Milbrath review and reflection
The richest countries in the world, industrialized countries and developing countries to sustain its position to become the superpower of tomorrow, are competing each other in order to build unlimited assets. Moreover, all the countries in the world are enjoying the inhuman competition, in accordance with the industrial capitalist class is spreading widely. Implementation of technology is growing very fast at present. Undermine the process; the destruction of the nature of the world has become as fast as that or even faster. Now this matter has become urgent need to take effective action. The process of destruction of the environment may or may not stop; but at least in order to slow the pace of destruction is also possible at this stage. Accountability for the humanity and the like, all of humanity’s collective best efforts of the global eco-economy.
Review and reflection
Social change seems to come about as a function of one or more of three processes: 1) Evolutionary succession, 2) Social learning and 3) Scientific/Technological development
Evolutionary succession: “ However, our present world faces a great danger because humans have acquired sufficient destructive power that can be un-leashed by a single tragic mistake, to destroy the biosphere support that humans require” (Milbrath 1984).
Social learning: “Redirecting the society before the break down occurs is the enormous challenge that the modern day prophets are urging us to meet” (Milbrath 1984).
Scientific/Technological development: “Some scientists and environmentalists are now warning the increased burning of fossil fuels will likely elevate the carbon dioxide content of the air sufficiently to create a “greenhouse effect” and raise the overall temperature of the earth by a few degrees. This will probably produce sufficient change in climate to force massive change in agriculture. It also could result in the gradual melting of the polar icecaps, which would raise the level of the ocean by as much as 30 feet, flooding a substantial portion of human settlements. Such a human-induced physical change surely would result in major social change. Social change caused by technological development or by significant change in the physical environment, is difficult to foresee and nearly impossible to plan on” (Milbrath 1984).
Greenhouse gas caused by the industrialized countries to throw out the challenge to save the world from environmental disaster for the whole of humankind from the penalty becoming increasingly difficult. Adverse reactions in the atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect warms up the polar regions and mountains of ice, sea level rise, climate change; The environment and surroundings carbon erosion etc. times higher now than at any time ever in jeopardy. Each of the world's response to the crisis and especially decay on the layers around the world, conscious human being upset and worried. It is not an issue at the regional crisis; rather, it is the ultimate threat to the existence of the world including human, animal and total botanical environment.
Decay on the layers around the world due to the sun's ultraviolet ray and increasing the amount of harmful radiation from entering. It is starting to have an adverse impact on flora and fauna. Human skin cancer, reduced resistance to disease, to prevent carbon synthesis, based on the marine food chain terminate the crisis. Frightening thing, the human immune system can gradually reduce. As a result, a large number of people very easily affected by the changes to the germ.
According to the issues depicted in the chapter of Milbrath 1984 are it is identified that the prospects of sustainable society and how sustainability can be achieved. So therefore my personal interaction after thorough review of many other scholars like Jansson 1994, Newsman & Moore 2012 the goal of sustainable development regard as particularly important for the tourism sector all over the world and especially in developing countries. This concept of sustainable tourism is from that of sustainable development. This is a form of tourism development and it should help meet the needs of tourists while preserving the chances of the future. Because, sustainable tourism is a new way to sell a business or a country. Moreover, it can be a process of development, which depends on global, national and local factors (Jansson 1994) (Newsome and Moore 2012).
Many countries believe that tourism is an important factor of economic progress and poverty reduction. However, it is also clearly, the link between tourism, economic growth and poverty
reduction is not automatic. This link can only exist if tourism creates new jobs, builds relationships, especially with agriculture and delivery areas services - and stimulates the development of basic infrastructure by building roads, ports and airports and the provision of financial services whose entire economy can benefit (Asif, de Bruijn et al. 2008). It also requires the development of Tourism meet a national strategy with a general framework, regulatory and institutional framework with measures sufficient incentive to stimulate development of the supply in the domestic markets. The extent to which the strategy national limit harmful to the economy financial leakages, which appears to be a chronic problem in many developing countries, as well as efforts made to minimize the negative impact of tourism on the environment and cultural heritage, are also important (Asif, de Bruijn et al. 2008). Although the role of tourism in structural economic progress and sustainable development is not a concern News of the international community, how to register more tourism in the time and contribute to the achievement of sustainable development of countries development remains a problem that requires urgent attention (Asif, de Bruijn et al. 2008) (Rao and Hanumantha Rao 2005). There is little of activities that raise, at one time or another, conflicts of interest. Tourism generates opposition, contradictory or conflicts between individual economic choices, energy, and environmental, social and cultural development. This reveals the fragility of the concept of sustainable tourism when confronted with the realities on the ground.
It is very difficult to establish a definition of the concept of sustainable tourism that is short and understandable by all. Most attempts to define sustainable tourism leads to a rather broad vision and imbued with a humanistic ethics, which can be summarized as, the tourism which is respectful to the environment, meeting the needs of human recreation, while protecting and conserving the host communities, without neglecting the economic and socio-cultural needs of all stakeholders. The definition of sustainable tourism merely repeats that of sustainable development, development that ensures the sustainability of ecosystems and societies for future generations. Sustainable tourism is tourism development that combines both the concept of time and the sustainability of natural resources such as water, air, soil, biodiversity and social and human structures. The objective of sustainable development is how to make compatible improved conditions and living standards resulting from the development and maintenance of the development capacity of future generations (Jansson 1994, Marion 1998, Rao and Hanumantha Rao 2005, Burton, Jenks et al. 2013).
Lecture program critique and reflection:
How to achieve the sustainability? Is it impossible or just a big challenge?
Sustainable development is part of the implementation of a plan that, from a touristic point of view, is to avoid damage that could affect the very foundations of development, such as the degradation of ecosystems, questioning of cultural heritage and he upheaval of traditions and lifestyles competition for access to public facilities and infrastructure (Milbrath 1984, Newsome and Moore 2012).
The idea has gathered according to the recent researches of Higham, Carr, and Michael in 2010 and 2004. The damaging effects of tourism that may be of most concern are those that affect the environment. Because it uses energy and water, produces large amounts of waste and affects the cultural heritage, attracting crowds many tourism can cause considerable damage to heritage environmental and cultural (Higham, Carr et al. 2001, Higham and Carr 2002, Higham and Lück 2002). The growing energy sector, especially when traveling and accommodation, and the dependence of the sector on fossil fuels have serious consequences in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change on a global scale, as well as economic growth come. UNEP estimates that tourism is responsible for about 5% of total greenhouse gas emissions, primarily because of transportation (75%) and accommodation (21%) of tourists.
In many tourist destinations, water is a rarer resource. If it uses much less water, for example, agriculture, tourism may in some regions, be the main consumer of this resource. There are various instance where this situation has created an inequality in access to water between tourists and neighboring social groups, threatening the livelihood of the population local. Nature-based tourism is growing rapidly around the world Nevertheless, it must also mention that in many countries, tourism has done better understand the importance and the need to protect biodiversity.
Discussion & Personal opinion
First, the tourism industry offers many opportunities to develop economic relations upstream and downstream, to obtain foreign exchange, to operate an economic diversification, increase revenues, create jobs and reduce poverty. On the other hand, tourism may jeopardize the preservation of cultural and environmental resources, which are vital for attracting tourists. Is it possible to reconcile these two opposing dynamics? In other words, can we enter the sector in the long term so that it contributes to economic development, job creation and poverty reduction without destroying or degrading culture the environment? It is acceptable that sustainable tourism is possible (Rao and Hanumantha Rao 2005).
However, this requires a strategy that takes into account economic, environmental, social and cultural. According to the WTO, the objectives of such a strategy make optimal use of environmental resources that are part key tourism development, while maintaining the ecological balance and contributing to the conservation of natural resources and biodiversity.
To ensure sustainable long-term economic operations, providing all actors socioeconomic benefits equitably distributed, including employment opportunities and income stability and social services in the host population, and contributing to the fight against poverty. Given the potential negative impacts of tourism, it has now become urgent need to promote sustainable tourism to ensure the future of the sector and reduce the minimum the possible negative impact on the environment and culture.
From the understanding of sustainable tourism scholars, a number of program of actions to achieve which might be as follows:
The public authorities and private actors have several ways to make tourism more sustainable. As noted, the growth prospects long-term sector go through the development of infrastructure and channels appropriate procurement and strengthening policies and institutions so that tourism activities are conducted in a sustainable manner, by answering, economic, social and environmental objectives. As the sector will gain maturity, national planning, environmental regulation and initiatives of preservation of cultural heritage will also increasingly importance (Marion 1998). In the short term, however, it will be necessary to implement a sustainable tourism development, improve include:
a) Awareness of the impact of environmental degradation on the attractiveness of a tourist destination;