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Review on Effect of Feeding Dairy Cow with Protected Fat and Protein on milk Yield and its Composition

Seminar Paper 2017 25 Pages

Veterinary medicine

Excerpt

Contents

List of table

List of Abrivation

Abstract

1.Introduction

2. Literature Review
2.1. Effect of feeding Dairy cows with protected fat on milk yield
2.2. Effect of protectedfat on milk composition
2.3. Sources of protected fat (By pass fat )
Table 2. The effect of protected fat in milk yield and its composition of cow
Table 3 Performance of lactating cows receiving rumen-protected supplements of AP-CLA, CLA ; CLA,; LE-CLA, CLA supplement in milk yield and composition
2.4. Effect of feeding Dairy cows with protected protein on milk yield
2.5. Effect of feeding Dairy cow with protected protien on milk composition
2.6. Economic aspect of feeding protected protein to Dairy cow

3. Methods of protein protection
3.1. Formaldehyde treatment
3.2. Heat treatment
3.3. Using lateral flow device dipsticks

4.Conclusion

5. Recommendation

References

Acknowledgment

God, the Almighty, helped me to pass through tough times that cannot be forgotten in every corner of my life. Had it not been the will of God, nothing would have been possible. So, I would like to thanks GOD. I would like to extend my thanks to advisor Mohammed Aliyi (MSc) , whom I found to be helpful in guiding and commenting me by devoting his time to make me accomplish this paper.

List of table

Table 1 effect of feeding Dairy cow with protected fat on milk yield

Table 2. The effect of protected fat in milk yield and its composition of cow

Table 3 Performance of lactating cows receiving rumen-protected supplements of AP-CLA, CLA ; CLA,; LE-CLA, CLA supplement in milk yield and composition

Table 4 Supplementation of dry season diets with UMMB

List of Abrivation

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abstract

Objective of this review is focus on effect of feeding protected fat and protected protein on milk yield and its composition and how these nutrients are protected . Many researchers in this review investigate that the responses are highly dependent on the type of fat and protein supplement and the stage of lactation. A higher milk response was observed with saturated than with unsaturated fat supplements . Diet with added fat increase milk production compared with a control diet without added fat in cows. Feeding of bypass fat resulted in significant increase in milk yield and Fat Corrected Milk yield particularly in early lactation . The source of Protected fat are (origin (animal, plant, processed or whole oilseeds, calcium salts) and Cereal Grains such as corn , wheat , Barly , oil seeds, sun flower, cotton seed, soybeans and canola) . The supplementation of protected protein in the diets of lactating animals increases the milk yield due to proportionate increase in the supply of amino acid s to the host postruminally Milk yield in cows fed protected methionine for the whole experimental period was numerically higher than in cows of the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant .At the centeral high land of Ethiopia the Treatment of shredded wheat and barley straw with urea, molasses, salt and water prior to feeding is a technology that should be considered . Cows with excessive body tissue mobilisation at this stage may take up to 20 weeks to regain a positive energy balance status .

Key words milk yield ,composition ,protected fat , protien protected

1.Introduction

In tropical countries, the majority of livestock subsist on poor quality native grasses, crop residues and agro- industrial byproducts. Therefore, high yielding and genetically improved dairy animals has big challenge to provide the essential nutrients for meeting metabolic requirements and sustaining milk production . So many scholars and researchers reported that Traditionally ,cereal grains have been used to increase the energy density of diet in the ration of high producing dairy cattle which adversely affect the dry matter in take depresses fiber digestion and results in milk fat depression syndrome (Shelke et al.;2012). In designing protein and/or amino acid supplements for lactating cows in, it is essential to formulate supplements with an amino acid content that is complementary to microbial protein, which is considered to be the best available source of essential amino acids for milk synthesis (Gulati et, al., 2008). Similarly in high producing dairy animals, specially during early lactation , the amount of energy and protein required for maintainance of body tissues and milk production often exceeds the amount of energy available from diet which results negative energy balance (Taylor et al ,2003) . The research conducted by Strusińska ,et al., (2006) at University of Warmia and Mazuria, Olsztyn, Poland perform experiment on Holstein-Frisian cows during the first 120 days of lactation Megapro Plus supplementation of a diet with a reduced (to 3%) rapeseed meal content in concentrate (group 2) resulted increased unsaturation milk fat, and positive changes in the fatty acid composition, reflected by improved health properties of milk. According to Shelke et.al. ; (2012) high yield can achieved from the early lactating improved cows were fed according to the nutrient requirement with high energy diet. Fat supplementation affects milk fat percentage and composition in different ways. Fat feeding may have negative effects on rumen fiber digestion and decrease acetic and butyric acid (precursors of short- and medium-chain FA in milk) production, affecting de novo fat synthesis in mammary gland. According to Tekebe et al (2014) reported that Urea Molasses Multi-nutrient Blocks fulfill several demands and should therefore be considered in strategies which aim to improve the nutritional situation of dairy cows in several regions of Ethiopia . According to Hassen A et al , (2010) Supplemental feeds such as the by products of grain and oil seed mills are fed to livestock especially when there is shortage of feed. Farmers in high altitude zone, especially those around the peri-urban areas, utilize by-products of grain for lactating crossbred cows. By- products of oil seeds secured through purchase from the local market are mixed with straw and other local supplements such as the spent brewer’s grains from the local manufacture of “atela” to feed livestock especially cross-bred dairy cows in Ethiopia.

Objective

To review effect of protected fat and protein on milk yield and milk composition And how to protect protein feed

2. Literature Review

2.1. Effect of feeding Dairy cows with protected fat on milk yield

Application of supplements of protected fats and polyenoic fatty acids of vegetable origin in a diet of different age and productive groups of cattle stimulates metabolism in the animals, increases their productivity and improves quality of milk (Pavkovych et al 2015) . Dietary fat, that resists biolysis and biohydrogenation in rumen by rumen microorganisms, but gets digested in lower digestive tract, is known as bypass fat or rumen protected fat (inert fat) ( Naik, 2011). Supplementation of fat to pasture based system appears to increase milk production by dairy cows grazing high-quality pastures such as (Perennial rye grass, Red clover, White clover, Alfalfa,in cool season) and Cereal Grains such as corn , wheat , Barly , oil seeds, sun flower, cotton seed, soybeans and canola) (Muller, 2003) and by products of cereal grains and oilseed during feed shortage for lactating cows in Ethiopia ( Hassen A et al 2010). The responses are highly dependent on the type of fat supplement and the stage of lactation. The percentage of fat in , Cotton seed 20%, Soy bean 18.8%, sun flower 44.4% , canola 40.2%, saturated fatty acids (SFA) cotton seed 26%, soybean 15%, sunflower 12%, palm oil 51% ,canola 06% and unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) cottonseed 74%,Soybean 85%,Sunflower 88%and palm 49% of different oil seeds in ration of Dairy cows are reviewed by (Naik ,2013 ). A higher milk response was observed with saturated than with unsaturated fat supplements . The effect of supplementation of dietary fat on milk and FCM production was related to the degree of saturation of the fat supplement and to the stage of lactation. Supplementation with unsaturated Fatty Acid sources did not significantly increase milk or FCM production where as both parameters were increased by saturated FA supplements.

Mid-lactation cows had higher milk yield response to fat supplementation but a lower production of FCM than early-lactation cows. Maximum milk production response to fat supplementation may not be achieved until cows are in a positive energy balance (Muller, 2003). The influence of varying levels of bypass fat on the milk yield and its composition of lactating crossbred cows is examined lactating cows The dry matter intake was not affected by feeding different levels of fat in contrastan addition of dietary fat, which increases the energy density of the cows' diet, may limit and/or shorten Negative Energy Balance (NEB) in early lactated dairy cows. because the impact of dietary fat is influenced by the sourceof fat, method of processing, amount of fat included in the diet, and stage of lactation (Kirovski et al, 2015) . this shows that at day 86 of lactation, 5.46 ± 0.32 urea and 3.26 ± 0.09 glucose concentrations were significantly lower in the palm oil-supplemented compared to the control Urea 6.58 ± 0.38 and Glucose 3.76 ± 0.06 respectively ; at day 58, 3.25 ± 0.04 Ca concentration was significantly higher in the palm oil-supplemented compared to the control group 3.07 ± 0.06 and at day 86, cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in the experimental 5.93 ± 0.39 compared to 4.45 ± 0.31thecontrol group . This is Similar to the result presented by (Sirohi et al.,2010 )Feeding of bypass fat resulted in significant increase in milk yield and FCM yield particularly in early lactation. Milk yield and FCM yield was increased by 15.61% and 24.01% in bypass fat fed group over the control group.

Effects of dietary lipids on milk production:- most researchers indicate that addition of dietary fat had a positive effect on energy metabolism by decreasing hepatic lipid and increasing liver glycogen content in transition dairy cows (Patton et al.,2004) . Simalrly Feeding bypass fat at the rate of 100-150 g day-1 to high yields during the transition period (10 days before and 90 days after calving) could help improving their milk production and reproduction efficiency (Garg et al., 2008) . Diets with added fat generally increase milk production compared with a control diet without added fat in cows. In cows, the increase is greater when given encapsulated animal fats or calcium salts of palm oil FA and when the saturation degree is higher (Martínez et al.,2013) . similarly study reported that the development of process of encapsulation of lipids in formaldhyde treated protein allows the feeding of large ruminant without adversely affecting rumen fermentation. Through the supplementation of by pass fat not only energy intake but also possible to increase unsaturated fatty acid in the milk (Garg et al ,2009) so during lactation stage, dairy cows require a lot of energy to produce milk. Energy can be increased either by higher dry matter intake (DMI), greater energy density in the diet or both. However, there is a limit to DMI. Once the limit is reached, what is needed is to raise the energy density of the dairy cow's diet. Therefore, the goal is to increase the energy intake without consuming more feed volume(InfluxLipds ,2017).

Table 1 effect of feeding Dairy cow with protected fat on milk yield

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2.2. Effect of protectedfat on milk composition

According to Martínez al et.,(2013) Fat supplementation affects milk fat percentage and composition in different ways. the effect of milk composition fat supplementation on milk fat percentage was not different from zero. However, when the effects were separated by type of fat supplement, saturated FA sources increased milk fat percentage by 5.1% (3.50 to 3.68%), and unsaturated FA sources reduced milk fat percentage 8.0% (3.5 to 3.22%). Fat feeding may have negative effects on rumen fiber digestion and decrease acetic and butyric acid (precursors of short- and medium-chain FA in milk) production, affecting de novo fat synthesis in mammary gland. When fat is included in the ration, the uptake and direct incorporation of long-chain FA into Total Growth by the mammary gland are increased.

In addition 36% of the 25 comparisons, a significant increase in milk fat production was observed. Similar to the results found for milk fat percentage, milk fat yield was increased more by saturated fat supplements [+75.5 g/d (+9.3%)] than by unsaturated fat supplements . The overall effect of unsaturated fats on milk fat yield in grazing conditions was not different from zero and can be explained by the combination of a decrease in the milk fat concentration and an increase in milk production (Muller,2003).

Feeding fat for a longer period increased DMI, as did greater differences in the amount of soluble protein percentage of the diet between control and treatment diets (Rabiee,et al,2012).

According to Lock et al , (2013) Addition of fat to the diet can increase the concentration and yield of milk fat. This response however, is inconsistent and often related to the amount and type of fat being fed. Unsaturated fatty acids have the potential to affect the growth of some groups of rumen bacteria and inhibit fat synthesis in the mammary gland. On the other hand, saturated fatty acids (e.g. palmitic [C16:0] and stearic [C18:0] acids) are considered to be inert in the rumen and have not been implicated in milk fat depression ( MFD).

Limitations of feeding fats to early lactation cows As a general rule of thumb, unsaturated fatty acids such as those found in canola oil are relatively toxic to the rumen microbes. This is especially true for forage-fibre digesting species. With that being said, this doesn't mean that canola oil or other types of unsaturated fatty acids should not be fed to dairy cows. Most rumen microbes have the ability to detoxify and reduce the toxic effect of unsaturated fats through a process called "bio-hydrogenation". However, large amount of unsaturated fatty acids (approximately 450g/head/d) can overwhelm this process,causing negative effects on the rumen microbial population. (http://www2.luresext.edu/international/NutrConstraints.htm.)According to Pavkovych et al (2015) proved that increasing the level of fats and fatty acids in the diets of cattle inhibits process of fiber digestion in the rumen , decrease digestion of organic matter in the fore stomach.

2.3. Sources of protected fat (By pass fat )

Corn oil for fatty acids derived from beef tallow and olive oil. However, it is unlikely that the protection afforded by these dietary fats is effectively with PUFA for esterification into phospholipids. No change occurred in composition of SFA . Instead, a major shift between linoleic acid and oleic acid occurred. data suggest that diets with high MUFA protect against the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen by affecting the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, thereby reducing susceptibility to free radical damage(Hwang et al.2011) . The addition of fat sources of different type and origin (animal, plant, processed or whole oilseeds, calcium salts) to the diet of ewes and goats generally increases milk fat content as opposed to dairy cows (Martínez AL et al.2012). Oilseeds contain polyunsaturated fatty acids, but they are slowly digested and the oil is gradually released into the rumen, thus allowing for saturation of the fatty acids and less chance of reduced fiber digestibility or milk fat depression (Chiba, 2014) . Plant oil supplements provide a dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, but if changes in the ruminal VFA pattern and the reduce roughage intake is high then rumen microbial protien in milk fat yield (Bauman and Griinari ,2001) . The source of Oil seeds Cotton ,Soybean, Sunflowe ,Palm,Canola (Naik ,2013 ). The economic value of the energy from fat will be affected by market costs of other energy sources such as cereal grains and alternative uses of fats. Fat must be fed in moderation to dairy cattle. About 2% to 3% fat will be present from typical dietary ingredients, and initial levels of supplemental fat generally will be 1% to 3% of dietary DM for increasing energy concentration of diets or delivery of some specific FA another source of by pass fat (Pavkovych et al.; 2015)Supplements of calcium salts of fatty acids, made of sunflower, soybean, rape, flax and palm oils are the most effective in a diet of young animals and cattle.

According to Lock et al., (2013) Performance of lactating cows receiving rumen-protected supplements of AP-CLA, Amide Protected CLA supplement; CLA, conjugated linoleic acid; LE-CLA, lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement in milk yield and composition . similarly (Stephen and Emanuele ,2006) reviewed that Feeding CLA through the first 20 weeks of lactation reduced milk fat percentage by 12.5%. During this period, cows receiving CLA tended to produce almost 3 kg/d more milk . The resulting increase in milk yield offset the reductions in milk fat percentage and resulted in only a 7.5% reduction in milk fat yield

Table 2. The effect of protected fat in milk yield and its composition of cow

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

supplement by Haylage , Silag concentrated fat & protein, Kirovski1,et al ( 2015) supplement by corn silage-based diet, without palm oil supplementation

Table 3 Performance of lactating cows receiving rumen-protected supplements of AP-CLA, CLA ; CLA,; LE-CLA, CLA supplement in milk yield and composition

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2.4. Effect of feeding Dairy cows with protected protein on milk yield

The increase in milk yield in lactating dairy with increasing the dietary level of Rumen Undegradable Proten (RUP) is due to an increase in DM I as well as the increased supply of metabolizable protein and amino acids (Gulati et at., 2005). The slight decrease in the protein content of milk from cows fed a diet supplemented with nitrogen fraction of true protein and whey protein observed by (Strusińska, 2006) . Similarly Suresh et al.,(2011) it was observed that the response of milk production increases up to 501-600g Undegradableprotien ( UDP) intake and there after, the milk production stabilizes with the increasing UDP levels. It was established that UDP intake of 571 g/h/day is required to produce an average of 10 kg 4% FCM (84.2% of accuracy). Milk yield and FCM yield is increased with increasing the dietary level of RDP while keeping the RUP proportion constant in cows (Kalscheur et at., 2006). Increased milk production in response to increasing the dietary RDP is the result of providing additional Nitrogen for ruminal microbial protein synthesis and greater microbial protein synthesis supports greater milk production. However, milk yield and FCM remained unaltered in cows fed increasing level of Rumen Degradable Protien as reported by ( Reynal and Broderick, 2005 ). There was no significant effect of treatments on nutrient(methonin) intake. Milk yield in cows fed protected methionine for the whole experimental period (subgroup MM) was numerically higher than in cows of the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (Kudrna,2009). Milk contains approximately 3.2 – 3.5% protein. thus a cow producing 25 kg milk per day secretes 800–900 g protein daily. cows have little ability to store protein in the body and so it must be supplied in the diet daily to maintain the milk yield. protein should be 15–18% of the total ration of a dairy cow depending on milk yield (Lusweti and Mwendia ,2012 ) .

2.5. Effect of feeding Dairy cow with protected protien on milk composition

milk contains approximately 3.2–3.5% protein. thus a cow producing 25 kg milk per day secretes 800–900 g protein daily. cows have little ability to store protein in the body 8 and so it must be supplied in the diet daily to maintain the milk yield. protein should be 15–18% of the total ration of a dairy cow depending on milk yield(Lukuyu,et al ,2012). High-producing cows (> 5 kg milk/100 kg BW) will likely to benefit form more bypass protein.

The lowest milk protein concentrations were observed in cows that did not receive any ruminally protected methionine at all (subgroup OO). The methionine supplementation marginally increased methionine concentration in milk Concentrations of 7 out of 11 amino acids were significantly higher in milk of cows fed protected methionine for the whole experiment than in cows fed the unsupplemented diet (subgroups MM and OO, respectively). Five of these amino acids (threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, and lysine) are generally regarded as essential for humans. Milk fat of cows fed the diet protien of group OO contained significantly less lauric acid than milk fat of other cows .No other significant changes in the fatty acid profile of milk fat were During the first 120 days of lactation, the mean daily milk yield recorded in cows fed a diet supplemented with Megapro was by 3.03 kg (group 2) and 3.05 kg (group 3) higher than in the control group (increase by 10.3%). FCM yield increased by 15.5% and 12.1%,respectively, in comparison with group1. A higher dry matter energy concentration in the diet for group 2 allowed to increase milk fat content by 7.8% (4.23 vs. 4.56%), but it was accompanied by a slight decrease in the levels of milk protein (3.07 vs. 3.01%) and solids- non-fat , as compared with group 1 (control). The feeding of high levels of supplemental energy and protein in dairy cow diet (group 3) was characterized by slightly higher concentrations of fat (by 2.6%) and dry matter, and a lower protein level (by approx. 2%), in comparison with group 1 (statistically non-significant differences). Due to higher milk production in group 1 and 2, mean daily yields of major milk components were highly significantly or significantly higher than their yields recorded in the control group was observed (Strusińska, 2006) .

Dairy cow treated under experimental group fed with protected protein supplement at one month from stage of lactation significantly increase average daily milk yield and control groups are the same stage with the experimental group. However, the milk yield was apparently more after one month of lactation in all the treatment groups compared to control group (Shankare,et al., 2013 ) . similar to this According to Garg el al., (2005) feeding formaldehyde treated rapeseed meal increase not only milk yield but also increase fat percent in treatment group.According toMin et al., (2003) Moderate concentrations of condensed tannin (CT) can be used to increase the efficiency of protein digestion; however the effects are not the same for all Condensed tannin, but rather depend upon the concentration and structure of the CT. According to Kudrnaet al.,(2009) Milk yield in cows fed protected methionine for the whole experiment duration cows was higher and feed intake was lower than in cows of the other groups. The effect of protected methionine on milk yield was not, however, statistically significant. Effects of protected methionine on milk fat and protein were small and inconsistent. Supplemental methionine significantly increased the methionine concentration in serum . while the methionine concentration in milk was not increased quite significantly . According to Mesfin et al., (2009) Treatment of crop residues with ammonia using fertilizer grade urea has received much attention, especially in Asia . Urea-ammonia treatment of straw is a technically effective and feasible on-farm technology to improve the nutritive value of fibrous crop residues. Feeding urea treated teff straw with bypass protein source was found to be an effective approach to maximize the utilization of locally available feed resources for better animal productivity during the dry season in mixed farming system of Ethiopia.

Table 4 Supplementation of dry season diets with UMMB

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source :- Tekeba et al., 2013

Table 9 Ruminant diet containing rumen by pass proteins

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Sourse review of (Haryanto , 2014 )

2.6. Economic aspect of feeding protected protein to Dairy cow

According to Garg et al .(2003) Economics of milk production on feeding protected Rapeseed meal was calculated and 1.0 kg protected Rapeseed meal as compared to unprotected resulted in increase average daily net income according to the data presented by (Tekebe ete al ,2014) concluded that supplementing dairy cows with UMMB during the dry season is basically a helpful measure to maintain a satisfactory level of production and to improve important economic traits of milk production in Ethiopia. Depending on the availability of UMMB, priority in supplementation should however be given to cows with a high genetic potential for milk production

3. Methods of protein protection

3.1. Formaldehyde treatment

It can be deduced that 1.5% formaldehyde treatment to mustard oil cake will be beneficial in increasing digestible undegradable protein in wheat straw containing diet without affecting the digestibility, but more studies are needed to validate the results under in vivo conditions. The result of this study might have implication in all other developing countries where the diet is based on straw and mustard cake, which is highly degradable in the rumen. Thus, protection of mustard cake by formaldehyde treatment may help in improving the protein supplementation of ruminants (Mahima et al,2015) . This is cormfirmed the reviewed of Haryanto, (2014 ) Protection of protein from microbial enzyme degradation can be carried out by linking the protein molecule to several chemicals such as formaldehyde . similar to this Shelke,et .al.,(2012 ) revised that treatments have also been used for the protection of proteins and for this formaldehyde treatment has been the most effective and feasible technology for manufacture of bypass protein. According to Khandaker et al.,(2012 ) supplementation of RDP from MOC enhances the intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis which ultimately increases utilization of low-quality feed resources that can be used for developing cost-effective feeding systems on a straw-based diet in tropical regions.

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Pages
25
Year
2017
ISBN (eBook)
9783668660540
ISBN (Book)
9783668660557
File size
653 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v385881
Institution / College
Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
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review effect feeding dairy protected protein yield composition

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Title: Review on Effect of Feeding Dairy Cow with Protected Fat and Protein on milk Yield and its Composition