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Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration. A New Approach for Repairing the Central Nervous System

Presentation slides 2017 10 Pages

Medicine - Medical Frontiers and Special Areas

Excerpt

Abstract

- Overview

- In retrospect, Amyotrophic Laterals Sclerosis (ALS) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) are aggravating neurological circumstances that affect people all over the globe, considerably decreasing the value of existence, both for the sick persons and their families.

- Objective of the presentation

- This presentation aims at demonstrating the promise of stem cell-based therapies for regeneration of the central nervous system.

- Technique

- Appraisal of the writings from the last ten years of human research utilizing stem cell translocation as the key remedy, in the company of adjuvant remedies or not.

- Summary

- The present analysis provides a synopsis of the situation of the art concerning the restitution of the spinal cord and acts as a beginning position for an upcoming research.

INTRODUCTION

- Regenerative medicine has emerged as a promising approach towards development of therapies that restore tissue functioning.
- Of great significance is the remarkable breakthrough in stem cell technology.
- Stem cell therapies utilize stem cells to repair, regenerate, or replace damaged tissue cells and organs that occur due to tissue injuries or degenerative pathologies.

As reported by Bubelaand McCabe (2013) who analyzed 4,102 stem cell clinical trials, there are numerous stem cell therapies which are getting into late-stage clinical development.

Objective

- This presentation reviews the methods through which stalk unit remedy can advance spinal cord reproduction in human beings based on the available research evidence.
- The review focuses on two dissimilar pathologies: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

DISCUSSION

The Spinal Cord and the Human Body: Myths and
Facts

- For decades, the spinal cord was viewed as a hose that simply linked the mind to the diverse human body structures and organs.
- Despite the existence of diverse convictions regarding to the nature of the neuron, current research evidence demystifies the controversy created by the venerable arguments:

1) The Neuron Doctrine: - proposed that neurons communicate with another through synapses
2) The Reticular Theory: - suggested that neurons are contiguous physically (Burke, 2006).
3) Conviction of CNS incapability to redevelop

- Santiago Ramon Y Cajal demonstrated that the transected animal spinal cords were, in fact, capable of redeveloping (Ridler, 2017).

- Spinal Cord Injury and Amyotrophic Laterals Sclerosis are some the most aggravating neurological conditions that continue to inflict suffering on people across the globe.

1) Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

- A SCI laceration is a severe ischemia that creates damage to vertebral ligaments, discs, and bones (Leal-Filho, 2011).

- In the US, SCI accounts for 12,000 new cases, annually.
- The National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center [NSCISC] (2010) reports the causes of SCI as automobile accidents (41.7%), falls (27.3%), violence (15%), and sports (7.8%).

2) Amyotrophic Laterals Sclerosis (ALS)

- ASL is a neurodegenerative ailment in which a growing paralysis results to demise, often through respiratory breakdown, in 36 to 60 months of the initial warning signs (Al-Chalabi et al., 2012)

- It occurs in 2 in every 100,000 people, annually (Al-Chalabi et al., 2012).

Amyotrophic Laterals Sclerosis (ALS)

- ASL is a neurodegenerative ailment in which a growing paralysis results to demise, often through respiratory breakdown, in 36 to 60 months of the initial warning signs (Al-Chalabi et al., 2012)
- It occurs in 2 in every 100,000 people, annually (Al-Chalabi et al., 2012).

Impact of Spinal Cord Damages

- Spinal cord damages:

a. Incomplete damage

b. Complete damage

- Lead to grave outcomes.

[...]

Details

Pages
10
Year
2017
ISBN (eBook)
9783668654235
File size
632 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v384581
Institution / College
Egerton University
Grade
1
Tags
stem cells tissue regeneration approach repairing central nervous system

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Title: Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration. A New Approach for Repairing the Central Nervous System