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Regional and Local Development in Ethiopia. Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved Cookstoves

Evidence from "Mirt" Injera Baking Stove

Master's Thesis 2014 108 Pages

Sociology - Economy and Industry

Excerpt

Table of Content

Acknowledgment

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

Glossary

Abstract

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Appendices

CHAPETR ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Research Objectives
1.4.1 General Objective:
1.4.2 Specific Objectives:
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.5.1 Scope of the Study
1.5.2 Limitation of the Study
1.6 Significance of Study
1.7 Organization of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Improved Cookstoves Programmes
2.2 Improved Cookstoves Development and Projects in Ethiopia
2.2.1 General Description of ‘Mirt’ Stove
2.3 Benefits of Adopting Improved Cookstoves
2.4 Best Experiences: China and Kenya
2.5 Empirical Literature on Factors Affecting Cookstoves Adoption
2.6 Determinant Factors of Improved Cookstoves Adoption
2.7 Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
3.1 Selection and Description of the Study Area
3.2 Research Design and Strategy
3.2.1 Research Design
3.2.2 Research Approach
3.3 Data Type and Source
3.4 Sampling Design and Procedures
3.5 Data Collection and Instruments
3.5.1 Data Collection Instruments
3.6 Data Collection Procedures
3.7 Data processing and Analyzing
3.7.1 Data Processing
3.7.2 Analyzing Procedures
3.8 Operational Definitions and Descriptions of Variables
3.9 Model Specification
3.9.1 Diagnostic Tests

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Descriptive Statistics and Discussion
4.1.1 Food Preparation and Wood Supply Responsibilities in Rural Households
4.1.2 Type of Fuel and Energy Consumption Pattern in Rural Households
4.1.3 Status of Mirt Stove Adoption
4.1.4 Mirt Stove Adoption and Household Characteristics
4.1.5 Mirt Stove Adoption and Source of Fuel-wood
4.1.6 Mirt Stove Adoption and Price
4.1.7 Mirt Stove Adoption and Institutional Factors
4.1.8 Mirt Stove Adoption and Social Factors
4.1.9 Barriers of Mirt Stove Adoption
4.2 Econometric Analysis and Discussion
4.2.1 Binary Logit Model and Determinants of Mirt Stove Adoption
4.2.2 Regression Result Interpretation

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation

References

Appendices

Acknowledgment

First of all, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my principal advisor Girma Tegene (Assistant Professor) for his genuine and constructive comments from the early conception to the end of this research. In addition, I would also like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my co-advisor Abdulkerim Ahmed (MA) for his invaluable comments and unreserved assistance for the accomplishment of this research.

Second, special thanks to Adugnaw Wasihun (lecturer), Asnake Worku (lecturer), and Tsegazab Gebremariam (Msc student, economics department), Mekelle University, for their genuine comments and relentless assistance during specifying, analyzing and interpreting the econometric part of the research. My heartfelt thank goes to W/t Genet Aberaha for her cooperation in supplying me the necessary documents and other facilities during proposal development and data collection. My special gratitude goes to Ato Tesfaye Mengie, Ato Gashaw Bogale and Ato Beyene Alamir for their assistance in collecting data for the study.

Finally, I am indebted to my father Ato Alamir Tegegne and my mother W/o Muluken Alehegn for their relentless support and encouragement this work to be accomplished. I am also grateful to my brothers and sisters for their unreserved moral, material and financial support. Special thanks to my best friends Simachew Amare (Jigjiga University) and Abraham Abebe (Hawassa University) for their unreserved moral supports and idea sharing.

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Glossary

Adoption: In this study adoption refers to the decision of households to acquire/adopt an improved cookstove and the interest to use.

Household: Here household refers to a group of people who eat together regularly and/or who sleep under the same roof together.

Improved Cookstove: An improved cookstove is a stove that is more fuel efficient and releases fewer emissions as compared to a traditional “three-stone” fire.

Kebele: Kebele refers to the lowest level government administrative structure in Ethiopia.

Inefficient: Here inefficient refers to using cooking devices with high biomass consumption, low per-unit energy production and increased emissions of smoke and particulates.

Injera: Injera is the traditional food in major Ethiopian households, and mostly prepared from “teff”.

Open-fire: Open-fire refers to traditional method that relies on a clay ‘U’ or three stones to support cooking that are highly inefficient in their use of fuel.

Solid fuels: Solid fuels refer to fuels which include biomass fuels (such as wood, crop residues, dung, charcoal) and coal.

Woreda: Woreda refers to government’s administrative unit in Ethiopia which is equivalent to district.

Abstract

In the developing world plenty of programmes and initiatives have been working to disseminate improved wood burning cookstoves which have health, economic and environmental benefits. To this end, understanding factors affecting adoption of improved cookstoves plays a key role. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect households ‘Mirt’ stove adoption decision in rural kebeles of Dembecha Woreda, Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, by using mixed research methods. A survey was conducted with a structured questionnaire for 210 households that were systematically selected from three rural kebeles which were selected purposively. Semi-structure interviews and focus group discussions were also held with a total of 9 key informants. Data from questionnaires were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression and data from interviews and the focus group discussions were analyzed through intensive textual analysis. The regression result reveals that women literacy level and separate kitchen house were found to be significant and positively correlated with the probability of Mirt stove adoption decision while marital status, source of wood and price of Mirt stove were found to be significant and negatively correlated with the probability of Mirt stove adoption decision. Furthermore, age and family size of the household characteristics were not found to be statistically significant. Providing services and supports to the potential users and producers, denying access to open forest and decentralizing Mirt stove production sites were found to be institutional factors to influence Mirt stove adoption. Membership in social associations, active participation in social activities, informal information exchange, early adopters and neighbors’ influence were found to be social factors that influence Mirt stove adoption. Thus, women’s literacy level should be increased through adult education. Improved cookstoves programs and projects should target on areas where there is no open forest access. And there should be more structural decentralization in terms of assigning rural energy experts from Woreda to kebele level.

Key words : Adoption, Cookstoves, Logit Model, Improved, Open-fire, Solid-fuel

List of Tables

Table 3.1: Proportional Sample Size Determination

Table 3.2: Summery of Model Diagnostic Tests

Table 4.1: Cooking and Wood Supply Responsibilities in Rural Households

Table 4.2: Energy Sources and Consumption in Rural Households

Table 4.3: Status of Mirt Stove Adoption

Table 4.5: Awareness and Sources about Mirt Stove and Open-fire

Table 4.6: Mirt Stove Adoption, Age and Family Size

Table 4.7: Mirt Stove Adoption and Marital Status

Table 4.8: Mirt Stove Adoption, Literacy Level and Separate Kitchen

Table 4.9: Reasons for the Need of Separate Kitchen

Table 4.10: Mirt Stove Adoption and Source of Fuel-wood

Table 4.11: Mirt Stove Adoption and Price

Table 4.12: Mirt Stove Adoption and Institutional Factors

Table 4.13: Mirt Adoption and Membership to and Participation in Social Associations

Table 4.14: Mirt Stove Adoption and Influence of Social Factors

Table 4.15: Barriers of Mirt Stove Adoption

Table 4.16: Summery of Variables Included in Logit Model

Table 4.17: Logistic Regression Estimation Result

List of Figures

Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework for Factoring Affecting Adoption of Mirt Stove

Figure 3.1: The Map of Dembecha Woreda

Figure 4.1: Respondents’ Perception on the Price of Mirt Stove and their Opinion

List of Appendices

Appendix A: Logistic Model (Goodness-of-Fit Test)

Appendix B: Pair-wise Correlations Coefficient and VIF Tests

Appendix C: Linktest, Ovtest, Hettest Tests and Scale Reliability Test

Appendix D: Logistic Regression Estimation Result

Appendix E: Questionnaire, Questions for Interviews and Focus Groups Discussion

CHAPETR ONE INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the back ground of the study, statement of the problem, questions and objectives of the study. Besides, the scope and limitation of study, the significance of the study and the organization of the paper are also presented.

1.1 Background of Study

Worldwide about half of the population energy consumption is dependent on traditional fuel sources including wood, charcoal, coal and crop straws and leaves, and animal dung as well with traditional and inefficient stove technologies (Klasen et al, 2013). Cooking with stoves which are not efficient is associated with health problem, degradation of forest coverage as well as climate change (Lee et al, 2013). Indoor air pollution due to high level of smoke, deforestation due to inefficient fuel consumption, climate change like global warming due to incomplete combustion and loss of productive opportunities for collecting fuel wood are partly attributed to the use of traditional (three stone) cooking practice (Puzzolo, 2013). According to International Energy Agency (IEA, 2010), globally it is estimated that about 1.5 million each year and 4000 each day pre mature deaths are associated with the indoor air pollution from the use of biomass in inefficient cookstoves in 2030, which is more deaths than malaria, almost as equivalent as tuberculosis and almost half as many as HIV/AIDS.

Energy supply in developing countries is primarily dependent upon traditional sources including wood, charcoal, agricultural residuals and animal wastes (IEA, 2010). About fifty-six percent of the population in developing countries depends on traditional biomass and coal and cook with open three-stone fire which is associated with high level of indoor air pollution; to which 38 percent of annual deaths is attributed (WHO, 2009). According to International Energy Agency (2010), in developing countries about 2.7 billion people burn biomass and it is estimated this number to, if new measures like clean biomass cookstove technologies dissemination and adoption are taken, increase to 2.8 billion by 2030.

Energy supply in African countries is heavily dependent on traditional fuels like wood, agricultural residues, animal waste, charcoal and coal which accounts above 80% (GACC, 2011). To the extreme, in some African countries solid fuel accounts above 95% total energy supply and largely burn with open three stone fire inefficiently which also results in negative effect on health and the environment (Karekezi et al, 2002).

The Sub- Saharan African countries energy supply is heavily dominated by biomass which accounts above 90%, and the dominant cooking practice is three-stone open fire (Adkins et al, 2010; Schlag & Zuzarte, 2008). According to estimation by International Energy Agency (2010), the number of people relying on traditional biomass in sub-Saharan Africa is projected to increase from 585 in 2009 into 652 million in 2030 which accounts for 54 % of the world total as compared with 41 % in 2009.

Like many other sub-Saharan countries, Ethiopia’s energy supply is heavily dependent on solid fuel that accounts for above 95 % (NCCSPE, 2011). This heavy dependence and inefficient utilization of biomass resources is partly attributed to the depletion of the country’s forest resources (Gebreegziabher et al, 2010; Asres, 2002; Shanko, 2001) and 4.9% of the Ethiopian burden of disease (Damte & Koch, 2011).

In rural areas of the developing part of the world, since modern cooking fuels like electricity are both unavailable and unaffordable for many in the near future, the use of solid biomass for cooking is likely to continue. Therefore, efforts to develop, adopt and use improved biomass cook stoves is the best intermediate solution of improving the way biomass is supplied and used in addressing the adverse impacts of open-fire (GIZ, 2013; Barnes et al, 1994). Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC, 2011, p.4) states the potential benefits of adopting improved cookstoves as follow;

Not only is adoption of clean cooking solutions a health, economic, gender, and environmental imperative, it is essential for achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for child mortality, maternal health, poverty eradication, gender equality, and environmental sustainability.

Improved biomass cookstoves have multiple economic, social, environmental, and health benefits (Jacob, 2013; Bwenge, 2011; Rwiza, 2009; Schlag & Zuzarte, 2008; Asres, 2002; Barnes et al., 1994 and others).

Since 1970s, many improved biomass cookstove programs have been set and promoted by governments, donors and Non-Governmental Organizations and other for and not for-profit organizations in the developing part of the world (Puzzolo et al, 2013; Gifford, 2010; Makame, 2007; Barnes, 1994). Given the expected household benefits, research to examine factors influencing improved cookstoves adoption decisions at the household level has become more urgent and deserves attention (Mobarak et al, 2012; Damte & Koch, 2011). Understanding the factors that influence a household’s decision to adopt improved stoves is essential element for the realization of economic, social, environmental, and health benefits of improved cookstoves and for the success of intervention programs (Lamarre‐Vincent, 2011).

However, the determinants of improved cookstoves adoption and sustained use have not been yet fully examined, thus, more rigorous research helps for strengthening the understanding of which factors are most important for securing adoption and sustained use (Klasen et al, 2013; Puzzolo, 2013; Damte & Koch, 2011). Lewis and Pattanayak (2012) also, in their systematic review, concluded that adoption study of improved cook stoves is scarce, scattered, and of differential quality. Besides, Puzzolo et al (2013) and Schlag and Zuzarte (2008), in their systematic review of factors affecting the adoption of improved cookstoves, concluded that important variables such as the role of socio-cultural and institutional factors are understudied and they recommend future researches to include these variables.

Therefore, this study may contribute to fill this gap by identifying factors affecting the adoption of improved cookstoves since these understudied variables (social and institutional factors) were included in the analysis.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Above ninety-five percent of Ethiopia’s national energy supply is heavily dependent on solid fuel (NCCSPE, 2011). The heavily dependency on biomass fuel, coupled with open three-stone fire cooking, is one of the significant causes of deforestation and forest degradation, resulting in growing fuel scarcity and higher firewood prices, loss of agricultural productivity (MoWE, 2012; Dawit, 2011; Gebreegziabher et al, 2010). According to César and Ekbom (2013), between 2010 and 2030 annual fuel wood consumption will rise by 65% with large effects on forest degradation.

According to Ethiopia National Clean Cook Stoves Program (NCCSPE, 2011) more than 99% of the rural households depend up on firewood for cooking and heating purpose. The household sector dominates and continues to dominate, accounting for about 90 % of total energy consumption (NCCSPE, 2011; ESMAP, 1996). The preparation of the Ethiopian staple food named ‘Injera’ is the country’s largest source of fuel use which accounts around 50% of the households fuel consumption and causes carbon emissions, environmental degradation and negative effects on women and children health; through (indoor) air pollution, firewood collection and burns from cook fires(Assefa, 2007; Wosenu, 2004).

To improve household energy efficiency in ‘Injera’ baking, the Ethiopian Energy Studies and Research Center (EREDPC) had developed the ‘Mirt’ Injera baking stove as one intervention and it is on the process of dissemination (MoWE, 2012; Megen power Lted, 2008; ESMAP, 1996). ‘Mirt’ stove has tremendous potential for reduction of fuel wood consumption, by up to 50 per cent compared to the traditional three stone open-fire, and can reduces dangers of burning and increases fuel efficiency (GIZ, 2012; Simons, 2012; Wosenu, 2004).

For the success of improved cookstoves disseminating initiatives, programs and projects and for the realization of the potential benefits of improved cookstoves, first stoves must be adopted and then sustainably used by households (GACC, 2012; Barnes et al, 1994). For this end, research understanding factors influencing the adoption and sustained use of improved cookstoves is crucial (Puzzolo, 2013; GACC, 2012; Mobarak et al, 2012; Barnes et al, 1994).

In the study area there is a project (GIZ) which has been producing and disseminating Mirt Injera baking stove to users through its local stakeholders with close partnership of Dembecha Woreda agricultural office and kebele offices agents since 2008. In addition to the involvement of GIZ in the production and dissemination of ‘Mirt’ stove, the government of Ethiopia has been and also working to implement its national program, called Ethiopia National Clean Cook Stoves Programme (NCCSPE), since 2011 through Woreda Water Office (Woreda Rural Energy) mainly ‘Mirt’ stove to the rural kebeles. There is also a new initiative called Ethiopia Improved Cookstoves Initiative (CPA 1) to disseminate Mirt stove for 21 years under the implementation of World Food Progamme-Ethiopia.

Unfortunately, studies about the determinant factors of Mirt Injera baking stove adoption are limited in Ethiopia. Biruk (2011) at Agarfa district in Oromia Regional State, Damte and Koch (2011) in Ethiopian urban areas, Gebreegziabher et al (2010) in Tigray and Dawit (2008) at Adea Woreda, Oromia Regional State, are the previous studies conducted regarding factors influencing the adoption of ‘Mirt’ stove. To contribute in overcoming this limited empirical study in Ethiopia, Damte and Koch (2011) recommended further research to be conducted.

As far as the researcher’s knowledge is concerned, there was no study conducted on factors affecting ‘Mirt’ Injera baking stove adoption in rural areas of Dembecha Woreda. Apart from this, all of the previous studies in Ethiopia did include only variables of household characteristics, the access to open forest, having separate kitchen house, and to some extent social influence in analyzing factors affecting Mirt stove adoption. All of the previous studies in Ethiopia did not include price and institutional factors in identifying factors affecting rural households Mirt stove adoption decision.

A key factor influencing the implementation, promotion as well as dissemination of improved cookstoves in a given country is its existing institutional infrastructure and set up (Makonese et al, 2006). Institutional factors such as awareness creation to potential users, regulation of the improved cookstoves’ standard and price, financing options such as credit access and decentralizing production site are important variables that influence the households improved cookstoves adoption decision (GIZ, 2013; Puzzolo, 2013). The price of improved cookstoves is also considered as one important factor to influence the adoption decision. For instance, Axen (2012) argues that the price of improved stoves and households positive perception about the price affect the household’s adoption decision. Damte and Koch (2011) also recommended that future studies should take in to consideration the effect of price on households’ technology (Mirt stove) adoption decision.

As a result, this research differs from previous studies in Ethiopia in that it included institutional factors and the effect of price in the analysis of factors affecting the adoption of Mirt stove. Therefore, this study may add an original contribution to the existing fund of knowledge with regard to factors affecting households Mirt stove adoption decision.

1.3 Research Questions

The research was conducted to answer following questions:

1. What is the status of Mirt stove adoption in Dembecha Woreda rural kebeles?
2. Which household characteristics have effect on Mirt stove adoption decision?
3. What is the effect of fuel wood source on Mirt stove adoption decision?
4. What is the effect of price on a household’s Mirt stove adoption decision?
5. How institutional factors influence a household’s ‘Mirt’ stove adoption decision?
6. How social factors influence a household’s ‘Mirt’ stove adoption decision?

1.4 Research Objectives

This study was conducted to achieve one general objective and six specific objectives. In this section, these objectives are clearly put.

1.4.1 General Objective:

The main purpose of this study is to investigate factors that affect households’ adoption decision of ‘Mirt’ stove in rural kebeles of Dembecha Woreda.

1.4.2 Specific Objectives:

This study was conducted to achieve the following specific objectives:

1. To assess the status of Mirt stove adoption in Dembecha Woreda rural kebeles;
2. To identify the effect of household characteristics on Mirt stove adoption decision;
3. To investigate the effect of wood source on Mirt stove adoption decision;
4. To analyze the effect of price on a household’s Mirt stove adoption decision;
5. To examine the influence of institutional factors on ‘Mirt’ stove adoption decision;
6. To examine the influence of social factors on ‘Mirt’ stove adoption decision

1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study

Under this section, the geographical, conceptual, theoretical and methodological scopes of this study are presented. Besides, the limitation of this research is also dealt.

1.5.1 Scope of the Study

Geographically, this study was limited to Dembecha Woreda in rural areas (kebeles) in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia. Conceptually, this research was limited to identifying factors affecting adoption of ‘Mirt’ stove at the household level. Theoretically, the research was based on the ideas of Energy Ladder, Energy Stacking and Diffusion of Innovation theories in identifying factors affecting households’ decision to adopt or not. Besides, methodologically, this study employed mixed research methods and in terms of time, this research used cross-sectional data that was gathered in identifying factors influencing the adoption of Mirt stove.

1.5.2 Limitation of the Study

This research did not include the urban areas that are found in Dembecha Woreda. This study also was limited to only ‘Mirt’ stove. The study did not include other fuel efficient cookstoves. The research was limited to identify factors affecting the adoption of ‘Mirt’ stove at the household level; it was not about sustained use. This research also faced limitations due to the very nature of strategies, methods and tools that were employed. Longitudinal data were not used for this study.

1.6 Significance of Study

The findings of the study may help project implementers, local ‘Mirt’ stove producers, Woreda water office, and Woreda agricultural office and kebele agents and National Clean Cookstoves Program of Ethiopia to be aware about the determinant factors which affect households Mirt stove adoption decision. Since the determinant factors that affect households ‘Mirt’ stove adoption decision were investigated, the above mentioned bodies can easily identify the potentially effective intervention areas which can play crucial role for their success. If the above mentioned bodies take in to consideration factors influencing household’s adoption of ‘Mirt’ stove and work to overcome barriers of adoption, then households would likely to adopt the stove. As a result, all the households and the projects would be beneficiaries, and at large this contributes its part for the realization of Ethiopia’s Green Economy Strategy.

Other researchers may also use the findings of this study in relation to factors affecting the adoption of ‘Mirt’ stove in rural areas. The study may contribute to the contemporary empirical literature on factors that determine household choice of adoption of improved cookstoves in developing countries.

1.7 Organization of the Study

This thesis has five chapters. The first chapter deals with the background of the study and defines the problem of the study, basic questions and objectives of the study, the scope and limitation of study and the significance of the study. The second chapter includes improved cookstoves programmes, the development of improved cookstoves and projects in Ethiopia, best experiences, the benefits of adoption of improved cookstoves, empirical studies on factors affecting the adoption of improved cookstoves and determinants of improved cookstoves adoption. In addition, this chapter discusses the theoretical and conceptual framework of the study. The third chapter deals with the methods of the study. Under this section, the selection and study area description, data type and source, research design and research strategy, sampling design and procedures, data collection and instruments, data collection procedure, and data processing, definition and description of variables as well as model specification are dealt. The fourth chapter presents analysis and discussion and the fifth chapter of this paper deals with conclusion and recommendation. Finally, the reference materials and appendices are also included.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

Under this Chapter, the development of improved cookstoves programs, the development of improved cookstoves and projects in Ethiopia are captured. Besides, best experiences, the benefits of adopting improved cookstoves, empirical literature on factors affecting the adoption of improved cookstoves and determinants of improved cookstoves adoption are dealt. Furthermore, this chapter discusses the theoretical base and conceptual framework of the study.

2.1 Improved Cookstoves Programmes

Even though the development and the adoption of wood-burning stoves traces back, as an intervention program it was following the 1970s oil price rise. Later on, the desire to rationalize the continuing reliance on biomass resource, the desire to mitigate deforestation and to narrow down the gap between fuel supply and demand improved cookstoves programs have given high focus on energy efficiency (Inayat et al, 2012; GACC, 2011; Barnes, 1994). To address higher oil prices, increasing deforestation, and fuel wood crisis governments, donors and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) came up with supply-side and demand-side strategies and started to finance and develop stove programs. The development and dissemination of improved stoves is one demand-side intermediate solution in developing countries where clean fuels like electricity are not available or will not be affordable in the near future(Inyant et al, 2012; GACC, 2011; Barnes, 1994).

Since 1970s, many improved biomass cookstove programs have been set and promoted by governments, donors and Non-Governmental Organizations and other for and not for-profit organizations in the developing part of the world (Puzzolo et al, 2013; Gifford, 2010; Makame, 2007; Barnes, 1994). Some of national improved cookstoves programs were established and are on implementation including programs in Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Nepal, Papua-New Guinea, Senegal, Somalia, Sri Lanka (Gifford, 2010), Ethiopia (NCCSPE, 2011).

In the present days many regional and global programs and initiatives also have been initiated and are being implemented by GIZ, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the East African Community(EAC), the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development(UNCSD), the United Nation Secretary General’s Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change (AGECC), International Energy Agency (IEA) and the UN Foundation Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (UNGACC)( Puzzolo et al, 2013).

According to the report by Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC, 2012), Africa as a region has the largest number of stoves manufactured (4.8 million), 78% of which was in Ethiopia and Kenya, while Asia manufactured about 4.3 million stoves with the lion share of China. China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Cambodia and Bangladesh were reported as the largest improved cookstoves manufacturing countries by the year 2012.

2.2 Improved Cookstoves Development and Projects in Ethiopia

Ethiopia’s energy supply is heavily dependent on biomass, which accounts for above 95% and in terms of sectoral consumption, household accounts for about 91.3% of the total energy consumption, of which biomass fuel accounts 98.5 % and also within the household sector the rural and urban household energy consumption accounts for 92 and 8%, respectively (Asres, 2002). This heavy dependency on biomass fuel, coupled with open three-stone fire cooking, is one of the significant causes of deforestation and forest degradation, resulting in growing fuel scarcity and higher firewood prices, loss of agricultural productivity, creates indoor air pollution (MoWE, 2012; Gebreegziabher et al., 2010). According to César and Ekbom (2013), between 2010 and 2030 annual fuel wood consumption will rise by 65% with large effects on forest degradation. Thus, for developing countries like Ethiopia whose energy supply is heavily dependent on biomass fuels such as wood, charcoal and agricultural residues, technical advances in energy efficiency are critical (NCCSPE, 2011; GACC, 2011).

By taking in to consideration the consequences of excessive and inefficient use, the Ethiopian government and other oversea organizations (mainly GIZ) have embarked on a two-pronged policy tree planting or afforestation and dissemination of more efficient stove technologies (Gebreegziabher et al, 2006). In the case of energy efficiency, mainly the Ethiopian Energy Studies and Research Center (EESRC), currently, Ethiopian Rural Energy Development and Promotion Center, exerted immense efforts since 1989 to develop improved stoves and three types of improved stoves have been developed, Lakech charcoal stove, Electric Injera stove and Mirt improved biomass Injera stove (Asefa, 2007; Gebreegziabher et al, 2006).

The National Clean Cook Stove Program Ethiopia (NCCSPE) is also one of the efforts for this purpose and improved cookstoves play a great role in reducing deforestation due to their fuel wood saving feature; reduce GHG emission due to less smoke, reduce indoor air pollution and have other social and economic benefits (NCCSPE, 2011).

Under the implementation of World Food Progamme-Ethiopia, there is also a new initiative which is called Ethiopia Improved Cookstoves Initiative (CPA 1) to disseminate Mirt stove for injera baking that lasts for 21 years (WFP-Ethiopia, 2013).

2.2.1 General Description of ‘Mirt’ Stove

Mirt Injera baking stove was first developed in the first half of the 1990s by the Ethiopian Energy Studies and Research Center (EESRC), under a project called World Bank funded Cooking Efficiency Improvement and New Fuels Marketing Project (CEINFMP) (Assefa, 2007; Dawit, 2008). Mirt stove is used for baking Injera and it is produced with mortar- a mixture of scoria (red ash) or pumice or river sand with cement (Simon, 2012). GIZ-HERA (2012, p.2) describes Mirt as follow:

Mirt stove has six parts that are joined together. Four parts fit to make a cylindrically shaped enclosure (about 66cm in diameter and 24cm high) where the firewood is burned under a baking plate. Two other parts joined one atop the other and are fitted with the cylindrical enclosure from behind. These last two parts regulate the flow of smoke in the stove and provide a rest for the cooking pot. The cylindrical enclosure has two openings. The first opening, which has a semi-elliptic shape, is at the lower front of the enclosure and is about 24cm wide and 11cm high. It is used as fuel and air inlet. The second is at the rear up, where the enclosure is fitted with the smoke regulating parts, as smoke outlet. This opening is of rectangular cross section and has a dimension of 19cm width and 7cm height.

Picture 1: Mirt stove

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source: Adapted from GIZ-HERA (2012)

Depending on the thickness of the parts as well as the raw materials used, the total weight of Mirt ranges 45kg - 65kg.

2.3 Benefits of Adopting Improved Cookstoves

As it was stated in the background of this paper, cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fires have adverse impact on health, especially women and children, households’ economy, environment and on global climate change too (GIZ, 2013; GACC, 2011; WHO, 2009; Duflo et al, 2007; Rehfuess, 2003). Improved cookstove program and project implementers and coordinators including national programs, regional and global initiatives, donors, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders throughout the developing world strongly claim the significant role of improved cookstoves in improving households health conditions, improving the livelihood of the poor, reduce the rate of deforestation and mitigating global climate change (GIZ, 2013; GACC, 2011; WHO, 2009). Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC, 2011) and others argue that in addition to its contribution to health, economic, gender, environmental imperatives, the adoption of improved cookstoves plays crucial roles United Nation Millennium Development Goals(MDGs), specifically child mortality, maternal health, gender equality, poverty eradication and environmental sustainability, to be achieved. Biomass Program in its Biomass Cookstoves Technical Meeting Summery Report (2011) argues for the positive role that improved cookstoves play such as reducing cooking related health problems, saving fuel wood and time to collect fuel wood, reducing the rate of deforestation and mitigating global climate change.

These claims on potential benefits of adopting improved cookstoves have been and are supported by many empirical case studies and experiments in developing part of the world. Case studies in developing regions such as Asia, Africa, and Latin America asserted the positive impact of adopting improved cookstoves on health, economy, the environment and others.

Asia: In China Dewan et al (2013) found that the adoption of improved cookstoves can reduce fuel wood for cooking, time to collect fuel wood, and the newly felled trees by 40.1 %, 38.2 % and 23.7% respectively. Ewards et al (2004) also found that in China ICS have both short-term and long term impacts. In the short run ICS reduces the emission of health risky pollutants and in the long term, these stoves play significant role in reducing greenhouse gases emission and mitigate global warming. Boy et al (2000) found that in Guatemala a wood-burning improved stove, called Plancha (the modified), can save wood by about 39%, thus, saves time spent for wood collection and reduces the level of indoor air pollution. They argue that these roles of improved cookstoves have important implication for the interrelated aspects of development like health promotion, protection of the environment and the households’ economy.

South America: A study by Garcia-Frapolli et al (2010) in Mexico also revealed that the adoption improved biomass cookstove, patsari, has a significant contribution for the improvement of living condition mainly because of wood savings (about 53%) and reduction indoor air pollution related health problems( by about 28%). Romieu et al (2009) investigated that patsari wood-burning stove in Mexico has positive impact on improving and reducing women’s respiratory system and provides other cofounded benefits such as eye comfort. Armendariz et al (2008) also asserted that improved coostoves in Mexico can reduce particulate matter and Carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations by 74 % and 78% respectively. They found also improved wood-burning stoves reduce personal exposure, for example Carbon monoxide (CO) personal exposure can be reduced by up to 78%. Berrueta et al (2008) revealed that patsari wood-burning stove in Mexico can save wood ranging from 44-65%.

Africa: A study in Gambia by Jacob (2013) also found that improved wood-burning stoves can save fuelwood consumption up to 40% and reduce indoor air pollution up to 90%. A study by Bwenge (2011) in Tanzania also came with evidence that in Tanzania the adoption of ICSs saved fuelwood consumption by about 70%; reduced women’s workload, reduced the time spent to collect food from 4 hrs to 2 hrs per day; created self-employment and source of income for the producers; and reduces smoke emission. In Eritrea Ergereman (2003), also, found that the adoption of improved biomass stoves reduces indoor air pollution, reduce concentration of smoke, fuel saving, money and time saving for acquiring fuel and less pressure on forest and energy resources, reduces greenhouse gases, skill development and job creation in the community.

Ethiopia: Assefa (2007) experimentally found that in Ethiopia improved cookstoves, particularly Mirt stove can reduce carbon monoxide (CO) concentration and particulate materials by about 88% and 17 % respectively. A study by Gebreeziabher et al (2006) in Ethiopia found that assuming an average of 79 t of biomass per ha, the potential reduction in deforestation amounts 1,794 ha per year. They also argue improved stoves are able to reduce land gradation in such a way that if the stoves are adopted (1) less dung will be used as fuel so more manure is available, thus, fertile soil; (2) less wood consumption, thus reducing deforestation so more wood is available, in turn less dung and crop residues for fuel and; (3) less time spent for fuel wood and dung, thus, less time spent for cooking.

In Ethiopia Asres (2002) found that the adoption of improved cookstoves ( Lakech and Mirt stoves), can save about 475.44 kt wood, about USD 47million and 122, 619 ha of forest per annum; reduce indoor air pollution and improve health conditions as well as mitigate greenhouse gases emission. The study also asserted that Mirt stove saves fuel wood by about 45% as compared to open- fires.

2.4 Best Experiences: China and Kenya

Since 1970s, many improved biomass cookstove programs have been set and promoted by governments, donors and Non-Governmental Organizations in the developing part of the world, but the failure overwhelmingly large comparing to the success story (Puzzolo et al, 2013; Gifford, 2010; Barnes, 1994). However, there have been some notable success stories, which provide ample evidence and useful experience for other programs (Teodoro, 2008). According to the work of Barnes et al (1994), community involvement in stove development and design, local manufacture and markets development and cost affordability and financial schemes were found to be the main reasons for the success of improved cookstoves projects and programs.

China: The most successful stoves programme has been China’s National Improved Stove Program (NISP) which was initiated in the early 1980s (Gifford, 2010; Smith & Deng, 2010). By 1992, more than 60% of rural households adopted improved stoves (Climate Institute, 2009). According to the report by Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC, 2012), China takes the lion share of Asia’s improved cookstoves manufacturing by the 2012.

The success in China has been attributed to stove designs suited to users’ needs, targeted national promotion schemes and effective local implementation (Teodoro, 2008), use of public education and training (Climate Institute, 2009). From this one can understand that for the success of programs and projects, understanding the needs of the people and the most technical, social and cultural requirements, taking into account the national programs scheme, involving the target community in the production and providing training and education to the producers and potential users are crucial concerns.

Kenya: The Kenya’s national program, under auspice of Ministry of Agriculture, is one of success stories in Africa (Teodoro, 2008). According to Winrock International (2011), Kenya has a good success story in Africa as compared to other countries and at country level 30%- 40% of households have an improved stove of some type and 50-60 % in urban areas. According to Teodoro (2008), the success in Kenya has been attributed to an important focus on the issues of market, replication, mass production, low cost, efficiency, technology transfer, local production and commercialization as well as the stoves design was simple and small size.

2.5 Empirical Literature on Factors Affecting Cookstoves Adoption

Despite the potential benefits and the efforts of national, regional and global initiatives, programs and projects the rate of improved cookstoves adoption has fallen behind the expectation due to different factors (Puzzolo, 2013; Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, 2012; Lewis & Pattanayak, 2012; GACC, 2010; WHO, 2009; Barnes et al, 1994). To identify factors affecting the adoption of improved cookstoves studies have been conducted and the main findings are summarized.

Puzzolo et al (2013), in their systematic review of enablers and barriers to large-scale uptake of improved solid fuel stoves, by taking 57 case studies, found meeting users’ needs, providing valued savings on fuel, meeting user expectations and ensure durability, higher socio-economic status, having kitchen house, knowledge on the relative benefits of ICs, having success with early adopters, insuring support to users in initial use, developing an efficient and reliable network of suppliers/retailers, providing financial access were among significant factors that influence the adoption of improved cookstoves. With regard to household head gender, age, family size studies have come up with different results. Another study by Dewan et al (2013), examined how social marketing tools increase fuel-efficient stove adoption in China by taking in to account knowledge, attitude and interpersonal communication. The study found that the knowledge about the relative benefits of fuel efficient stoves and the disadvantages open fire, attitudinal change to use and realize the potential benefits of fuel efficient stoves and interpersonal communication are positive significant factors of fuel efficient stoves adoption. Pre and post campaign result showed significant improved cookstoves adoption percentage increment due to the increment of knowledge, attitudes, and interpersonal communication. Post‐campaign (within 1 year) 28.0% and 43.1% of those surveyed within 1 year of and 2.5 years adopted the technology.

Lewis and Pattanayak (2012) conducted a review of 11 empirical studies with regard to factors affecting improved cookstoves adoption. Based on the review, household head education, income, household size, fuel-wood price and access to credit were found to be statistically significant positive factors that determine the adoption of improved cookstoves. On the other hand, significant negative associations were found between the adoption of improved cookstoves and household head’s age and socially marginalized status. A filed assessment of improved cookstoves adoption practices in Indonesia was conducted by Geary et al (2012). The assessment investigated that awareness of dangers of indoor air pollution, knowledge about and the availability of improved cookstoves, the built environment to install and the increase price of wood fuel as well as social networks are factors that positively affect improved cookstoves adoption decision. On the other hand, the free availability of fuel-wood was found to be one of the factors that lead to the decision not to adopt improved cookstoves.

Menon and Thandapani (2011) conducted a study to understand the adoption dynamics of improved cookstoves among people living in rural India by including variables of motivation, affordability and level of engagement in their analysis. Neighbors influence, awareness campaigns, the effect of perceived risks/benefits of improve cookstoves vis- a-vis traditional stoves, income, education and stove design were found to be enabling factors for adoption decision. The study revealed that respondents who were recommended by their neighbors had founded to be adopters of improved cookstoves. The consumers education about the different financial instruments they can avail to purchase the cook stove so that the perceived expensiveness can be minimized.

Pine et al (2011) studied adoption and use of improved biomass stoves in rural Mexico by taking community’s acceptance, household characteristics and season of adoption as explanatory variables. The study found that community acceptance of the stove, problematic experience with the traditional stoves and the compatibility of the stove with the type of fuel-wood used are statistically significant and positive factors of adoption of improved biomass stoves. From household characteristics, the presence of adult in the household, large household size, household head’s occupation (farmer) and household income and non-rainy season were found to be positive and statistically significant factors in determining the adoption of improved biomass stoves. On the other hand, rainy season, households higher valuing of open fire over the improved ones, proximity and free forest access to collect wood were found negative factors of improved biomass stoves adoption.

Inayat (2011) also conducted a study to investigate factors that make people adopt improved cookstoves in rural Northern Pakistan by taking into account household characteristics and source of fuel-wood. The study found household head’s level of education (proxy for awareness), income, household working members and source of fuel-wood to be determinant factors of improved cookstoves adoption decision. Households not collecting wood for free were found more likely to adopt improved cookstoves in rural Pakistan. On the other hand, total household head’s age, household size, landholding and open fire hazards knowledge were found statistically insignificant factors in determining improved cookstoves adoption.

Adrianzen (2009) analyzed the concerns of village technology adoption pattern and village social capital and household characteristics to identify factors affecting improved cookstoves adoption decision in Northern Peruvian Andes. The study investigated that the higher success village adoption pattern, with stronger social capital, has a significant positive effect on a household’s improved cookstoves adoption decision. From household characteristics, the household’s head gender and level of education, the household’s number of adults, presence of a female adult member in the household, the household’s wealth and the household’s participation in women and environmental clubs were found statistically significant factors to influence a household’s decision of improved cookstoves adoption. Slaski and Thurber (2009) identified inherent motivation, affordability by the and compatibility/low required users engagement positive determinant factors of adoption while low motivation, low affordability and high required users engagement important obstacles of cookstoves adoption by the poor.

Troncoso et al (2007) analyzed socio-economic, cultural and environmental factors that affect improved cookstoves adoption in Rural Mexico. While the socio-economic level, cultural acceptability and lack of free access for open forest were found to be positively correlated with the adoption of ICs, there was no correlation found between improved cookstoves adoption and educational level, awareness about the relative benefits of the stove, household head age and payment of the stove. Agarwal (1983) identified household characteristics, stoves’ technical, infrastructural and cultural aspects that affect improved cookstoves adoption. Households’ socio economic status, the relative benefits of stoves, extension (e.g. awareness creation) and access to credit, rational and dynamic nature of a community were identified as positive factors that affect the adoption of improved wood-burning stoves.

Africa

A recent study by Levine et al (2013) identified factors that impede the adoption of improved cookstoves in Uganda by considering variables of information, liquidity and present bias/term of payment. From the study it was found that customers’ liquidity constraint, imperfect information, lack of confidence on the new stove’s fuel saving performance and skepticism about the durability of the stove are important barriers of improved cookstoves adoption. The study examined the effect of a contract made for a free trial, time payments, and the right to return the stove in Kampala and Mbarara. The result showed that improved wood burning cookstoves adoption increased from 4 % to 46 % in Kampala and in Mbarara the adoption increased from 5 % to 57 %. In addition, the study found household size to be one significant factor in determining a household’s improved cookstoves adoption decision.

Axen (2012) analyzed factors affecting the spread of fuel efficient cooking stoves in Northern Tanzania with the focuses of potential users’ perception, financial capital, human capital, natural capital, physical capital, social capital and household head’s gender. From the analysis, positive perception about the cookstoves and its price and access to credit, awareness and knowledge about the relative benefits of improved cookstoves, lack of access to wood for free and access to transport improved cookstoves and having separate kitchen were found to be enabling factors for the adoption and spread of improved cookstoves. Membership to social associations and be networked and the household head’s positive interest were, also, found to be factors that positively affect the adoption and spread of improved cookstoves in Tanzania. On the other hand, the lack of these concerns and the free access of fuel-wood were found factors that hinder the adoption and spread of improved cookstoves.

Makame (2007) investigated the influence of individual factors, stove attributes and management support in Zanzibar. From individual factors’; information the benefits, income, and level of education, from stove attributes; trialability, observability, relative advantage, simplicity to use and compatibility and good program and project management and support were found to be factors that positively influence improved cookstoves adoption. On the other hand, factors for failure to adopt were found to be poor quality of the improved cookstoves, the cost of stoves, poor information and education about the relative benefits of stoves. The study revealed that since the price of the improved cookstove (ranges US$2.5- US$5) more than the price of traditional charcoal stove (ranges US$1.5- US$5), households were found tending to purchase traditional charcoal stove.

Ethiopia

In Ethiopia Damte and Kohlin (2011) investigated the determinants of improved cookstoves (Lakech, Mirt stove and Electric Mitad) in urban areas by analyzing the variables of household characteristics, stove type and ownership, substitutability of stoves and separate kitchen and it features. With regard to Mirt stove, the household heads level of education, income, separate kitchen and household head’s gender (female) were found to be positive significant determinant factors of adoption decision. Other variables of substitutability of the stove and the size of children in a household were found to be insignificant in relation to Mirt stove adoption. A study by Gebreegziabher et al (2010) identified factors affecting urban energy transition and technology adoption in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, with the focuses of household characteristics and price variables. Household head’s age, education, family size, and income/expenditure were indicated to be positive and significant factors to determine the adoption of new cooking appliance, electric ‘Mitad’ and improved wood-burning stoves while prices of fuel-wood, charcoal and kerosene were found to be insignificant in determining the adoption decision.

Another study in Ethiopia was conducted by Dawit (2008) to identify factors affecting rural and urban households ‘Mirt’ stove adoption decision ‘Adea’ Woreda, Oromia Regional State. From the analyzed variables of household characteristics, the stove’s technical aspects and cost and financing, it was found that household income, household head’s education and the stove’s compatibility are positively and statistically significant factors in determining Mirt stove adoption decision in rural households. On the other hand, numbers of participants in fuel-wood collection and household head’s age were found to be negative and statistically significant. Other variables such as family size, household head’s gender, dwelling status, separate kitchen and access to credit were found to be statistically insignificant to influence Mirt stove adoption decision in rural households. In contrary to the finding of Gebreegziabher et al (2010), household head’s age was found to be negative and statistically significant determinant factor of Mirt stove adoption decision.

2.6 Determinant Factors of Improved Cookstoves Adoption

As it was reviewed in the previous section, there are factors that found to be determinant in determining households improved cookstoves adoption decision. These factors are discussed.

Age: The previous studies found contradictory results with regard to the correlation between age and improved cookstoves adoption. A review by Lewis and Pattanayak (2012), household head’s age was indicated to be significant negative factor that determines the adoption of improved cookstoves across studies reviewed. In contrary, Gebreegziabher et al (2010) found household head’s age to be positive and statistically significant determinant factor of Mirt stove adoption decision. The finding of Dawit (2008) reveals that household head’s age is negatively and statistically significant determinant factor of Mirt stove adoption. With regard to the influence of a household head’ age on household’s improved cookstoves adoption decision, recent work of Puzzolo et al (2013) found inconsistency among research findings.

Therefore, based on the previous empirical works and with the assumption that older people may tend to be conservative in accepting new cooking technologies, in this study it is expected age to affect the household’s Mirt stove adoption decision negatively.

Marital status: Single women (female headed households) were found more likely to adopt improved cookstoves as compared to married women male headed counter parts (Damte & Koch, 2011; Inayat, 2011; Adrianzen, 2009). The authors argue that in patriarchal society since husband more power to make economic decisions in the household, married women’s improved cookstoves purchasing decision depends up on the willingness of their spouse. Having this understanding, thus, it is expected that marital status (in favor of single) to affect Mirt stove adoption decision positively in rural households.

Education: A review by Lewis and Pattanayak (2012) found that household head’s education is positively and statistically significant factors that determine the adoption of improved cookstoves across studies reviewed. It is argued that educated potential customers are more likely to be aware of the benefits of improved cookstoves as compared to uneducated or less educated customers (Inayat, 2011; Menon &, Thandapani, 2011; Adrianzen, 2009). Menon and Thandapani (2011) again claim that the consumers education about the different financial instruments they can avail to purchase the cook stove so that the perceived expensiveness can be minimized. Damte and Koch, Gebreegziabher et al (2010), Dawit (2008) and Makame (2007) found household head’s education as a positive factor in influencing Mirt stove adoption decision in Ethiopia. It was found positive association between the household head’s level of education and Mirt stove adoption.

This previous literature about the effect of level of education on improved cookstoves adoption decision enables one to expect a positive effect of education on rural households’ Mirt stove adoption decision in the study area. Thus, positive and significant correlation is expected between women’s literacy level and Mirt stove adoption decision.

Income: The systematic review of Puzzolo et al (2013) found constituency among research results that higher socio-economic status is positive and significant factor in determining a household’s improved cookstoves adoption decision. A review by Lewis and Pattanayak (2012) found that income is positively and significant factor that determine the adoption of improved cookstoves across studies reviewed. Pine et al (2011) and Inayat (2011) found that household income is determinant factor of households improved cookstoves adoption decision. The study investigated statistically significant positive correlation between improved cookstoves adoption and household income. The works of Damte and Koch (2011), Gebreegziabher et al (2010) and Dawit (2008) reveal that household income is statistically significant positive determinant factor in determining households’ Mirt stove adoption decision.

Family size: With regard to family size, Puzzolo et al (2013) found inconsistency among findings. A review by Lewis and Pattanayak (2012) found that household size is statistically significant and positively associated with the probability of adoption of improved cookstoves across studies reviewed. Pine et al (2011) found that household size is statistically significant factor that determines improved cookstoves adoption decision. The study revealed statistically positive correlation between improved cookstoves adoption and large family size. These authors claim that households with larger family size consume larger fuel wood as compared to households’ smaller family size that results in influencing larger family size households to economize fuel wood usage. Gebreegziabher et al (2010) found that family size is positive and statistically factor in influencing adoption decision of Mirt stove. Households with large family size were found more likely to adopt improved cookstoves. Given this previous literature, it is expected that large family size positively affects households Mirt stove decision.

Separate kitchen: Puzzolo et al (2013) found constituency among research results that having separate kitchen is positive and statistically significant factor in determining a household’s improved cookstoves adoption decision. Previous studies found separate kitchen house as one significant factor that has positive effect on a household’s improved cookstoves adoption decision (Axen, 2012; Damte & Koch, 2011; Adrianzen, 2009). These works investigated the positive correlation between separate kitchen and improved cookstoves adoption.

Based on the existing literature, having separate kitchen is expected to have a positive effect on households’ Mirt stove adoption decision in the study area. Households with kitchen are expected to be found more likely Mirt stove adopters with the assumption that since Mirt stove is larger in size and technically fixed in nature, additional space is needed.

Source of fuel-wood: Geary et al (2012) found that the free availability of fuel-wood one of the factors that lead to the decision not to adopt improved cookstoves. Source of fuel-wood is determinant factor of improved cookstoves adoption decision (Inayat, 2011). The investigation found that households not collecting wood for free were found more likely to adopt improved cookstoves. A study by Pine et al (2011) also found that the access to open forest is found to be negatively correlated and statistically significant with the probability of improved cookstoves adoption decision. Axen (2012) and Troncoso et al (2007) also investigated a positive correlation between lack of access to open forest and improved cookstoves adoption and the vice versa.

Based on this empirical evidence, one can hypothesize that households that get fuel-wood with charge to be found more Mirt stove adopters as compared to households that obtain fuel-wood without charge in the study area. It is assumed that for households that get wood for free, fuel-wood saving or efficient use of wood may not be their concern while fuel saving the priority for those that buy wood.

Price: price variables include the price of improved cookstoves, the price of fuel-wood, the price of kerosene and others. But for this study purpose, the influence of improved cookstoves’ price on households’ adoption decision is reviewed. A recent study by Levine et al (2013) found that inability of the poor to pay the cost of improved cookstoves is one of important barriers of adoption decision. Axen (2012) argues that the price of improved stoves and households’ perception on the price have effect on the probability of the households adoption decision. Slaski and Thurber (2009) identified that improved cookstoves’ cost affordability by the poor is a positive determinant factor of adoption. The authors argue that low affordability of the cost improved cookstoves negatively affects cookstoves adoption likelihood by the poor. Makame (2007) found that the purchasing price of cookstoves is important factor in influencing a household’s adoption decision. The study’s result shows that since the price of the improved one (ranges US$2.5- US$5) more than the price of traditional charcoal stove (ranges US$1.5- US$3) households were found tending to purchase traditional charcoal stove.

These previous studies give a clue to expect what the effect of Mirt stove price to be on rural households’ purchasing decision. Therefore, it is expected the price of Mirt stove to have a negative effect on the households’ purchasing decision in the study area.

Other factors: From the empirical literature the other factors that are found to influence the adoption decision of improve cookstoves include institutional and social factors. Makonese et al (2006) maintain that the existing institutional set up is a key factor that influences the implementation, promotion and dissemination of improved cookstoves in a certain country. These authors found that training, technology and information exchange, technology standard and decentralizing energy systems are institutional factors that influence the production, dissemination and adoption of improved cookstoves. The works of Puzzolo et al (2013) and Agarwal (1983) also found that extension services such as awareness creation and financial access to the users and the producer are positive institutional factors that influence the adoption decision of improved wood-burning stoves. Social factors are also found to be the other important variables to influence improved cookstoves adoption decision. For instance, Puzzolo et al (2013) and Adrianzen (2009) investigated that early adopters have a positive or negative effect on the others’ likelihood of adoption. Menon and Thandapani (2011) also found that the influence of neighbors is one social factor to influence fuel efficient new cooking technologies adoption decision.

2.7 Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks

Mixed methods researchers can use theory either deductively in testing and verification, or inductively as in an emerging theory or pattern (Creswell, 2003). Thus, this study was based on three theories; Energy Ladder Theory, Energy Stacking Theory and Diffusion of Innovation Theory.

With regard to household, there are two types of household energy choice theory, energy ladder and energy stacking (Iyant et al, 2011). Energy ladder model, considered as classic and traditional, places heavy emphasis on income (affordability) in both explaining and determining a household’s energy/fuel/stove choice (Masera et al, 2000). This implies that the household’s income is taken as the only determinant factor that influences households fuel/stove choice decision. But, this perspective is highly criticized by a number of studies with two practical reasons (Masera et al, 2000; Schlag & Zuzarte, 2008; Kowsari, 2013; Puzzolo, 2013). One of the criticisms is that there are multiple determinant factors, other than income, that influence households fuel/stove choice decision.

On the other hand, energy stacking household energy choice perspective overcomes the drawbacks of the energy ladder hypothesis. Energy stacking, also called fuel/stove stacking is considered as the latest and it is based on empirical evidence and is more realistic than the classic energy ladder hypothesis (Kowsari, 2013). Fuel type choice and/or stove adoption decision depends up on a complex interaction between economic, social, cultural and environmental factors (Masera et al. 2000; Schlag & Zuzarte, 2008). Researchers (Mekonnen et al, 2009; Takama et al, 2011) also argue that income alone does not determine adoption/ stove choice; family size, age and education are significant and matter more in determining whether or not a household adopts. As a result, the recent studies applied energy staking hypothesis and recommend that future researches should not rely excessively on the energy ladder model; for households in poor developing countries, such as those in Ethiopia, more attention to be paid to other nonmonetary aspects besides income in the analysis (Mekonnen et al, 2009).

The other theory regarding technology adoption is ‘Diffusion of Innovation theory’. According to Rogers (2003), the Diffusion of Innovation Theory asserts that individuals and early adopters in a certain social system are able to influence attitude and behavior of others informally either to promote or hinder the acceptance of a new technology. According to this theory, improved stove technologies are more likely to spread out in a certain population if the stoves first gain acceptance among ‘early adopters.

Based on these stated theories, the literature that the researcher has reviewed and based on the findings of the previous empirical studies on factors affecting the adoption of improved cookstoves, the following conceptual framework was developed.

Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework for Factoring Affecting Adoption of Mirt Stove

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source: Own construct (2014)

The positive (+) and the negative (-) signs indicate the expected influence of independent variables on the independent variable (the decision to adopt or not) based on empirical studies reviewed. The size differences among the variables’ boxes do not have any message.

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

This part of the paper deals with the methods of the study. Under this section the selection and study area description, data type and source, research design and research strategy, sampling design and procedures, data collection and instruments, data collection procedure, data processing and analyzing procedures, definition and description of variables as well as model specification are presented.

3.1 Selection and Description of the Study Area

The study was conducted in Dembecha Woreda, which is located in West Gojjam zone in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia. The majority of households (86.14 %) live in the rural part while 13.86% of households live in urban areas (CSA, 2007). The dominant ethnic group and language are Amhara and Amharic language which account 99.82% and 99.87 %, respectively (Mousley et al, 2013).

This Woreda has a total of 29 kebeles, 25 rural and 4 urban. The majority’s livelihood is dependent up on agriculture (Dembecha Woreda Livelihood Report, 2007). The majority of people rely on traditional sources of energy and in the area energy efficient technologies, such as improved cookstoves, are also available in the area (Simon, 2012).

Deforestation is one of the pressing problems in Dembecha Woreda (Yared et al, 2010). The natural forest coverage in the Woreda is decreasing from time to time in alarming deforestation rate. According to Gete and Humi (2001), 7259.3 ha total natural forest was cleared between 1957 and 1995 in the Woreda with the rate of 27 % forest coverage in 1957 to 2 % coverage in 1982 and declined to 0.3 % natural forest coverage in 1995.

Angot-yedegera, Enewend and Lejet are among the rural kebeles in Dembecha Woreda which were selected to represent the remaining rural kebeles in the Woreda. These kebeles with a total of 4098 households, alike other rural kebeles, were not electrified while the study conducted. Angot-yedergera, which is one of the 25 rural kebeles in Dembecha Woreda, is located 8km West of Dembecha town and far 5km from the nearest electrified town, Yechereka. The kebele has the total of 1463 households. At this kebele there is one ‘Mirt’ stove producer with the help and supervision of Woreda rural energy office. The other rural kebele in Dembecha Woreda is Enewend. This kebele is located 51km West of Dembecha town and far 34km from the nearest electrified town, Addis-alem. This kebele has a total of 1453 households. And at this kebele there are two ‘Mirt’ stove producers with the help and supervision of Woreda rural energy office. Lejet is also one of the rural kebeles in the Woreda with a total of 1182 households. This rural kebele is located surrounding Dembecha Woreda’s main town, Dembecha town. In this locality there is one ‘Mirt’ stove producer to both the surrounding urban and rural dwellers with the help and supervision of GIZ-coordination office.

Figure 3.1: The Map of Dembecha Woreda

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source: Adapted from Mousley et al (2013)

While building a climate-resilient green economy, Ethiopia’s vision is to achieve middle-income status by 2025 and to ensure sustainable development (CRGE, 2011). For this to happen, one of the priority areas identified by the Ethiopian government is efficient use of energy. To the specific to this study is to use biomass energy efficiently by using fuel efficient improved cookstoves. The National Clean Cook Stove Program Ethiopia (NCCSPE) is one of the efforts for this purpose. Improved cookstoves play a great role in reducing deforestation due to their fuel wood saving feature; reduce GHG emission due to less smoke, reduce indoor air pollution and have other social and economic benefits. Reducing indoor air pollution will yield benefits for the poor, and help achieving the MDGs of reducing child mortality, and improve maternal health (WHO, 2009).

For the success of disseminating programmes and projects and to realize the potential benefits of improved cook stoves factors influencing the households’ adoption decision are to be investigated (Puzzolo, 2013). In this Woreda (Dembecha) a GIZ has been implementing and going on the dissemination of Mirt stove in partnership with Woreda and kebele agricultural offices agents since 2008. Besides GIZ, Dembecha Woreda Water Office has been also disseminating Mirt stove by decentralizing the Mirt stove production sites at kebele level. But, to date factors affecting the adoption of improved cookstoves, particularly Mirt stove were not identified in this specific area. This was the reason that motivated the investigator to conduct this study in this specific area.

3.2 Research Design and Strategy

In this section, the design of the study such as the philosophical view to think through and the methods which were used are presented. The other concern of this part is that the research approach which was employed.

3.2.1 Research Design

Research design involves multiple issues such as the world view that the investigator thinks through, the strategies of the study and the methods to be used (Creswell, 2009). Therefore, this study followed the philosophy of pragmatism with reasons. According to the author, pragmatism is characterized as real-world practice oriented, pluralistic, and problem-centered and it applies in mixed methods research due to its advantages over other philosophical views such as positivism and constructivism in a sense that this philosophical world view provides the best understanding of a research problem, allows multiple methods to be used, different worldviews to think through, different forms of data collection and analysis.

The researcher employed descriptive survey research design. Descriptive method was used because the purpose of the researcher was to collect, analyze and conclude about the existing conditions at a time. In addition, the researcher made a general conclusion about the whole population based on the data which were collected from only sample respondents. And also, the researcher found this method important as the required data were collected from samples of respondents and key informants. Besides, survey method enabled the researcher to effectively manage all the necessary activities that were taken place in the study. The researcher also used cross-sectional method, because the study was conducted in a manner that a small portion of a population was sampled only at a time.

3.2.2 Research Approach

Mixed research approach was employed. By mixed methods the weaknesses of the qualitative method would be tackled by the quantitative method and the weaknesses of the quantitative method would be overcome by the qualitative method; and thus, employing mixed methods strengths the study (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2004). Puzzolo et al (2013) recommend that studies designed specifically to strengthen the understanding of factors affecting improved cook stoves adoption and sustained use need to draw on a combination of quantitative and qualitative research strategies.

3.3 Data Type and Source

For this study, the researcher employed both quantitative and qualitative data with reasons. The quantitative data were employed in order to address research questions and objectives that could be better addressed quantitatively. The data about respondent’s age, and family size and price of Mirt stove were gathered numerically (see definition of variables). The qualitative data were used to address research objectives which could be better addressed qualitatively. The data about the variables of the respondent’s marital status and literacy level, source of fuel-wood, separate kitchen house, institutional and social factors were gathered qualitatively (see definition of variables).

With regard to the data sources, the researcher used both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources of this study were mothers of households and the key informants of local ‘Mirt’ producers, Woreda agricultural office, kebele agricultural offices (specifically natural resource management experts), and Woreda water office (specifically rural energy experts). The secondary sources were the Woreda’s water office ‘Mirt’ stove dissemination report through Woreda rural energy experts, and the kebeles’ household frame.

3.4 Sampling Design and Procedures

To make generalization about the whole population different sampling designs and procedures are used to the get the truly representative sample (Israel, 1992). Thus, this section presents the sampling designs and procedures that were employed for this study.

The study selected three kebeles (Angot-yedegera, Enewend, and Lejet) from the total of 25 rural kebeles in Dembecha Woreda by using purposive sampling technique. Because it is in these rural kebeles Mirt stove has been introduced and disseminated when the research was being conducted. At large, there is homogeneity of household socio-economic characteristics, institutional set up and livelihood structures in all rural kebeles of Dembecha Woreda (Dembecha Woreda Livelihood Report, 2007). The more a homogeneous population, the smaller the sample size is found to be representative (Israel, 1992). Dawit (2008) also selected three rural kebeles from the total of 27 rural kebeles to investigate factors affecting the adoption of ‘Mirt’ stove in Adea district in Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. Therefore, the findings of the study could potentially be generalized to all rural kebeles in the Woreda.

When the response for the attributes being measured is assumed a dichotomous, the use of yamane’s (1967) tables and formulas to determine sample size is more appropriate (Israel, 1992). Since the dependent variable in this study was dichotomous, the researcher used Yamane’s formula to determine the sample size for the questionnaire respondents, i. e;

illustration not visible in this excerpt

In the three selected rural kebeles, there were a total of 4098 households (Angot-yedegera = 1463 Enewend =1453, and Lejet = 1182). Therefore, the sample size (n):

illustration not visible in this excerpt

To determine sample size in each kebele, the researcher employed proportional sampling technique, the total samples (223) to the selected kebeles proportionally. Each kebele sample size was computed as follow in table form.

Table 3.1: Proportional Sample Size Determination

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source: Own computation (2014)

Households for the structured questionnaire were selected by using systematic random sampling technique in each kebele from the households’ frame. The reason behind using this sampling technique is its simplicity, fast and low costly (Zou, 2006). To overcome some flaws of this technique, the researcher did check up whether the households were systematically arranged or not, in each kebele frame. And the households were not arranged systematically. In the case of selecting the respondents of the questionnaire, the mothers were selected. This was in line with Damte and Koch (2011) who indicated that;

Women are the main expected beneficiaries of the Mirt stove, as in many cases they are the ones in charge of firewood collection, food preparation and usually spend a higher amount of time inside the dwelling place, benefiting significantly from reductions in indoor pollution.

With regard to the semi-structure interviews and the focus group discussions, the key informants were drawn from the institutions working in the Woreda and respective kebeles and the “Mirt’ stove producers by using purposive sampling method. A total of 9 individuals were interviewed and participated in the focus group discussions; 3 individuals (natural resource management experts) from the three selected kebeles agricultural offices, one person from the Woreda agricultural office, 2 persons from Woreda water office (the 2 rural energy experts) and 3 producers of Mirt stove from the selected kebeles (one from each kebele). While the two local producers were the close partners of the Woreda rural energy under the Woreda water office, one local producer was the close partner of GIZ-ECO at Woreda level which has been producing and supplying Mirt stove to Dembecha town and the sounding rural kebele (Lejet). This was because the kebele agricultural office agents are the close partners of the project, GIZ, in disseminating the stove (Mirt). The mandate to disseminate improved cookstoves in rural areas is given to MoARD (CRGE, 2011) with the practical reason that the MoARD has the best local network at Woreda and Kebele level agricultural offices agents. The Woreda Water Office, through rural energy case team, was also the one which has vested with the responsibility to disseminate Mirt stove in implementing Ethiopia National Clean Cookstoves Program.

3.5 Data Collection and Instruments

Different instruments and procedures were used to collect data. These instruments and procedures of this thesis are discussed hereunder.

3.5.1 Data Collection Instruments

Questionnaire: A structured questionnaire was administered. The researcher developed the questionnaire in English and translated into Amharic. The questionnaire, which takes 25-30 minutes to fill, included information about rural households’ gender-based responsibility and fuel type and consumption, the respondent’s characteristics, the presence of separate kitchen, source of fuel wood, the price of Mirt stove, institutional and social factors as well as Mirt stove adoption barriers.

Interview: Interviews were used to explore variables under investigation in greater detail. Semi-structured interviews were held with the key informants of Mirt stove producers in each kebele, the Woreda agriculture office, Woreda water offices (rural energy experts) and kebele agricultural offices agents (natural resource management experts) in their respective office. The duration of interview with key informants ranges between the minimum of 12 minutes and the maximum of 28 minutes. The focuses of the interviews with the key informants were institutional factors like how, when and where the stove is disseminated and households to be informed, local forest protection, about the services and supports provided by the institutions for both the producers and potential users and the most likely barriers of Mirt stove production and adoption.

Focus Group Discussion: To supplement the interviews about institutional factors, four focus group discussions were held with the presence of key informants of Mirt stove producers, the Woreda agriculture office, Woreda water office (mainly rural energy experts) and kebele agricultural offices agents (mainly natural resources management experts). The first three discussions were held in the presence of nine of the key informants. These discussions were conducted after lunch for 10-15 minutes for each by using the opportunity that a meeting has been conducted for three consecutive days for Woreda and kebele agriculture development agents at Dembecha town and three days training for Mirt stove producers by Woreda rural energy experts. The fourth discussion was conducted for 8 minutes in the presence of one producer, the Woreda agriculture office and two rural energy experts at Dembecha town. The key informants’ response was found to be similar with the second and third discussions and then the researcher understood that holding extra discussions would not add value.

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Details

Pages
108
Year
2014
ISBN (eBook)
9783668551145
ISBN (Book)
9783668551152
File size
2.4 MB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v376357
Institution / College
Mekelle University – Institute of Development Studies
Grade
Excellent
Tags
regional local development ethiopia factors affecting adoption improved cookstoves evidence mirt injera baking stove

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Title: Regional and Local Development in Ethiopia. Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved Cookstoves