self published, June 2013, page 21.

[50] Ibid., pages 27-28.

[51] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste,

Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corp, 2015, page 9.

[52] Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM), See Glossary

[53] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corp, 2015, page 6-9.

[54] Leaf Protein Concentrate (LPC), See Glossary

[55] Hillaire Marin Rouelle, See Glossary

[56] Leaf Fractionation, See Glossary

[57] Dr. N. W Pirie, See Glossary

[58] Ronald L. Conte, Hunger Math- World Hunger by the Numbers, self published June 2013, pages 80-81.

[59] Protein Concentrate (PC), See Glossary

[60] Ronald L. Conte, Hunger Math- World Hunger by the Numbers, self published June 2013 pages 80-81

[61] Ronald L. Conte, Hunger Math- World Hunger by the Numbers, self published June 2013Ibid, page 50-53.

[62] Ibid.,pages 54-56.

[63] Ibid.,pages 108-110.

[64] World Food Program, (WFP), See Glossary

[65] Paul Vallely, How the World is Getting Hungrier Each Year, The Independent, London, November 26, 2003 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 13.

[66] Ibid., page 13

[67] Ibid., page 14.

[68] Leon Hesser , The Man Who Fed the World, and His Battle to End World Hunger, Durban House Pub Co, Dallas, TX, 2009, page 57.

[69] Susan Sechler, Starved For Attention, American Prospect , Winter 2002. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 8-9.

[70] International Monetary Fund (IMF), See Glossary

[71] Proportion of Undernourished in Total Population, Appendix IV , page 130

[72] Paul Vallely, How the World is Getting Hungrier Each Year, The Independent, London, November 26, 2003. World Hunger,ed. Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 15.

[73] Ibid. page 17.

[74] Safety Net- defined, See Glossary

[75] Susan Sechler, Starved For Attention, American Prospect , Winter 2002 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 10-11.

[76] Paul Vallely, How the World is Getting Hungrier Each Year, The Independent, London, November 26, 2003World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, 2007, page 15.

[77] Ronald L. Conte Jr., Hunger Math- World Hunger by the Numbers, self published, 2013, page 12

[78] Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), See Glossary

[79] Thomas Malthus, See Glossary

[80] John M Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change,Carrier Corp, 2015, page 19.

[81] Miren Gutierrez, Why Democracies Don’t have Famines, Inter Press Service, May 3, 2006 . World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 26.

[82] pastoralist, See Glossary

[83] Miren Gutierrez, The Problem with Predicting Famine, Inter Press Service, May 3, 2006. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 90.

[84] Susan Sechler, Starved For Attention, American Prospect , Winter 2002, 2007 . World Hunger,ed. Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson, 2007, page 5.

[85] The Economist, How to Feed the World, November 19, 2009. www.economist.com

[86] Ronald L. Conte, Hunger Math- World Hunger by the Numbers, self published June 2013, page 8.

[87] The Economist, How to Feed the World, November 19, 2009, www.economist.com

[88] Frances Lappé, Joseph Collins, Peter Rosset, et al. World Hunger-Twelve Myths, NY Grove Press,1998, page 25.

[89] Frederick Buttel and Laura Reynolds, Also see Buttel, F and Reynolds, L, Glossary

[90] Frances Lappé, Joseph Collins, Peter Rosset, et al. World Hunger-Twelve Myths, NY Grove Press,1998, page 26.

[91] Ibid. pages 36-37.

[92] Total Fertility Rate, (TFR) See Glossary

[93] Ann Margreth Bakilana, A Blog. Africa Can End Poverty, World Bank, October 29, 2015,

www.blogs.worldbanks.org

[94] Replacement Fertility Rate (RLF), See Glossary

[95] East Asian Tigers, See Glossary

[96] Craig Hanson et al., Achieving Replacement Level Fertility, Installment 3 to “Creating Sustainable

Food Future”, World Resource Institute, 2013, www.wri.org

[97] Ann Margreth Bakilana, A Blog. Africa Can End Poverty, World Bank, October 29, 2015,

www.blogs.worldbanks.org

[98] Miren Gutierrez, Why Democracies Don’t have Famines, Inter Press Service, May 3, 2006 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 24.

[99] Child Mortality Rate, See Glossary

[100] Ann Margreth Bakilana, A Blog. Africa Can End Poverty, World Bank, October 29, 2015,

www.blogs.worldbanks.org

[101] Maternal Mortality Rate, See Glossary

[102] Food Outlook, bi annual publication www.fao.org/giews.english/fo/index.htm

[103] Frederic Mosseau and Anuradha Mittal , Food Sovereignty-Ending World Hunger in Our Time,

The Humanist, March-April, 2006. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson. 2007 page 75.

[104] Paul Valleley, How The World is Getting Hungrier Each Year, The Independent, (London), November 26, 2003World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007. page 15.

[105] Susan Sechler, Starved For Attention, American Prospect, Winter 2002.World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford,H.W.Wilson 2007, page 7.

[106] Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), See Glossary

[107] Smallholder farmers, See Glossary

[108] Susan Sechler, Starved For Attention, American Prospect, Winter 2002. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, pages 7-8.

[109] World Trade Organization, See Glossary

[110] Paul Valleley, How The World is Getting Hungrier Each Year, The Independent, (London), November 26, 2003. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 16.

[111] Uruguay Round, See Glossary

[112] William Cline. Evaluating the Uruguay Round, The World Economy 18, January, 2005.

www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com

[113] Oxfam, See Glossary

[114] Millenium Project, See Glossary

[115] Susan Sechler, Starved For Attention, American Prospect, Winter 2002 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, 2007. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 7-8.

[116] Miguel Altieri and Parvis Koohafkan. Enduring farms: Climate Change , Smallholders and Tradi tional Farming Communities, www.fao.org/nr/water/docs/Enduring_Farms.pdf

[117] Kirsten Scharnberg, Do it Yourself Famine Fight, Chicago Tribune, August 25, 2005. World Hunger ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007. pages 96-98.

[118] Kristen Wenzel, See Glossary

[119] J. William Byron, The Causes of Hunger, The Missionary Society of St.Paul the Apostle, The American Assembly, 1982. Overcoming World Hunger, ed. Clifford Harden,NY Columbia University, 1969, page 4.

[120] Green Revolution, See Glossary

[121] Leon Hesser, The Man Who Fed the World And His Battle to End World Hunger, Durban House Pub Co, Dallas, TX, 2009, pages 34-50.

[122] Biotechnology, See Glossary

[123] Leon Hesser, The Man Who Fed the World And His Battle to End World Hunger, Durban House Pub Co, Dallas, TX, 2009, pages 58-60.

[124] Bud, Robert, History of Biotechnology, Nature, 337:10 ,1989, www.en.m.wikipedia.org

[125] Leon Hesser, The Man Who Fed the World And His Battle to End World Hunger, Durban House Pub Co, Dallas, TX, 2009, page 102.

[126] Gene Revolution, See Glossary

[127] Genetically Modified (GM) crops; seeds, See Glossary

[128] Peter Pringle, So Shall We Reap. Food Inc., Simon & Schuster, NY, 2003 World Hunger,ed. Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, pages 117-118.

[129] Gene Flow, See Glossary

[130] Peter Pringle, So Shall We Reap. Food Inc., Simon & Schuster, NY, 2003. World Hunger,ed. Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, pages 122-124.

[131] Non governmental Organizations, (NGO), See Glossary

[132] Peter Pringle, So Shall We Reap. Food Inc., Simon & Schuster, NY, 2003. World Hunger,ed. Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, pages 121-122.

[133] Superweeds, Defined, See Glossary

[134] Quality Protein Maize, QPM, See Glossary

[135] Sasakawa Global 2000, See Glossary

[136] Peter Pringle, So Shall We Reap. Food Inc., Simon & Schuster, NY, 2003 World Hunger,ed. Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page128.

[137] Food and Drug Administration (FDA), See Glossary

[138] Genetic Engineering (GE), See Glossary

[139] Rania Batayne, MPH, A Blog. She Knows, Blog, www.essentialnutritionforyou.com

[140] Mutagenesis, Defined, See Glossary

[141] Gene Splicing, See Glossary

[142] Genome, See Glossary

[143] Peter Pringle, So Shall We Reap. Food Inc., Simon & Schuster, NY, 2003 World Hunger,ed. Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 124.

[144] Biopharming, defined, See Glossary

[145] Peter Pringle, So Shall We Reap, Food Inc. Simon & Schuster, NY. 2003World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, 2007, pages 122-124.

[146] Andrew Porterfield,, After early struggles,biopharming poised to make big impact on Medicine, Genetic Literacy Project,

www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2016/01/20/early-struggles-bipharming-poised

[147] Traditional breeding, See Glossary

[148] Peter Pringle, So Shall We Reap, Food Inc. Simon & Schuster, NY. 2003World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, pages 124-125.

[149] Program for Africa's Seed Systems , PASS, See Glossary

[150] Howard W. Buffett, Forty Chances, Finding Hope in a Hungry World, Simon & Schuster, NY, 2013, pages 132-141.

[151] Robert Cowen, Gene Splicing Opens New World for Agriculture,The Christian Science Monitor, Archives July 7, 1981.www.csmonitor.com

[152] Sean McDonagh, Genetic Engineering is Not the Answer, America, May 2, 2005 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 144.

[153] Synthetic sugar, See Glossary

[154] Justin Gillis, Promising Solution or Risky Business? The Biotechnology Debate”, The Washing ton Post, November 30, 2003 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 137-138.

[155] Justin Gillis, Promising Solution or Risky Business? The Biotechnology Debate”, The Washington Post, November 30, 2003 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007. page 140.

[156] George Harrar and Sterling Wortman, Expanding Food Production in Hungry Nations, Overcoming World Hunger, The American Assembly, Collumbia University, 1969. page 12.

[157] Peter Pringle, So Shall We Reap, Food Inc. Simon & Schuster, 2003.World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, 2007 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 128.

[158] Frances Lappé, Joseph Collins et al. World Hunger Twelve Myths, NY Grove Press. Food First Books, Small Planet Institute, 1998, page 11.

[159] Susan Sechler, Starved For Attention, American Prospect, Winter 2002. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, 2007 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 9.

[160] United Nations Educational Scientfic and Culture Organization (UNESCO), See Glossary

[161] West Asian countries, See Glossary

[162] Brian Palmer, Why is North Korea Always Short on Food?, Slate Explainer, The Site Group,

www.slateexplainer.com

[163] Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland, Refugee Insights into North Korea, Peterson Institute for International Economics, (PIIE) 1981 www.piie.com

[164] Human Development Index, See Glossary

[165] Miren Gutierrez, Why Democracies Don’t Have Famines, Inter Press Service, May 3, 2006. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, pages 25-26.

[166] Less Developed countries, LDC, See Glossary

[167] Stijn Claessens and Erik Feijen, From Credits to Crops, Financial Development, March 2007.World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007,pages 18-19.

[168] Frances Lappé, Joseph Collins et al. World Hunger Twelve Myths, Grove Press. Food First Books, Small Planet Institute, 1998.pages 127.

[169] Hunger Project, See Glossary

[170] Claire Stanford, ed. World Hunger, H.W.Wilson, 2007, page 93.

[171] Gender Equality Index, See Glossary

[172] Business Call to Action, Investing in Female Smallholder Farmers is Smart Economics, www.glabs.com

[173] Miren Gutierrez, Why Democracies Don’t Have Famines, Inter Press Service, May 3, 2006. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, 2007, page 26.

[174] IFPRI Klaus von Graebmer et al, Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Famine: Is an End in Sight? Global Hunger Index, World Peace Foundation, Tufts University, Washington DC US, Bonn, Germany, Dublin, Ireland,2015, (pamphlet)

[175] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), See Glossary

[176] IFPRI Klaus von Graebmer et al, Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Famine: Is an End in Sight? Global Hunger Index, World Peace Foundation, Tufts University, Washington DC US, Bonn, Germany, Dublin, Ireland, 2015 (pamphlet)

[177] Ibid.

[178] Aryn Baker, World: What Man, and Climate Change has Wrought, Time Magazine, March 27, 2017, page 1

[179] IFPRI Klaus von Graebmer et al, Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Famine: Is an End in Sight? Global Hunger Index, World Peace Foundation, Tufts University, Washington DC US, Bonn, Germany, Dublin, Ireland, 2015 (pamphlet)

[180] Global Trends, See Glossary

[181] National Intelligence Council, (NIC) See Glossary

[182] Refugees, See Glossary

[183] Migrants, See Glossary

[184] IFPRI Klaus von Graebmer et al, Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Famine: Is an End in Sight? Global Hunger Index, World Peace Foundation, Tufts University, Washington DC US, Bonn, Germany, Dublin, Ireland,2015

[185] International Monetray Fund, (IMF), See Glossary

[186] Steve Karlen, Africa Needs Democracy as Much as Debt Relief, The Capital Times, Madison, Wisconsin, July 27, 2005 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007,pages 22-23.

[187] Miren Gutierrez, Why Democracies Don’t Have Famines, Interpress Service, May 3, 2006 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 26.

[188] Hastings Banda, see also Banda, Hastings, See Glossary

[189] Joshua Hammer, Freedom is Not Enough, Newsweek, November 14, 2005World Hunger,ed. Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 27-28.

[190] Claire Stanford, Famines in the World Today, World Hunger, H.W. Wilson, 2007, page 33.

[191] CBS News, United Nations: North Korea Food Crisis Worsening, April 27, 2016.

[192] Miren Gutierrez, Why Democracies Don’t Have Famines”, Interpress Service, May 3, 2006 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 25.

[193] Howard W. Buffett, Forty Chances: Finding Hope in a Hungry World, NY Simon & Schuster, 2013, page 140

[194] Steve Karlen, Africa Needs Democracy as Much as Debt Relief, The Capital Times, Madison, Wisconsin US July 27, 2005World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 23.

[195] World Health Organization (WHO/UNAIDS), See Glossary

[196] Steve Karlen, Africa Needs Democracy as Much as Debt Relief, The Capital Times, Madison, Wisconsin US July 27, 2005 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 23.

[197] Report World Food Programme, Hunger,Health and HIV/AIDS: A Critical Connection, November 27, 2007 www.wfp.org

[198] Ibid. www.wfp.org

[199] Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), See Glossary

[200] David Rieff, The Reproach of Hunger, Food,Justice, and Money in the Twenty-First Century, NY,London, Toronto,Sydney, New Delhi, Simon & Schuster paperbacks 2015, pages72-83

[201] The Economist , Starving For the Cameras, August 18, 2005. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007,page 80.

[202] David Rieff, The Reproach of Hunger, Food,Justice, and Money in theTwenty-First Century, pages 72-83

[203] Olivier de Schutter, see Schutter de, Olivier, See Glossary

[204] La Via Campesina, See Glossary

[205] Global Agribusiness, See Glossary

[206] Agribusiness, See Glossary

[207] John Wilkinson, The Globalization of Agribusiness and Developing World Food Systems, Monthly Review, volume 61,Issue 04, (September) www.monthlyreview.com

[208] Agri-food Systems, See Glossary

[209] Sustainable agriculture, See Glossary

[210] Cubic Farming, See Glossary

[211] Agroforestry, See Glossary

[212] Hari Esrawan, Sustainable Agriculture in Developing Countries: Challenges and US Role #27

#www.naldc.nal.usda.gov

[213] Monoculture, See Glossary

[214] John Mandyck and Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, Carrier Corp. 2015, p.155

[215] Grain Marketing Board, See Glossary

[216] David Rieff, The Reproach of Hunger, Food,Justice, and Money in theTwenty-First Century NY,London,Toronto,Sydney, New Delhi, S imon & Schuster, 2015 page 94-95

[217] Arab Spring, See Glossary

[218] Thanassis Cambanis, The Arab Spring was a Revolution of the Hungry, The Internationalist, Boston Globe, August 23, 2015, www.bostonglobe.com

[219] David Rieff, The Reproach of Hunger, Food,Justice, and Money in theTwenty-First Century NY,London,Toronto,Sydney, New Delhi, S imon & Schuster, 2015, pages 93-95.

[220] Ibid. pages 94-95

[221] Thomas Hobbes, or Hobbes, Thomas, See Glossary

[222] David Rieff, The Reproach of Hunger, Food,Justice, and Money in theTwenty-First Century NY,London,Toronto,Sydney, New Delhi, S imon & Schuster, 2015, page xxiv.

[223] Biodiversity, See Glossary

[224] Fidelis Kaihura, Michael Stocking, Agricultural Biodiversity in Smalholder Farms in East Africa, www.brookings.edu

[225] Howard W. Buffett, Forty Chances, Finding Hope in a Hungry World, NY Simon & Schuster, 2013. page 2.

[226] David Rieff, The Reproach of Hunger, Food,Justice, and Money in theTwenty-First Century NY,London,Toronto,Sydney, New Delhi, S imon & Schuster, 2015, p 239-241.

[227] Ibid.page 241.

[228] Carbon Emissions, See Glossary

[229] David Rieff, The Reproach of Hunger, Food,Justice, and Money in theTwenty-First Century NY,London,Toronto,Sydney, New Delhi, S imon & Schuster, 2015, pxxiv.

[230] Greenhouse gases, See Glossary

[231] Carbon footprint, See Glossary

[232] Greenhouse gas emissions, See Glossary

[233] Frances Lappé & Joseph Collins, World Hunger- Twelve Myths, NY Grove Press,, Food First Books, Small Planet Institute 1998.pages 41-43.

[234] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, 2015 pages 67-72.

[235] David Rieff, The Reproach of Hunger, Food,Justice, and Money in theTwenty-First Century NY,London,Toronto,Sydney, New Delhi, S imon & Schuster, 2015, pages 94-95.

[236] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, 2015,pages 65-70.

[237] Food loss, "upstream", See Glossary

[238] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, 2015, page 60-65.

[239] Biofuel production, See Glossary

[240] Livestock Revolution, See Glossary

[241] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, 2015, page 27-29.

[242] Desertification, See Glossary

[243] Land degradation, See Glossary

[244] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, 2015, page 69.

[245] Soil Retrogression, See Glossary

[246] Panel on climate change, See Glossary

[247] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, 2015, page 71.

[248] Ibid. page 31.

[249] Michael Wines, Malnutrition is Cheating it Survivors and Africa’s Future, NY Times, December 2006. World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 99-100.

[250] Water Stress, See Glossary

[251] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, 2015 page 83-86.

[252] Countries in need for clean water, See Glossary

[253] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, 2015, page 75-77.

[254] Water withdrawals, See Glossary

[255] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, 2015 page 83-86.

[256] freshwater footprint, See Glossary

[257] John M. Mandyck & Eric Schultz, Food Foolish, The Hidden Connection between Food Waste, Hunger, and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, 2015 page 76-78.

[258] Ibid.pp. 83- 86.

[259] Virtual water flows, See Glossary

[260] Virtual embedded water, See Glossary

[261] Eutrophication, See Glossary

[262] Millennium Declaration Goals, See Glossary

[263] David Rieff, The Reproach of Hunger, Food,Justice, and Money in theTwenty-First Century NY,London,Toronto,Sydney, New Delhi, S imon & Schuster, 2015, page 95.

[264] Samuel Loewenberg, Millions in Niger Facing Food Shortages Once again, T he Lancet, May 6, 2006 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 35.

[265] Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Issues, See Glossary

[266] The Economist, Starving for the Cameras, August 18, 2005 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 146.

[267] Marylou Morano Kjelle, The Quest to End World Hunger, Mitchell Lane Pub, 2015, page 5.

[268] Claire Stanford, Famines in the World Today, World Hunger, HW Wilson Co, 2007 page 33.

[269] Frances Lappéand Joseph Collins, et.al., World Hunger Twelve Myths -, NYGrove Press 1998, p.3

[270] Miren Gutierrez, The Problem of Predicting Famine, Inter Press Service, May, 3, 2006 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, pages 88-89.

[271] Miren Gutierrez, The Problem of Predicting Famine, Inter Press Service, May, 3, 2006 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 87.

[272] Famine Early Warning Systems Network, FEWS-NET, See Glossary

[273] Global Information and Early Warning System (GiEWS). See Glossary

[274] The Nation, The Season of Too Many Hungers, December, 19, 2005, World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, 2007, page 40.

[275] International Food Aid, See Glossary

[276] Miren Gutierrez, The Problem of Predicting Famine, Inter Press Service, May, 3, 2006 World Hunger,ed.Claire Stanford, H.W.Wilson 2007, page 89.

[277] Ibid., page 26.

[278] Claire Stanford, Famines in the World Today, World Hunger, H.W. Wilson, 2007, page 33.

[279] Frances Lappe and Joseph Collins, World HungerTwelve Myths, NY,Grove Press, 1998,page 86.

[280] Ibid., page 145.

[281] African Human Development Report, "Food First", See Glossary

[282] Frances Lappé and Joseph Collins, World Hunger Twelve Myths- NY, Grove Press,1998, page 161.

[283] David Rieff, The Reproach of Hunger, Food,Justice, and Money in theTwenty-First Century NY,London,Toronto,Sydney, New Delhi, S imon & Schuster, 2015, pages 6-7.

[284] Ibid.page 10 and page 84.

[285] Clifford Hardin, ed. Overcoming World Hunger, The Assembly, NY, Columbia University Press. 1969. page 4-5.

[286] Global Food Security Act of 2016, HR 1567, The Times Magazine, January, 2017

www.congress.com

[287] Global Drought Information System (GDIS), See Glossary

[288] National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration's Star and Weekly Monitor, See glossary

[289] Research to Advance National Drought Monitoring and Prediction Capabilities, NOAA Drought Task Force 2016, NOAA www.americangeoscience.org

[290] Explore your Food Shed http://www.cuesa.org/farm/little-organic-farm

[291] The Prepper. 7 Survival Crops can Grow without Irrigation www.project.com

[292] Dry Farming, Food and Agricultural Organization, FAO Corporate Document Repository, Agriculture and Consumer Protection,www.fao.org

[293] No Water Required ! Supreme Master Television www.peace@suprememmastertv.com

[294] Monica Heger, Waterless Rice? a project of NYU’s Science Health and Environment Reporting Program. December 28,2007,www.scienceline.org

[295] Hydroponics, See Glossary

[296] William Gericke, The Complete Guide to Soilless gardening (1st e.) London: Punam ISBN 9781163140499, www.en-wikipedia.org/hydroponics

[297] Cara Kuhlman, Hydroponic Systems: Food Security in Developing Countries., a blog, December 15, 2015, www.borgenproject.org

[298] Israeli ‘mini farm’ would feed third world hungry, Israel Inside, www.timesofisrael.com

[299] Can Hydroponics Feed the Hungry? Scientific American 2012, www.growstone.com

[300] Aeroponics, See Glossary

[301] Fogponics, See Glossary

[302] Intensive Crop Farming, See Glossary

[303] Industrial Agriculture, See Glossary

[304] Lester R.Brown, Seed of Change, The Green Revolution and Development in 1970s, London, Pall Mall Press. http://www.en-wikipedia/industrial/agriculture

[305] Thoreau, Survival Gardening:Winter Hardy Food Crops, December 10, 2012

[306] Thoreau, Survival Gardening:Winter Hardy Food Crops, December 10, 2012.

[307] Derek Markham, Solar Technology for Farming and Urban Gardening, Mar 22, 2013,

www.treehugger.com

[308] Beneficial management practices, See Glossary

[309] Manual on the Beneficial Management Practices, Alberta, Canada www1.agric.gov.ab.ca

[310] Managing Wet Soils, Agriculture and Agri-Foods Canada www.agri.gc.ca

[311] Economic water scarcity, See Glossary

[312] Katrin Glatzel, Sustainable Water Management in African Agriculture, 2016

www.canwefeedtheworld.wordpress.com

[313] Miguel A.Altieri and Peter Rosset, Ten Reasons why Biotechnology will not ensure Food Security, Protect the Environment and Reduce Poverty in the Developing World. University of California, Berkeley & Food First, Institute for Food ad Development Policy. AGBio Forum Volume 2, Numbers 3 and 4 www.agbioforum.org

[314] Miguel A.Altieri and Peter Rosset, Ten Reasons why Biotechnology will not ensure Food Security, Protect the Environment and Reduce Poverty in the Developing World. University of California, Berkeley & Food First, Institute for Food ad Development Policy. AGBio Forum Volume 2, Numbers 3 and 4 www.agbioforum.org.

[315] C.S.Prakas, Hungry for Biotech, MIT Technology Review, July 1, 2000

[316] Ibid

[317] Whole Foods,Our Commitment to GMO Transparency, Whole Foods blog.wholefoodsmarket.com

[318] John M. Mandyck and Eric B.Schultz, Food Foolish- The Hidden Connection between Food Waster, Hunger and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, pages 35-37.

[319] Cold Chain, See Glossary

[320] John M. Mandyck and Eric B.Schultz, Food Foolish- The Hidden Connection between Food Waster, Hunger and Climate Change, Carrier Corporation, page 37.

[321] Ibid., page 41.

[322] The Female Face of Farming; Access to extension services, FAO infographic, 2012, www.fao.org

[323] The State of Food and Agriculture, Women in Agriculture, FAO, 2011 www.fao.org/women/agr

[324] Morgan Shoaf. The secret to cutting global hunger rates around the world? Hello, ladies.

www.upworthy.com September 28, 2016

[325] Natural Resoures, FAO, Economic and Social Development Department, global

www.agroculture.org

[326] World Farmers' Organization, www. wfo-oma.org See Glossary

[327] Hervé This, Molecular Gastronomy, Exploring the Science of Flavor, Columbia University Press, 2002. pp 1-5.

[328] Hervé This, Note by Note, The Future of Food, Columbia University Press, 2014, page 1-2

[329] Herve This, Molecular Gastronomy, Exploring the Science of Flavor, Columbia University Press, New York, page 337-350.

[330] Hervé This, Molecular Gastronomy, Exploring the Science of Flavor, NY, Columbia University Press, 2002. page 3.

[331] Hervé This, Note -By-Note The Future of Food, NY, columbia University Press, 2014.pages 10-11.

[332] Hervé This, Kitchen Mysteries, Revealing the Science of Cooking, NY, Columbia University Press, 2007. page 7.

[333] Hervé This, Molecular Gastronomy, Exploring the Science of Flavor, Columbia University Press, 2002. page 3.

[334] Hervé This, Note by Note, The Future of Food, Columbia University Press, 2014, page 4.

[335] Hervé This, Note by Note, The Future of Food, Columbia University Press, 2014. pp 2-3

[336] Ibid. page 5

[337] University of Southern California, Scientists Develop Material that Absorb Carbon Dioxide from the Air, February 6, 2012, www.scitechdaily.org

[338] Eli Kintisch, Can Sucking CO2 Out of the Atmosphere really Work?,Wireless Technology Innovations lead the Way to a Smartly connected future, www.sustainableenergy.org

[339] Reverse osmosis, See Glossary

[340] Kiona Smith-Strickland, A Billboard that Condenses Water From Humidity, Popular

www.mechanics.com

[341] News/Twitter, Department of Chemistry, University of Durham, November 19,2012 http://www.durham.ac.uk/chemistry

[342] Nanotechnology, See Glossary

[343] Will Henley, The New Water Technologies that Could Save the Planet, The Guardian, July 22, 2013 www.theguardian.com

[344] Desalination, See Glossary

[345] Will Henley, The New Water Technologies that Could Save the Planet, The Guardian, July 22, 2013www.theguardian.com

[346] Membrane chemistry, See Glossary

[347] Ultrafiltration, See Glossary

[348] Will Henley, The New Water Technologies that could save the planet, The Guardian, July 22, 2013 www.theguardian.com

[349] Ibid

[350] Fractionation, See Glossary

[351] HervéThis, Note By Note, The Future of Foods, Columbia Columbia University Press, 2014. pages 214-215.

[352] Cracking, See Glossary

[353] Hervé This, Note by Note, The Future of Food, Columbia University, 2014. pages 214-215

[354] Tim Sandle, Food Made from Mealworms could address World Hunger, digital Journal, January 22, 2017, www.digitaljournal.com

[355] Fractional Distillation, See Glossary

[356] Fractional Distillation, Ethanol Dehydraton, www.wintek.corp.com

[357] Above & Below Ground Oil Separators, Washbay Solutions, Engineered Wash & Reclaim Systems, www.washbaysolutions.com

[358] Extraction, See Glossary

[359] Salah M. El-Hagar, Sustainability and the Green Economy, Innovations in Food Extraction for Hunger, The Next Global Industrial Revolution, Oxford University Press, May 2, 2016, pages 8-18.

www.fue.edu.eg

[360] Ibid., pages 8-10

[361] Ibid. pages 8-18.

[362] Synthesize, See Glossary

[363] Christopher Mims, The Audacious Plan to End Hunger with 3-D Printed Food, NASA funded research, May 20, 2013 www. www.QZ.com

[364] Fermentation, Membrane Chemistry ,See Glossary

[365] Fermentation- The Original Molecular Gastronomy, Your Favorite Foods Started out as Something, Moxies bar and Grill. www.else.moxies.com

[366] Ibid.

[367] Infusion, See Glossary

[368] Ash Kosiewicz, Seven Tech Innovations Changing the Global Hunger Conversation, World Food Program USA, December 12, 2015., www.wfpusa.org

[369] Karen Carr, What are hydrocarbons? Simple Science, www.quatr.us.studyguides.us

[370] John Bell, European Commission, Research and Innovation: future proofing our nutrition and food systems, Trends in Food Science & Technology, April 2017, Vol.62.21-227, doi:10.1016/tifs.2016.1 www.sciencedirect.com

[371] Food Trends and Global Hunger, Crop Science, Nutrition and Food Security,www.cropscience.bayer.com

[372] A.Gil & J.A Martinez, Parallel Symposium : Strengthening micronutrient nutrition surveillance WHO and CDC tools and methods, IUNS 295h International Congress of Nutrition 2013,Granada Congress Centre, Granada , Spain www.gac-usp.com.br

[373] Aimee Lee Ball, Hervé This and the Future of Food,Food Matters, The New York Times, September 17, 2015 www.mobile.nytimes.com

[374] Bioactive, See Glossary

[375] Hervé This, What Can "Artificial Meat" Be? Note by Note Cooking Offers a Variety of Answer s Note de Recherche,www.herve.this@inra.fr

[376] Ibid.

[377] Hervé This, What Can "Artificial Meat" be? Note by Note cooking offers a variety of answer s.Note de Recherche,www.herve.this@inra.fr

[378] Aimee Lee Ball , Hervé This and the Future of Food , Food Matters, The New York Times, September 17, 2015, www.mobile.nytimes.com

Details

Pages
156
Year
2017
ISBN (Book)
9783668688438
File size
784 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v421070
Institution / College
Reims University – University of Reims
Grade
mention très bien
Tags
gastronomy molecular gastronomy world hunger can molecular gastronomy help world hunger

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Title: Can Molecular Gastronomy Help Alleviate the Prevalence of World Hunger?