# A Wave Theory of Universal Resonance [Volume 1]

The Physical Basis of Quantum Electro-Dynamics in the Cohesive Mechanics of a Unitary Universal Field.

Textbook 2018 688 Pages

## Excerpt

VOLUME 1.

TITLE: A WAVE THEORY OF UNIVERSAL RESONANCE.

[On the Physical Basis of Quantum Electro-dynamics in the Cohesive Mechanics of a Unitary Universal Field]; previously published as;

''WAVES OF WHAT?: A Wave Theory of Nature; incorporating a Deconstruction of the 'Standard Model of Atomic Physics' and the Theory of QED at its Basis.

A Theory of the Unitary Universal Cohesive Field; incorporating a ‘Thesis on the Physical Basis of Quantum Electro-dynamics in the Cohesive Mechanics of that Unitary Universal Field’; thus, a ‘Wave Theory of Nature’ based on the conception of a ‘Unitary Universal Cohesive Field’ and the Unitary Wave Dynamic intrinsic to it'; and the elaboration of a theory of that Unitary Cohesive Field, incorporating an explanation in the Mathematical Harmonics of that field and its exclusive ‘Unitary Wave Principle’ for the Value of the 'Fine Structure Constant' (and further ‘physical constants’ and physical quantities in QED theory), therefore deriving eventually from a Single Self-evident Premise or from 'First Principles' in Reason.

[In the following, the initial parts written as prefaces are intended both as Introductions and Compendiums of Explanatory Notes: an Expanded Summary of the Chapter Outline of the existing work under the title, ''A Thesis on the Physical Basis of Quantum Electro-dynamics in the Cohesive Mechanics of a Unitary Universal Field'' is included in Part ONE].

Contents: Volume 1.

Preamble and Introduction (further Explanatory Prefaces to Parts ONE, TWO, THREE and FOUR included with each Part); including a 'Glossary of Principal Terms', and further Section [4A] and Appendices.

.

Part ONE: The Unitary Cohesive Field and Cubic Lattice Model of Cohesive Space (Chapter Summary and Outline); and Appendices A.

Appendix J (Part ONE): The Principle of a 'Time Scale' defined within a 'Unitary Cohesive Field' (and implicit in a harmonically-defined Model of Cohesive Force as the function of limiting [Qp'] recurrence where [Qp']=(285n x [10]11p')=(3.1207012 x [10]16p', and [n x p’]=[*2] such that [n]=1094.9828789615959298423054442...).

Part TWO: Derivation of the Value of the Fine Structure Constant (Chapter Summary and Outline).

Appendices B and C.

Part THREE: General Explanatory Notes and Principles of Correlation between a Model of the Unitary Cohesive Field and QED Theory (in Sections A1, A2, B1, B2 and C); thus, Principles of Correlation of Model of Unitary Cohesive Field with QED Theory (and further Standard Model of Particle Physics); and Appendix J1.

Appendix J1: Oscillatory Light Frequency Mechanics and the Derivation of Values for 'Planck's Constant [h]' and the Elementary 'Charge e' in Coulombs (and further Avogadro’s Constant [Na]).

Principal Diagrams for Parts ONE, TWO and THREE are contained at the end of Volume 1.

Volume 2:

Section [4A]: The Elemental Scale.

Part FOUR: An Analysis of the Hydrogen (H1) Spectrum and Interpretation of Rydberg's Formula (according to principles of a unitary cohesive field and model of cohesive force or space), including an alternative derivation of a value [Re] for the conventional ‘Rydberg constant [Ra] based on the number [2Q/137], and as a ‘light frequency’ [2Q/137c]; and

Appendices D and E.

Section [4B]: Supplementary Article on ‘The Metaphysics of Coincidence’.

Preamble/Brief Overview:

The following text is divided into four parts, the first of which deals with the theory itself, including a basic guide to its possible mathematical treatment, and the second with the derivation of a value for the 'fine structure constant' based on its geometric principles--of mathematical harmonics-- within the context of the implication of this constant in the conventional descriptions of electron spin in particular (e.g. in the description of anomalous electron 'magnetic dipole moment' using 'gs-factor').

While the primary aim of the first part is to establish a model within which a geometric basis in mathematical harmonics may be proposed for the value of that constant, the more general intention is to introduce a viable model of the operation of an entirely exclusive singular cohesive principle for the consideration of any and all data according to this conception of a unitary field; therefore to establish that the existing descriptions and equations of Quantum Electro-dynamics [QED] and Quantum Field Theory [QFT] may, with an appropriately unifying perspective provided by such a model, be correlated directly with a real physical dynamic: the wave principle inherent within such a 'unitary cohesive field'. It is further suggested that such a basis in a real cohesive principle and wave dynamic will serve to resolve problems in the mathematical description of essentially abstract fields and wave functions, more particularly those associated with 'renormalisation' techniques in perturbation theory.

The argument is therefore essentially twofold: first, that the lattice model of the cohesive field proposed may be regarded as an adequate description of cohesive dynamics within an inherently integrating unity, thus that its basic geometric or 'harmonically-defined' ratios may be applied to a description of reality in conventionally quantitative terms of mass, velocity, charge, and more particularly to the relation between such quantities described by various physical and dimensionless constants whose values are considered to be based in the harmonic relations embodied in such ratios; and second, that the application of such ratios to the derivation of a value for the 'fine structure constant' may be generalised to the explanation of its context, specifically in electron dynamics, according to the principles of the model with respect to such properties and quantities as electron angular momentum and 'charge e'. This further aspect of the thesis is developed extensively in Part THREE, principally as a correlation of the principles of cohesive dynamics within a unitary field with those considered to define the basis of QED theory; while Part FOUR deals explicitly with a review of the Hydrogen spectrum and Rydberg's original formula in particular according to the principles implicit in this conception and model.

Organisation: Parts ONE, TWO and THREE:

Part ONE: The Unitary Cohesive Field and Lattice Model of Cohesive Force/Space: a Description of the Physical Basis for a Wave Theory of Nature.

Appendices A, A1, A2, A3, J.

Part TWO: A Derivation of the Value of the 'Fine Structure Constant' according to the Mathematical Harmonics of the Model of a Unitary Cohesive Field.

Section A1: Introduction and Basic Concepts.

Section A2: General Principles of a Model of 'a-s/c' Vector Synthesis; and its Relation to Distribution Functions:

Section B1: the Model of 'a-s/c' Vector Synthesis and [p] Vector Progression: Vertical Synthesis..

Section B2: the M-Ratio and the Basis of its Calculation.

Appendices:

Appendix B1, B2: Calculations.

Appendix C1: The Compton Wavelength [Ce]; and 'Characteristic Lengths' in QED.

Appendix C2: The Visible Light Spectrum.

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Part THREE: General Explanatory Notes and Principles of Correlation between a Model of the Unitary Cohesive Field and QED Theory; incorporating an Argument on the Derivation of Values for Planck's Constant [h] and the Elementary 'Charge e' (Appendix J1).

Contents:

Explanatory Preface.

Section [A1]: Basic Principles of Correlation

Section [A2]: Quantum Electro-Dynamics.

Section [B1]: Review of Conventional Ideas.

Section [B2]: Revised 'Space-Time Model'.

Section [C]: Prelude to the Scheme of 'p/k Vector Synthesis'.

Appendix J1: Sections A and B.

Appendix C3: 'Mass and Alignment/Resonance'.

********

Diagrams A, A1, A2, B, B1, B1a, B1b, B2, B3, C, C1, C1a, C2, C3, C3a. (NB: all diagrams may be technically redrawn if necessary).

Citations:

(NB: since this is an essentially original work developed from first principles, citations are minimal and ordinarily incidental to the argument).

[1] P.A.M. Dirac: ''Is there an Aether?'', Nature, 1951.

[2] Value of alpha: 2010 CODATA value is [1/137.03599907444].

[3] Higgs' Field.

[4] D. Hestenes, ''A Zitterbewegung Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics'', journal.found.physics, 1990.

[5] ‘Renormalisation’ (Appendix E1).

*************

Section [4A]: The Elemental Scale.

Part FOUR: Analysis of the Hydrogen Spectrum and a Reinterpretation of ‘Rydberg’s Formula’.

Appendices D and E, and Diagrams.

Section [4B]: Supplementary Article.

***************

Excerpt from Part ONE: Chapter Summary.

Section A:

The development from 'first principles' in reason, based on a premise of inviolable universal unity, of a conception and model of a unitary dynamic cohesive space; thus of a 'unitary cohesive field' imbued with a singular exclusive property of fundamental cohesive force and defined by a singular process of its equilibrating distribution according to principles of cohesive mechanics. An explanation of the idea of fundamental cohesive polarity and its representation within a cubic reciprocal lattice structure comprising mutually cohesive point aspects or 'loci' by invariant phase vectors within what amounts to a scalar field or archetypal phase structure defined by 3 disparate cubic spatial dimensions.

Conception of cubic pole components as definitive of an extrapolating '3rd dimension' of interior spatial depth, and of a primary unitary wave principle--considered according to an idea of reorientation and reversion of components or resultants in fundamental cohesive force or polarity, therefore within a frame of distribution of cohesive force--arising in that 'interior dimension' which is intrinsic to cohesive dynamics and entirely pervasive within reality conceived exclusively as a 'unitary cohesive field'. Principles of 'Cohesive Phase' based on idea of cohesive recurrence described by progression of 3 fundamental vectors with respect to lattice archetype of R/I symmetry or idealised cohesive equilibrium; therefore implying basis of 'quantum mechanical picture' of cohesive dynamics in a unitary field of harmonically-defined phase structure. Discussion of limiting [Qp'] recurrence defining the context of light occurrence and thus of empirical scenarios necessarily characterised by dynamics of 'a-s/c' synthesis in which the effective scale of reference must eventually be based on light mechanics.

Section B:

Principles of 'a-s/c' vector synthesis definitive of unitary wave dynamic--where 'a-s' and 'c' vectors are understood as primary components of a 'wave interference effect' in the integrated frame (also definitive of light dynamics)-- and empirical scenarios of its apprehension according to induced vertical and horizontal 'a/c phase parity' or artificial pole convergence (viz. localised 'lateral polarisation'). Principle of constant rate of elaboration, thus effectively constant cohesive force inclining towards uniformity in distribution universally.

Principles of Distribution of Cohesive Force and Cohesive Inertia and the correspondence of common empirical quantities of mass, charge, angular momentum to such distribution; according to which these are re-interpreted to represent harmonically-defined and inter-related parameters of such distribution within the unitary context; more particularly in the context in which these are then appropriated as constants to 'particles' in the essential QED model and theory. The idea of 'Distribution Functions'--by which is meant ‘trigonometric functions’ describing the basic geometrical framework of ‘distribution of cohesive force’, primarily in linear axes-- as a mathematical treatment by harmonic functions of a dynamic of wave recurrence in cohesive dynamics mediated by a parameter of constant cohesive force represented by geometrical reorientation and reversion of a secondary vector of invariant scalar magnitude T defined harmonically by the model axis. (Thus, a model of harmonically-defined phase transition is developed capable of description by recurrent trigonometric functions)

Section C:

The exponentially increasing character of cohesive force in 'interior pole components' which in a universal context governed by a supervening or intrinsic impetus to cohesive equilibration implies the tendency to uniformity in distribution and effective constancy in cohesive force, and for that distribution to conform to the harmonically-defined cubic structure of cohesive space characterised by a naturally convergent dimension of interior spatial depth. (For example, an infinitely powerful cohesive force may therefore be understood to be distributed universally and eternally, thus according to an effectively 'normalising principle' represented by the regular cubic reciprocal-lattice structure and the conception of a constant rate of elaboration or operation of fundamental and exclusive cohesive force).

Part ONE: The Unitary Cohesive Field and Lattice Model of Cohesive Space.

Section A1: Introduction: The Principle of a Unitary Cohesive Field and Reciprocal Cubic Lattice Model of [R/I] Cohesive Symmetry.

The Principle of a Cohesive Unity: the Unitary Cohesive Field.

The Model of Cohesive Force as an [R/I] Reciprocal Cubic Lattice Structure: A harmonically-defined Model of Cohesive Symmetry.

The Lattice Wave Dynamic; and Basis of 'a-s/c' Vector Intersection.

Cohesive Recurrence.

Overview.

Section A2: Reorientation and Reversion defining the Alternation Principle implicit in Cohesive Dynamics and its Progressive Wave Effect.

Helical Paths of Reorientation.

Equivalent p.p.s. and Synthesised Contexts of Description (‘p.p.s.’: ‘progressed phase synchrony’).

Representation of the Basic Oscillatory Principle; and Rotational Phase.

Section B1: The Principle of Constant Cohesive Force and its Distribution; the Distribution Functions and the Basic Mathematical Principles of Reorientation and Reversion

Principles of Distribution of Cohesive Force, and Basic Geometric Description.

Constant Cohesive Force; and Constancy of the Secondary Vector T.

Integrated Framework of 'a-s/c' Synthesis:

Section B2: The Elementary 'Charge e' of the Electron and the Idea of 'Charge Conservation'.

Basic Oscillatory Principle and Rotational Phase.

Section C: The Exponential Character of Cohesive Force in the FPN; and the Principle of Equilibration.

Further Principles of Cohesive Space and Conclusion.

The Unifying Context; and Mathematical Harmonics.

Appendices A, A1, A2: The Model of Cohesive Space.

Appendix A: The Lattice Model of Cohesive Space.

Appendix A1: Progressed Phase Synchrony (p.p.s.),

Appendix A2: Sine Wave Dynamics applied to Cohesive Mechanics.

Appendix J: The ‘Time Scale’.

NB: In the following, the square root sign is given [*]--e.g. *3 is the 'square root of 3; while 'squares' are shown [n]2: e.g. [3]2 is '3 squared'. The primary fundamental vectors of cohesive polarity are [a]=[2--*3], [b]=[2--*2] and [c]=[b--a]=[*3--*2]. Values for these and related vectors are given in Part TWO.

Part ONE: The Unitary Cohesive Field and Lattice Model of Cohesive Force:

Part TWO: Chapter Summary.

Section A:

Continuation of argument conceiving the 'electron' as a regularly recurrent progressive component within 'a-s/c' synthesis defined by an effectively arbitrary parameter of uniformity in distribution of cohesive force (viz. invariant 'charge e') permitting the attribution of an invariant parameter of oscillatory S angular momentum to that 'particle'. Substance of argument that the value of the 'fine structure constant' derives in the basic geometric ratio [p/*2] central to the model described in Part ONE; and further consideration of the conceptual basis for its modification by 'z-ratios'.

Context of Electron Spin Precession and the basis of the implication of the ‘M-ratio’--i.e. revised name for the ‘fine structure constant’-- deriving from the substrate ratio [p/*2] in the derivation of the 'gs-factor' and 'electron gyro-magnetic ratio [Ge]' according to the principles of cohesive mechanics and an explanation of the basis of S intrinsic spin angular momentum.

Consideration of the Thomas Precession Factor and gyro-magnetic ratio as deriving in the relation of geometrically or harmonically-defined components of distribution of cohesive force and cohesive inertia within the frame of 'a-s/c' synthesis, necessary in the inference of a common context of relation of L and S angular momentum components in electron dynamics according to Dirac theory and QED generally.

Consideration of charge, mass and angular momentum in particular as functions of distribution of cohesive force; in the case of 'charge', as a linear radial vector in the vertical component of the integrated 'a-s/c' plane, and in the case of momentum, as an effective distribution of cohesive inertia defined by that integrated 'a-s/c' plane according to which Planck's constant may be understood to define a limiting increment which is the function of a limiting harmonically-defined area segment of that plane (applicable to the context of S angular momentum).

Section B:

Detailed analysis of the synthesised frame--that is, the frame of 'a-s/c' vector synthesis-- in which wave dynamics within the unitary cohesive field must be considered; in particular, of the principles of 'vertical and lateral synthesis' according to which the principal features of QED theory may be defined. The 'M-ratio' considered to represent the derivation of the 'fine structure constant' from [p/*2] describing the frequency relation--of actual occurrence--of [p] and [p'] vectors within 'a-s/c' synthesis described by 137p=[*2+p']; including various alternative approaches both in substance and detail, and a detailed discussion of application of the ‘Z-ratio’ and further ‘z-ratios’. (Appendices B1 and B2 show all calculations).

PART TWO: Derivation of a Value for the 'Fine Structure Constant'.

[Note that in Part TWO, the validity of various concepts is assumed to have been established in Part ONE].

Brief Preface on M and M' Ratios:

Section A1: Introductory Argument.

The Argument.

The Constancy of 'alpha': Cohesive Equilibration.

The Context of Electron Spin Precession:

Electrons and Light.

Cohesive Equilibration.

The Idea of 'a-s/c' Vector Synthesis.

Electron Spin Precession: and the 'Thomas Precession Factor' and [q/2m].

Induced 'a/c phase parity'.

Quarks and Gluons.

Section A2: Further Principles of a Model of 'a-s/c' Vector Synthesis in Relation to Parameters of Distribution of Cohesive Force (and Distribution Functions).

Mass and Distribution of Cohesive Inertia.

Electron Angular Momentum.

Properties of Charge and Spin.

Charge as 'Distribution of Cohesive Force'.

Definition of the 'Electron'.

Section B1: The Integrated Frame of 'a-s/c' Vector Synthesis and [p] Vector Progression (Vertical and Lateral Synthesis).

Synthesis between Vertical Levels.

Section B1a: Summary of Electro-dynamics.

Section B2: The ‘M-ratio’: the Basis of Calculations.

Derivation of the M-ratio.

The Z-ratio.

The 'z-ratios'.

Calculations (Appendix B1, B2).

Appendices:

Appendix C1: The Characteristic Lengths (Compton Wavelength [Ce], Electron Charge Radius [re] and Bohr Radius [ao]).

Appendix C1: The Limitations of Lorentz Transformation.

Appendix C2: Mass and Energy; and Alignment/Resonance.

Appendix C2: Light Mechanics and the Visible Light Spectrum.

Appendix C3: Mass and Energy; and Alignment/Resonance.

Appendices D: The Limitations of Lorentz Transformation; and a Critique of the Notion of ‘Time Dilation’.

Appendices E1, E2: Fermions, Bosons and 'Renormalisation'.

[a] Brief Overview of Work [Abstract]:

The first part deals with the theory itself, including a basic guide to its mathematics, the second with the derivation of a value for the 'fine structure constant' based on its geometric principles and the implication of this constant in the conventional descriptions of electron spin (e.g. in description of electron 'magnetic dipole moment' using 'gs factor'). While the primary aim of the first part is to establish a model within which a geometric basis in mathematical harmonics may be proposed for the value of that constant, the more general intention is to introduce a model of the operation of an exclusive singular cohesive principle for the consideration of data in terms of a unitary field; therefore to establish that the existing equations of Quantum Electro-dynamics may, with an appropriately unifying perspective provided by such a model, be correlated directly with a real physical dynamic: the wave principle inherent within a unitary cohesive field.

The argument is essentially twofold: first, that the lattice model of the unitary universal cohesive field proposed may be regarded as an adequate description of cohesive dynamics within an inherently integrating unity, thus that its basic geometric ratios may be applied to a description of reality in conventionally quantitative terms of mass. velocity, charge, and particularly to the relation between such quantities described by various physical and dimensionless constants whose values are considered here to be based in the harmonic relations embodied in such ratios; second, that the application of such ratios to the derivation of a value for the 'fine structure constant' may be generalised to the explanation of its context, specifically in electron dynamics, according to the principles of the model with respect to such properties and quantities as electron angular momentum and charge.

[b] Overview [repeated from above]:

The article is divided into four parts, the first of which deals with the theory itself, including a basic guide to its possible mathematical treatment, and the second with the derivation of a value for the 'fine structure constant' based on its geometric principles--of mathematical harmonics-- within the context of the implication of this constant in the conventional descriptions of electron spin in particular (e.g. in the description of anomalous electron 'magnetic dipole moment' using 'gs factor'). While the primary aim of the first part is to establish a model within which a geometric basis in mathematical harmonics may be proposed for the value of that constant, the more general intention is to introduce a viable model of the operation of an entirely exclusive singular cohesive principle for the consideration of any and all data in terms of a unitary field; therefore to establish that the existing descriptions and equations of Quantum Electro-Dynamics [QED] and Quantum Field Theory [QFT] may, with an appropriately unifying perspective provided by such a model, be correlated directly with a real physical dynamic: the wave principle inherent within a unitary cohesive field. It is further suggested that such a basis in a real cohesive principle and wave dynamic will serve to resolve problems in the mathematical description of essentially abstract fields and wave functions, more particularly those associated with 'renormalisation' techniques in perturbation theory.

The argument is therefore principally twofold: first, that the lattice model of the cohesive field proposed may be regarded as an adequate description of cohesive dynamics within an inherently integrating unity, thus that its basic geometric ratios may be applied to a description of reality in conventionally quantitative terms of mass, velocity, charge, and more particularly to the relation between such quantities described by various physical and dimensionless constants whose values are considered to be based in the harmonic relations embodied in such ratios; and second, that the application of such ratios to the derivation of a value for the 'fine structure constant' may be generalised to the explanation of its context, specifically in electron dynamics, according to the principles of the model with respect to such properties and quantities as electron angular momentum and charge.

Introduction: Incorporating an Explanatory Preface to Part ONE.

Contents by Sub-heading:

Aim and Approach.

Mathematical Harmonics.

The Conception of 'Interior Spatial Depth' and 'Constancy of Cohesive Force'.

A Practical Prediction (the 'Continuous Induction Generator': Appendix H).

A Brief History of the Theory of a 'Unitary Cohesive Field'..

The State of Theoretical Physics.

Cosmology: 'Past and Future'; and an Alternative Picture. (The 'Epoch of Re-Combination').

On the Derivation of the 'Gravitational Constant [G]'.

[3A/E: includes 4 Sub-headings].

Relation of Electron L and S Angular Momentum in QED Theory.

Schrodinger Theory and the 'Laplace Spherical Harmonic Functions'.

Limitations of the 'Atomic Orbital Model'.

A Note on the Idea of a Mathematical 'Wave Function'.

Electron Orbital Numbers.

Abstraction in the 'Atomic Orbital Model'.

The Advent of 'Dirac Theory'.

Basic Principles in the Mathematical Description of the Frame of 'a-s/c' Synthesis.

PE[V] and KE[T] Aspects within an Oscillatory Energy Principle.

'The Goldilocks Number' and a Model of 'Cohesive Equilibration'.

General Consideration of the Relation of 'Coulomb Potential', 'Charge' and Oscillatory Angular Momentum in the development of the QED Model (construed as the description of common frames of 'a-s/c' synthesis).

General Features of the 'Cubic Lattice Model' and further Model of the Symmetrical Frame of 'a-s/c' Synthesis (considered in relation to the QED model).

'Apologia'.

'The Aether'.

The Process of Theory.

'Physics'; and Orthodox Physics.

A Note on the Implication of a 'Unitary Wave Principle' in Cellular Biology.

The 'Oscillatory Tetrahedrons' and the Basis of Dynamic Water [H2O] Structure.

Informing the 'Transcriptase': the Conundrum of 'Ultimate Control' in a Unitary Cosmos.

A New Paradigm and the 'Scientific Reformation': a Brief Overview.

The 'Frame of Relativity' and the Symmetrically Synthesised Frame of the Model of 'a-s/c' Vector Synthesis.

A Short Overview of Principles in Correlation of QED Theory with the Theory of a 'Unitary Universal Cohesive Field' (Part THREE).

An Exclusive 'Wave Theory of Nature': and its 'Philosophical Perspective'.

Regarding 'Bosons'.

'Space-Time'.

Glossary of Principal Terms.

The Aim and Approach:

(Note: Certain common terms marked by 'apostrophe' are explained in the Glossary at the end of the Preface to Part ONE).

The aim of the work is essentially twofold: to establish the conception and thus model of a 'unitary universal cohesive field' from 'first principles' within which existing theories, primarily QED and the foundation of its approach, may be understood both in principle and therefore from any abstruse mathematical perspective extrapolated from it; and while it is primarily motivated by what is regarded as the necessity to explain such phenomena as 'electro-magnetism' from such first principles--thus further to reduce existing theories such as QED to such a basis in what is argued as innate reason--, the inference of the conception itself, and certainly the implication of any such 'unitary field' and its necessarily singular dynamic (viz. argued in this model as that of cohesive force and its tendency to equilibrating distribution to imply a condition of increasing 'cohesive resonance' universally), is that all phenomena are eventually capable of analysis and comprehension according to the common basis of this conception. The idea and term 'field' itself for example inevitably suggests a definitive continuity which considered upon a 'self-evident premise' of inviolable universal unity must become universally extensive and exclusive; and may therefore be characterised by a correspondingly singular 'force' and the corollary property of its distribution, locally and universally. Clearly the implications of such reasoning, more especially should these be verified through the exhaustion of its application, are profound indeed.

Since what is meant by the term 'self-evident' is in effect that the alternative proposition in this case is inconceivable, then while this also implies that such a truth is merely an intrinsic condition of the 'Mind', thus by inference the 'unitary mind', this implication and its necessary inference may nevertheless be thought to follow from the 'self-evident truth' itself, which is fundamentally only the equivalent of a perception of reality by reality itself, as a more-or-less subsidiary or corollary aspect of its definition as such a unitary truth; which is to say, since it is further argued that this fundamental truth of inviolate universal unity is not only self-evident but is both the only such truth capable of being thus characterised and at once the only truth necessary to all further contemplation and reasoning upon the nature of reality and of causation, the necessary and sufficient premise for all such reasoning, and for understanding of reality.

It must also be emphasised at the outset that this not only is, unavoidably, but is therefore at least tacitly intended to be a contentious work (to the inquiring intelligence); and while there are no doubt incidental errors of detail within it, its basic principles are considered both valid and essentially irrefutable; and since these are argued as 'self-evident', only a consensus in reason may be expected from readers: the purport of the work will therefore be unlikely to appeal to readers who are unable even to entertain the essential idea of a 'self-evident premise' of this sort. At the same time, the arguments presented in the work are considered sufficiently developed dialectically and in reason to permit creative debate rather than outright repudiation; and this remains its greater aim.

The work therefore is primarily addressed to those readers well-versed in in orthodox mathematical physics--who think more immediately in terms of matrix mechanics, spinors and tensor analysis and the existing Minkowski model (than I am able or inclined to do)--, so that a rigorous correlation in vector calculus and Clifford algebras for example is left to such readers, provided with the key or cipher describing a unitary or unified field in their own sophisticated languages. In particular, it is also hoped that those with the requisite technical expertise might be informed or further edified with respect to the details of current experimental research according to conventional theoretical structures through a consideration of the general principles suggested. With respect to its immediate aim, to provide a real physical basis for the interpretation of QED, any correlation between this model and existing constructions presumably requires the sort of approach provided by geometric or 'space-time algebras' (such as those formulated variously by Professor Hestenes and others adopting that approach [4]).

There is no good reason therefore that a diligent reader versed in these basic conventional theories cannot follow the argument presented provided that it is studied with due concentration from beginning to end. The questions and objections it raises are well-worthy of serious contemplation and debate, and while it does not attempt any rigorous mathematical treatment or correlation with orthodox theory (e.g. in the abstruse language of vector calculus etc.), a precise if general treatment of specific salient aspects of the Standard Model--such as the Higgs' Mechanism, the property of asymptotic freedom in operation of the 'strong nuclear force', the 'proton-spin crisis' and so on-- is certainly possible according to the principles of this model which are surely of interest to a wide variety of readers. Additionally, since this is an essentially original work, citations are few and ordinarily incidental to the argument. (Further details regarding any of these citations may readily be found through the 'internet').

As mentioned and as distinct from most orthodox theories, this work is developed entirely from 'first principles' and therefore does not proceed in the manner of logical incremental step-wise development upon an existing theoretical framework based on inference and deduction from experimental results defined within that framework; rather, it seeks to re-interpret the entire theoretical framework and conception of QED itself in the first place, and eventually to explain precisely what it is in fundamental and common conceptual terms which is actually being observed phenomenally, and particularly within the realm of QED and 'particle physics', what is being described mathematically. As mentioned, it therefore attempts to reduce such theories to the first principles upon which this conception of a unitary cohesive field and its dynamic structure are based.

As such, the difference in approach is essentially that this conception takes what is visualised within an inner perceptual space, thus in the common parlance 'meditatively', and applying the premise of a unitary dynamic imagined as that of an impetus to resonance, which singular process must moreover by the implication of that premise be capable of apprehension with somewhat greater clarity within such a space--since the perceptual consciousness is necessarily more effectively central to the dynamics of a universal cohesive space, and as such characterised in this conception by relatively greater degrees of integrated alignment of components of cohesive force comprising the essence of such a unitary space, thus greater degrees of the synthesising potential inherent within conditions of greater 'cohesive resonance' implied by that state of greater alignment of fundamental components, than any exterior space comprising such components examined instrumentally--, deduces the harmonically-defined limiting phase structure of a unitary cohesive space according to a reasoned interpretation of that perception as the function of a unitary dynamic defined by a singular universal property: the fundamental cohesive force operating singularly and exclusively within a universally extensive and correspondingly exclusive 'cohesive field' towards an alignment of its components with each other and with what can only be imagined and surmised as an ultimately idealised state, conceivable as that of or effectively equivalent to 'cohesive equilibrium or symmetry'. That is, the model is not of itself derived primarily in order to explain phenomena and is merely applied to such contexts in the interests of its intellectual validation, thus, it is supposed, to the end of greater clarity within the orthodox sciences.

The deduction is then according to principles of mathematical logic: that for example only a singular dynamic process may ultimately obtain within a dynamic unity, the nature of which must in reason be what is understood as 'evolutionary' in character. No such singular process could conceivably or 'in reason' be otherwise: it must exist in order to enhance itself, albeit according to parameters which remain ultimately beyond the capacity for objective discrimination, thus unknowable in those terms to a perceptual consciousness and intellect which is effectively only an aspect of such a unitary realm, and arising wholly within it. Similarly, further corollaries to a premise of universal unity and a unitary cohesive principle inhering exclusively within it AS an effectively singular 'field'--thus an axiomatic proposition of the the constancy in the 'rate of elaboration of a fundamental cohesive force'--, are considered the axiomatic basis upon which the mathematical and geometric structure of a viable model of such a 'field' may be developed. Naturally the conception, as all human conception, remains abstract inasmuch as it is necessarily subjective; that is, it remains the perspective of a unity from within it, thus within an aspect. This however is simply the inescapable truth of reality conceived as an inviolable whole, and it is only the quality or beauty of the abstraction, and its capacity to yield true intellectual understanding which is eventually at issue.

Part ONE is concerned with establishing that conceptual basis and Part TWO presents a specific deduction from it regarding the nature of intrinsic electron spin in particular, adducing the example of a derivation of the value of the 'fine structure constant' to verify its hypothesis. Part TWO therefore deals expressly with the basis in mathematical harmonics capable of describing a unitary cohesive field (considered according to a cubic reciprocal lattice model of mutually cohesive points or loci proposed in Part ONE) for the value of the 'fine structure constant', and if the reasoning based upon the structure of that model outlined in Part ONE is considered valid then the implication of the view of Quantum Electro-dynamics suggested by that explanation is of potentially immense significance more generally. For example, this conception and its theoretical perspective represents the basis of a field theory of nature capable of incorporating the Standard Model and a gravitational aspect conceived as implicit in the idea and property of a unitary 'cohesive force'; and therefore provides an actual physical basis for such a 'unifying theory'.

The basic text dealing first with the model and secondly with the derivation of the 'fine structure constant' is therefore intended as a well-structured argument proceeding in a reasoned incremental fashion according to its presentation in the text, and must therefore, in order to be appreciated as such, be studied in its entirety from beginning to end. Included is an outline of that text and the structure of the argument, as well as the following introductory summary designed to function as an explanatory reference section for certain of its more ostensibly contentious implications. Additionally, since the style of argument generally is to assert and to explain, thus again to assert and expand a comprehensive explanation, it therefore tends to be reiterative in that process, requiring the progressive establishment of a conceptual structure and language from first principles.

Naturally, what is required is a thorough evaluation of the validity of its argument by learned theoretical physicists (which, juxtaposed with any contentious or objectionable assertion within the hypothesis, would in itself also make interesting reading). I might add that the substrate ratio p/[*2]=(1/[136.87499]) upon which the derivation of the value for 'alpha' is based is not an obscure arithmetic detail or numerological happenstance contrived in order to explain that value: it is the central ratio describing the principal definitive relation within a model developed entirely from first principles, and which was discovered more than a decade before I had any knowledge of the constant or its critical implication in the equations of QED. Having more-or-less stumbled upon the value of that constant, commonly expressed as a ratio oddly enough, an explanation for its value quite readily declared itself.

It cannot be overstated therefore that the central ideas expressed in this document are not only challenging and contentious, but are essential to the argument as a whole, and must therefore be considered, and indeed studied, carefully. For example, the general sense of the argument regarding the interpretation and derivation of a value for Planck's constant--which, while it is not critical to the derivation of a value for the 'fine structure constant', is necessarily implicated in the context of its application-- depends upon the inference of a direct relation between the wavelengths of visible light and an incrementally progressive residual [p'] resultant vector and ‘dimensional vector’ [*2+p’] within the model (and definitive of the wave principle: viz. 137p=[*2+p']) which, interpreted in spatial terms, becomes explicitly definitive of the basis upon which the Planck value [h] defines the ‘action principle’ within energy equations describing electron motion as an angular momentum.

At the same time, while the basis of this idea is on the face of it provocative of immediate distaste and dissent within the ordinary perspective of physics, not only does it, like the rest of the ideas expressed, follow naturally from the premise itself--and therefore from the necessary and inevitable implication of any truly unifying field theory which must, by definition not only rest on that same premise but must also be capable of defining the basis of these constants--, but is I believe actually implicit within the equations of QED defining the relativistic corrections to the Hamiltonian for Hydrogen in which the 'fine structure constant' raised to the 4th power--and even, by the implication of this argument, effectively to the 6th power-- is difficult to explain other than by invoking such a relation between light frequencies and Planck's constant [h] based on such a harmonically-defined or geometric conceptual structure: viz. that of a unitary cohesive field.

At the commencement, it should also be observed that the sense in which an 'a priori' premise of inviolate and inviolable universal unity is not only held as 'self-evident'--which is to say, which can neither be proven nor be considered requisite of proof in order to function as a singular postulate--, but as a singular premise from which all further elements of a valid theoretical structure follow as logical corollaries--thus from effectively 'first principles'--, will be roundly disputed if not wholly repudiated by some readers, simply on the basis that that premise is given 'a priori' as 'self-evident'. However, if for example it is the proof of a premise which is sought, it should clearly be established here that, not only is any such premise without the possibility of any more than continual verification, but that since the premise upon which the entire theoretical perspective of orthodox scientific thought itself rests--which if it is not the qualitatively equivalent contention that all physical laws function with equal validity in all imaginable contexts, then it is the de facto assumption of the possibility of the truth of that notion (that is, which rests on the unstated 'postulate' that the capacity to verify it depends on the idea that the definitions according to which such 'laws' are appraised are invariant within the singular realm of human perceptual consciousness and its self-evident principles of logic or 'innate reason')--is essentially of a similar nature, then the same demand might equally be made of that effective premise, regardless of its tacit or 'de facto' character.

That is, of itself, there should be nothing either intellectually objectionable or invalid about the postulation of a premise 'a prior' provided that it is accepted as 'self-evident'. For example, the effectively 'a priori' premise implicit in all scientific discipline and modes of intellectual process is that the laws of logic and by inference, of mathematical logic, are invariant and beyond reproach (in particular, the basic axioms of geometry and mathematics or number theory are essentially no more than definitions established 'a priori': mathematical operations themselves are only the expression of the structure of innate processes of calculation and deductive logic to the various degrees of sophistication required to accommodate viable or consistent frameworks of abstract conception), and if not self-evidently (Kant incidentally was not the first to espouse this principle), then by a reasoned consensus amounting to the same thing, innate to the human perceptual consciousness; and of itself this virtually amounts to the concession that such consciousness is imbued with a common unitary structure which, in order for it to function at all, requires that it must be essentially at one--effectively wholly 'resonant'-- with the structure of reality itself: this idea is embodied in the principle of 'perceptual resonance' which follows naturally from a unitary premise of universal unity. (It goes without saying that the objection to the character of the premise itself--thus to pose the absurd alternative that the universe is not an inviolate entity--, is equally without the possibility of proof; nor as the effective or working premise within the applied sciences is any ordinarily demanded of it).

'Mathematical Harmonics':

(NB: This term is not intended to mean nor should it be confused with 'harmonic functions', according to the manner in which 'harmonics' is sometimes used).

This question, regarding the basis in mathematical harmonics for the substrate ratio (1/[136.87499]) from which the 'fine structure constant' is argued to derive is akin to the same rudimentary inquiry which must be presumed to have inspired the ancient curiosity, and certainly that of such luminaries as Pythagoras and Plato, and even Gautama Buddha, concerning the basis of dominant tendencies within the sub-division of perceptual reality: the 7 spectral colours of the rainbow, the 7 dominant melodious or harmonic musical tones, and further 12, 22 and so on 'sub-tones', even the 5 visible inner and outer planets. More recently, one may reasonably inquire upon the basis upon which 23 chromosomal pairs naturally arise, 22 'autosomal pairs' and arguably, a 'resolution or sex pair' to define recurrence of the 'octave' of 22, or indeed, the elemental scale from Hydrogen to Radium (H1 to Ra88, with an anomalous U92), and the harmonic basis of what is clearly a repeating or recurrent configuration within QED descriptions of atomic substructure.

In order however even to begin a reasoned contemplation of a basis in mathematical harmonics--corresponding to the sense in which harmonic relations are evident in perception itself, or 'perceptual resonance', analogous to the definition within a real linear number field of dominant composites of prime factors (viz. within the real number field of integers and rational numbers, it is inevitably the primes which define its harmonics; while within a non-finite unity, it is analogously the irrational surds, or composite prime roots)--, it is fundamentally necessary to concede a premise of inviolable universal unity within which harmonic relations between inter-dependent aspects are not only inherent and definitive of essential formal configurations, functioning effectively or ostensibly to 'condition' the frame of resonance locally and generally, but without which the very conception of 'harmony' between components of perceptual reality becomes questionable if not essentially meaningless. (How could it be that harmonic relations may be purely local or isolated properties of reality when both our intrinsic reason or logic and our innermost experience informs us otherwise?).

Resonance within and between relations of interdependence is not only the axiomatically definitive property of a real or conceptual unity, but is essentially unimaginable without the fundamental fact of the inviolate continuity implicit within a universal unity: moreover, the effective parameter of such relations is 'harmonic resonance'. There is simply no other way meaningfully to address the question of a unifying foundation within reality, let alone plausibly to answer it; any more for example than to address the allied question of the evident self-regulation of DNA transcription or the underlying principle of its intention, or the intention of any such process or its ostensible derangement. The question becomes that of the essential character of such relations, and the basis upon which a singular parameter within a unitary context may be 'qualitatively' conceived and meaningfully defined; thus permitting 'quantification' in the relative terms demanded within such a universal context, therefore based in these principles of 'harmonic inter-relation' which represent the natural constraints of any authentic analysis of its local frames or limited 'sub-contexts': reduced to its essential idea, this 'parameter' is that of the condition and dynamic process of 'cohesive resonance' itself, precisely defined in the following text within the context of the model of cohesive force and space. (Refer to 'Glossary' below).

With respect then to a discussion of the physical basis of Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) in cohesive mechanics which is the primary aim of the article, it may be said that the principal distinction between this model of a unitary cohesive space and other lattice models is that, rather than posing point masses or particles, points constituting such a lattice are conceived as 'cohesive loci', thus, points from which one may proceed to an infinite interior depth within 'space'--or the unitary fabric-- in a continuum defined by and comprising similar loci: incomplete or partial points related as aspects of a singular cohesive principle. As explained in the later text, a cohesive principle and its model naturally accommodates the principle and effect of 'convergence', arising effectively by virtue of an impetus to alignment between pole components conceived to proceed interiorly into space within the analytic context of its alternating or oscillatory principle. This depth within interior space conceived at any locus is then capable of more-or-less precise harmonic definition--essentially in the horizontal [N-Cn] axis of the model-- by virtue of the conceptual premise of the model, and its corollary of impetus to resonance.

The Conception of 'Interior Spatial Depth' and Constancy of 'Cohesive Tension':

Clearly, in order to entertain a genuine conception of 'interior spatial depth', it is necessary also to conceive the capacity for such interior continuity effectively to contain a condition of 'convergence' in pole components--to varying inherent degrees corresponding to a state of cohesive resonance between or 'alignment' of such components (viz. correlating with a principle of 'cohesive inertia')--, simply in order to permit dimensional consistency; thus to accommodate whatever may be conjured in the imagination or correspondingly unitary perceptual consciousness regarding the quality of reality within these depths of the unitary space, and the mechanics of its continuity universally; bearing continually in mind that both the essential dynamic and its context are unitary and wholly indivisible, and therefore entirely exclusive. It follows from this idea for example that formal stability implied within 'interior spatial depth' characterised by greater cohesive resonance/alignment or 'cohesive inertia', or greater integration of components of cohesive polarity, must in a context of inviolable continuity in cohesive mechanics be considered to contain, just as a condition or 'state' of greater resonance may be understood to contain or accommodate relatively turbulent areas within itself according to a mechanic of equilibration (in this case 'cohesive equilibration')--and at the imagined expense of that 'resonance status'--, the relatively turbulent or unstable analogues which are the formal structures and systems of dynamic recurrence within the outer ostensible perceptual space of mundane 3-D reality, eventually as what amount to analogical reverberations, even 'material reflections', of those interior cohesive mechanics, within an inviolable continuum of increasing integration or cohesive resonance generally.

At the same time, while it may generally be imagined that such a property or condition of increasing 'convergence' and implied 'cohesive resonance' inhering within 'interior spatial depth' corresponds to the principle of an accommodation of increasing spatial pressure or what amounts to 'cohesive tension'--which is imaginable as equivalent to a condition of cohesive resonance or alignment, thus 'cohesive inertia'--, the prevailing operative principle within the universal unity is for 'cohesive tension' generally to be sustained according to the essential impetus to cohesive equilibration: that is, the maintenance of 'cohesive tension' within any locus in which it may be imagined to increase depends on and is essentially constrained by the same effect within all such loci universally, according to that prevailing principle of cohesive equilibration.

As such, a property of 'cohesive tension'--moreover according to its tendency to equilibrating constancy--is to be imagined as a real or actual 'pressure/tension' deriving in the distribution of a fundamental cohesive force over areas which in any integrated context, greater or lesser, must primarily be harmonically-defined, thus in 'spatio-temporal' terms (as for example in 'General Relativity Theory) with respect to a frame of reference which is eventually that of light mechanics: viz. a frame of 'specific relativity' defined precisely in this model according to principles of 'cohesive recurrence' (see Part THREE in particular); bearing in mind that in this conception, the fundamental cohesive force is the basic linear component of a singular universal property of 'force' or implicitly 'motive'.

The tendency to constancy in cohesive tension universally--and by inference of the premise, locally-- is therefore eventually only to state, as explained in Part ONE (Section [C]), that the tendency for an infinite cohesive force to operate between two loci--or 'loci aspects' imagined to comprise constituents of a 'polar continuum' of exponentially increasing cohesive force within the interior spatial depth of any such locus (i.e. in the FPN 'axis' or fundamental pole of the model)--is subject to the effectively countervailing principle of cohesive equilibration between all loci operating generally and over infinite spatial dimension or distance. In that case, considering such 'cohesive tension' as a distribution of cohesive force over areas--and therefore permitting the idea that it represents a pervasive unitary 'gravitational or proto-gravitational principle' inherent within all of reality--, the infinities of force and distance implicit within the idea of 'pressure/tension' (thus, in the area component, an [infinite distance]squared within an infinite volume of cohesive space defined by [infinite distance]cubed) may, for example, be reasonably canceled to imply that tendency to a generalised constancy in cohesive tension if it understood that the cohesive force defining the existence of any cohesive locus and its relation to all other such loci in this conception and model reduces in any given plane of its action to the relation of ideally equivalent perpendicular geometric components in a 'converse phase relation' (viz. that relation which is definitive of the fundamentally oscillatory character of the cohesive dynamic itself and, in a context of inherent cohesive disparity in which an intrinsic impetus to equilibrating resolution of such cohesive polarity is implied generally, the basis of its progressive wave principle whose representation in this model depends on that understanding); thus permitting the inference of a relation between a linear component of force and its area distribution in what are effectively perpendicularly-related planes of such distribution which are themselves at once perpendicular to the plane in which such components of cohesive force are imagined to operate, and accordingly, between an infinite point pressure and surface pressure/tension defined with respect to an explicit area.

The necessary qualification here--although possibly a minor point within the conjecture generally--is that in such a model, in order to infer such a constancy in 'cohesive tension or pressure' according to the simple relation of a real force and its area of distribution in which both approach infinite proportions (thus meaningfully to relate 'infinities' of relative dimension in a 3-D structure), it is necessary to diminish the relative dimensions either of the 'area' of resultant distribution by a factor of 2, or such perpendicular components of 'cohesive force' by a factor of [*2] (i.e. the 'square root of 2). In that latter case, if the dimensions of the area of distribution are imagined as those of an area implied as a 'mean resultant' in the action of the components of force (viz. this is a loosely defined mean in this circumstance and requires clarification according to the discussion found in the Preface to Part THREE on the definition of electron S angular momentum and its effective description in QED theory according to such 'means'), then the application of a factor of 1/[*2] to those components defines their 'mean relation' and corresponding resultant (i.e. given as 45 degrees to each when these are construed as 'unit vectors') in a given plane in which those perpendicular converse phase components of a cohesive force operate ideally (i.e. in the archetypal model), thus perpendicular to a mean plane of distribution to imply such a resultant 'pressure/tension' (since in this case, these converse phase components are perpendicular to each other in the plane of action, thus implying a perpendicular relation in component planes of distribution, each therefore perpendicular to the plane in which these components of force act).

In other words, in order to 'cancel infinities', a factor of 2 is implicit in any equation describing the relation of an infinite cohesive force and its area of distribution over or within an infinite space. Further presuming that a factor of [4pi] will also inevitably be implicated in any theoretical analysis of such circumstances of theoretical analysis, in definition of the surface area of an idealised sphere (i.e. relating a point centre and its surface in description of 'pressure/tension' according to a common dimensional radius relating 'cohesive force' and area of 'surface distribution' in the manner suggested; thus in this context, effectively a 'mean radial component' required in order to imply consistency in a linear model, as in that of the 'limiting symmetrical frame' in which dynamics are of necessity described according to incremental progression of invariant 'phase vectors' within a framework of 'cohesive recurrence'), then the factor permitting such a description of the tendency to constancy in 'cohesive tension/pressure' is arguably [8pi].

In this conceptual context, and considering the implication of an extenuated 3rd dimension to 'interior spatial depth' at any given cohesive locus, students of General Relativity Theory (GRT), motivated by the assumption that its 'field equations' must in their essential substance be describing the dynamic properties of a unitary universal cohesive field, may be prompted to contemplate whether, in the further light of the explanation given under a later sub-heading in this Introduction and further in Part THREE regarding the relation of 'energy' and 'angular momentum' in such a model of 'distribution of cohesive force and inertia' (as it may then be applied to theoretical 'particles' considered as specifically defined recurrent aspects of a unitary wave principle within empirical 'frames of synthesis'), the value of the [c]4 component of the constant ([8pi] x G)/[c]4 relating the Einstein tensor (G[uv]) and the 'energy/momentum tensor (T[uv]) in the relevant equation might be revised to [c]3--while retaining its [m/s]4 units for the purposes of proportionality (more especially since it is difficult to interpret the real sense of such a [c]4 term)--, while still retaining the sense of that equation within the further context in which a common harmonically-defined 'spatio-temporal scale' or definitive 'metric' of a unitary space may be inferred directly from the model (based on a reasoned deduction of the wavelengths of visible light) to which real or explicitly spatial and temporal values may be ascribed in any theoretical analysis (as explained in Part ONE, Section [C] and Appendix J).

In any workable model attempting to correlate the analytical structure of QED theory and the SM with that of a 'unitary cohesive field' defined by principles of cohesive equilibration or resonance, 'cohesive pressure or tension', considered as equivalent properties (as in the ordinary sense in which these are distinguished only according to a point or area of reference), may be regarded as constant within given 'energy scales' (or contexts of 'cohesive inertia') when considered with respect to a given harmonically-defined area of reference which is effectively that of a plane of distribution of cohesive force of invariant resultant orientation with respect to the frame of reference (or frame of limiting [Qp'] recurrence in this model)--viz. which may therefore be defined by a given linear radial resultant in distribution of cohesive force in such a plane (in the manner in which it is argued in the text that the elementary 'charge e' is defined and maintained as invariant in QED theory)--, which in any effectively symmetrical frame of theoretical analysis describing the fundamentally oscillatory dynamic within the constraints of the empirical framework is effectively the definitive Euclidean-type plane of the frame of reference itself.

This constancy in resultant 'cohesive tension' may therefore be imagined to inhere in empirical frames in spite of transitions in distribution of cohesive force and inertia implicit in the oscillatory wave dynamic itself within such a unitary 'field', and defined with respect to such a frame of recurrence according to the basic parameters of invariance employed in QED theory (as discussed in Parts TWO and THREE in particular), provided that such transitions are understood as those of a reorientation and reversion of such components in distribution, conforming to principles of cohesive recurrence (explained throughout the thesis), thus in which such transitions in reorienting distribution may be defined by and with respect to an inherent tendency to symmetry within that effect which may be--and indeed requires--representation within a frame of limiting symmetry (defined by what is explained as 'limiting [Qp'] recurrence' definitive of the scale of light dynamics or 'frame of specific relativity') according to those invariant parameters of 'electron' definition characteristic of the approach in Dirac and further QED theory.

That is, these resultants in reorienting distribution of cohesive force (and inertia) defined within dynamics of cohesive recurrence--imagined in a 3-D model (incorporating an 'extended 3rd dimension of interior spatial depth' represented by the ubiquitous 'pole component' of 'cohesive loci aspects')-- and constituting the definitive components of a unitary dynamic of '(cohesive) wave recurrence', may therefore be imagined as reorienting components within such a context of an effectively constant resultant in 'cohesive tension' definitive of empirical 'frames of induced synthesis' (discussed extensively in the main text) at given 'energy levels' provided that a frame of limiting symmetry, which is also effectively the frame of reference or 'specific relativity', may be defined and established according to a consistent relation between those invariant parameters of electron definition with each other and with that frame (viz. as explained in Part TWO, this inter-relation is effectively summarised in Sommerfield's brilliant equation); where that idea of constancy is as suggested contingent upon on the inference of a supervening or governing impetus to cohesive equilibration generally which is tantamount to an 'inverse entropic principle' operating universally within such a cohesive field in the manner explained in the following paragraphs.

As such, the distinction in resultant 'cohesive tension' between such frames may be conceived as that between--and which is generally the function of differences between-- definitive degrees of cohesive resonance or, effectively 'cohesive recurrence' also operating universally; and whose inter-play within this context of equilibrating resonance defines the essential configurations of formal reality motivated towards such an ideal of cohesive symmetry and constancy in cohesive tension. This is also consistent with the idea that the consideration of a property of distribution of cohesive force as definitive of a condition of localised 'cohesive tension' with given frames (or 'energy scales') according to the 'means' suggested permits the inference of a correspondence between definitive degrees of regularity in an oscillatory progressive dynamic of cohesive recurrence implying such conditions or states of cohesive resonance and the validity of such 'means' within the analytical description. (Conceivably, this general effect--of a relation between localised contexts of cohesive resonance and cohesive tension considered with respect to that within the greater entity--constitutes that of the operation of 'Pascal's Law' in such a universal context; according to such a conception of cohesive pressure/tension and cohesive resonance).

This then represents a good example of the way in which ideas at the basis of traditional physical properties and quantities must be melded to and inferred within the dynamic structure of such a model of 'cohesive space' according to an intuition of the real perceptual basis from which such conception can only follow as a synthesised structure of ideation or 'thought'; and is quite characteristic of the method and approach of correlation adopted throughout, more particularly in later Parts.

A Practical Prediction (See Appendix H):

With respect to the practical sense in which a deeper understanding of field theory generally concerns problems in the real world, the immediate implication of the argument concerns the relative inefficiency of conventional mechanisms of EM induction and conduction of A.C. through extended circuits; and by the inference of the argument that such may be enhanced through the application of principles arising within such a conception of a unitary cohesive field, the potential for an increased efficiency in electrolysis of water. It is my belief that such inefficiency, reflected principally in conductive inefficiency of Alternating Current stems from a neglect of the fundamental physical basis, and what is effectively the real geometric basis of intrinsic electron 1/2-integer spin, and electron angular momentum generally, which is eventually a deficiency of incomplete conception if not an explicit misconception of it within QED theory. Such a basis is implicit in this conception of a unitary cohesive field, following naturally from the model, and were that basis incorporated into the geometric structure of an A.C. generator, the inference is that efficiency in the process of EM induction/conduction would be vastly enhanced, effectively through what amounts to the productive accommodation of the 'gyric spin' component within electron angular momentum into the EM inductive effect according to the geometric basis of that angular momentum discussed extensively in this thesis.

A quite simple and unsophisticated prototype is proposed--a 'continuous induction generator' in which a continuous singular progressive copper winding is exposed continually and over the entirety of its length to a potentially inductive ferro-magnetic field-- which would also serve as an experiment in the validation of the hypothesis generally, more particularly the proposition that an integration of diverse components of 'inductance' arising throughout the entirety of such a winding may be naturally or spontaneously integrated within a resultant A.C. waveform capable of propagation over an extended circuit with significantly enhanced conductive efficiency.

Such enhanced efficiency would be implied by virtue of the effect, it is argued, that such an integration of components would necessarily conform in the inference of the resultant A.C. waveform as a progressive wave dynamic to the dynamic phase structure (defined by principles of cohesive recurrence) within a 'frame of 'a-s/c' synthesis' in which the definitive progressive component (i.e. definitive of the integrated resultant) corresponds to that defining the specific phase relation of electron S angular momentum 'phase cycles' (described by [1/2]s spin vectors) represented by the L orbital angular momentum component; in this case that of the Cu29 metallic form in conditions in which that intrinsic phase relation is effectively 'polarised (laterally)' within the horizontal plane of this model of such a frame through the specific reorienting effect implicit in the EM inductive process (indeed, in any EM inductive effect), and which is therefore implicit in the essential geometry of that frame of synthesis. The imagined enhancement in A.C. conductive efficiency would therefore derive by virtue of its integrated form and specific origin within the restructured EM inductive dynamic (whose efficiency is therefore also implied to increase) based on and conforming to these principles of dynamic geometry.

A Brief History of the Theory:

The structure and organisation of this thesis follows and generally summarises that of its approach, thus of the history and process of development of the theory, and consists of several stages corresponding to its main four Parts. In the first place, and entirely from what may be understood as the 'first principles' in 'Reason' implicit in the singular premise of inviolate universal unity, a model of a 'unitary universal cohesive field' may be developed without any recourse whatever to empirical technique or to existing theory--as was the case here--beyond that of the similarly derived basic theorems of geometry, within which certain predominant relations in 'mathematical or geometrically-defined harmonics' emerge as definitive of that dynamic field, and what is understood in an interpretation of that singular context or archetypal frame as its 'phase structure'. As mentioned, the work of Part ONE is essentially to establish this model as a viable representation of such a unitary field and a valid theoretical structure for that of its conceptual principles--of 'cohesive resonance'--, moreover as a model capable of incorporating according to its essential ideas an explanation of any and all phenomena, in particular and primarily those of 'ferro-magnetism' and 'electro-dynamics' as they are generally defined, as aspects of a unitary wave dynamic of cohesive resonance according to the sense in which this is to be understood as the definitive active principle within such a field (viz. as explained in the following, this dynamic of cohesive resonance generally corresponds to what are regarded as equivalent ideas of 'cohesive equilibration' and what is imagined as an impetus to 'alignment of interior spatial pole components' critical to the imagination of such a model).

Having extensively developed such a model of cohesive force and its implicit and axiomatically unitary wave principle--comprehensively reasoned from 'first principles'--, thus as a cubic reciprocal lattice-type structure of cohesive loci whose inter-relations--thus indeed whose very occurrence as 'cohesive resultants' or 'polarities/potentials'--are defined by predominant relations in mathematical harmonics implicit within that geometrical structure, it is only then discovered that certain of these specific relations in mathematical harmonics governing such a principle of wave recurrence as it is to be understood in such a model, closely approximate those which are fundamentally definitive of the structure of QED theory and very 'electron' definition itself: in this case in particular, the value of the 'fine structure constant' or 'alpha' expressed as a fraction (~1/[137.036]), therefore so closely approximate and so fundamental to both that theory and this model that it simply cannot be ignored by the ardent and inquisitive intellect, or indeed by any self-respecting scholar.

The task of Part TWO then, and its subject, naturally becomes that of establishing the basis on which this ostensibly common feature--among various others which may be argued to corroborate the idea as a hypothesis--, thus that of the coincidence within both models of this particular approximation to a numerical factor of 137, may reasonably be argued to imply that both models are describing the same fundamental dynamic: that both the value of the 'fine structure constant' and the structure of QED theory generally (thus the Standard Model) may be comprehensively explained within such a model of cohesive dynamics, and according to the tenets of this conception of a universal cohesive field conforming naturally to definition and broad description according to principles of mathematical or geometric harmonics implicit within a unitary context of such conception.

Clearly such an explanation, since it rests on the greater argument that such features of QED theory as the 'alpha' (and variously associated and interrelated 'invariant parameters' of definition of the theoretical structure of QED: Planck's constant h and the elementary 'charge e' in particular) embody at its foundation the principal definitive or 'harmonically-defined' relations within a dynamic unitary cohesive field, more especially in the specific and characteristic frames of empirical technique (i.e. 'frames of 'a-s/c' vector synthesis') in which they become naturally evident and predominant within the theoretical analysis (according to such parameters as h and 'charge e'), entails the necessity to define exhaustively and with as rigorous a consistency as is possible or feasible in the circumstances of such an approach, all the essential parameters of definition and empirical measure in QED theory--of its definitive physical quantities--, more specifically those of 'electron' definition mentioned, 'charge e' and 1/2-integer intrinsic spin (S angular momentum) which are fundamental to the description of empirical contexts in QED theory in which the 'fine structure constant' is centrally implicated.

The further intricacies of this method of correlation between QED theory and this model of a unitary cohesive field continue to declare themselves and to demand due elaboration throughout this process of explanation in Part TWO whose junctures, it is hoped, constitute an orderly consistent stepwise argument. To the extent that this argument requires further elaboration and development, and in the more general attempt methodically to synthesise it according to its essential ideas, a more extensive treatment of these principles of correlation is the subject of Part THREE, including its Appendix J1 dealing with the derivation of values for h and the 'charge e' following naturally from Appendix J to Part ONE outlining a hypothesis on light mechanics based on the model; included in which is the deduction mentioned of an explicit value for the wavelength of visible light implied directly from the model according to a reasoned argument from its premise of inviolate universal unity; and the inference of a correspondingly explicit 'temporal scale' from that same reasoning capable of application generally within ordinary contexts of theoretical analysis interpreted according to this model and conception.

Part FOUR explains in detail the application of this model and the essential principles developed in the preceding Parts--more particularly those of 'vector synthesis': viz. 'a-s/c' and p/k synthesis--to the original Hydrogen (H1) spectrum itself upon a specific analysis of which QED theory itself is effectively established. The interpretation explored in Part FOUR therefore represents what is effectively an entirely new method of analytical approach whose validity rests essentially upon that of the arguments and assertions posed in those preceding Parts, particularly upon the idea of a characteristic 'empirical frame of (vector) synthesis' discussed extensively throughout the thesis, and the principle that its definitive features may be commonly related to the same basic relations or ratios in mathematical harmonics definitive of its essential geometric structure.

The State of Theoretical Physics:

In attempting plausibly to explain such phenomena as the persistence of a property of 'ferro-magnetism' in a vacuum (thus in ‘Maxwell-Faraday theory’ the operation of a 'ferro-magnetic field'), thus in the traditional wave theory of light, to explain the propagation of EMR in 'free space' (moreover within circumstances in which such 'space' is ostensibly imbued with innate properties of inertia with respect to the postulated operation of such dynamics: viz. described by the empirical physical constants [muo'], the 'magnetic permeability constant' and [eo'] the 'electric permittivity constant' which correspond to the constraints of the 'medium'), and more generally the phenomena of mundane perceptual experience which might be understood, were an appropriate condition of mediation for such an effect imagined (namely a 'field' in Faraday's semantics), as those of resonant interaction which is for example only variably dependent on the existence of what is ordinarily defined as an explicitly or discreetly 'material medium' (such as 'air' or 'water'), one inevitably arrives (and rather without doubt in the case of Faraday and Maxwell, as if the idea were in fact 'self-evident') at the necessity not only to imply a medium within which such dynamics may manifest as such--rather than merely 'transmitted' from sources misconceived as fundamentally distinct from that 'medium'--, but a common medium within which any and all phenomenal dynamics may be regarded at once to manifest and propagate, thus 'to propagate in manifestation': that is to say, a unitary and 'unifying field'.

As it currently stands, and according to constraints of the pervasive philosophical perspective with which it views phenomenal reality--effectively a 'particularising' and 'dualising' perspective--, conventional physics, primarily QED theory and the SM extrapolated from it, may be said to have unnecessarily limited the conception of such a 'medium' to that merely for the transmission of such effects (thus analogous to that in which measurable pressure variations, as in air or water, define the construction of a theory of dynamics: viz. the 'Higgs' field' represents the most rarefied version of the analogy), therefore the transmission of what it has not unreasonably, within those constraints (and in practice quite successfully) reduced to a theory of transmissible 'energy'--if falling somewhat short of a fundamental or unifying definition of such 'energy' itself beyond that of a currency of conservation and of entropy*--, and of the mechanisms of its conduction within definitively plural 'fields' through the mediation of 'particles whose properties of angular momentum permit both an allied principle of wave mechanics and the mediation of force within it and within the 'field' without the necessity for all such 'particles' to be explicitly 'massive': viz. this is permitted in the SM if at once for example, as in this case of theoretical 'bosons', they are regarded--'relativistically' as it were-- as discrete extenuations of massive fermions. *(NB: the absence of a more fundamental definition of 'energy' leads naturally to philosophically untenable conclusions of an equivalence of 'increasing entropy' with some actual state of chaotic dissolution or dissipation of actual or ultimate 'order'; conversely, the inherent tendency within the prevailing intellectual orthodoxy to 'dualising mentality', thus towards a theoretical construction versed in discrete notions of 'matter' and 'space' and so on, favours the persistence of such a view in thermodynamics, and effectively prohibits a more fundamental or unifying conception of energy).

The properties of a 'ferro-magnetic field' for example, and what may more properly be understood (according to a more comprehensive conception of a medium capable of accommodating such an idea) as a relation of 'resonance or 'resonant interaction' within it--i.e. between spatially remote 'poles', as in a vacuum or in paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials, which are effectively dynamically continuous with each other-- are generally explained in the conventional SM according to the operation of an 'electro-magnetic (EM) field' within which, as in the case of 'light theory', a transition within and indeed what must be considered 'of' the oscillatory energy of massive particles (fermions modeled on the theoretical 'electron') endowed with what are considered real properties of angular momentum--viz. this transition is defined in QED theory according to what effectively amount to differentials or disparities in the L orbital component of that angular momentum in the case of the 'electron'**--is transmitted by intrinsically associated 'massless particles, 'photons' (according to the equation [E]=[hc/w]=[h.f]) which are themselves inevitably reabsorbed within that oscillatory dynamic according to description by De Broglie relations (i.e. w=[h/mv]) governing the distinction and indeed transition between matter and space in such a theory at an interface defined by the equivalence [v=c] in the imagined velocity of such 'particles'. This effect is theoretically exemplified in the mechanics of EMR Emission and Absorption etc.. ** (At the same time, QED theory is unable to define an essential basis for such disparities for electrons commonly defined by an invariant S angular momentum).

In spontaneous dynamics, this effect of emission and reabsorption is considered according to the laws of thermodynamics generally to obey the principles of a tendency to 'increasing entropy' universally fundamental to the conceptual framework of traditional physics which ordain, not unreasonably--if somewhat clumsily expressed by virtue of what are argued here as its 'philosophical' limitations--, that such processes of perpetuating interaction mediated by wave dynamics characteristic of an 'EM field' (and indeed implicit in this conception of a unitary cohesive field of which such an 'EM field' is demonstrably an aspect) will tend towards the generalised distribution of this 'energy', primarily conceivable as the kinetic turbulence of heat and motion itself (the question then, to echo the title, becomes 'motion and turbulence of what?'), rendering it, in those conceptual and semantic terms of thermodynamics theory 'unavailable' either;

[a] for the various operations of manipulation within which such laws are demonstrated within limited contexts (e.g. as 'useful work'), by virtue, it is supposed, of the tendency within nature and the whole to cleave towards a higher order implicit within its spontaneous dynamics which inherently limits any such device or isolation of systems: viz. in this conception, this 'higher or supervening order' is the order of unitary process which is essentially the very fact of that unity itself: indeed, philosophically considered, one must inquire, after the manner of the basic question in thermodynamics, what eventually it is which in the absence of such a higher or supervening singularity of order prevents this tendency to increasing entropy imagined as such, as that towards a generalising distribution of 'energy', from ensuing immediately: that is, in the terms of conventional theories of thermodynamics and energy, to inquire what it is which prevents or prohibits the requisite conditions of such increase from ensuing in the face of a generalised impetus towards that state.

As is evident therefore, since the mere statement that 'entropy' according to its ordinary definitions cannot be thus increased generally in circumstances in which no ostensible transition in the state of energy of an 'isolated system' occurs (viz. in Gibbs' formulation, no measurable variations in enthalpy or temperature*), which seems to constitute the substance of its interpretation in conventional theory, is simply begging the question of its essential basis, and since an explanation for that basis in the dualistic terms of ostensible order or organisation and disorder of arrangement--let alone those of the actual 'isolation' of any such system-- is insufficient to any unifying theory inherently incapable of defining discriminatively an ultimate or universal order (and in which the relative 'isolation' of a system is itself an entirely imprecise idea), then the very notion of 'entropy' itself requires revision, at the very least a re-interpretation of its context of definition; thus, it is proposed, a re-definition according to the corollary of a premise of universal unity that a singular existence not only implies a unitary process, but that, given the fundamental incapacity to discern or even to conceive of the ultimate intention of such a process or to perceive or divine its eventual pattern or form, the only conceivable ultimate order within such a process and intention resides in the fact of its unity or singularity; therefore for example, that any such definitive tendencies, such as those to increasing 'entropy' must, since they are at once continuous and entirely and exhaustively pervasive within all aspects of a universal entity (i.e. all local contexts of measure are limited and arbitrary), remain wholly reconcilable with the principle of unitary process, in this conception what is held to be the singular governing impetus to cohesive equilibration and increasing or enhancing cohesive resonance generally within the cosmos;

or, therefore,

[b] (unavailable) to the spontaneous transitions and interactions characteristic of what must eventually be imagined as a process of equilibration (more especially when conceived within such a unity) between disparate states of 'energy'; in which case it must therefore be supposed that the distribution of such 'energy' represents an obviation of the necessity for such processes to ensue, either at the same ostensible rate, as in combustion locally, or generally. The inference within a persistent dynamic universal entity is therefore that since this equilibration process is both continuous and unabating, and endless in necessity implicit in the impetus to enhancement, an 'entropic process' within phenomenal dynamics may be conceptually equated with that of 'cohesive equilibration or resonance', and to be governed by an 'entropic principle', provided that the notion of an actual 'order' itself is no longer construed as equivalent merely to predictability of form or structure within necessarily limited contexts: rather therefore that, if an apparent 'order' is to be identified with the traditional use of that term, an increasing 'entropy' in its traditional sense may be understood only to imply the contrary incapacity to discern or discriminatively predict an ultimate pattern or formal structure within the principle of a 'singular Order' as one proceeds to the consideration and description of that greater context or 'frame'.

This then translates to the idea that such a governing principle represents an effectively 'inverse entropic principle'; thus to be distinguished from that of 'decreasing entropy', since the appearance of 'order' or predictable stability in formal structure (which is the function of dynamics of approximating cohesive recurrence only) will always remain dependent upon a relative and approximate persistence in the nevertheless transient necessity for singular universal process to localise as such--effectively to focus or 'focalise'--, limited eventually by the exhaustion of that necessity according to the governing exigencies of universally increasing cohesive resonance. That is, 'entropy', to the extent that such a notion of 'order' is employed more-or-less imprecisely to define the persistence of a local 'isolated' system or dynamic formal structure, will always appear to increase in the context of that traditional conception of it. In relatively discrete biological systems, this persistence in formal stability and continuity in local function definitive of 'relative sub-entity'--conceived as the function of the 'status of cohesive resonance' (or integrating alignment of components of cohesive force/polarity) definitive of given systems or 'sub-entities'--is intimately related to efficiency within mitochondrial processes of 'oxidative phosphorylation', thus to the level of 'oxidative efficiency' within such systems generally: that is, greater levels of 'oxidative efficiency' imply greater degrees of cohesive resonance within such systems.

In general then, since this interpretation clearly implies that ultimately only a single 'arrangement' of components within formal reality (viz. in this conception, an arrangement of components of fundamental cohesive force) is momentarily possible within a cosmic unity; and that all other putatively possible 'arrangements' within dynamics of form (thus of or within formal structure) are merely apparent (viz. representing within the perceptual consciousness what amount to 'virtual reverberations ' within dynamics of universal resonance), then naturally such a view would be regarded as 'deterministic' in old-fashioned schools of philosophical dispute--or confusion--, most of which roundly despise the very notion of a conception which entirely excludes the cherished myth of 'independent human volition' or 'freedom of will' (precluded by the implications of the premise itself of unitary universal 'intention and process').

*To put it another way, if the idea of 'enthalpy' and associated measures of temperature and pressure according to which Gibbs' Law, for example, are phrased are themselves to be regarded principally as those pertaining to a dynamically oscillatory energy function however turbulent or ostensibly random in its configuration (summarised by the 'Gibbs free energy G[E]' in specific contexts; for G[E]=D'H--T.[D'S]), thus comprising inherently PE[V] and KE[T] components broadly corresponding to what are defined qualitatively in this conception as reorientation and reversion aspects within a unitary wave dynamic (i.e. its definitive components when a frame of reference for their relation may adequately be defined), then Gibbs' Law broadly states that that oscillatory effect (conceivable as a dynamic relation between [T] and [V] components within a real oscillatory wave dynamic) is being distributed generally or universally in any such conditions of thermodynamic process considered according to the constraints of definition of that law and its context, thus that the [D'S] component defining a theoretical change in the entropy S of any such context (in relative 'isolation') consists in the recognition of this tendency as a more-or-less quantifiable description of that oscillatory principle (and what eventually reduces to the idea of regularity within with respect to an ultimate ideal or reference corresponding broadly with the property of cohesive resonance within such a context). In general, this tendency is not inconsistent with a principle of increasing cohesive resonance implicit in all circumstances within a unitary cohesive field; more particularly when this impetus within singular process is imagined to equate with a dynamic of cohesive equilibration and corresponding alignment between components of cohesive polarity, ultimately conceived towards that of an ideal.

More fundamental questions are therefore addressed in the conventional theory in a similar fashion; for example, the self-propagating and oscillatory character of the EMR 'waveform' is theorised to derive directly, as mentioned, in the oscillatory mechanics of electron angular momentum, effectively those defined according to disparities in the L orbital angular momentum quantised in terms of a common S angular momentum representing '1/2-integer intrinsic spin'; although once again, QED theory falls short not only of explaining the basis for such disparities in that L component for electrons commonly characterised by an invariant S angular momentum (notwithstanding the mathematical construction according to which s, p, d and f-type orbitals are originally defined in ‘Schrodinger theory’: refer to subheading below: 'Relation of Electron L and S Angular Momentum in QED Theory'), but the basis on which the vacuum itself within which such an effect propagates is endowed with those innate properties of 'electrical permittivity' and 'magnetic permeability' operating as its inherent constraints other than to include these as intrinsic features of the 'EM field' theoretically defining the circumstances of such an effect, thus as definitive features of context embodied in the light speed c.

Similarly, and within the conceptual limitations of its theoretical structure, the origin of the energetic effect itself as a perpetuating principle is explained according to these constraints--thus for example, incorporating within it the origin of the 'vector boson mass/energies' (which it is argued in particular requires a revision in perspective within the 'standard theory')--through the postulation of a 'Higgs' mechanism' relating aspects of this hierarchy of energetic interplay through an all-pervasive 'Higgs' field' in which the mediating currency, analogous to 'light speed c', is the 'scalar boson' of specific 'mass/energy'. However, since this model of the Higgs' field as the universal context of such an energetic principle also appears to depend on the temporal extrapolation of all dynamics to an origin posed as a 'Big Bang' cosmogony--that is, the inference of that 'field' and the manner in which it is posed depends on the interpretation of observations according to that theoretical and conceptual structure, of a 'Big Bang' universal origin of expanding 'space'*--, and since this represents a more than questionable actualisation of 'inconceivability', the specific sense in which the mechanics of such a field are imagined to derive in such an origin certainly require a revision in perspective. *(Refer to following sub-heading on 'Cosmology').

At the same time, this does necessarily require, nor is it argued in this document, that the SM be discarded, it does require, moreover because its description is broadly reconcilable with that based on principles of a unitary universal cohesive field, that that model acquire a deeper insight into those descriptions, and to the extent that this also requires a revision of that cosmogony, in and of itself an absurdity--moreover an institutionalised absurdity--, it should proceed thus; for example, to permit as implicit within the idea of a universally exclusive unitary cohesive field whose essential impetus is towards an idealised state of cohesive equilibration or resonance the inference that such an ideal represents a 'limit of conceivability'--as opposed to the embodiment of an 'inconceivability'-- which, while at once tacitly implying the limiting notion of what is nonetheless an 'inconceivable' cessation of existence, may nevertheless be distributed universally and eternally without the necessity to imply either a temporal or spatial origin or explicit cosmogony itself.

That is, notwithstanding the undeniable precision and accuracy of the comprehensive description of an oscillatory dynamic within QED theory and the SM extrapolating from it, thus a more-or-less consistent description of the framework of phenomena and an explanation of inter-relations within it, it does not, and in its basic approach cannot--nor indeed can it express within its semantics--either truly embody nor therefore explicitly establish itself upon any intuitive understanding of the real basis of the oscillatory principle everywhere evident in nature; and were it thus established, it would doubtless be capable of describing all such dynamics within phenomenal reality according to common unifying principles, inevitably those of 'harmonic resonance' between components and integrating contexts (of their effective 'convergent alignment' to imply a condition of 'cohesive resonance') within a conceptual unity.

And while no conception or model can answer--or even sensibly pose--the question of the ultimate origin of this oscillatory dynamic itself, any more than to conceive an ultimate origin in existence itself, or to discern objectively its eventual purpose, what is argued here is that this model of a 'unitary cohesive field' provides a naturally unifying conception of the universal distribution of an essential asymmetry, a fundamental 'cohesive polarity or disparity' within an inviolate unity, thus according to a dynamically equilibrating principle--which moreover engenders the unitary wave principle in what must be presumed axiomatically as an inherently integrating or evolutionary context-- which is the intelligible function of an intrinsic impetus to the resolution of that polarity.

For example, the first inquiry to be made of any such ubiquitous and definitive oscillatory principle--more specifically in this context that which is at the basis of what is accurately described in QED theory as the electron S angular momentum--, is the basis upon which it may be understood within any unifying conception to be at once both limited in its excursions yet perpetual in its elaboration; and while the principle of a progressive wave dynamic is implicit in the conception and model of a unitary cohesive space comprising 'cohesive loci' characterised and defined inherently by 'cohesive polarity', it is this specific property of a readily perceptible oscillatory or alternating principle wherever it is found which leads naturally to the idea that it may plausibly be conceived as implicit within a unitary equilibrating wave dynamic; which moreover, since this is the definitive principle within an integrated spatio-temporal wave effect, may nonetheless be considered obedient to a conceptual constraint of increasing entropy in the manner suggested provided that a notion of ultimate order is imagined to consist entirely in the operation of such an equilibrating unitary wave principle implicit in a dynamic universal entity and its unitary cohesive field: that is, if that wave principle is considered singular and universally exclusive).

In this sense therefore, since energy itself (considered in its dual guise of PE[V] and KE[T] components) is to be conceived as fundamentally oscillatory in character--as mentioned, considered generally to correspond to reorientation and reversion aspects within a unitary wave principle, and therefore implicit in a principle of dynamic 'cohesive resonance'--, neither does the SM and conventional physics generally provide a more fundamental conceptual basis upon which a deeper understanding of energy itself--which is its principal and indispensable conceptual currency-- might rest in that of the evidence and conception of such a quality, for example, as a condition of ‘distribution of cohesive force’ within a unitary cohesive field; other than to imply an ill-defined and essentially qualitative equivalence between aspects of a notion of 'wave-particle duality' according to which a 'wave function' is invented to describe the properties of 'mass' constrained inherently in the formulation of the SM to the notion of the 'point mass' (thereby identifying the very nature of the imaginative restriction itself). At the same time, in addressing the primary and inevitable inquiry upon the conception of such a unitary universal field of cohesive resonance governed by that singular principle of cohesive equilibrating or resonance, and the necessity for a properly reasoned and consistent characterisation of its singular intrinsic oscillatory wave principle, one must then reasonably ask ''Waves of What?''.

Neither, it may be said does the SM propose a fundamental basis for the elaboration and persistence of a 'charge dipole' upon which, since the theoretical character of EMR depends on the idea that the theoretical electron is a 'charged particle', the entire theory of QED and light rests: that is, the SM does not meaningfully address the fundamental basis of electron definition itself, of 'charge e' and '1/2-integer intrinsic spin' which are the pillars of its theoretical structure. As is argued here, since this eventually demands an explanation--moreover an explanation for and understanding of-- the innate character of the medium itself, thus for example of at least an imagined basis for the vacuum properties described by the ‘magnetic [muo'] and electric [eo'] constants’ which define the mechanics of an EM wave dynamic in empirical terms, then if this 'medium' is to be conceived as what amounts to a 'field' in the traditional lexicon of physics, the conception of an exclusive universal field innately imbued with a common singular oscillatory principle which is implicit in the cohesive dynamic itself and which in its integrating aspect represents the basis of a singular alternating wave dynamic inherent in such a field (i.e. inherent in the notion of a property of integrating cohesive equilibration*) necessarily becomes its point of conceptual and theoretical commencement: effectively its 'philosophical foundation' or really, its foundation in the very unity of 'physics' and 'metaphysics'.

*(This property of enhancing 'cohesive resonance' towards an ideal of 'cohesive symmetry or equilibrium' may be variously imagined as the tendency to cessation, quiescence, 'absolute rest', and so on; thus according to a conception of 'singular order', consistent with the notion of increasing entropy towards a maximum implicit in the idea of 'unity infinite'). This then is the 'unitary universal cohesive field' within which for example an oscillatory energy transition imputed to theoretical ‘particles’ and ‘anti-particles’ represents the manifestation of an intrinsically oscillatory wave principle of cohesive resonance (based on mechanics of cohesive recurrence).

The clear implication of this conception is that, given the inconceivability of actual 'universal cessation' inferred within an Ideal of Cohesive Equilibrium or Symmetry universally (viz. an idea which the intellect may readily support and sustain), it is specific degrees of cohesive resonance tending to distribute universally which become definitive of formal and phenomenal reality, thus the definition of relative 'sub-entity' at every level (and within the context in which the operative principle within 'perceptual consciousness' is one of 'perceptual resonance' corresponding to such degrees). What this model of cohesive space attempts to demonstrate is the basis in simple mathematical harmonics correctly interpreted and in the appropriate conceptual context (viz. that of a unitary dynamic of wave recurrence implicit within a unitary cohesive field defined by the the incremental progression of fundamental 'harmonically or geometrically-defined components, effectively 'phase vectors' in the context of this model; moreover capable of identification with the basic 'quanta' of QED theory) for the structure of this hierarchy of cohesive resonance reducible in its archetypal form to the relation of what are therefore understood as harmonically or geometrically-defined components of 'phase transition' within such a 'unitary cohesive field', both to each other and to an idealised unitary structure represented by the model in which they are inherent: the N-centred cubic reciprocal lattice structure of 'cohesive loci' which is the subject of Part ONE.

Cosmology: 'Past and Future'--the Oscillatory and Progressive Wave Dynamic of Cohesive Resonance, and 'Universal Time'.

Associated with the prevailing doctrine of 'big bang cosmogony' are several variously deficient ideas--quite apart from those repugnant dogmas which have assumed the status of 'articles of faith' within a broader cosmology founded on that absurdity (that of the basis of 'red spectral shift' in particular)--which have therefore inevitably infected the 'popular imagination' and 'philosophy' (if a diminished mongrel interpretation of that term is even tenable with respect to such ideation); notable among which is the notion that as one observes the night sky, what is being perceived as light--or indeed EMR generally (as in the case of 'cosmic microwave background [CMB radiation]')--represents the perception of an 'event' or action' which while not unreasonably characterised, by virtue of the reality of 'light speed', as qualitatively 'past', is effectively considered, notwithstanding the existence of this luminous remnant or 'relic' reaching us across the chasms of 'space'*, entirely within such a 'past'.

This may seem a minor issue within that aspect of the traditional cosmology--the cosmogony which is essentially at issue here--, but since the implication of such self-perpetuating ideology is eventually to permit and popularly ramify the possibility that some specific event, a 'big bang inception', actually occurred at a given moment, moreover from which all phenomena celestial and otherwise must thus derive, therefore to interpret such phenomena as the CMB radiation not merely as reverberant effects intrinsically arising within a universal domain in which all light/EMR is fundamentally the effect of integration of components of 'wave interference' within a unitary wave dynamic, but explicitly as reverberations still being transmitted and effectively propagated from that origin of inception (however it is imagined as the origin of an 'expanding space', within a medium of universal space supposedly arising at that inception), requires a deeper consideration. *(In a certain respect this conception of the 'past' is a vestige of the still persistent religious ideology that 'creation' itself was somehow fundamentally accomplished in some remote past epoch, and that what has ensued since is only the unfathomable interplay of more-or-less discrete 'entities' set in motion at that moment of genesis; rather than, for example, to imagine that such 'creation' is a continuous and perpetual evolutionary dynamic, effectively of the Unity by Itself, with neither beginning nor end nor conceivable bounds in space).

In such a theory then, light/EMR in any epoch, having traveled as if on a journey from its singular point of origin, whether the so-called 'recombination epoch' (refer to subheading below) associated with the elaboration of CMB radiation or any further source, locally stellar, galactic or otherwise (in either case no doubt an immense turbulence in that effectively mechanistic theory), remains eventually under the sole impetus of this original 'explosion of space' itself and a self-perpetuating EM inductive mechanism supposedly implicit in 'light wave dynamics'; yet, while thus imagined as a form of 'directed energy' arising not without resistance in proceeding from such a source but evidently without impediment to its inherent properties of self-propagating EM induction nonetheless considered implicit within the properties of 'empty space'*, little proper consideration is evidently afforded, even in simple mechanics, to the potentiality which must have existed and which must continue to exist within its ultimate context or frame to imply such an effect: a journey with neither realistic resistance nor destination.

*At the same time, the allied notion of a 'cooling universe' permitting the persistent emanation of light from infinite sources diverging from such a 'big bang origin' of space--since, setting aside the notion currently favoured in the explanation of an accelerated rate of 'universal expansion' that 'space' is being elaborated effectively within itself without any corresponding dynamic of its resorption imagined, a divergence in 'space' itself cannot at once permit the premises of modern cosmogony that such a 'universal space' is isotropic and homogeneous without the further inference of variously localised gravitationally active sources of such light/EMR-- must also surely imply variations, presumably towards diminution in the conductive properties of such 'space' in the traditional view, the 'magnetic permeability' and 'electrical permittivity' of 'free space' governing light dynamics in that view.

Moreover, having thus emanated aeons since to reach our lonely rock in the void, thus at once over billions of 'years' into its future to appear equally billions of such 'years' into our earthly past, it is further postulated, quite erroneously, that since the universe is of an 'age' which is approximately 3.142 times that of the earth itself, that this initiating source projected itself thus prior even to the existence either of the earth--which might at the very least be considered to have traveled along with its own light in any sensible interpretation of the fundamental absurdity of a 'cosmic origin'--, or the greater realm itself within which such an effect must be imagined to obtain. Of this notion of 'universal expansion' it must of course simply be inquired, 'expansion into what?'--at which juncture one routinely encounters the further extrapolation of the fundamental dichotomy between the 'conceivable' and 'inconceivable' conveniently expressed as a duality between 'space' and 'emptiness'--; and given that the only plausible answer to that conundrum is 'into the inconceivable', then the clear deficiencies in the existing orthodox cosmology ought properly to be addressed principally according to a re-definition and reformulation of that necessary aspect of any rational cosmology. Put simply, no such 'big bang origin' of spatial reality or universal space is either of itself rationally conceivable nor possible in a scenario in which the elaboration of the medium may precede that of light itself; nor, even upon the most rudimentary contemplation, is it possible to imagine that no fundamental condition or substrate preceded such an 'event': thus, the limitations of the the notion of an 'event'.

The inference within conventional cosmology and astrophysics for example is that specific forms of EMR, CMB radiation in particular, rather than deriving in a generalised principle within a unitary cosmos as an essential and implicit property, actually explicitly persists from the earliest epoch following such a 'big bang inception', of the order of 1/(4 x [10]4) of the supposed 'age of the universe'; so that if for instance it is suggested that this initial expansion or 'inflationary genesis' effectively established the potentiality within such space itself for the subsequent elaboration of light and matter following from it, as it were, then it must also be inquired in what substrate condition of potentiality does this further aspect of potentiality reside: and once again, rather than the fact of inconceivability itself, it is the character of that inevitable limit within consciousness and intellect, thus which is implicit in any plausible cosmology, which must quite simply be re-imagined within the orthodox mentality, and alternative explanations arduously sought within the 'mind' itself for such observations as 'red spectral shift' and the specific nature of the CMB radiation. Neither are these to be regarded as mere idle pondering in philosophy or metaphysics, but are argued here to represent concrete deficiencies in the prevailing cosmology, more specifically in its basis in the notion of a 'big bang cosmogony'.

The inference within conventional cosmology and astrophysics for example is that specific forms of EMR, CMB radiation in particular, rather than deriving in a generalised principle within a unitary cosmos as an essential and implicit property, actually explicitly persists from the earliest epoch following such a 'big bang inception', of the order of 1/(4 x [10]4) of the supposed 'age of the universe'; so that if for instance it is suggested that this initial expansion or 'inflationary genesis' effectively established the potentiality within such space itself for the subsequent elaboration of light and matter following from it, as it were, then it must also be inquired in what substrate condition of potentiality does this further aspect of potentiality reside: and once again, rather than the fact of inconceivability itself, it is the character of that inevitable limit within consciousness and intellect, thus which is implicit in any plausible cosmology, which must quite simply be re-imagined within the orthodox mentality, and alternative explanations arduously sought within the 'mind' itself for such observations as 'red spectral shift' and the specific nature of the CMB radiation. Neither are these to be regarded as mere idle pondering in philosophy or metaphysics, but are argued here to represent concrete deficiencies in the prevailing cosmology, more specifically in its basis in the notion of a 'big bang cosmogony'.

The inference within conventional cosmology and astrophysics for example is that specific forms of EMR, CMB radiation in particular, rather than deriving in a generalised principle within a unitary cosmos as an essential and implicit property, actually explicitly persists from the earliest epoch following such a 'big bang inception', of the order of 1/(4 x [10]4) of the supposed 'age of the universe'; so that if for instance it is suggested that this initial expansion or 'inflationary genesis' effectively established the potentiality within such space itself for the subsequent elaboration of light and matter following from it, as it were, then it must also be inquired in what substrate condition of potentiality does this further aspect of potentiality reside: and once again, rather than the fact of inconceivability itself, it is the character of that inevitable limit within consciousness and intellect, thus which is implicit in any plausible cosmology, which must quite simply be re-imagined within the orthodox mentality, and alternative explanations arduously sought within the 'mind' itself for such observations as 'red spectral shift' and the specific nature of the CMB radiation. Neither are these to be regarded as mere idle pondering in philosophy or metaphysics, but are argued here to represent concrete deficiencies in the prevailing cosmology, more specifically in its basis in the notion of a 'big bang cosmogony'.

While alternative explanations for these phenomena are discussed in various Appendices, certain almost classical contradictions inevitably characterising a cosmology based on a premise of 'cosmic genesis' or cosmogony which is fundamentally untenable in simple reason, and variously recognised within the ongoing perplexities of paradox and unresolved questions arising within the construction of existing theory and inevitably proliferating within its tradition of theoretical manipulation' (the ideas of 'dark energy' and 'dark matter' and so on), essentially conundrums however which cannot satisfactorily be resolved or even rationally addressed without discarding the premise itself of a 'big bang inception', may be considered generally here.

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