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Gender and Poverty. A study of Majengo Slums, Kenya

Master's Thesis 2016 94 Pages

Politics - International Politics - Region: Africa

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

DEFINITION OF TERMS

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Justification of the Study
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.8 Limitations of the Study

CHAPTER TWO..
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Gender and Poverty
2.3 Involvement of Men and Women in Poverty Reduction Projects
2.4 Benefits of Gender Mainstreaming in Poverty Reduction
2.5 Analytical Framework
2.6 Conceptual Framework

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Site of the Study
3.4 Target Population
3.5 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size
3.6 Research Instruments
3.7 Pre-testing of Research Instruments
3.8 Research Assistants
3.9 Data Analysis and Presentation
3.10 Data Management and Ethical Considerations

CHAPTER FOUR
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction
4.2. Biographical Data
4.2.1 Gender of the Respondents
4.2.2 Marital Status of the Respondents
4.2.3 Age of the Respondents
4.3. Gender and Poverty
4.3.1 Pearson Correlation
4.3.2 Respondents’ Education Levels
4.3.3 Source of Income of the Respondents
4.3.4 Amount of Monthly Income of the Respondents
4.3.5 Monthly Household Expenditure
4.3.6 Catering for Household Budget
4.3.7. Nature and Ownership of Income Generating Assets by Respondents
4.3.8 Respondents’ Dependants and their Relationship with them
4.4. Involvement of Men and Women in Poverty Reduction Projects
4.5 Gender Mainstreaming in Poverty Reduction
4.5.1 Positive Effect of Projects on Members’ Lives
4.5.2 Projects Role in Strengthening Members' Capacity to Meet Basic Needs
4.5.3 Respondents' Views on which Gender Benefitted More from the Projects
4.5.4 Appreciation of Involvement of Men and Women in Fighting Poverty

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary of the Findings
5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research

REFERENCES

Appendices

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 2.1 Conceptual Framework

Fig 3.1 Map Showing Location of Majengo Slums

Fig 4.1 Gender Composition of Respondents

Fig 4.2 Marital Status of the Respondents

Fig 4.3 Distribution of Respondents by Age

Fig 4.4 Education Level of the Respondents

Fig 4.5 Source of Income for the Respondents

Fig 4.6 Amount of Income

Fig 4.7 Expenditure on Household per Month

Fig 4.8 Who Caters for Household Budget

Fig 4.9 Ownership of Income Generating Assets.

Fig 4.10 Nature of Asset Ownership

Fig 4.11 Respondents’ Relationship with Dependants

Fig 4.12 Composition of Project Members by Gender

Fig 4.13 Respondents’ Length of Time in Projects

Fig 4.14 Members’ Involvement in Project Activities

Fig 4.15 Discrimination against Project Members

Fig 4.16 Involvement of Members in Evaluating Projects

Fig 4.17 Projects’ Impact on Members’ Capacity to Meet Basic Needs

Fig 4.18 The Gender That Benefited More from The Projects

Fig 4.19 Appreciation of the Role of Men and Women in Fighting Poverty

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 Pearson Correlation. .

Table 4.2 Chi-Square Tests

Table 4.3 Symmetric Measures

Table 4.4 Gender And Project Benefits

Table 4.5 Chi-Square Tests

Table 4.6 Involvement While Starting Projects

Table 4.7 Gender in Project Membership

Table 4.8 Chi-Square Tests

Table 4.9 Involvement of Members in Project Identification and Initiation

Table 4.10 Whether Interests of Men and Women were Reflected in the Project

Table 4.11 Distribution of Members Based on Positive Effects of Project on Their Lives

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Empowerment – making men and women have the ability to make decisions and choices affecting their lives

Gender - refers to the socially constructed roles of and relations between men and women

Gender equality - equal treatment of women and men, girls and boys so that they can enjoy the benefits of development

Gender inclusiveness - a principle of involving men and women equally in any development programme without discrimination

Gender mainstreaming - consistent integration of gender concerns and interests into all levels of poverty reduction projects

Gender responsiveness - refers to allowing men’s and women’s interests to inform and guide policies and projects for the benefit of both

Social exclusion - blocking of individuals or groups within a community from rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to members of society

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

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DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to my wife Mary Wangui and our two children Rosaparks Muthoni and Nimrod Waweru for their support and patience as I undertook this task.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Firstly, I am grateful to the Almighty God for good health and wellbeing that was necessary in accomplishing this task. I am also thankful to my supervisors Dr. Casper Masiga and Dr. Grace Nyamongo for inspiration and intellectual guidance which they offered me.

This work would not have been possible without the assistance and guidance of our lecturers who took us through this course. I owe great appreciation to them for their good work. To my classmates whom we struggled hard together and encouraged each other, I say thank you.

My brother Charles Njake and my research assistants Samuel Ndung’u and Eric Kirigo also deserve appreciation for the roles they played in ensuring the successful completion of this work.

Finally I recognize the support offered to me by the institutions from which I gathered data. Special thanks to Canon Karanja and Mureithi of the Anglican church Nyeri and all the staff of Eagle Neema for always being there for me when I need their support.

ABSTRACT

The study aimed at investigating the relationship between gender and poverty. Poverty is a major obstacle to development in Kenya and in spite of efforts by the government and NGOs to fight it, it persists. Since poverty affects men and women differently, the study sought to investigate whether the solutions offered in fighting poverty recognize and address gender concerns. The study set out to establish how gender concerns have been incorporated and addressed in five anti-poverty projects in Majengo slum in Nyeri County. The objectives of the study were to assess how gender influences the incidences of poverty in Majengo slums, to identify how men and women are involved in fight against poverty in the slums, to establish the benefits of poverty reduction to both men and women and to suggest more strategies of involving gender in poverty reduction in Majengo slums. The study applied the Harvard Analytical Framework as a theoretical underpinning to help map out the productive and reproductive work men and women do in the community. The study design used was descriptive with both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Key participants were the project management teams, project members and sponsors. Simple random sampling method was used to select the projects and stratified random sampling for the project members. Data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedules where the reliability and validity was achieved through the test-retest method that allowed the researcher to make the necessary adjustments to the content of the study, and analyzed using statistical package for social scientists (SPSS) program. The study employed descriptive statistics such as means, frequencies and mode. The findings were then presented using graphs, charts and tables. The findings showed that the gender of an individual influences their poverty levels and that women more than men, seeking economic empowerment to meet their financial demands, tend to join project groups which have a positive impact on their social and economic wellbeing which is an important indicator in poverty reduction. The study recommends that the project managers should find ways of incorporating more men into their projects as well as employ proper channels of communication to facilitate better management of the projects. Further, the study recommends that government should come up with bigger and all inclusive projects that can help alleviate poverty across a bigger constituency than Majengo slums.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Poverty in the slums as anywhere else affects men and women differently. This calls for any strategy aimed at poverty reduction to be cognizant of both men’s and women’s concerns and interests. In spite of many efforts at the national and international level to understand and reduce poverty, little success has been achieved in narrowing the gender gap (Jato, 2004). According to Chant (2003), most of the methods adopted to fight poverty are gender neutral and gender blind and therefore do not adequately address the core reasons that have led to poverty in the first place.

Poverty has for long been seen as a rural problem and has been dealt with as such, but with rapid urbanization in many parts of the world, it is now increasingly becoming an urban problem especially in developing countries. The poor economic status of these countries deny them the capacity to invest in urban infrastructure and to provide economic opportunities for urban residents (CIESIN)/Columbia University (2005). A majority of the poor in urban areas live in slums marked by dilapidated houses without access to proper sanitation, clean water, or garbage collection.

Slum dwellers around the world face problems associated with poverty, poor living conditions and lack of social safety nets. Poverty in the slums however, has a distinctively gendered dimension in that most of the challenges like inadequate and insecure housing, overcrowding, pollution, lack of water and electricity which are manifestations of urban poverty affect women more than men (UN-HABITAT, 2003). Women’s exposure to violence and sexual abuse in the slums also puts their lives at more risk. To ensure sustainable quality of life for all urban residents therefore, factors that hinder either gender in contributing to and benefitting from development should be recognized and addressed.

Gender inclusiveness in poverty eradication has been constantly emphasized. The Beijing Platform for Action of 1995 made a commitment to ‘promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming gender perspective…in the monitoring and evaluation of all policies and programmes’. The Platform also drew attention to the feminization of poverty arguing that by then, more than 1 billion people in the world, majority of whom were women, lived in abject poverty, mostly in developing countries (United Nations, 1995).

The Platform for Action identified twelve areas that needed to be addressed in order to improve the livelihoods of women one of which was poverty (United Nations, 1995). Though the Beijing Platform for Action seemed to overemphasize the marginalization of women, it succeeded in indicating that poverty affected men and women differently and that its impact was more severe on women due to the extra burden of their productive roles.

According to a World Bank (2012) report on Gender and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean, the region has embarked on policies to support greater female labour force participation which has had positive results for poverty reduction. Female labour market income in the region contributed 30 per cent of the reduction of extreme poverty compared to the male contribution of 39 per cent. In this region, income from market labour played a significant role in poverty reduction and women empowerment was crucial in achieving it. The report gives examples of countries such as Argentina and Chile where women were empowered by giving them subsidies for professional training and job placement.

In Bangladesh, a country with one of the highest urbanization rates in Asia, absence of clean water supply and unsanitary conditions in the poor urban slums of Dhaka increase illness and burden of family care on women thus reducing women’s time for engagement in income-generating activities (Asian Development Bank, 2013). This makes women not only more economically but time poor in an environment where cash must be generated to guarantee survival.

In Africa, marginalization and exclusion of women has been identified as a major constraint in poverty reduction (Kimani and Kombo, 2009). Most poverty alleviation strategies in Africa do not analyze the manifestations and impacts of poverty on men and women, boys and girls differently. The Malawi growth and development strategy (MGDS), for example, formulated in 2006 with the overriding philosophy of accelerating economic growth through infrastructure development as a means to sustainable poverty reduction prioritizes 10 areas but gender is not among them (Ngwira, 2011). Some poverty reduction efforts nonetheless, have appreciated the need for gender inclusion. In 2007 for example, Cameroon revised their national Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) which had been in effect since 2004. The main shortcoming of the initial PRSP was its inadequate differentiation between men and women in its analysis and recommendations for poverty reduction (GTZ, 2009).

Macharia’s study (2011) on the impact of poverty alleviation on women in Mukuru slum-Nairobi, Kenya, found that despite all interventions addressing poverty alleviation in the slums, there is the challenge of existing gender inequalities in some areas like education and employment opportunities and women in the slums are poorer than men. It is such inequalities that informed the third Millennium Development Goal which aimed at promoting gender equality and empowerment of women. Since independence, Kenya has adopted several strategies of dealing with poverty like the slum upgrading programmes and poverty reduction strategy papers but cognizance of gender dimensions in these policies or anticipation of gender implications of the policies has been lacking (Kiringai and Were, 2002 cited in Mukui, 2005). This gap might have been due to inadequate exposition of gender issues or lack of a comprehensive disaggregated data.

In Majengo slums, Nyeri town, several NGOs and self-sponsored poverty reduction projects and other anti-poverty efforts have been adopted with the aim of improving the livelihoods of the inhabitants but poverty rates are still high. This study aimed at exploring whether gender concerns have been integrated in the poverty eradication initiatives within the slums and whether this gender integration or lack of it has any influence on the success or failure of these projects.

The projects studied were Eagle Neema, Six Stars, Tumaini, Wastara Hasumbuki and Zindukeni.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite efforts by the government, non-governmental, faith and community-based organizations to fight poverty among the urban poor; poverty levels in the slums are exceptionally high. Kenya, like many other developing countries is experiencing rapid urbanization, which may lead to increase in poverty in the informal settlements within the urban settlements if all dimensions of poverty, gender included, are not recognized and fully addressed in anti-poverty programmes adopted.

Majengo slums are one of the pockets of poverty in Nyeri County. The slums are characterized by poorly constructed shanties, lack of adequate water and electricity for a majority of the residents and poor waste disposal systems. The anti-poverty projects in the slums seem not to have been very effective in reducing the poverty levels for the residents. This study set out to assess whether gender has been mainstreamed in these projects and the effects of such mainstreaming, if any, on the success levels of these projects.

The projects studied were Eagle Neema, Tumaini, Wastara Hasumbuki, Six Stars and Zindukeni.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study was to analyze gender inclusiveness in selected poverty reduction projects in Majengo slums, Nyeri County with a view to understanding how and to what extent men and women are involved in alleviation of poverty in these slums.

The specific objectives of the study were to:

a) Assess how gender influences poverty among the residents of Majengo slums.
b) Examine how men and women are involved in identifying, planning and implementing poverty reduction projects in Majengo slums.
c) Identify specific benefits of poverty reduction to men and women and how these benefits influence involvement in poverty reduction projects in Majengo slums.
d) Establish more effective strategies of incorporating gender in poverty reduction efforts in Majengo slums.

1.4 Research Questions

a) How does gender influence poverty among the residents of Majengo slum?
b) Are men and women in Majengo slums involved in identification, planning and implementation of poverty reduction projects in the slums?
c) What specific benefits have the men and women of Majengo slums realized as a result of poverty reduction in the slums?
d) Which more effective strategies can be incorporated in reducing poverty in Majengo slums?

1.5 Justification of the Study

Nyeri County formerly Nyeri district, is considered one of the least poor counties in Kenya by a poverty survey based on expenditure in 2005/2006 with only 32.7 per cent poverty rate (RoK, 2006). Despite this seemingly rich status of the county, some residents such as those in the slums still experience high levels of poverty. Majengo slums being the biggest and home to many of the poorest residents of the county, was selected as the site of this study. The study was necessitated by the need to establish why the many projects started in the slums to fight poverty are not very effective and whether gender plays a role in the success or failure of these projects.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will benefit the residents of Majengo slums by pointing out to them their role in poverty reduction and the need for their participation in all cycles of the projects aimed at improving their welfare.

The study will also contribute to the body of knowledge in respect to poverty reduction in the informal settlements and will guide policies on gender mainstreaming in all anti-poverty project cycles in the slums by the government and other development agencies.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study specifically focused on five community-based projects in Majengo slums of Nyeri County. The projects were Tumaini, Zindukeni, Wastara Hasumbuki, Six Stars and Eagle Neema. It investigated how the projects mainstreamed gender in their activities. The projects were selected because they had empowerment of the local population and poverty reduction as their main goals, therefore fitting within the objectives of this study. The study assessed how gender influences incidences of poverty among the residents of Majengo slums, examining how men and women are involved in the projects, identifying the benefits of poverty reduction to men and women of Majengo slums and suggesting more strategies of gender mainstreaming in poverty reduction in Majengo slums.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

Some slum residents were unwilling to open up and to participate in the study. The researcher however explained the motive of the study and guaranteed the participants that confidentiality of information given will be guaranteed thus creating a good rapport with them.

Fear of insecurity associated with slums coupled with suspicions with which strangers are treated to and sometimes molested, to some extent hindered easy penetration of the study locale. This was addressed by having the guidance of a local community leader and the two resident research assistants, who helped in explaining the purpose of our visits.

Some respondents demanded for some payment in order to release the questionnaires, but when it was explained to them that the researcher was a student doing research purely for academic purposes, they softened their stance and handed them back.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

Related literature was reviewed under the following themes: the influence of gender in poverty among the residents of Majengo slums, gender inclusion in poverty reduction, benefits of mainstreaming gender in poverty reduction, theoretical and conceptual frameworks.

2.2 Gender and Poverty

Women and men experience poverty differently. Statistics worldwide also show that women are poorer than men and in many countries women are more likely than men to become poor (Pressman, 2000, Jato, 2004). Poverty manifests itself as lack of time as well as economic resources to live a life of one’s choice. In Latin America, child caring is one of the factors that limit the ability of women to take advantage of better paying jobs in the formal sector since they lack flexibility which they need to care for their children (IFPRI, 2003). A study on Guatemala noted that despite the government of this country, like several others in the region initiating a child day care programme for poor mothers, one of the significant factors affecting the employment of low income working women in urban areas is child caring (IFPRI, 2003). They end up in the low paying informal sector jobs.

According to Ribeiro and Marinho (2012), women in Brazil are time-poorer than men in both rural and urban areas. Of all intensely time poor adults, women constitute 4.7 per cent while men are 1.7 per cent. Women are also under represented and earn less in the labour market thus reducing their income. This is despite the improvements of education in Latin America where gender parity is no longer an issue since women have almost reached the same level of education as men and in some countries like Brazil, have even surpassed them (World Bank,2003). This poor status of the woman can be attributed to traditional social patterns that continue to undermine the participation of women in income generating activities and the heavy workload of the household chores.

East Asia, in spite of being one of the regions in the world experiencing the greatest decline in extreme poverty since the year 2000, in which case it was noted to have been halved by the year 2004, gaps between social groups still exist (Pogge; 2004, Chen, 2005). The discriminated are the ethnic minorities, tribal people and women. Though the situation of women, in terms of economic growth, varies from country to country in this region, in general gender inequality remains a cause for concern (Islam, 2008).

In the developing economies of Africa, owning property is particularly important for women where entrepreneurship offers a chance of getting out of poverty (de Soto, 2000). To venture into income generating activities, capital is necessary and many lending institutions require property ownership, especially immovable property like land and buildings. After years of conflict, the Liberian government for example has focused on increasing access to loans for small businesses for job creation. According to IRIN (2009), however, this has not benefitted women much, who constitute a majority of market traders in this country because they do not own the assets required as collaterals by many lending institutions. Most banks in Liberia require home ownership as collateral for loans and a majority of the women do not own houses and find it difficult to convince their marriage partners to use their houses as collateral.

Kenya has a population of 38.6 million with about 46 per cent living below the poverty line with those extremely poor being 19.1 per cent of the total national population (RoK, 2009). A Majority of the poor are women as few of them access educational opportunities due to low value attached on the girl child as compared to the boy and have less or no access to family assets and resources as compared to their male counterparts (Kimani and Kombo, 2009). Lack of quality education and property rights for the Kenyan woman makes it hard for her to advance out of poverty. The new Kenyan Constitution has addressed this by guaranteeing gender equality in social rights and property ownership (RoK, 2010). In spite of this guarantee, the implementation of these provisions is what may prove difficult in a patriarchal society like Kenya.

This study set to establish how gender influences incidences of poverty in Majengo slums, which is one of the pockets of poverty in Nyeri Town.

2.3 Involvement of Men and Women in Poverty Reduction Projects

The success or failure of any anti-poverty programme depends on how best it captures gender differences among other interests in its poverty analysis, design, and implementation, monitoring and evaluating systems. According to Guijt and Shah (1998, cited in Akerkar, 2001), poverty analyses, however, have concentrated on the population below and above the poverty line rather than addressing social differences like gender. Such analyses perpetuate gender disparity in poverty and lead to gender neutral solutions.

Gender mainstreaming as a gender equality strategy was adopted at the Fourth World Conference of Women in 1995, in Beijing, and among the critical areas identified as in need of mainstreaming was poverty alleviation. It called for gender analysis to be done before undertaking development policies and programmes (United Nations, 1995). This conference nonetheless, from the outset, made it clear that poverty affected women more than men, and called for sound economic policies to address this. Some studies have contested the argument on feminization of poverty while others have supported it as a social fact (Elmelech and Lu, 2004 cited in Brady and Kall, 2008). This study argues that women are more vulnerable to poverty than men due to inequalities created between them and men in ownership and control of productive resources and assets. It is this state of inequality that gender mainstreaming seeks to address.

Gender mainstreaming in a development project should start at the very conception of the project and should be an integral component of every level of the project. According to Jinks (2010), the OSCE programmes serve as an example. These programmes insist on including both men and women in the project management and the team members are also made to understand and respond to different gender needs in the host country and field operations. This acts as a pointer to what is expected in the entire programme; that gender interests are as important in outcome as in the design and implementation of any anti-poverty programme.

In the implementation phase, a gender sensitive approach seeks to ensure equality in participation of women and men in development. A review of ACCESS, a five year empowerment programme funded by AusAID in Indonesia, indicated a very consistent relationship between the indicators for project implementation procedures and those for impact, suggesting that the procedures prescribed for implementing and monitoring a project have greatest influence on impact (LP3ES, 2007). To ensure that a project is on course in addressing gender interests, the indicators used for monitoring it should be gender sensitive. European Commission projects, use an approach called Results Oriented Monitoring in which gender assessment of the project is compulsory (Osch, 2010). Such monitoring ensures equity in the mobilization of human and other resources and therefore a high likelihood of the projects and programmes being beneficial to men and women, boys and girls. Care should however be taken to ensure that the project work does not overburden women who already have the household and mothering responsibilities.

It is perhaps due to realization of this that a report on supporting growth oriented women entrepreneurs in Uganda, calls for gender monitoring of all MSEs and development initiatives by the government to track the impact of government and donor funded projects on women (Stevenson and St-Onge,2006). This kind of monitoring would help to explain why Ugandan women entrepreneurs are underrepresented nationally, despite Uganda being a highly entrepreneurial nation as shown by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report (Walter et al., 2003 cited in Stevenson and St-Onge, 2006).

Lack of effective monitoring and evaluation frameworks is a factor that has made gender mainstreaming a continuous challenge both at the national and community levels in Kenya (RoK, 2009). According to SID (2010), Vision 2030, Kenya’s development blueprint covering the period 2008-2030 in spite of being very categorical on mainstreaming gender into all government policies and programmes lacks a proper evaluation mechanism. This is caused, in part, by lack of clear gender benchmarks and indicators in the implementation of the sectoral projects. The government, in its District Development Reports has, however, come up with ways of developing gender benchmarks for development (RoK, 2005), but gender imbalances are still clearly visible.

At the completion of a project, it should again be evaluated with gender in mind. This is a very important stage of a project cycle since it helps expose the success level of a project and where improvements are needed. One of the undoubted strengths of Oportunidades, which is one of the most successful anti-poverty programmes in Latin America, is that it is subject to regular evaluations, including by outside bodies, and has been responsive to suggestions for improvements and modifications (Molyneux, 2006).

Since proper evaluation is mandatory for the success of any project since a project is as good as the results of its evaluation, this study aimed at exploring whether and to what extent gender inclusiveness has been addressed in the entire project cycles of the projects to be studied in Majengo slums, Nyeri County.

2.4 Benefits of Gender Mainstreaming in Poverty Reduction

Promoting gender equality is essential for any effective development strategy. Effective poverty reduction programmes should involve both men and women and ensure that all benefit equally (World Bank, 1995). This study, however, argues that women empowerment should be part of these programmes since women are more vulnerable to poverty than men. Women are weighed down by the reproductive roles and therefore unable, due to time constraints to fully participate in development programmes (Ribeiro and Marinho, 2012). Having observed this in their gender analysis, some programmes have succeeded in creating a level of empowerment for women both in the household and at community levels. Mainstreaming is sometimes therefore confused with women’s empowerment since most of the benefits of gender mainstreaming seem to accrue to women for in most cases they suffer more from the effects of poverty than men.

Microcredit programmes have been one effective method of empowering women to participate in development. These programmes whose majority clients are women, have helped them to some extent, be economically independent and manage household budgets without necessarily relying on their husbands or male figures. Though this sometimes creates conflicts in families, it has been an effective way of pulling women, especially single mothers out of poverty and has significant positive effect on household incomes and child schooling (Morrison et al., 2007). A study of Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia, a microfinance institution aimed at poverty reduction, modelled on the principles of the very successful Grameen Bank for instance, showed that women constituted a majority of the beneficiaries, were diligent in investing their funds and using them to improve their standards of living. They were also noted to be more willing to be freed from the poverty trap (Nair, 2010).

In Kenya, a study on WSMEs financed by KWFT for poverty alleviation indicated that women are strong entrepreneurs, borrowers and change agents through WSMEs and have capacity to fight poverty (Siringi, 2011). This shows that with economic empowerment, women can be very instrumental in poverty reduction. Males have however been seen to be influencing the amounts of money borrowed by their partners or spouses and determining how the money is to be used. This denies women the choice of how to invest the money and sometimes it gets misused.

Gender mainstreaming gives women voice and agency, especially where they assume a subordinate status within their household and communities. This has been done by economic empowerment for instance by microfinance programmes which empower women to borrow money and participate in deciding how the money is to be invested. Programmes supporting education of women have also helped women to have bargaining power in their families and with their husbands and a greater say in how the household income is to be spent as has been noted in Sierra Leone and Zimbabwe (Kabeer, 2003).

Programmes aimed at easing the women’s unpaid labour at the family allows them to participate in more rewarding paid jobs. The Chilean and Mexican governments for example, introduced programmes where nurseries and children care centres were provided for free for children in low income families (OECD, 2011). These programmes have not only facilitated women employment but reduced child poverty too. Such women friendly anti-poverty policies and legislations are necessary in poverty reduction.

Many communities expect men to be bread winners in their families. In line with this, some development programmes have been designed in a way to empower men assuming that men’s empowerment will improve the living conditions of households (Chen et al., 2005). The bread winning role however, bears heavily on some men especially the poor with high rates of cardiovascular diseases, suicide and alcoholism being reported in some parts of the world like Russia (Kabeer, 2012). This justifies a form of empowerment that incorporates projects aimed at redistribution of economic responsibilities to both genders within the household and community as advocated by this study.

Gender mainstreaming has enabled women to acquire property rights which empower them in line with the third Millennium Development Goal, on gender equality and empowerment of women by 2015 (United Nations, 2000). Lack of property rights hinders the success of anti-poverty efforts especially where proof of ownership of such property is required as collateral in acquisition of funds for development and again women are worse off than men in gaining these rights in most societies. Some countries like Vietnam and Ethiopia have initiated a joint land titling programme granting equal rights to both men and women in accessing and controlling land (Kabeer, 2012). The reported outcomes of such programmes were reductions in perceived insecurity among women and increases in land investment (OECD, 2011). This is a sure way of reducing poverty especially among women.

Empowerment alone without altering the gender relations may not succeed in poverty reduction. A study of the Chile Solidario Movement indicated that despite the women feeling empowered by being able to perceive themselves as individuals and not just as mothers and wives and ability to choose what they wanted in life, they were still weighed down by domestic chores. Only 15 per cent of those surveyed were helped by their husbands in domestic chores. Likewise in Kenya, the gender division of labour and responsibilities at the household level work against the liberation of the woman (RoK, 2012). Mainstreaming gender in development initiatives is crucial in ensuring that women’s as well as men’s potential is fully utilized in poverty reduction.

This study sought to investigate the gender mainstreaming efforts in the anti-poverty projects in Majengo slums and the benefit realized by the residents.

2.5 Analytical Framework

This study was guided by Harvard Analytical Framework also called the Gender Roles Framework, developed by the Harvard Institute for International Development in 1985. The framework helps to map out the productive and reproductive work of women and men in the community, highlights the key differences and helps to show how this division of labour affects development. It also helps in carrying out analysis as to whether men or women have access and control over resources and underscores the need of involving men and women in development projects for efficiency and economic development (March et al., 1999).

Using this framework, the study sought to establish whether and how women and men have been involved in the development projects, their household and community responsibilities vis à vis the project roles, and how men and women access and control various resources in the project implementation. This was conceptualized as shown in the following fig 2.1

2.6 Conceptual Framework

The independent variables are the conceptualized variables which may influence the dependent variable which in this study is poverty reduction. They include: involvement of men and women, equity in their participation, gender sensitive monitoring and evaluation and balancing of the projects’ roles with the reproductive roles of members. The intervening variables, which the researcher had no control over, were government’s anti-poverty policies and the level of members’ participation.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig 2.1: Gender in Poverty Reduction

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the procedures used in the study. It focuses on the following subtopics: research design, site of the study, target population, sampling techniques and sample size, research instruments, validity and reliability, data collection procedures, data analysis procedures, data management and ethical considerations.

3.2 Research Design

The study used a descriptive design. This design was appropriate in observing the subjects of study in a completely natural and unchanged environment. In this design, the study applied both qualitative and quantitative techniques to collect data. In the qualitative technique, the respondents were given open ended items where they were expected to express themselves and help in explain human elements such as personal experiences, attitudes and opinions. The quantitative technique used numerical values like frequencies, means and modes to capture data on such factors as income and age of respondents.

3.3 Site of the Study

The study site was Majengo and its subset, Witemere sub village (Fig 3.1). This is the biggest slum in Nyeri Town, Nyeri County. Nyeri County experiences a highland climate with average annual temperatures of 17.7 Celsius and rainfall of between 900 to 1000 mm (RoK, 2006) annually. The Majengo slums boarder Blue Valley and Kangemi Estates to the East, Kiawara slums to the West, King’ong’o to the North and Grogon to the South.

The area is marked by small mud walled houses, with no hospital or school. The slums lack basic infrastructure like sufficient clean water and electricity and has a high prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS. A Majority of the residents are poor and run small scale businesses like selling charcoal, vegetables and ready foods to generate income.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Fig 3.1: Map showing location of Majengo slums

Source: Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission

3.4 Target Population

The study focused on anti-poverty projects in Majengo slums, the projects’ sponsors, project management teams and the beneficiaries of these projects. The projects were Wastara Hasumbuki, Eagle Neema, Tumaini. Zindukeni and Six Stars. According to a local community leader, there are 13 such registered, anti-poverty, community-based projects. Majengo slums and Witemere sub village which form the study site have a combined population of 3,600 residents according to the 2009 population census (RoK, 2009).

3.5 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size

The study used a combination of simple random and stratified random sampling techniques. Simple random technique was used to select the projects to be studied since they are homogenous in nature. They are all small scale in terms of membership and funds running them, all aiming at reducing poverty in the slums. The names of all the 13 projects were written down on pieces of paper and put in a box. They were then thoroughly mixed and then five of them were picked. This is an acceptable sample size in research (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003).

Stratified random sampling was used on the project members. In each of the five projects picked, names of men and women were written down and put in two different boxes. After mixing them thoroughly a figure equal to half of all the stratum members was picked. All these names, totaling to 120 members were then put together as a sample. All the three sponsors and project management members were also interviewed.

3.6 Research Instruments

The research used a structured questionnaire (appendix 5) and a key informant interview guide (appendix 6). The questionnaires helped in gathering information from many respondents efficiently and also guaranteed them anonymity thus increasing their opening up and giving confidential information necessary for this study.

The questionnaires, used on the project members had close-ended questions that helped in collecting quantitative data and open ended ones that helped in gathering views and opinions of the respondents concerning this topic. Face to face semi-structured interviews were used for the sponsors and project management teams. These were useful in probing in-depth information on gender inclusiveness in the projects they sponsored.

3.7 Pre-testing of Research Instruments

Pre-testing of research instruments was necessary to ascertain reliability and validity (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003). The pre-test which comprised 10 respondents from Kiawara slums, also in Nyeri Town and with similar living conditions assisted to determine the accuracy, clarity and suitability of the research instruments. The results of this pre-test then guided in making the necessary corrections, adjustments and additions to the research instruments.

3.8 Research Assistants

Two university graduates were hired as research assistants (RAs) to assist in data collection. The RAs were residents of the slums and helped the researcher in locating the respondents, distributing and collecting the questionnaires as well as translating the research questionnaire items for the illiterate respondents. They were trained beforehand on how to administer questionnaires to the respondents and how to assist the illiterate and the aged in availing information needed in the study.

3.9 Data Analysis and Presentation

The study used descriptive techniques of data analysis. These techniques that included frequency distribution and measures of central tendency were helpful in summarizing the data collected into a more meaningful form. The data was then categorized by themes, analyzed and tabulated reports, percentages, plots of distribution and trends generated. This information was then presented in tables, graphs and descriptively also, according to various themes.

3.10 Data Management and Ethical Considerations

The researcher obtained a research permit from the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation to carry out the research. Data was then collected, recorded and stored in both paper and electronic form. The respondents participated voluntarily and were assured that the information they gave was to be treated with strict confidence and only used for the purpose of the study. The researcher also ensured that he acknowledged the works of other authors to avoid plagiarism.

CHAPTER FOUR

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the study findings on gender inclusiveness in selected poverty reduction projects in Majengo slums, Nyeri County. The study had the following objectives: To Assess how gender influences poverty among the residents of Majengo slums, to examine how men and women are involved in poverty reduction projects in Majengo slums, to identify the specific benefits of poverty reduction to men and women and how they influence their involvement in poverty reduction projects in Majengo slums and to suggest more effective strategies of incorporating gender in poverty reduction efforts in Majengo slums.

The questionnaires were given to 120 respondents in Majengo slums, Nyeri County and out of these 103 questionnaires were filled and returned. This indicates a response rate of about 85.8%. Some of those who did not return their questionnaires were either unavailable at the collection time while others were demanding payment in order to release them. The study findings were based on the returned instruments since their numbers were adequate for analysis.

4.2. Biographical Data

4.2.1 Gender of the Respondents

The sex of the respondents and their responses are as indicated in the following Figure 4.1.

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Fig 4.1: Gender Composition of Respondents

Women comprised 71.8% while men comprised 28.2% of the total number that responded. Women were the majority members of the respondents and the poverty reduction projects members in Majengo slums in Nyeri, an indication of women’s desire for economic empowerment to enable them handle the many domestic responsibilities they shouldered. On the other hand, majority of the men (89.7%), felt that the projects were more beneficial to women and some even considered them a women’s only affair thus explaining their low figures of participation.

4.2.2 Marital Status of the Respondents

The marital status of the respondents was sought and the response is as indicated in the following Figure 4.2

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Fig 4.2: Marital Status of the Respondents

The study indicated that of the targeted respondents, 44.8% males and 27.0% females were single and never married, 41.4% males and 25.7% females were married, 13.8% males and 17.6% females were widowed while the other two categories of divorced and separated consisted of 10.8% and 18.9% of the female respondents respectively and no male. Of all the single respondents (for whatever reason) males were 23.6% while females were 76.4%. This clearly showed that a majority of the respondents were either widowed or in non-functioning marital unions pointing to the instability of the marriage institution and underscored the prevalence singleness in Majengo slums. Some studies have associated such singleness with higher poverty levels (Pressman, 2000; Jato, 2004).

4.2.3 Age of the Respondents

The researcher further sought to find out the age of the respondents and it was as indicated in the following Figure 4.3.

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Figure 4.3: Distributions of Respondents by Age

The study indicated that respondents in the cohort of 18-30 constituted 6.9% males and 29.7% females, 31-40 were 51.7% males and 16.2% females, whereas 41-50 comprised the majority after posting 34.5% males, 39.2% females. the remaining cohort of 51-60 years comprised 6.9% males and 14.9% females and no respondent was above 60 years. This shows that the projects members were mainly between 31-50 years of age and that the projects were not popular with the very young and the very old. The Majority of the old members comprised of women, a pointer to the popularity of the projects as a means of empowering women to meet the many financial demands facing them as family heads regardless of their advanced age.

4.3 Gender Influence on Poverty

Poverty affects both genders in different ways (Montano, 2004). Women often suffer more severely because of poverty than men, and women’s poverty demonstrates a more marked tendency to increase as they have fewer material and social assets. In this study gender influences on poverty were measured using such indicators as education level, source and amount of income and gender roles.

4.3.1 Pearson Correlation

This section presents a discussion of the results of inferential statistics. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to analyze gender inclusiveness in selected poverty reduction projects in the study area. The study used correlation analysis because it is less expensive in terms of time and the information to make the predictions was readily available. Before describing the details of the modelling process, however, some examples of the use of regression models will be presented. The study applied the statistical package Version 21 to code, enter and compute the measurements of the multiple regressions for the study.

The correlation between the gender of an individual and their income was as shown in Table 4.1

Table 4.1: Pearson Correlation on Gender of an Individual and their Income

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The analysis showed that gender of an individual is positively correlated with males earning averagely more as compared to women. This could be partly attributed to more men (27.6%) than women (6.8%) having apparently stable jobs where they earned salaries as opposed to wages (48.6% women, 37.9% men). It was noted that there exists a strong positive statistical

correlation between the gender of the respondents and their monthly income. This is evident, as the two tailed significance level gives a value of .011 that is P˂.05.

A chi-square Pearson correlation test conducted to show the relationship between the gender of an individual and their involvement in poverty reduction activities showed the following results

Table 4.2: Chi-square tests

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Table 4.3: Symmetric measures

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From the above results, it can be noted that there is a significant statistical relationship between the gender of individuals and their involvement in poverty reduction activities with p<.05 (df=12). The Pearson correlation test conducted as shown above produced a two tailed significance value of .00 which is lower than .05.

A further analysis was conducted to show how the two genders in the different groups, benefitted from the projects. The variables were set in that the gender of the members was the independent variable whilst the opinions of the members on who they thought benefitted more was held as the dependent variable

According to you, which gender benefitted more from these projects?

Table 4.4: Gender and project benefits

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Table 4.5: Chi-square tests

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According to the results, there was a significant relationship between the gender of the respondent and who they thought benefited more, with P<.05 (df=12), women benefiting more from the reduction projects as compared the males.

Lastly, an analysis to assess the involvement of both genders in the fight against poverty gave the following results:

Were you involved in starting this project?

Table 4.6: Involvement while starting projects

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Who constitute the majority of your projects members?

Table 4.7: Gender in project membership

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Table 4.8: Chi-square tests

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The results show that there is a significant relationship between the gender of members and their involvement in poverty reduction P<.05 (df=12).

Women are not only more involved but also more aware of poverty reduction activities in Majengo slums, further they are more involved in poverty reduction activities compared to the male gender. This according to the findings of the study, was due to the desire of women to get empowered to handle the many domestic chores in their homes, bearing in mind that most of them (76.4%) were single. This concurs with the views of Nair (2010). The author, who did a study of Amanah Ikhtiar, a microfinance in Malysia, noted that women were more willing than men, to join micro credit institutions, to invest their funds and to use these funds in improving their living standards.

4.3.2 Respondents’ Education Level s

The respondents whose ages ranged from 18 to 60 had different levels of education certification. This is as shown in Figure 4.4

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Fig 4.4: Education Level of the Respondents

The study revealed that more male participants (48.3%) than females (47.3%) attained primary level of education. However, more female respondents (33.8%) attained High School level than their male counterparts (27.6%). Only 3.4% of the male respondents attained college education but no female. In the Others category (which included village polytechnics and those who did not complete primary school), the female respondents were 18.9% while their male counterparts were 20.7%. This showed that inspite of the challenges experienced by the Majengo slum residents, they (both male and female) are resilient enough to have at least attained basic education. None of the female respondents however, has pursued education beyond secondary school. Education being a means of poverty eradication, the study found that only 33% of the sampled population had secondary and tertiary education thus explaining the high levels of poverty in Majengo slums.

4.3.3 Source of Income of the Respondents

The respondents responses on whether they had any source of income to sustain themselves was as shown in Figure 4.5

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Fig 4.5: Source of Income for the Respondents

The study established that among the female members of the slum residents, 6.8% earn salary as their source of income, 48.6% take wages as their source of income, 39.2% are on self-employment whilst the remaining 5.4% depend on cash handouts from different sources as their income. On the side of men, the study indicated that 27.6% depend on salary as source of income, 37.9% receive wages whereas 34.5% are self-employed.

When asked about the nature of their jobs, the responses showed that those who earned salaries did jobs such as house helps (100% females and 0% males), shop attendants (75% males and 25% females), security guards (100% males, 0% females) and other menial jobs in institutions such as hospitals and schools (50% males, 50% females). The wage earners are hotel attendants (20% males, 80% females), matatu crew (75% males, 25% females) and those hired as labourers in nearby farms in Gatitu and Ruring’u (8.3% males and 91.7% females). The self employed owned businesses such as boda boda transport (100% males, 0% females), groundnut roasting and selling (18.2% males, 81.8% females), green groceries (100% females, 0% males), bangle and basket making and selling (12.5% males, 87.5% females).

This indicated that a majority of the residents of Majengo rely on wages and thus do not have stable sources of income to meet their daily needs.

4.3.4 Amount of Monthly Income of the Respondents

The respondents were asked to state the amount of money they earned at the end of every month. Their findings are as shown in the following Figure 4.6

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Figure 4.6: Respondents’ Monthly Income

An analysis of income by gender indicated that of the female respondents, 54.1% are in the income bracket of 15,001-25,000, 35.1% were in 5,001-15,000 bracket whilst 10.8% were earning below 5,000 shillings. On the other hand, 51.7% of the male respondents earned between KES 15,001 and 25,000, 34.5% earn between KES 5,001 and 15,000 whereas those who earn below KES 5,000 and between KES 25,001 and 35,000 comprised of 6.9% each.

Women are more than men in the category that is earning the least income but are not represented in the category that is earning the most income. Both genders compare well in the categories that earn KES 5,001-15,000 and KES 15,001- 25,000. This shows that men generally earn slightly more than women.

4.3.5 Monthly Household Expenditure

The study sought to find out the respondents’ household expenditure per month and the responses were as shown in the following Fig 4.7.

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Figure 4.7: Expenditure on Household per Month

The study indicated that a majority (59%) of the respondents spend between KES 5,000 and 10,000 per month, 25.7% of the respondents spent below KES 5,000 as their monthly budget, 11.2% used between KES 10,000 and 15,000 per month on household needs whilst the least proportion (4.1%) spent above 15,000 shillings on household budgets. This clearly indicates that most Majengo slum residents spend between KES 5,000 and 10,000 on their household budgets.

In comparison to their earnings, it is clear that the respondents have little or nothing at all to save. The projects therefore came in handy to help them raise some income part of which went to savings. From the interviews conducted with the project sponsors, it was clear that the members also benefitted from the soft loans advanced from group savings often with short repayment periods with members being guarantors of each other. This sense of financial security brought about by these anti-poverty projects was a major attraction for members.

4.3.6 Catering for the Household Budget

Having established that there were no couples in the projects studied (to avoid double answers), the respondents were required to tell who caters for their household budget and they responded as shown in Fig 4.8 below.

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Figure 4.8: Showing Who Caters for Household Budget

On who caters for the household budget, the study found that 96.6% males and 41.9% females of the respondents catered for their own household expenses, 14.6% all being female respondents said that their spouses catered for their household budget whereas those who said that they shared the household expenses comprised 5.4 % of female respondents since it is the only category that answered affirmatively to this question. In the others category, the respondents were 3.4% males and 32.4% females. Those who catered for their household expenses were the married males, the widowed and the single (including the divorced and separated) residents of Majengo slums who formed the bulk of project members. All the respondents who said the budget is catered for by the spouse were married women and not vice versa. The majority of those who said that they receive support of others in footing the household budget were females.

From these findings a trend of reliance on others for financial support to cater for the household budgets was observed among the female respondents. This explained why the majority of the single women who, faced with domestic chores and having no stable source of income joined these projects in large numbers.

4.3.7 Nature and Ownership of Income Generating Assets by Respondents

On whether the respondents owned any income generating assets, the study established mixed responses as shown in the Figure 4.9

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Fig 4.9: Ownership of Income Generating Assets .

The study sought to establish the respondents’ ownership of assets and found out that 66% did not own any income asset whilst 34% owned some form of income generating asset.

These assets included motorbikes which earn them income through boda boda business, hand carts, small leased parcels of lands, plots within Witemere area, kiosks and hair salons. Further analysis was done to find out the nature of ownership of these income generating assets and the findings were as shown below.

On the nature of assets ownership the members’ responses were as indicated in Figure 4.10

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Fig 4.10: Nature of Asset Ownership

Of the sampled respondents who owned an income generating asset 86.7% males and 41.9% females owned it personally, 13.8% males and 10.8% females jointly owned the asset with their spouses while 47.3% of the females, the only ones in this category, said the asset was owned by their spouses. This last category was dominated by married female respondents who lay claim to assets in their homes but which they said were owned by their husbands. This is in line with many Kenyan cultures where property is owned by men. Joint ownership of property is not common in the study area though more men than women in marital relationships embraced it. In comparison, most income generating assets in Majengo slums are owned by men. This makes it difficult for women in dysfunctional marriages or who fall into singlehood for whatever reason, find it hard to cope thus joining the poverty reduction projects to seek economic empowerment.

4.3.8 Respondents’ Dependants and their Relationship with them.

On whether they have dependants, 94.2% of the respondents said yes while 5.8% said no. the study further established that 55% of the respondents had more than four dependants while 45% had less. The respondents’ relationship with the dependants is as shown in the Figure 4.11.

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Figure 4.11: Respondents’ Relationship with Dependants

The study found out that of the dependants; respondents’ own children formed the biggest chunk with 57.3%, followed by siblings who constituted 35.9% while relatives comprised 6.8%.

On whether they considered their income enough to meet their basic needs, 92.2% said no and only 7.8% said yes. Those who said yes were mainly young, unmarried and with few or no dependants at all. A majority (86.4%) said no due to heavy financial burdens of raising their families and dependants while others (13.6%) claimed that it is due to the prevailing hard economic conditions.

4.4 Involvement of Men and Women in Poverty Reduction Projects

4.4.1 Gender Ratios in Project Membership

According to Matovu and Okumu (1996), the planning and implementation of many poverty reduction programmes do not specifically take into account the needs and potential of poor women, as they only focus on household and neglect the fact that men exercise major control over household resources and women only get a small proportion of the income.

Sweetman (2002) further stated that gender inequalities impact on men's, women's, and children's experiences of poverty, and demonstrates the importance of integrating gender analysis in to every aspect of development initiatives in order to create positive outcomes for poor people.

In this study, involvement of both genders in poverty reduction was measured using such indicators as gender proportions in projects, members’ length of time in the projects, men’s and women’s roles vis á vis domestic chores and seeking for men’s and women’s views in project management.

The researcher sought to find out the gender composition of the members of the projects and the responses are as given in the following Figure 4.12

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Figure 4.12: Composition of Project Members by Gender

Of the five projects in the study 68.3% of the members are women and only 31.7% were men.

On their opinions as to why there was that glaring disparity between men and women in the gender composition of the projects membership, most of the respondents were of the opinion that women being the ones who play reproductive roles in the society join these groups looking for economic empowerment.

Data from the sponsors and the project management indicated that a majority (70.3%) of the female project members being single and having no permanent source of income joined these groups for savings and loans to help them feed themselves and their families. The social nature of women also allows them to form groups as a way of bringing them together.

Another aspect of the gender disparity in participation given by the sponsors and the project management is that men look down upon the projects as women affairs. Some men are alcoholic. Almost always drunk and therefore cannot effectively participate in such project groups.

4.4.2 Respondents’ Length of Time in the Project

The study sought to find out for how long respondents had been members of their projects and they responded as shown in Figure 4.13

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Figure 4.13: Respondents’ Length of Time in Projects

Study findings indicate that half (50%) of the respondents had been members of their respective projects for a period ranging between three and five years. Those who had been in the projects for a period of between one and two years were 62.1% males and 37.8% females of the respondents while 37.9% males and 55.4% females had been in these projects for between three and five years. It was a meagre 6.8 % of the females, the only gender represented in this category had been in the projects beyond five years. This clearly shows that more men than women join these groups but do not stay as members for as long as women. The diminishing numbers of men in the projects risked making these projects look like they were a women- only affair thus making women appear like they reaped more benefits than men.

When asked to give views on how they address gender concerns in the projects, the sponsors noting that the majority of members in all projects were women, Eagle Neema and A.C.K said they hold sensitization workshops where they require members to come with their spouses and male or female partners. KENWA on the other hand though mainly targeting women affected by HIV/AIDs, required certain membership quotas for men and women in some projects before funding them. In cases where these quotas were not met, separate projects were organized for men and women and comparison done on their performance with a view to establishing the best way to handle both genders.

4.4.3 Project Activities

Respondents who offered their opinion were from different project groups within the slums. The groups included Eagle Neema, Six Stars, Tumaini, Wastara Hasumbuki and Zindukeni. Some activities varied from one group to the other but most were similar. For instance, Zindukeni group deals with growing and selling of seedlings, sale of roasted groundnuts and table banking. The other groups had activities that included farming, goat rearing, basket and bangle making, eco-friendly jiko making, making organic charcoal, and running food kiosks, producing soya beans and stinging nettle for sale among other income generating activities. Table banking and engagement in income generating activities with a view to empowering members economically were common in all groups.

In these projects all duties were distributed among all members irrespective of gender depending on their available time. However, members were required to avail themselves during the time allocated to them. This was to ensure participation of all members. In other projects like Eagle Neema which had activities like dairy goat rearing, each member was given a goat to rear at their homes.

The sponsors who were interviewed were ACK church Mt. Kenya West Diocese, Eagle Neema and KENWA. Most of the projects sponsored by KENWA were composed of people affected by HIV/AIDs while the other two sponsors’ interest was poverty alleviation for all slum residents.

4.4.4 Impact of Domestic duties on Members’ Participation

The study then sought to establish who did domestic chores at home and their effect on individual members’ availability and performance in the project activities.

The respondents who said they do these duties themselves were 61 (8.2% males and 91.8% females). The males who fell in this category were unmarried and lived alone. The findings also revealed that 10.70% of the respondents, all of who were married males said the domestic chores are done by spouses, 27.20% of the respondents who were all female use their children, while a small percentage (2.90%) have them done by others. This Others category consisted of two old sickly male members who relied on well wishers to help them and an unmarried man who was helped by a female friend.

According to the study 33% of the respondents said that domestic activities affect their availability and performance while 67% said they have no effect whatsoever. All those who responded in the affirmative were women while all the men said that they have no effect. This in essence shows how domestic roles in Majengo slums are in many instances done by women. Due to this reason, meetings (normally conducted in the evening) have strict time schedules to allow women time to travel home to perform these other roles. Sometimes things are rushed through and some agenda left undiscussed pending the next meeting. Fines charged on late comers made most women to hurry over their responsibilities in order to attend meetings on time. Some members see these meetings unnecessarily eating into their time and some even offer to pay fine for not attending than skip their work.

Domestic roles were a big hindrance to effective participation of poor women in the projects. Unable to hire house helps and receiving no assistance in domestic roles from their husbands who viewed this as purely a female role, they had very limited time for the projects.

4.4.5. Involvement of Members in Project Identification and Initiation

Members were asked whether they were involved in starting the project and they responded as indicated in Table 4.9 below.

Table 4.9: Involvement of Members in Project Identification and Initiation

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According to the study, more than half of the members were not involved in starting the projects but joined in after they had been established. Those who said they were involved, were the ones who were known to the sponsors before the projects began and were therefore used as contact persons to reach others. They were asked to give proposals of the economic activities that the projects could focus on.

The study concluded that although it would have been ideal to involve every member before starting the projects, it was only practical to start with a few willing members who would then tell the vision and work of the projects to others. Again, the founders/sponsors of these programmes being not residents of Majengo slums could only rely on the few initial contacts to spread the idea to others. This was the case with all the five projects studied.

4.4.6 Involvement of Men and Women in Project Activities

The study sought to know whether men and women were involved in designing and running the projects’ activities. The findings were as shown in Figure 4.14

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Figure 4.14: Members’ Involvement in Project Activities

According to the study, 91 (70.3% women, 29.7% men) agreed that both genders are actively involved in their respective groups’ activities while 12 (75% men, 25% women) said that they were not actively involved in the activities of the projects.

Those who gave a positive response in regard to members’ involvement said that they were given an equal chance and opportunity to contribute and participate in the project activities although most of the leadership positions are taken by men.

Among the 11.7% that said they were not involved, males said that since women constituted a majority of the project members, some of resolutions made in those project meetings were not a true reflection of all the members but that of the female majority while yet others in this category claimed that there new members’ ideas were not easily accepted and that the old members held sway over others on how things were done in the projects.

4.4.7 Reflection of Men’s and Women’s Interests in the Projects

Members were asked whether they felt that their interests were reflected in the projects. They responded as indicated in Table 4.10.

Table 4.10: Whether Interests of Men and Women were Reflected in the Project

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A majority of the respondents, (92.2% females and 91% males) confirmed that the project initiatives factored all the members’ interests. These interests catered for both men and women such that none felt isolated. Few (7.8% females and 9% males) however said that men and women’s interests were not factored in the initiatives.

Of those that answered to the affirmative, 53.8% males and 57.4% females were of the opinion that the project factored the interests of both men and women in the projects by initiating relevant activities that boosted them economically while 46.2% males and 42.6% females said that the members’ views were listened before arriving at important decisions. Those who said no, gave varied reasons ranging from the projects being dominated by more women than men to the projects being more beneficial to women more than men. Interestingly, these views were shared by both men and women. They said that the projects benefitted women more because that is how they were designed; to empower women to effectively perform her reproductive roles in the family. It was evident from the study that though some projects like those sponsored by KENWA specifically targeted women, women stood to gain more than men in all projects thus reinforcing the notion that they were women empowerment projects rather than being all inclusive poverty reduction initiative.

4.4.8 Discrimination of Project Members

The study sought to interrogate whether the members were discriminated against by the sponsors or the management teams in their respective project groups. Their responses were as shown in Figure 4.15

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Figure 4.15: Discrimination against Project Members

A majority of the members (75.9% males and 74.3 females) strongly felt that there is no gender discrimination in their groups. 13.8% males and 13.5% females agreed that no member was discriminated against in the project, while 6.8% females and 6.9% males disagreed, with 5.4% females and 3.4% males strongly disagreeing that members were not discriminated against in the groups. No respondent was in the category of neither agree nor disagree. Fair treatment of members in the projects was necessary to ensure their effectiveness and this seems to have been achieved to a great extent in the five projects under the study.

4.4.9 Members’ Involvement in Evaluating the Projects

The study wanted to investigate whether the members were involved in discussing failures and successes of the projects and offer suggestions for improvement. Figure 4.16 below shows the responses.

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Figure 4.16: Involvement of Members in Evaluating Projects

According to the study 72.4% males and 67.7% females of the respondents of the different

groups said that they are always actively involved in the discussion of the projects’ success or failures, 13.8% males and 13.5% females said that members are often involved in discussing success and failures of the groups’ projects while 4.0% of females since they were the only ones in this category, said they were sometimes involved. 13.8% males and 14.9% females said they have never been involved in evaluating the projects or even given a chance to give suggestions on improvements. These figures show a good level of involvement and this inclusive way of analyzing the projects made the members feel part of the projects and own them. Strategies should however be put in place to address the concerns of those who felt left out in this process.

4.5. Gender Mainstreaming in Poverty Reduction

4.5.1 Positive Effect of Projects on Members’ Lives

In this study, specific benefits accruing to men and women from the projects were sought. This was important to the study in establishing the influence of the expected benefits on the level of participation of either gender.

The responses of the members on whether the projects had any positive effect on their lives were as shown in the following Table 4.11

Table 4.11: Distribution of members based on positive effect of project on their lives

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The study showed that, the commencement of the projects in the slum had a positive effect on the economic and social life of a majority of the female residents of the slum with 94.6% of the sampled female population being of the opinion that it has positively affected their livelihoods with only 37.9% of the males giving a similar response. Those who said that the projects had no positive impact on their lives were mainly men (62.1%) with very few women (5.4%). Of the proportion that said yes, the majority being women averred that the saving discipline has been inculcated in the members. They save and are able to get loans to sustain themselves and their dependants. In addition, coming together of people with similar interests and therefore strengthening their social ties. It had helped the members to take care of the vulnerable lot in the slums and make them feel part and parcel of them. These vulnerable members include the widowed, those infected and affected by HIV among other ailments. Those who said no, who were mainly males seemed to expect a sudden financial revolution in their lives which would have changed their economic fortunes within a very short time.

According to ACK Church, which was one of the sponsors, most benefits of the projects in Majengo slums were experienced by women since a majority of them were single and family heads without other stable sources of income.

These findings show that women were eager to participate in any project which helped them effectively handle the domestic needs while men who did not have much domestic challenges joined these projects to promote their personal welfare.

4.5.2 Role of Projects in Strengthening Members’ Capacity to Meet Basic Needs

The study sought to assess the impact of the projects on increasing the members’ capacity to meet their basic needs and the findings were as shown in Figure 4.17

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 4.17: Projects’ Impact on Members’ Capacity to Meet Basic Needs

The commencement of the projects in Majengo slums seems to have been beneficial to women more than men. In the findings, 98.6% female and 44.8% male respondents said that the projects had a positive impact in the lives of the slum dwellers by increasing their capacity for meeting basic needs. On the other hand, the majority of those who claimed that the projects did not have an impact on their capacity for meeting basic needs were males (55.2%) with women being only 1.4%.

For those who said that the projects had an impact on their lives, most confirmed that through savings they are able to get soft loans when in need and so the little money they earn is spent on basic needs. Through their activities like basket and pouch making with beads which they sell, members are able to supplement their income.

For those who answered no, they were of the view that the little income they derived from their involvement with the projects had little impact on their budgets due to high cost of living.

Besides the project activities, members enjoyed other benefits that varied from project to project. They included basic medical cover, construction of shelters for the very poor and those affected by HIV/AIDs and school sponsorship for a certain number of the very poor members’ children.

It was also observed that female respondents, the only category of single members with dependants appreciated the household economic strengthening and the financial empowerment derived from these projects. The projects helped them play their reproductive roles more effectively and thus were very beneficial. The male respondents who said that they had seen no impact on their capacity to meet basic needs were those who did not have many financial burdens to shoulder; the single and without dependants and those with permanent alternative sources of income. This showed the desire of women to pull themselves out of poverty in order to effectively handle the reproductive roles which seemed to bear heavily on them.

4.5.3 Respondents Views on which Gender Benefitted More from the Projects

The respondents’ views on the gender they thought benefitted more from the projects were as shown in Fig 4.18.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 4.18: Gender that Benefited More from the Projects

The study established that 40.5% of the female respondents thought that the projects benefited more men than women as compared to 10.3% males who held the same view. Those who thought the projects benefit women more than men were 89.7% males and 59.5% females. The reason behind this finding as most said, was premised on the realization that women formed the majority of project members and as such, stood to gain more than men. Again most female members do not have alternative permanent sources of income and so they greatly relied on these projects economically since they saved their income there. It was also observed that though women formed the bulk of the projects’ membership, men had a great say on how money got by their wives in the projects was to be used and sometimes ended up benefitting more than their wives who were project members.

4.5.4 Appreciation of Involvement of Men and Women in Fighting Poverty

The respondents’ views on whether their coming together in anti-poverty projects inculcated the need for gender inclusion in fighting poverty were as shown in Figure 4.19 below.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 4.19: Appreciation of the Role of Men and Women in Fighting Poverty

The inclusion of both genders and their active participation has also had a positive change on the social outlook of the slum, by changing their perspective of the different members of society and appreciating the roles of the different members of society: female and male as well. As such, 37.9% males and 66.2% females strongly agreed that the projects had made them appreciate the role of every member in fighting poverty. From the study 27.6% males and 24.3% females agreed that the projects shaped them positively to contribute and embrace each member in poverty reduction while 34.5% males and only a small fraction of 9.5% females neither agreed nor disagreed. The respondents neither disagreed nor strongly disagreed with the view that the projects have made them appreciate the roles of both men and women in fighting poverty.

Despite the projects having a great gender disparity in terms of membership, a great percentage (90.5% females and 65.5% males) of the respondents said they appreciated the need for inclusion of both genders in fighting poverty. The projects were therefore successful to the extent that they managed to bring both men and women together to fight poverty in Majengo slums.

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

The chapter presents the summary of the study’s findings, conclusions, recommendations, and suggestions for further studies

5.2 Summary of the Findings

Poverty reduction projects provide opportunities for both men and women to access funds for productive uses that encourage enterprise development. Such projects empower men and women by uplifting their livelihoods and pulling them out of poverty. For these projects to be successful gender inclusivity is critical since poverty affects both men and women. The main purpose of the study was to analyze the gender inclusion in selected poverty reduction projects in Majengo slums. The study was conducted through a descriptive design with a target population of 120 respondents from the selected slum dwellings. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules. The summary of findings was as follows:

The first objective was influence of gender on poverty. This was analysed with indicators such as education level, source and amount of income and expenditure and ownership of income generating assets. The study found that an analysis of the correlation between the gender of an individual and their incomes showed that the gender of an individual is positively correlated with males earning averagely more as compared to women. Most of the slum dwellers (48.6% females and 37.9% males) had daily or weekly wages as their source of income. Other sources of income included self-employment, salary and cash handouts. The self employment category had 39.2% females and 34.5% males, while the number of men who earned salary was four times that of women (27.6% males, 6.8% females). Those who relied on cash handouts (5.4% females, 0% males) were all women. They were all between ages 41-50, single and sickly and since they did not have a permanent reliable source of income, depended on relatives and well wishers for survival.

In regard to education, the study also found out that a majority of the respondents of both genders had primary (48.3% males, 47.3% females) and secondary education (27.6% males, 33.8% females). Though that was enough for them to understand the projects’ requirements, it was evident that very few (3.4% males, 0% females) had higher education. The category of Others (primary school dropouts and those who attended village polytechnics) also had more men (20.7%) than women (18.9%). The two genders compared well in education attainment although women did not get beyond secondary school. Education being one form of empowerment, inability to get to higher levels of education where professional courses are taught was a major drawback in the fight against poverty for both genders.

On ownership of income generating assets, the study found that those who owned property personally, regardless of whether they were married (86.7% males, 41.9% females) were the majority. Those who jointly owned property were 13.8% males and 10.8% females while those who said the property was owned by spouses were 47.3% females and 0% males. From these statistics it was clear that most income generating assets were in the hands of men. In this regard, women were poorer than men.

Lastly, on monthly household expenditure, it was found out that most members spent between KES 5,000 and 15,000. That is an average of KES 333 per day with the majority 96.6% males and 41.9% females catering for their own household budget. This minimal expenditure was an indication of financial strain especially on men who shouldered most of the budgetary expenses of their households. On the other hand, although women also faced financial difficulties, 52.7% of them relied on others (relatives and donors) to foot their budgets. It was therefore clear that when asked whether the money was enough to cater for their basic needs 92.2% said no. Comparing the expenditure to the income that the respondents had, they were left with very little to save.

The second objective was to evaluate the participation of men and women in poverty reduction in Majengo slums. Here, the study used such indictors as gender proportions in project membership, domestic chores as well as members’ roles in the projects were used. The study explored the activities that members involved themselves in and found out that some activities were common in all projects but others were unique to each. Zindukeni group engaged in growing and selling seedlings and roasted groundnuts. Wastara Hasumbuki members made and sold briquette and sold roasted groundnuts and engaged in farming, Six Stars ran food kiosks, Tumaini made bangles and pouches for sale while Eagle Neema project reared dairy goats and processed stinging nettle and soya beans for sale. Table banking and engagement in income generating activities with a view to empowering members economically were common in all groups. The study also found that, gender proportion of those involved in the project initiatives was skewed towards women who comprised the majority members. This was informed by the fact that, most women sought economic empowerment to cater for demanding needs. As such, they had a higher propensity to join the initiatives than men who thought that it was a women affair thus tended to shy away from joining them.

In regard to domestic chores, the majority (67%) of the respondents confirmed that domestic chores had no bearing on their participation in the project activities because they were able to balance them perfectly well. A third (33%) of the respondents who complained of domestic chores affecting their availability and participation were all women who did not have anyone to assist them at home. Lateness or absence in some cases attracting fines. This impacted negatively on the affected members.

A significant number of project members (44% males, 44.3% females) confirmed to having not been involved in starting the projects. Most of them joined the projects after they had already been initiated. However the project management teams being constituted of the residents of Majengo slums helped in designing the project activities in line with the needs of the slum residents. This was confirmed by the study where most members (91% males, 92.2% females) responded in the affirmative when asked whether the projects factored in their interests in their design and implementation.

Most of the respondents (75.9% males, 74.3% females) strongly agreed that the projects were implemented in a manner that did not discriminate against any member. Some respondents however claimed that since the majority were women, the projects in most cases reflected the interests of women while others claimed that the most senior management positions were held by men. In the project evaluation phase, a majority (72.4% males, 67.6% females) of the respondents said that they were involved in discussing the projects’ success and failures.

In the third objective where the study sought to establish the benefits of gender mainstreaming in poverty reduction, the study used positive indicators such as household economic strengthening, economic empowerment of men and women and sensitization on gender inclusivity in poverty reduction.

The study found that the projects had a positive economic impact on members’ lives, both men and women. This is informed by the saving discipline inculcated in members. The savings have enabled them get loans that they further invest in other income generating activities that help sustain them. The projects have also increased the capacity of the members in meeting their basic needs and those of the dependants. Most (53.4%) of the families in the study being female headed and poor, used the proceeds from the projects to supplement their income. The slum members’ social ties have also been strengthened through involvement in projects especially among the socially isolated lot such as those affected by HIV. These projects make them feel part of the community and give them a positive outlook of their lives.

Although a majority (71.8%) of the project members were female and thus were bound to benefit more than men, the active participation of group members has had a positive effect and change on the social outlook of the slum by making the members to be more responsible and responsive to initiatives that uplift their economic status65.5% males and 90.5 females averred that the initiatives had taught them a life-changing lesson that everyone in the slum had to pool resources together and pull in the same direction in the fight against poverty in Majengo slums. To ensure gender inclusivity, some of the sponsors have held sensitization workshops where they demand women and men to bring their spouses thus creating awareness to both men and women on the need to join hands in project activities aimed at reducing poverty. This was noted to have changed the men’s poor mentality towards these groups.

5.3 Conclusions

From the study findings, it is concluded that one’s gender influences their poverty levels, participation of men and women in anti-poverty projects make these projects more effective and that benefits of these projects have a bearing in poverty reduction efforts by men and women of Majengo slums in Nyeri. In terms of gender influence on the incidences of poverty; the majority of slum residents have acquired at least secondary education. It was however clear that women are at a slight disadvantage since they were fewer among those who acquired both basic and higher education. The source and amount of income did not reveal any disparity between genders but the women’s burden of domestic responsibilities, bearing in mind that most of them were single, made them financially and time poorer than men. The nature of involvement and participation in the project activities made men and women of Majengo slums actively involved and appreciate their roles. Though a majority of the members say they were not involved while the projects were being initiated, they joined the already established projects and fitted in well. Involvement of the members in all cycles of the projects was satisfactory to a majority of the members. It was however glaringly clear that women formed the bulk of the project members due to their desire to get economic empowerment to handle the many domestic responsibilities they shouldered. They therefore had to balance their project activities and domestic chores and sometimes got fined for lateness or absence from project meetings. The study also observed that a majority of the members owned and appreciated the projects since they factored in their interests and aspirations.

According to the study findings, a majority of the members agreed that the anti-poverty projects have had a positive effect on their lives as they have been able to get soft loans to cater for their needs and discipline required to save for future has been instilled in them. The projects have also helped to strengthen the members’ social ties and have enabled them to look after the less fortunate and vulnerable groups in the slums. In addition to that, they have been able to meet their basic needs and change the social outlook of the slums by being responsible and responsive to new ideas and initiatives that bring economic empowerment to them individually and as a group thus reducing poverty prevalence in Majengo slums.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the research findings, it is recommended that the sponsors and the management of the projects should look for more ways of attracting the involvement of men in the projects since it seems they are apathetic to these income generating projects thus leaving it to women who form the bulk of the members. They should come up with men friendly strategies in order to pull more men to these poverty reduction initiatives and make them more representative and all inclusive. They should also strive to erase the notion that such empowerment projects as those in Majengo slums target women alone.

Empowerment without addressing the burden of domestic chores on women may not achieve much in fighting poverty affecting them. It is therefore recommended that the project sponsors should look into the possibility of free child care programmes to go hand in hand with the projects. This would help to free women thus increasing their time for project activities and reducing their poverty in the long run.

Feedback being very important in the communication among members of the projects and their managers to enable them do proper appraisal on projects on the ground, it is recommended that proper channels of communication be employed by all the stakeholders to facilitate smoother management of the anti-poverty initiatives and owning of the projects by members.

Alcoholism being a big challenge to the anti-poverty efforts in Majengo slums, the researcher recommends that ways of curbing this vice and rehabilitating the addicted be sought. The County Government of Nyeri and other concerned institutions should look at ways of mounting sensitization campaigns specifically targeting the alcohol and cheap liquor addicts in the slums and other proactive strategies of engaging the youth and middle aged males since they are the most affected.

Since the study was only conducted in Majengo slums in Nyeri County, which is one among other slums in the county, it is recommended that similar or different anti-poverty programmes be adopted in other slums to help in empowering their poor residents. Further, it is recommended that the government should come in and help pilot a bigger poverty reduction initiative that will encompass many people in the slums. They should not just rely on the Non – Governmental Organizations and Community Based Organizations to come up with poverty reduction projects. Through the Ministry of Devolution and Planning, the Government can initiate bigger and more inclusive projects that can go a long way in reducing poverty and uplifting the living standards of the less fortunate in the society such as slum dwellers.

The researcher also recommends that the poverty reduction projects should strive to look for better ways to tap into the government credit offers such as Uwezo fund and the Youth Enterprise fund with a bid to expanding their business ventures.

5.5 Suggestions for Further Research

The researcher observed a need for further research since the research could not exhaust all the analyses of gender inclusiveness in poverty reduction initiatives in Majengo slums. Areas suggested for further research should include:

a) An investigation into the economic effects of time poverty among the female slum residents.
b) An analysis of gender dimensions of urban poverty.
c) Challenges of participatory poverty alleviation strategies within the slums.
d) Further studies should be carried out in different settings apart from Majengo slums in Nyeri County to establish other initiatives helpful in the reduction of poverty in Kenya.

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Appendices

Appendix 1

Introduction Letter

Department of Gender and Development Studies- Kenyatta University,

P.O. BOX 43844,

Nairobi.

Date…

Dear Respondent,

I am Peter Gitihu, a Master of Arts Student at the Department of Gender and Development Studies, Kenyatta University. I am conducting a research entitled “AN ANALYSIS OF GENDER INCLUSIVENESS IN SELECTED POVERTY REDUCTION PROJECTS IN MAJENGO SLUMS, NYERI COUNTY.” The study is basically academic and its findings are aimed at benefitting the slum residents.

I kindly request you to respond to my questionnaire honestly and to the best of your knowledge. The information provided will be confidential and used only for academic research purposes.

Thanks in advance,

Yours faithfully,

Peter Gitihu.

Appendix 2

Questionnaire for Project Members

This questionnaire is for purposes of academic research and any information given shall be kept confidential.

Project Name.

PART I

GENERAL INFORMATION

Please tick appropriately.

1. Age

18-30 yrs ( )

31-40 yrs ( )

41-50 yrs ( )

51-60 yrs ( )

60 yrs and above ( )

2. Sex: male ( ) female ( )

3. Marital Status (a) single and never married ( )

(b) married ( )

(c) widowed ( )

(d) divorced ( )

(e) separated ( )

(f) others ( )

4. Education Level (a) primary school certificate( )

(b) secondary school certificate( )

(c) diploma ( )

(d) degree ( )

(e) post graduate degree ( )

(f) other level ( )

PART II

4. (i) What is your source of income?

(a) Salary ( ) (b) Wages ( ) (c) Income from self employment ( ) (d) Cash handouts ( )

If your source of income is (a) or (b) above, briefly describe the nature and location of your job/employment.

If your source of income is (c) above, briefly explain the nature of your self-employment

(ii) Do you own any income generating asset? Yes ( ) No ( ). If yes, what type of asset is it?

(iii) What is the nature of ownership of this property?

Personal ( ) owned by spouse ( ) jointly owned by the spouses ( )

5. (a) What is your monthly income?

Between Ksh 0-5,000 ( )

Between Ksh. 5,001-15,000 ( )

Between Ksh. 15,001-25,000 ( )

Between Ksh. 25,000- 35,000 ( )

Above Ksh. 35,000 ( )

(b) (i) How much money do you spend on your monthly household budget? (tick where appropriate)

Below Ksh. 5,000 ( ) Ksh. 5,001-10,000 ( ) Ksh. 10,001-15,000 ( ) above Ksh 15,000 ( )

(c) Who caters for your household budget?

(i) Myself ( ) (ii) Spouse ( ) (iii) I and my spouse ( ) (iv) Others ( )

(d) Does your gender affect your performance in your place of work? Yes ( ) No ( )

If yes, explain...

6. (a) Do you have dependant(s)? Yes ( ) No ( ). If yes, how many? .

(e) What is your relationship with the dependant(s)?

Own children ( )

Siblings ( )

Relatives ( )

Adoptees ( )

Not related ( )

7. Do you consider your income enough to meet your basic needs? i.e. food, clothing, shelter, education, water and health? Yes ( ) No ( ). If no, briefly explain why.

8. For how long have you been a member of this development project?

1-2 yrs ( )

3-5 yrs ( )

Above 5 yrs ( )

9. What activities is your project involved in

10. Who constitute the majority of your projects members? Men ( ) women ( ). In your opinion why do you think this is the case?

11. (a) Who does domestic duties at your home?

Self ( ) Spouse ( ) children ( ) house help ( ) others ( ), please specify…

(f) Do these domestic duties affect your availability and performance in your project activities? Yes ( ) No ( ). If yes, explain how.

12. Were you or any of the residents of Majengo involved while starting this project? (tick

where appropriate) Yes ( ) No ( ). If yes, explain how

13. What different roles do men and women play in the project?

14. (a) In your opinion, are you as a project member actively involved in project activities? Yes ( ) No ( ). How? Explain.

15. According to you, are the interests of both male and female residents of the slum reflected in the project? Yes ( ) No ( ). Explain

16. Nobody is discriminated against by the project sponsors or management teams in any activity of the project based on gender. (tick where appropriate)

Strongly agree ( )

Agree ( )

Neither agree nor disagree ( )

Disagree ( )

Strongly disagree ( )

17. The project members are involved in discussing the success and failure of the project and improvements needed. (tick where appropriate)

Always ( ) often ( ) sometimes ( ) never ( )

18. Has this project positively affected your life? Yes ( ) No ( )

Briefly explain your answer...

19. Has the project increased your capacity to meet your basic needs? Yes ( ) No ( ). How…

20. According to you, which gender benefitted more from these projects?

Men ( ) Women ( ). Explain …...

21. The project has made me appreciate the role of every community member in fighting poverty.

Strongly agree ( )

Agree ( )

Neither agree nor disagree ( )

Disagree ( )

Strongly disagree ( )

The End

Thank you for your cooperation.

Appendix 3

Interview schedule for the Project Sponsors

Name of the project(s) sponsored

1. Who are your target beneficiaries in the slums?

2. (a) Do you consider gender interests in designing your projects?

(b) If yes, explain how.

3. How do you involve men and women in implementing your projects?

4. Do your projects seek to empower the members? If yes, in what ways? If no, explain why.

5. What other benefits do project members get?

Appendix 4

Interview Schedule for Project Management Teams

Name of the project

1. How many members, by gender do you have? Men…. Women.

2. What activities is your project involved in?

3. What roles do men play in the running of the project?

4. What roles do women play in running of the project?

5. What are the challenges of participation of women in the project activities?

6. What challenges do men face in participating in the project activities?

7. How are gender concerns reflected in the various cycles of your projects?

Appendix 5

Research Authorization

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Appendix 6

Research Permit

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Appendix 7

Budget

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Details

Pages
94
Year
2016
File size
3.7 MB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v419911
Grade
Distinction
Tags
gender poverty majengo slums kenya

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Title: Gender and Poverty. A study of Majengo Slums, Kenya