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Safety satisfaction in urban communities. A social analysis

Term Paper 2015 12 Pages

Sociology - Individual, Groups, Society

Excerpt

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Objectives of this project:

3. Literature Review

4. Methodology

5. Data Analysis

6. Conclusion

Abstract

Safety percussions have intense importance in any Urban community, living standards are heavily depends on the safety satisfaction of residents. Increasing of population in Urban areas facilitates many deviant behaviors for the citizens, in this era of urbanization the crime rate is increasing day by day due to having less social cohesion among the residents, less community ownership by the residents and lack of proper security infrastructure in the society. According to social disorganization theory, an Urban community can minimize the ratio of criminal activities by applying safety parameters like, proper surveillance of residential areas, increase social cohesion among residents, promote community ownership and develop clean environment of the community. This study was conducted in Judicial housing society in Lahore to examine the after results of security percussions took by the administration of the Judicial housing society according to the perception of its residents. Twenty houses was selected from phase 1 of Judicial housing society from where data was collected from forty respondents (one male and one female from each house). Results revealed that after taking proper security measures by the administration of the society, safety satisfaction level of residents in Judicial housing society increased, where males had slight greater tilt regarding the over all security satisfaction as compare to the females.

Key Words – Safety Satisfaction, Urbanization, Urban community, Social cohesion, Social disorganization, Judicial hosuing society.

1. Introduction

As the process of urbanization was started, people faced many issues as the maintenance and residential settlement are concerned. Flow of people towards cities from different backgrounds for the sake of economic and residential purposes and due to the diverse relations among these migrants cause the situation of social disorganization in the society. Social disorganization environment provides opportunities and motivation to criminal minded people, mostly in the transitional zone to perform criminal activities like, street crimes, house robberies, drug supply, target killing, extortion, property grabbing etc. To overcome the threat of these lethal crimes in residential areas in Urban society, some recommendations was suggested by Oscar Newman[1] e.g. proper surveillance of residential area, Create better environment to bring social cohesion among the residents to control criminal activities in Urban society (Lewyn, 2008).

During 2013, the criminal activities in Judicial housing society became very high, cars lifting, house robberies and road snatching was common at that time. To control these types of criminal activities, administration of Judicial Society makes a security plan to protect the life and wealth of the resident of Judicial housing society. The security plan includes the followings points.

- Fix security gates at all entrees of the society.
- Security guards are appointed at all the entrees of the society.
- Monthly meeting will hold to take on board all the representatives of each house of the society regarding security measures.
- Proper maintain ace of street lights and CCTV cameras.
- Create an environment of social cohesion among the people of society.

The main purpose of this project is to evaluate the consequences of this security plan and the Social satisfaction of the residents of Judicial colony as the security parameters are concern. This research evaluates the after effect results of security policy implementation that was applied in Judicial housing society to overcome criminal activities. Research questions for reavealing security measures in Judicial housing society are (1) Residents of Judicial housing Society are satisfied with the security measures, took by the administration of society. (2) Residents of Judicial housing society are having Social cohesion among themselves (3) Residents of Judicial housing society are spending a safe life without having any security threats in the society. These questions are further divided into sub-questions that are asked from the respondents.

2. Objectives of this project:

- To analyze the satisfaction level of residents regarding the security measures in judicial housing Society.
- To check the effects of social cohesion on the life satisfaction of residents of judicial colony.
- This research will elaborate such type of issues that are concern with the security parameters regarding the process of urbanization.
- This project will explain the implementation of security measures and its effect on the residents at meso and macro level.
- It will also helpful for other residential societies to implant such type of security plan after some amendments.

This project is based on quantitative data analysis that includes graphical representation of respondents’ views through bar graphs. The population for this study was the judicial housing society (Lala zaar) and the target population is phase 1 of the society. Selection of sample frame was done through cluster sampling and our sampling size was one male and one female individual from 20 houses (total 40 respondents).

3. Literature Review

Crime rates are rapidly increasing in big cities as compare to small cities or rural areas. Urban crimes are mostly having characteristic influences that motivate criminal minded people to perform deviant acts (Edward, Glaeses & Sacerdote, 1996). Street crime becomes a regular activity of criminal minded people for the few last years and becoming a big concern for the citizens of big cities (Pakistan state crime, 2013). Punjab government has approved Rs. 910 million for establishing Dolphin Force including 700 police men on the pattern of Istanbul’s Dolphin police to curb the increasing crime rate in the provincial metropolis (The News, 2015). According to the interior ministry report, since last 5 years, out of 374,000 robberies 310,000 were registered just in Punjab and the statistics indicate that during four years, 136,470 vehicles (worth Rs. 68.20 billion) were snatched/lifted from different parts of the country. (the nation, 2013). Social organization is one of those theories that focus on crime prevention of in urban areas. Social disorganization theory also explains the lack of informal social control on the residents and cultural transmission of values in urban areas. Social disorganization theory focus on the Juvenile Delinquency in Urban areas, in which Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay studied the transitional zone and describe that the zone in transition had stable and high delinquency rates over three decades (Bursik, 1988).

People need security to save human lives and physical assets that are valuable to them. To make sure that there lives and operations don’t meet any unnecessary situation so to ensure the operation continuity, to minimize the attraction with the legal authorities (Police, Courts etc.), to minimize the cost which they are paying to insurance companies in terms of better future of their family. Second, Knowledge and skills required in terms of knowing all the security operations from one to all. To provide a good assessment of threat and to meet the threat in time and make it clears as soon as possible. They should be aware of new surveillance technology from one head office and ensure safety. People should know what are their legal limits to operate and at which extent they can go to meet the threat and where they should call the higher authorities. Residents should have very good communication skills to communicate the things and their plans to execute properly. They should also have to analyze the threat to find the requirement of security in particular area. They should know how much a threat is venerable to them and how much it can effect. Last but not the least they should know the exact time of taking the security measures against a threat and they should know what kind of measures should be taken (Marco, Monsalve, James & Sutton 2003). If resource requirements prohibit a permanent solution, This process provides continued visibility for projects that contain increased security risk (Bradley 2001).

4. Methodology

Research Type:

This is a quantitative type of research which is related to the positivist paradigm approach. This project is focusing on the descriptive form of research that explains the security satisfaction of the residents living in Judicial housing Society according to the security plan designed by the society administration.

Research Tools:

Data collection technique was based on quantitative method that includes five likert scale survey questionnaires. These questionnaires focus on the level of security satisfaction among the residents. Data analysis was consist of descriptive statistics that explain the security satisfaction and social cohesion of the residents on the basis of one-on-one comparison of male and female responses through column graph representation.

Hypotheses of the project:

Security measures and Social cohesion among people may increase the safety satisfaction of residents living in Judicial housing society.

Research Questions:

This project includes 3 main research questions that are based on 3 different indicators (1) security measures (2) Social cohesion among themselves (3) spending safe life.

- Residents of Judicial housing Society are satisfy with the security measures , took by the administration of society.
- Residents of Judicial housing society are having Social cohesion among themselves.
- Residents of Judicial housing society are spending safe life without having any security threats in the society.

Target area:

The target area of our project is Judicial housing society (Lala Zaar), located at Zero point thokar Flyover, Raiwind road, Lahore.

Population and Sample:

Population of this study was judicial housing society (Lala zaar) and target population was phase 1 of the Judicial housing society, Lahore. Sample frame was selecred through cluster sampling and sampling size was one senior male and one senior female individual from 20 houses of Judicial society, phase 1. The reason behind the selection of our target population (phase 1) was the high ratio of crimes occurred during 2013 and the attention of the administration of society towards this area is more as compare to other sectors.

5. Data Analysis

Following are the frequency distribution of five categories (Strongly agree, agree, Neutral, Dis-agree, Strongly dis-agree) on the basis of twenty males and twenty females respondents regarding their security satisfaction in Judicial housing society.

Question no.1: Residents of Judicial housing Society are satisfy with the security measures, took by the administration of society.

Column graph 1. (Male and Female one on one Comparison)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Results show in column graph depicts the response of residents regarding the level of their satisfaction on security measures took by the administration of judicial housing society. As you see in the graph, only 20% of the male respondents are satisfy with the security measures that includes the performance of security guards, consideration of their complaints, security benefits of street gates and boundary offences, whereas 44% of the male respondents do not satisfy with security system of Judicial housing society. If we talk about the response of female respondents, 24% of female respondents think, the steps taken by the society administration are satisfactory for the residents, where as 8% of female response do not consider security measures up to the mark. The highlighting point in graph is the high ratio of neutral response from the male and female side, 36% of male and 68% of female respondents chose the neutral option regarding their satisfaction level on security measures in Judicial housing society. These results depict the low level of self-satisfaction (especially males) regarding security measure that includes the overall assessment of Security guards, security gates, vehicle barrios, boundary fences and consideration of complaints in Judicial housing society.

Question no.2: Residents of Judicial housing society are having Social cohesion among themselves.

Column graph 2. (Male and Female one on one Comparison)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Above column chart is portraying the results of social cohesion among the residents of Judicial housing society, results reveal that, 44% of our male respondents think that, there is a social cohesion among the residents of Judicial society, whereas 40% of our female respondents agree with the existence of social cohesion among the people of Judicial society. On the other hand, 38% male and 40% female are those, who think the social cohesion, do not exist among the residents of judicial society. The ratio of those males and females respondents that chose the option of neutral response is 18% and 20% respectively. The overall response slightly favor regarding the existence of social cohesion among the residents of Judicial housing society that includes active participation of people towards community planning, people know their neighbors, support each other in every thick and thin situation etc.

Question no.3: Residents of Judicial housing society are spending safe life without having any security threats in the society.

Column graph 3. (Male and Female one on one Comparison)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Above results are showing the response of residents regarding the level of spending safe life without having any security threats in the judicial housing society. Results illustrate that, 50% of the male respondents think they are spending a safe life and 40% of the female respondents think that they are living a secure life in judicial society, whereas 18% of male and 23% of female respondents think, they are spending a un-secure life and feel security threats while living in Judicial housing society. 32% of male and 37% of female respondents chose the neutral option regarding the level of spending safe in judicial housing society. The overall result shows slight tilt towards the positive response of residents of judicial housing society that includes better security situation of the society, safe mobility of people with in the society and decrease of crimes rates sine last 2 years in the society etc.

Column graph 4. (Over all male VS female comparison of Security measures and Social cohesion among people in Judicial society)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

This column graph is presenting the overall comparison of male and female respondents on the basis of our three main questions that include satisfactory level of residents, social cohesion among the residents and level of spending safe and secure life without having any security threat in judicial housing society. 38% of males and 35% of female are strongly agree/agree with those questions that we ask from them regarding the availability of security measures and social cohesion in judicial housing society. Results describe that the response of male respondents is little more towards the acceptability of social cohesion and better security measures in Judicial housing society, whereas the majority of female respondents chose the neutral option that depicts the less involvement of female population towards development implementation at community level. 33% male and 23% female totally dis-agree/dis-agree with our questions that we ask from them regarding the security satisfaction and social cohesion among the people of judicial housing society.

Column graph 4. (Over all comparison of Security measures and Social cohesion among people in Judicial society)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Above column graph is showing the overall results (male + female) of our three main questions that include satisfaction level of residents, social cohesion among the residents and level of spending safe and secure life without having any security threats in judicial housing society. Results explain a little tilt towards the totally agree/agree response of the residents regarding the better implementation of security measures and existence of social cohesion among the residents of judicial housing society. 35.5% of respondents are those, who prefer the neutral option while giving their response on social cohesion among residents leads to security satisfaction while living in judicial society and 28% of respondents are those who are totally dis-agree/dis-agree with the questions that we ask from them regarding the positive consequences of security measures and social cohesion in Judicial housing society. So, by considering such results we can say that, security measures and social cohesion has a positive effect on the satisfactory level of the residents of judicial housing society.

6. Conclusion

Security planning, procedures, implementation and evaluation are the major steps that enable the process of urbanization to reach its better consequences in any area as the maintenance and residential/occupational settlement are concern. With the heavy flow of people from different ethnic backgrounds and regions bring different deviant characterizes that change the environmental scenario of any particular area and create a state of social dis-organization environment. To control such type of deviant behaviors like street crimes, house robberies, drug supply, target killing, extortion, property grabbing etc., security measures play vital role in any society or region. According to the social dis-organization theory, the concept of social cohesion among the citizens is the prior solution to overcome the ratio of crimes in residential zones. To get maximum results from the security implementations we have to develop the sense of cumulative community ownership in the mind sets of residents to overcome criminal activities in the society, these implementations reaches their actual cause after completion of evaluation process. This project is explaining the security satisfaction of people regarding implementation of security measure with the courtesy of social cohesion among the residents of judicial society. Results revealed that 38% of male and 35% of female respondents think that the security measures took by the administration of the judicial society are up to the mark, they agree with the exisance of social cohesion among the residents of judicial society that enhance the sense of cumulative ownership to overcome the ratio of crimes in the society, whereas 33% male and 23% female respondents dis-agree with the availability of better security implementation and social cohesion among the people of judicial society. 29% of male and 42% of female respondents chose the neutral option in the case of security satisfaction with in the judicial housing society.

The overall results describe the little tilt towards the satisfaction of residents that think they are spending secure life, whereas almost same response is from those people who select the neutral option in response on security satisfaction. There are some highlighting points that provide a gap for explore further information in future researches with the courtesy of that topic, first point is to explore, what factors involves in selecting neutral option by the female respondents regarding such type of topics that includes security implementation and evaluation at community level. Second point to be explore are those factors that could be play a vital role to encourage a sense of social cohesion at individual level to build a strong public relationship at micro and meso level to overcome deviant activities in the society. The third highlighting point is, what psychological consequences any individual face in deviant environment of the society is that environment demotivate individuals to participate in community development programs. So according to these findings and discussion, the hypothesis of this study that was, “Security measures and Social cohesion among people may increase the safety satisfaction of residents with In the community” is accepted with slight margin, so results revealed the impact of security mesures on the safety satisfaction of residents in the community.

References:

Bursik, R.J. (1988). Social disorganization and theories of crime and delinquency: Problems and prospects. Criminology, 26, 519−551.

Edward L. Glaeser, Bruce Sacerdote (January 1996). Why Is There More Crime in Cities?. The international bureau of economic research.

Times, P. s. (29 July 2013 ). Pakistam state crime, 2013 street crimes on the rise . Retrieved

Lewyn, M. (August 13, 2008). Crime and urban design: Oscar Newman 36 years later . Retrieved from http://www.planetizen.com/node/34530

Hart, B. (August 21, 2001). Implementing a Successful Security Assessment Process. SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room.

Marco.A, Monsalve, James.R, Sutton (2003). Security Evaluation and Planning. The Architect’s Handbook of Professional Practice.

Margarita Greene, Ricardo Greene (n.d.). Global spatial impact and local self-organising processes. . Space Syntax Network.

Monica, S. (March 1976). Patrolling the neighborhood beat: Resident and residential security. RAND Corporation.

The Nation. (January 02, 2013). How to fight street crime. Retrieved from http://nation.com.pk/lahore/02-Jan 2013/how-to-fight-street-crime

The News. (March 06, 2015). To curb street crimes in Lahore. Retrieved from http://www.thenews.com.pk/print/27743-to-curb-street-crimes-in-lahore

TERENA. (2012). Community Satisfaction Survey 2012. TERENA Community Satisfaction Survey 2012.


[1] Oscar Newman is an architect and city planner known internationally for his work in community planning, assisted housing, crime prevention, and racial integration.

Details

Pages
12
Year
2015
ISBN (Book)
9783668662223
File size
636 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v387219
Grade
Tags
safety

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Title: Safety satisfaction in urban communities. A social analysis