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Reproductive performance of Ethiopian Indigenous Chicken

Term Paper 2017 28 Pages

Biology - Zoology

Excerpt

Inhalt

List of table

List of Abrivation

Abstract

1. Introduction

2. Importance of chicken
2. 1. Age at sexual maturity of chicken
2.1.1 Age at first egg laying
2.1.2. Clutch number of indigenous chicken
2.1.3 Egg production
2.2. Fertility and hatchabilty
2.2.1. Fertility
2.2.2 Hatchability
2.3 .Age at firs mating
2.4. Reproductive life span of local chicken eco-types
2.5 Incubation and hatch

3. Conclusion

4. Reference

List of table

Table 1 Summary of reported reproductive performance of local chicken

Tabe 3 Hatchabiliy

Table 3 reproductive performance of male chicken

List of Abrivation

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abstract

This review is conducted to present the reproductive perfonnance of Ethiopian indigenous chicken in tenns of fertility , Hatchability and age at sexual maturity of female chicken in tenns of age at first laying eggs as well as another parameter of reproductive perfonnance of chicken Male in age at firs mating and for both sexes reproductive live span is presented . egg storage condition is one factor that affect hatchability of eggs . In addition to at deferent agro-ecologies of of Ethiopia there is the significant variation . under deferent management condition there was also deference reproduction and production of chicken. The reproductive life span of a female local chicken is longer compared to exotic hens. Long term reproductive performance (long life, high fertility, high hatchability, high number of egg/hen per year, high number of egg mass/hen per year, less or no number of broodiness per hen) of chicken should be given more importance in selection programs

1. Introduction

In Ethiopia chickens are the most widespread and almost every rural family owns chickens, which provide a valuable source of family protein and income (Tadele et ak, 2003). Indigenous chicken (97.3 %) in Ethiopia is found in huge number distributed across different agro-ecological zones . Indigenous chicken productivity is low as compared to exotic breeds with average annual egg production of 60 eggs. Low productivity is also due to low hatchability and high mortality of indigenous chicken (Getacheพ et al; 2016). Breeding, fanners in the Amhara (Farta) and Oromia (Horro) regions give the highest emphasis for plumage color while in the southern region (Konso and Sheka) live weight is used as the most important selection criteria The emphasis given to each trait category is largely similar across the sexes except that, unlike for males Getu (2014). Ethiopian indigenous chickens have a variety of morphological appearances. They vary in colour, comb type, body confonnation and weight, and may or may not possess shank feather. Eggs have thick shells and deep yellow coloured yolk. Low productivity is also due to low hatchability at about 70% and high mortality (USAID, 2013) Similarly indigenous chickens are poor in productive and reproductive perfonnance which are characterized by small sized eggs, slow growth rate, late maturity, slow age at first mating, small clutch size, a natural learning to broodiness and high mortality of chicks among the flock In Ethiopia the total 99% of egg (Fissaha et al 2010 ) and (Tadelle, 2010) . The production perfonnance of indigenous or local scavenging chickens of Ethiopia is low because of their low egg production potential, high chick mortality and longer reproductive cycle or the low genetic potential (slow growth rate, late sexual maturity and broodiness for an extended period). About 40-60% of the chicks hatched die during the first 8 weeks of age mainly due to disease and predators attack. About half of the eggs produced have to be hatched to replace chicken that have died, and the brooding time of the laying hens is longer, with many brooding cycles required to compensate for its unsuccessful brooding (Besbes, 2009)

According to Melaku et al (2014) the reproductive perfonnance of local chicken in Nebse Sar Midr Woreda , age at firs laying is (7+1) mean +SD , Number of eggs laied per year per hen (65+7.64) number of egg per cluch were (17+1.53) , Brooding length In month 3.5+1 , age of cockier breeding moth is (4,5+0.58)

Objective

To present reproductive perfonnance Ethiopian indigenous chicken

2. Importance of chicken

Importance of chicken is for Purpose of egg production ,Hatching for replacement,Sale for income, Home consumption , Purpose of chicken production , Replacement (breeding ,Cultural/religious ceremonies ,Create job opportunity and additional job ( Fissaha et al ,2010) and (Melkamu ,2014) Chicken production Can be started with small capital and No need for large plot of land Egg (and meat) is significant source of Animal protein in large parts of the country. It makes sizeable contribution to livelihood of resource poor fanners Women benefit more than men from chicken production (in tenns of income) Children benefit more than adults from chicken production (in tenns of nutrition) Are a hedge to other larger livestock (SolomonA,2015) . Ethiopian indigenous chickens are adapted to low quality feed and disease resistant.

2.1. Age at sexual maturity of chicken .

2.1.1 Age at first egg laying

The study conducted in Bench Maji Zone, South Western Ethiopia, indicates the average age at first lay of village chicken were significant among the study districts. North-bench and South bench had relatively higher values which is 5.92 and 5.82 months for mean age of female at first lay, Sheko had lower values which is 5.50 months for mean age of female at first lay This shows pullets found in sheko relatively matured faster than chicken of the other districts (Getachew ,2016). Similar to this result, which is not different from the report of Northwestern Ethiopia, the average age at first egg for local chickens was 5.9 ± 0.11. According to Melaku etal (2014) the reproductive perfonnance of local chicken in Nebse Sar Mi dr Woreda is age at firs laying is mean +SD (7+1) this is late as compared to (Getachew ,2016) not significant difference with (wereda the value of which is longer than that of the Gomma Wereda by 0.73 months. Chickens encountered in Belfo Konche and Kilole Kirkir and Koye Seja Kebeles were found to be significantly higher (P<0.01) than all the others in age at slaughter weight (Halima, 2007) in North West Ethiopia USAID ,2013) This result is much shorter than 6.10 to 8.16 months reported by Tadelle (1996). Mekonnen (2007) reported age at first egg of 7.07 months from indigenous pullets of Dale 31.92 % of the pullets reached maturity at 28 weeks. It was also reported that late sexual maturity, this is similar to report of ( Leta et al 2010 ) in Mid-rift valley of Ethiopia , Age at firs egg ranges to seven months; and the age at first egg is six or seven months indicating late maturity . According to (Fissaha et al , 2012). pullets at first egg were 27.5 weeks this indecates they are poor perfonnance in tenns of egg. According to (Addisu et al 2013) Mean sexual maturity expressed in tenns of age at first egg was reported to be 6.33 months . Accordig to (Salo ร, 2016 ) Mean sexual maturity female was 22.93 ± 0.22 weeks . According to (Alem ,2014) Average age at first egg was 27.2 weeks for local breeds ranged from 24 to 28 weeks, There was significant difference (P<0.05) on sexual local pullets between low land and mid lad ecology . Maturity of chickens was late in lowland than in midland agro ecology, might be attributed to the management practice. Sexual maturity of chickens always depends on management. There is no significant difference on age at first lay. Age at slaughter is comparable in all locations under study. As revealed from the result of the study average age at first lay and slaughter was more than 4.5 months in all studied locations. (Taddele,2003) A laying hen needs about 120 to 130 days to accomplish one production cycle that is 40 to 50 days of laying, 21 days to incubate eggs and 60 days of brooding the small chicks. Meseret (2010) reported that the mean sexual maturity of indigenous chicken at Gomma district of Jimina zone were about 6.33 months.

2.1.2. Clutch number of indigenous chicken

Many researchers reported that clutch numbers of Ethiopian chicken is deffrent in défirent location and management condition . Flabte et al ( 2013) Numbers of eggs per clutch per hen per year for indigenous were 11. According to {Alem , 2014) Average number of eggs laid per hen per clutch was 13.6 for local hens ranged from 9 to 18 eggs, in lowland and midland agro- ecological zones of central Tigray, in northern Ethiopia. Fisseha (2010 ) reported that the average number of eggs/hen per clutch is 15.7, 13.2 and 14.9 in Bure, Fogéra and Dale woredas, respectively. The number of clutch periods showed by local hens per year is 3.8, 2-6 and 3.7 in Bure, Fogéra and Dale, respectively. Accordingly, the total egg production/hen per year of local hens, under fanner management condition, is estimated to be 60, 53 and 55 in Bure, Fogéra and Dale woredas, respectively . According to (Meseret , 2010) there was significant difference between the different Kebeles in productivity of the indigenous chickens as measured by the average number of eggs per clutch. Chickens from Belfo Konche had significantly higher average number of eggs/clutch (13.87 eggs) than chickens all the other Kebeles. The overall average clutch number of chicken in the study area was 3.62/year. There was significant difference in clutch number among the three altitudes. Subsequent mean comparison of clutch interval was presented This result shows an agreement with the report of Meseret,( 2010 ) . The average number of clutches per year reported from Limu Sapa Kebele (3.8) was significantly higher than Belfo Konche, Kilole Kirkir and Koye Seja Mean annual egg production of the indigenous chickens of Gomma Wereda was estimated at 43.8 eggs . Mekonnen [2016] in which the mean clutch number of indigenous chicken in Gomma district and three districts of SNNPRs was 3.43/yr and 3.8/ yr respectively. Clutch number also had highly significant effect on average egg production/hen/clutch and mean annual egg production/hen ( Addisi! et al(2013).) reported the average eggs laid/clutch/hens is 16.88, 14.23and 11.9 eggs for Quara, Alefa and Tach Annachiho districts, respectively.

2.1.3 Egg production

Deffirent researchers investigated défirent egg production in tenns of reproduction perfonnance of indigenous chicken in défirent ecologies of Ethiopia. According to Mokonin ,et al (20 16) at Benishangul Gumuz the three locations Local birds lay three times a year, According to Melkamu ,(2014) An average of 65 eggs are laid per hen per year. This is disagree with (Tadelle, 1996) and ( FAO ,2004) report, the average egg production of native chicken was 30­60 and 34 eggs per year under village condition annually. The reason for this variation is that the management practices of the fanners in the woreda may be somewhat improved from time to time by means of extension services provided by Assistant development agents indicated that the average annual egg production of native chicken was 40 eggs under fanner's management, but under experimental conditions with improved feeding housing and health care the level of production was elevated to 99 eggs per hen per year. Similarly Annual egg production of local hens is 60.20, 55.87 and 36.94 eggs/hen for Quara, Alefa and Tach Annachiho districts of Amhara region respectively.this is similar to (บSAID,2013) Indigenous chickens, have low productivity average annual egg production is estimated at 60 eggs (average 38 g)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2.2. Fertility and hatchabilty

2.2.1. Fertility

Indigenous Egg Fertility Testing Techniques floating eggs in water ,shaking , visual examination through sunlight , visual examination through sunlighta ,by coking sample eggs , by breaking sam,egg color change ( change from white to bulla) ,weighing eggs (, This result is in agreement with the findings of Matiwos et aí (2013) and Samson and Endalew (2010) reported that putting in water (28%), รนท candling (39%) and shaking were used as methods of nonnal eggs identification from spoiled ones in Mid Rift Valley of Oromia of Ethiopia..

The fertile eggs showed a small dark spot that looked like a “spider”. Infertile eggs were clean and only showed the shadow of the yolk (Melaku พ, 2016). Visual examination, floating in water, shaking, cooking sample eggs, breaking sample eggs and weighing were the traditional techniques of egg fertility checking prior to incubation Markos et al, (2014)

Fertility and hatchability are major parameters of reproductive performance which are most sensitive to environmental and genetic influences (Stromberg, 1975). Fertility refers to the percentage of incubated eggs that are fertile while hatchability is the percentage of fertile eggs that hatch (Sapp et aí., 2004). The main effect of varying levels of egg storage temperature (10, 16 and 23°C); fumigation (fumigated and not-fiunigated); broiler strain and the interaction effect of these factors on fertility indicated that there was no significant difference among the treatment groups in fertility. The result indicated that fertility is not dependent on egg storage treatments employed. The result is expected because fertility mainly depends . The mean value for fertility of indigenous chicken in eastern Hararge Zone of Ethiopia showed significant higher percentage of fertile eggs (91.46%) (Abdurrahman et al , 2016). Comparative fertility and hatchability of available breeds including local ecotypes (Mebratu, 1997).The result reported indicates that fertility is not dependent on egg storage treatments employed. The result is expected because fertility mainly depends on sex ratio of the parent stock, season, flock age and other factors in the laying room than storage temperature and fumigation.. The result is expected because fertility mainly depends on sex ratio of the parent stock, season, flock age and other factors in the laying room than storage temperature and fumigation. Candling was conducted on day 8 and 15 to detennine fertility.

2.2.2 Hatchability

Fertility and hatchability are the major detenninant of profitability in the hatchery enterprise ( (Peters et al ., 2008) this is similar idea of Flabte et al (2013) Flatchability and rate of chick survival are one of the major detenninant factors of productivity in poultry. Further research on hatchability perfonnance evaluation of the indigenous chickens in both on fann and station as well as effect of the twelve months of the year on incubation and hatchability of eggs Markos et al , (2014). mean value for hatchability of indegenous chi chicken in eastern Flararge Zone of Ethipia shoed significant higher percentage of hatchability on hatchability of total eggs seted (67.78 %) (Amadhin Abduraman et al , 2016). According to (Fissaha et al, (2010 ) the average hatchability perfonnance of local hens was 81.7%. Flowever, survivability of young chicks was only 60.5% (ranged 0 -100%). Fligh hatchability perfonnance of local hens (81.7%) and high mortality of young chicks (39.5%) were the two contradictory features for the existing village chicken production system of the district. According to (Alem , 2014) hatchability of 85.8% for local eggs and 78. 97% for cross breed eggs . The hatchability of local and cross breed eggs was 82.5 and 72.5% in lowland areas and 88.9 and 85.5% in Tigray midland areas of Ethiopia This might be attributed to the high temperature in lowland that may affect the quality of the eggs and in addition broody hens would be restless during high temperature According to Melaku ( 2016) Flatchability percentage is (59.6+2.52) which is lower as Comprd to report of Alem According to (Yassin et al 2008) Flatchability of eggs is a function of both maternal and paternal components, and the fonner has an overriding effect on genetic variation in hatchability of a fertile egg, which is attributed to the quality (external and internal) of the laid egg. Eggs stored for a longer period of time and collected from older age flocks are known to have lower hatchability . According to Habte et al , (2013) natural incubation mainly in dry seasons and reported to attain hatchability of about 83 and 44% through the incubation of indigenous eggs. Overall mean percent hatchability of 82% was reported from eggs of indigenous chicken and there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between the study sites agro-ecologies in hatchability of eggs collected from indigenous chickens. The highest percent hatchability (86%) was reported from eggs of indigenous chickens of lowland whereas the lowest percent hatchability of 79% was reported from eggs of indigenous chickens of highland.

Egg storage is a necessary process in poultry industry to accumulate sufficient number of eggs necessary for each setting. The goal, then, of egg storage is to bring to a standstill embryo development while maintaining their ability to resume development and produce viable and healthy chicks. Hatching eggs are often stored on broiler breeder farms as well as at hatcheries to minimize transportation costs or to provide for enough eggs available to fill the large incubators (Bekele and Leta ,2016) . The hatchability of an egg does not necessarily correlate with the quality of chick .The quality of chick that emerges out of an egg depends on factors such as the age of breeder, length and storage condition of egg before incubation and the incubation conditions (Tona et ak, 2005) . Egg storage conditions prior to incubation can influence hatchability and are, thus of considerableconcem to commercial hatchery enterprises (Butler, 1991).

According to Zelleke (2005) cited by Fissaha et al (2010) reported that the average hatchability perfonnance of modem incubators found in governmental poultry breeding and multiplication centers of Amhara region, under standard breeding conditions, was 69%, which is lower than the hatchability perfonnance of localbroody hens of the study area. Meseret (2010) reported mean percent total hatchability of 22% from eggs of indigenous chickens of Gomma Woreda of Jimina zone, indicating that hatchability is one of the detrimental factors limiting poultry production in Gomma Wereda. According to Habte et al (2015) Hatchability of eggs is a function of both maternal and paternal components, and the fonner has an overriding effect on genetic variation in hatchability of a fertile egg, which is attributed to the quality (external and internal) of the laid egg. According to Fikremariam (2015) Post hatch perfonnance of chick is not affected by breed.and egg size. Finally, breeds having better fertility and hatchability, proper egg handling and nest hygiene were recommended.

Hatchability and rate of chick survival are one of the major detenninant factors of productivity in poultry. The results of the hatchability and related factors obtained in this study of Habte et al (2013). (Khan et ai., 2004) cited by (Dassalew T 2012) The eggs shell thickness is an important trait for hatchability.

For best result of hatchability egg shell thickness should be between 0.33 and 0.35 mm and few eggs with a shell thickness less than 0.27mm will hatch. According to (Dassalew T 2012) To detennine the internal egg quality traits, eggs were broken onto a flat surface. The thick albumen height (AH) was measured at its widest part at a position half way between the yolk and the outer margin. Yolk height was measured using Tripod Micrometer (TSS, England). The yolks were carefully separated from the albumen. Albumen and yolk weight were detennined by weighing with electronic sensitive balance separately. According to Fikremariam (2015) Egg size has significant effect on the fertility of egg . Infertility is highest for larger eggs than the smaller one. Early and middle death of embryo was not affected by egg size but there was significant difference in late death of embryo

Tabe 3 Hatchabiliy

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Hatchability measurement

According to( Melaku พ. 2015) Hatchability was calculated on the basis of set and fertile eggs and the number of chicks hatched as depicted in the following formulas.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

MelakuW.2015)

According to presentatationof ( Solomon Abegaze , 2015 ) the reproductive cycle of indigenous hens consists of 20-days of lying phase 21 -days of incubation phase 56-days of brooding phase

2.3 .Age at firs mating

Average age at first mating of cockerels was 26 weeks for local; there was no significant difference between lowland and midland agro-ecology. The average weight of mature males (cocks) was significantly higher in midland (1.812) kg than in lowland (1.694) agro-ecology. But similar body weight of cockerels (1.024 kg and 1.119 kg) recorded in lowland and midland agro-ecology, respectively. Similarly Halima (2007) reported that 77.4% of cocks of local chicken ecotypes in North-West Ethiopia reached maturity at 20-24 weeks of age. (Alem T, 2014) The average age of cockerels at first mating and 24.6 weeks (Fissaha , 2012). . This variation could be attributed to genotype, management, and season. It was also found shorter than the 6.8 months reported by (Tadelle et aí. 2003). On the other hand, it is a bit longer than the 5 months average that was reported by Halima (2007) late maturity and slow age at first mating. Age at sexual maturity of the indigenous chickens in Wolayita Districtof Ethiopia. Similarly according to (Habte et al ,2013) the , mean age of sexual maturity for local stock is reported to (7 months) . The study conducted in Bench Maji Zone, South Western Ethiopia, indicates the average age at first mating were significant among the study districts. North-bench and South bench had relatively higher values which is 5.92 months and 5.83 months for mean age of male at first mating, respectively, Sheko had lower values which is 5.61 months for mean age of male at first mating, cockerels found in sheko relatively matured faster than chicken of the other districts (Getachew ,2016)

The average weight of mature males (cocks) was significantly higher in midland (1.812) kg than in lowland (1.694) agro-ecology But similar body weight of hens (1.37 kg and 1.356 kg), cockerels (1.024 kg and 1.119 kg) and pullets (1.021 kg and 1.064 kg) was recorded in lowland and midland agro ecology, respectively. The substantial differences in body weight observed for the different classes could be attributed to non genetic factors like supplementary feeding, watering and health care (Alem T, 2014)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

2.4. Reproductive life span of local chicken eco-types

The result also indicated that the overall mean age of reproductive life of matured male and female local chicken ecotypes was 2.85 }0.04 years and 3.31 }0.05 years respectively Western Tigray. The mean age of reproductive life of matured male local chicken did not differ among the three chicken ecotypes in Western Tigray.. However, slightly higher mean age of reproductive life of males was obtained from highland ecotypes (2.89 }0.07 years) followed by lowland (2.88 }0.07 years) and midland (2.78 }0.07 years). However, significantly higher mean age of reproductive life of matured local female chickens was obtained from highland chicken ecotypes (3.61 }0.09 years) than midland chicken ecotypes (2.91 }0.08 years) but not different from lowland chicken ecotypes (3.43 }0.08 years) in Western Tigray (Markos et al, 2015). This result was slightly lower than the average reproductive life span of males (3.79 }0.15 years) & females (3.56 }0.14 years) in Metekel Zone of North West Ethiopia (Solomon et al 2013).

According to th report of (Bógale ,2008) High longevity under adverse condition is one of the adaptive traits of indigenous chicken. The average productive life span of hens and cocks, were: 26.61 ± 0.93 and 18.43 ± 0.54 months, respectively. According to this data, the reproductive life span 53 of a female local chicken seems to be quite long compared to hens from origin. Long tenn reproductive perfonnance (long life, high fertility, high hatchability, and high number of egg per hen per year, high number of egg mass per hen per year, less or no number of broodiness per hen) of chicken should be given more importance in selection programs. As a base for initial selection, ancestral infonnation is more important in the absence of any records. Hen produce 11 to 25 eggs with 2-6 clutches per hen during her reproductive life (Bógale ,2008).

The mortality from hatching to maturity is higher under a weeks (63%) and 1-5 weeks of age (30%) than 6-8 weeks of age (7%). This is mostly caused by disease (45%), malnutrition (21.66%) and predators (33.33%0. From this it is suggested that as the age of chicks increase their adaptability and capability to their environment and resistance to disease a respectively so that they can scope from predators easily. This result is in line with Solomon (2003) report; local chickens are superior health status and survival rate, well adapted to the local environment. Though this is true, there is a great loss (mortality) yet.

2.5 Incubation and hatch

The brooding time of the laying hens is longer, with many brooding cycles required to compensate for its unsuccessful brooding .under scavenging conditions, the reproductive cycle of indigenous hens consists of 20-days of lying phase 21- days of incubation phase 56-days of brooding phase. For chickens it takes 21 days for eggs to hatch. Eggs should be fresh before incubation. The age of eggs should be no more than 10 days, when stored at temperatures below 20° c. If the temperature is higher, the eggs should be no more than 5 days old (Solomon A, 2015). To obtain the best incubation result, the eggs selected for incubation should be of average size and nonnal shape for the breed further, the eggs should have a smooth un-cracked shell. If there are cracks in the shell, the loss of moisture from the egg can be too high and the embryo may die .There is also a risk of bacteria entering the egg, which may lead to unhealthy or dead embryos {USAID, 2013). Environmental temperature, lack of proper laying nest and post handling were the critical causes of failure of egg hatchability in the study area. Visual examination, floating in water, shaking, cooking sample eggs, breaking sample eggs and weighing were the traditional techniques of egg fertility checking prior to incubation (Markos, 2014)

3. Conclusion

Indigenous chicken (97.3 %) in Ethiopia is found in huge number distributed across different agro-ecological zones . Indigenous chicken productivity is low as compared to exotic breeds with average annual egg production of 60 eggs.

Low productivity is also due to low hatchability and high mortality of indigenous chicken Ethiopia, the average age at first egg for local chickens was défirent in different agro ecology .

Age at firs egg ranges to seven months; and the age at first egg is six or seven months indicating late maturity.

Average age at first mating of cockerels was 26 weeks for local, there was no significant difference between lowland and midland agro-ecology . The average weight of mature males (cocks) was significantly higher in midland (1.812) kg than in lowland (1.694) agro-ecology . But similar body weight of cockerels (1.024 kg and 1.119 kg) recorded in lowland and midland agro-ecology.

Mean age of reproductive life of males was obtained from highland ecotypes (2.89 }0.07 years) followed by lowland (2.88 }0.07 years) and midland (2.78 }0.07 years

The brooding time of the laying hens is longer, with many brooding cycles required to compensate for its unsuccessful brooding .under scavenging conditions, the reproductive cycle of indigenous hens consists of 20-days of lying phase 21- days of incubation phase 56-days of brooding phase. For chickens it takes 21 days for eggs to hatch.

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Getachew Kefelegn к & Negassi A ( 2016 )Study of Indigenous Chicken Production System in Bench Maji Zone, South Western Ethiopia, Journal of Science Frontier Research Volume XVI Issue 11 Version I Year 2016

Details

Pages
28
Year
2017
File size
562 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v372409
Grade
3.09
Tags
reproductive ethiopian indigenous chicken

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Title: Reproductive performance of Ethiopian Indigenous Chicken