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The impact of over-crowded classrooms to teachers and students

Interaction in the process of teaching and learning in selected primary schools in Arusha City Council, Tanzania

Research Paper (postgraduate) 2016 40 Pages

Pedagogy - Pedagogic Sociology

Excerpt

Acknowledgment

The researcher would like to appreciate the following people, who gave their contribution to complete this work. University of Arusha graduate school students (Ernest Benson, Edward Sahani, Elijah Daniel Bayyo, Isaiah Peter and James Kapanga) who assisted in the data collection; head teachers, teachers and students from the schools which were involved in the research and lastly the research editor, Mr. Elijah.

Abstract

Researchers aimed at investigating the impact of classroom over crowdedness on teacher- student interactions in teaching and learning process and specifically identify the problems both teachers and students face in over-crowded classrooms and identify solutions to the problems and finally determine the relationship between over-crowded classrooms and teacher-student Interaction in learning and teaching process.

The researcher used questionnaires to collect data where the findings came up with the facts that noise making, failure to attend each student’s need, restriction of teachers movement in the class, cheating in exams, wastage of time setting orders in class, difficulty in marking, and both teachers and students being stressed are the impacts resulting from over crowdedness in classrooms.

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Overcrowded Classroom is a problem all over the world for effective teaching and learning process. Several studies made in the world supports this fact; Corcoran et al (1988) in their study done in New York found that “over- crowding and heavy teacher work- loads created stressful working conditions for teachers and led to higher teacher absenteeism.

Batiz, R. et al. (1995) in their study conducted in US in New York City found that” students in such schools scored significantly lower in both mathematics and reading exams than did similar students ….”In addition, when asked, students and teachers in over- crowded schools agreed that over -crowding negatively affected both classroom activities and instructional techniques.”

Khan and Iqbal (2012) “over crowded classroom” the study conducted in Pakistan found out that effective teaching was not possible in over- crowded classes and majority of teachers were facing instructional, discipline, physical and evaluation problems.

In Africa, the problem of over-crowded classrooms was studied by Ijaiya (n.d) on Effects of Over- Crowded Classrooms On Teacher-students Interactions found that, over-crowdedness diminishes the quality and quantity of teaching and learning with serious implication for attainment of education goals.

In Tanzania the problem was researched by TWAWEZA MONITORING (May 2011) in Dar-es-Salaam and found out that, Classrooms are over -crowded and not conducive to learning. The average number of pupils per classroom in surveyed schools is 81 much higher than the National target of 40 pupils per classroom, in half of the schools; pupils must sit on the floor: on average five pupils share one desk in surveyed schools and availability of text books is a major challenge.

Therefore, the researcher investigated the impact of overcrowded classrooms on teacher-students interactions in the process of teaching and learning: a case of selected primary schools in Arusha city council.

Statement of the Problem

There was an alarming problem of over-crowded classes in schools of Arusha city council due to high population as it is a city centre. One class carried 60-100 pupils, hence it was difficult to imagine how effective was teaching and learning under one teacher. This research therefore, investigated the impact of over-crowded classrooms on teacher-students interaction in teaching and learning process at the selected primary schools in Arusha City council.

General Objective

To investigate the impact of overcrowded classroom on teacher- student’s interactions in teaching and learning process in selected primary schools in Arusha city council.

Specific Objectives

1. To identify the problems both teachers and students face in over-crowded classrooms in teaching-learning process in selected primary schools in Arusha city council.
2. To identify solutions to the problems both teachers and students face in the overcrowded classrooms on teacher- students interactions in teaching and learning process in selected primary schools in Arusha city council.
3. To identify the impact of overcrowded classrooms on teacher- students’ interactions in teaching and learning process in selected primary schools in Arusha city council.
4. To determine the relationship between over-crowded classrooms and teacher-student Interaction in learning and teaching process.

Research Questions

1. What are the problems both teachers and students face in over-crowded classrooms in teaching-learning process in selected primary schools in Arusha city council?
2. What are the solutions to the problems both teachers and students face in the overcrowded classrooms on teacher- students interactions in teaching and learning process in selected primary schools in Arusha city council?
3. What is the impact of overcrowded classrooms on teacher- students’ interactions in teaching and learning process in selected primary schools in Arusha city council?
4. There is no significant relationship between over-crowded classrooms and teacher-student Interaction in learning and teaching process?

Research Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between over-crowded classrooms and teacher-student Interaction in learning and teaching process.

Significance of the Study

The researcher hoped that this study would serve school principals to identify the problems faced by the teachers in overcrowded classes, in order to find solutions and to decrease the effect of these problems on the level of teachers participation and students achievement. This study would provide base for further research in this field and would be very fruitful in the best interest of the students, teachers, administrators and government to think over the problems and do something for their solutions.

The findings from the study would help the government to know the impact of overcrowded classrooms on teacher – student learning process in primary schools hence would find out the ways of how to reduce or remove the impact to primary schools. The government also would use some of the ways provided by the researcher to overcome the problem to primary schools.

The findings of this study is going to help teachers of primary schools to understand the outcome of the overcrowded classrooms in the process of teaching hence use or find out the ways of how to teach the class of more number them the required number.

The teachers of primary schools at will benefit through giving out their views on how to be made in order to reduce the problem through questioners which will be provided to them.

The findings of this study will help the students to know the impact of overcrowded classrooms on students learning process and therefore if the government will reduce the problem through building classrooms, students at primary schools are going to benefit because the performance will increase. Also findings will help the community to help primary to build classrooms.

Scope or Delimitation of the Study

This research will be conducted in Arusha city primary schools where two primary schools will be selected as a case study. The primary schools which were selected included: Elerai, Azimio, Burka, Burka Estate, Sakon One, Olasiti, Kaloleni, Uhuru, Ngarenaro, and Levolosi primary schools which have more over-crowded classrooms.

Limitation of the study

This study may be limited by several factors during the field work like; some of the school authorities may refuse to accept the request to correct the information. Some of the respondent may not give the correct required information.

Operational definition of terms

Classroom

According to this study the classroom refers to the physical place in the school where the teacher meets group of students to interact with subject matter and materials so that learning can take place (i.e. the physical, social, and intellectual context of the teacher and student). The classroom goes beyond the physical confines of the room to include the total school context that teachers and students inhabit throughout the school day.

Classroom management

Classroom management is considered an essential part of the teaching and learning process. It refers to the methods, strategies and skills teachers use to maintain a classroom environment that results in a student’s learning success.

Fenwick et al., (2006) define classroom management as the ability to manage, to engage, to focus, and to bring productive order to the classroom full of active students. Classroom management is connected to a process of organizing and conducting a class that includes time management, students’ involvement, student engagement, and classroom Communication.

Overcrowded Classrooms

A classroom is said to be overcrowded in which the number of students exceeds the optimum level such that it causes hindrance in the teaching-learning process. Researchers argue that there is no exact definition of a large class. It differs from country to country and from one situation of teaching to another. Hayes (1997) states that there can be no quantitative definition of what constitutes an “overcrowded” class, as perceptions of this will vary from context to context. Ur (1996) sees that: Large is, of course, a relation term, and what a large class is, will vary from place to place...a group of twenty may be considered large; in my own teaching situation 40-50... A study done by a team of the Lancaster-Leeds Language Learning in Large Classes Research Project (Project Report N° 4) of Coleman et al., indicates that an average perception of the large class may be around 50 students (p. 302). For example, some people hold that 50 would be large enough for a class; others would argue that a large class could have as many as over 100 or even 150 students. However, most teachers generally agree that a class with 50-60 or more is 'large' enough.

Interactions

According to this research the term Interactions refers to the action that occurs between the teacher and the student and between students and students and the way the one have effect upon the other. It involves teacher’s movement in the class, Students Participation in Creative learning activities.

Theoretical Framework

Bandura, A. (1989), Social Cognitive Theory is a learning theory based on the ideas that people learn by observing others. Vicarious learning, or the process of learning from other people's behavior, is a central idea of social cognitive theory and self-efficacy

Social cognitive theory (SCT), used in psychology, education, and communication, holds that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences.

Bandura postulated that human learning is continuous reciprocal interaction of cognitive, behavioral and environmental factors.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework describes and explains the concepts used in the study, their relationships with each other, and how they are to be measured-(Gratton & Jones,2004). Therefore conceptual framework is like the mind-map or created image to enable easier understanding.

In overcrowded classroom always there is poor interaction, poor class control, poor participation, difficulties in Class assessment and resource competition.

The teacher-students interactions in teaching and learning process are conceptualized as follows:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

LITERATURE REVIEW

Theoretical Literature review

Bandura, A. (1989), Social Cognitive Theory is a learning theory based on the ideas that people learn by observing others. Vicarious learning, or the process of learning from other people's behavior, is a central idea of social cognitive theory and self-efficacy

Social cognitive theory (SCT), used in psychology, education, and communication, holds that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences .

Vicarious learning, or the process of learning from other people's behavior, is a central idea of social cognitive theory and self-efficacy. Social Cognitive Theory is a learning theory based on the ideas that people learn by observing others.

Because of the bidirectionality of influence between behavior and environmental circumstances, people are both products and producers of their environment. They affect the nature of their experienced environment through selection and creation of situations. People tend to select activities and associates from the vast range of possibilities in terms of their acquired preferences and competencies (Bandura & Walters, 1959; Bullock & Merrill, 1980; Emmons & Diener, 1986). Through their actions, people create as well as select environments.

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Details

Pages
40
Year
2016
ISBN (eBook)
9783668540446
ISBN (Book)
9783668540453
File size
623 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v374513
Grade
A (5.0)
Tags
interaction arusha city council tanzania

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Title: The impact of over-crowded classrooms to teachers and students