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Morphological diversity, nutritional quality and value addition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) in Kerala

by Dr. Prem Jose Vazhacharickal (Author) Sajeshkumar N.K (Author) Jiby John Mathew (Author)

Scientific Study 2016 191 Pages

Agrarian Studies

Excerpt

Table of contents

Table of figures

Table of tables

List of abbreviations

Chapter 1 General introduction
1. Introduction
2. Research objectives and hypothesis
3. Conclusions
References

Chapter 2 Morphological diversity of jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) varieties in Kerala: an overview
Abstract
2.1. Introduction
2.1.1Taxonomical classification
2.2. Review of literature
2.3. Hypothesis
2.4. Materials and Methods
2.4.1 Botanical description and varieties
2.4.2 Nutritional and vitamin composition
2.4.3 Study area
2.4.4 Sample collection
2.4.5 Morphological descriptors for Jackfruit tree classification
2.4.6 Statistical analysis
2.5. Results and discussion
2.5.1 General characteristics
2.5.2 Leaf characteristics
2.5.3 Fruit
2.6. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 3 Nutritional properties of jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) varieties in Kerala: current state of knowledge
Abstract
3.1. Introduction
3.1.1Taxonomical classification
3.2. Review of literature
3.3. Hypothesis
3.4. Materials and Methods
3.4.1 Study area
3.4.2 Data collection
3.4.3 Proximate analysis
3.4.4 Statistical analysis
3.5. Results and discussion
3.5.1 Estimation of dry matter & moisture content
3.5.2 Estimation of crude protein
3.5.3 Estimation of crude fat
3.5.4 Estimation of crude ash
3.5.5 Estimation of crude fibre
3.5.6 Estimation of nitrogen free extract
3.5.7 Value added products from jackfruit
3.6. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 4 Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) products and processing in Kerala: a comparison between small and large-scale industries
Abstract
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Review of literature
4.2.1 Mature unripe fruit:
4.2.2 Mature ripe fruits:
4.2.3 Processed products
4.3. Hypothesis
4.4. Materials and Methods
4.4.1 Study area
4.4.2 Data collection
4.4.3 Statistical analysis
4.5. Results and discussion
4.5.1 Industry details
4.5.2 Total number of workers
4.5.3 Factory area and capacity
4.5.4 Government support
4.6. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 5 General discussion and conclusions
5.1. General overview of the study approach
5.2. General conclusions
References

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are most beholden to God Almighty for a great many blessings in the carrying out of this project.

We wish to thank our beloved Manager Rev. Dr. George Njarakunnel, our respected Principal Dr. Joseph V.J, Vice-Principal Rev. Fr. Joseph Allencheril , and the Management for providing all the necessary facilities in carrying out the study. We express our sincere thanks to Mr. Binoy A Mulanthra (lab in-charge, Department of Biotechnology) for his support. This research certainly benefitted from first-hand experience of many cultivators in the target area.

We are greatly indebted to our teachers, family and friends who were always there for to lend a helping hand.

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal*, Sajeshkumar N.K and Jiby John Mathew

*Address for correspondence:

Assistant Professor

Department of Biotechnology

Mar Augusthinose College

Ramapuram-686576

Kerala, India

Table of figures

Figure 2.1. Mean monthly rainfall (mm), maximum and minimum temperatures (°C) in Kerala, India (1871-2005; Krishnakumar et al., 2009)

Figure 2.2. Introduced and indigenous regions of Artocarpus heterophyllus around the world (Modified after; Haq, 2006)

Figure 2.3. Map of Kerala showing the various sample collection sites (A1 to A23). Authors own work

Figure 2.4. Morphological characters of jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.). (Modified after; Haq, 2006)

Figure 2.5. Jackfruit trees a) jackfruit with varying sizes, b) different stages of fruiting, c) tree bearing fruit, d) fruit plucked, e) small type of jackfruit f) jackfruit cut open g) jackfruit seeds h) seeded jackfruit i) unseeded fruit. Authors own images.

Figure 2.6. Jackfruit trees canopy structure; 1-Pyramidal, 2-Broadly pyramidal, 3- Spherical, 4-Oblong, 5-Semicircular, 6-Elliptical, 7- Irregular. (IPGRI, 2000)

Figure 2.7. Jackfruit tree branching pattern; 1-Erect, 2-Opposite, 3-Verticillate, 4-Horizontal, 5-Irregular. (IPGRI, 2000)

Figure 2.8. Jackfruit tree leaf blade shape; 1-Obovate, 2-Broadly elliptic, 3-Slightly spherical, 4-Narrowly elliptic, 5-Oblong, 6-Lyrate. (IPGRI, 2000)

Figure 2.9. Jackfruit tree leaf base shape; 1-Oblique, 2-Obtuse, 3-Cuneate, 4-Shortly attenuate. (IPGRI, 2000)

Figure 2.10. Jackfruit tree leaf apex shape; 1-Acute, 2-Mucronulate, 3-Retuse, 4-Obtuse. (IPGRI, 2000)

Figure 2.11. Jackfruit shapes; 1-Obloid, 2-Spheroid, 3-Ellipsoid, 4-Clavate, 5-Oblong, 6-Irregular. (IPGRI, 2000)

Figure 2.12. Jackfruit stalk attachment to fruit; 1-Depressed, 2-Flattened, 3-Inflated. (IPGRI, 2000)

Figure 2.13. Sample A1 description a) tree bearing jackfruits, b) jackfruit with exposed pith, c) longitudinal section of Jackfruit, d) flake, e) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, f) pith, g) seed. Authors own images.

Figure 2.14. Sample A2 description a) jackfruit tree with fruit, b) jackfruit, c) male (yellow brown in colour) and female flower (green), d) flake, e) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, f) longitudinal section of jackfruit. Authors own images.

Figure 2.15. Sample A3 description a) jackfruit, b) cross section of jackfruit, c) reddish flake, d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine. Authors own images.

Figure 2.16. Sample A4 description a) jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit, c) flake, d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, e) pith, f) intermediate spines. Authors own images.

Figure 2.17. Sample A5 description a) jackfruit tree, b) branch with fruit, c) jackfruit and its stalk, d) jackfruits, e) longitudinal section of Jack fruit, f) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, g) pith, h) flake. Authors own images.

Figure 2.18. Sample A6 description a) tree bearing jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit, c) spines, d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, e) fruit pith, f) flake. Authors own images.

Figure 2.19. Sample A7 description a) tree bearing jackfruit, b) bunch of round jackfruit, c) spherical shaped jackfruit, d) longitudinal section of jackfruit, e) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, f) spines, g) depression in stalk attachment to fruit. Authors own images.

Figure 2.20. Sample A8 description a) oblong shaped jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit, c) flake, d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, e) slightly spherical leaf. Authors own images.

Figure 2.21. Sample A9 description a) tree bearing jackfruit, male and female flower, b) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, c) flake and seed, d) leaf apex (retuse). Authors own images.

Figure 2.22. Sample A10 description a) jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit, c) spine d) flake, e) stalk attachment to fruit (inflated), f) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine. Authors own images.

Figure 2.23. Sample A11 description a) jackfruit, b) seed c) longitudinal section of jackfruit, d) flake, e) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, f) leaf tip shape. Authors own images.

Figure 2.24. Sample A12 description a) tree bearing jackfruit, b) jackfruit, c) fruit pith, d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, e) spine, f) leaf tip. Authors own images.

Figure 2.25. Sample A13 description a) jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit, c) spine, d) flake, d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, e) flake, f) pith. Authors own images.

Figure 2.26. Sample A14 description a) jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit, c) spines, d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, e) flake f) stalk attachment to fruit (flattened). Authors own images.

Figure 2.27. Sample A15 description a) jackfruit, b) flake, c) seed, d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine. Authors own images.

Figure 2.28. Sample A16 description a) jackfruit, b) leaf apex shape, c) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds, d) flake and seed. Authors own images.

Figure 2.29. Sample A17 description a) jackfruit, b) flake and seed, c) spines, d) leaf apex shape e) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine. Authors own images.

Figure 2.30. Sample A18 description a) jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit, c) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, d) spine, e) fruit stalk, f) leaf tip. Authors own images.

Figure 2.31. Sample A19 description a) jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit, c) flake, d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, e) spines f) seed. Authors own images.

Figure 2.32. Sample A20 description a) jackfruit, b) spine, c) longitudinal section of jackfruit, d) flake, e) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, f) inflated stock attachment to fruit. Authors own images.

Figure 2.33. Sample A21 description a) jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit, c) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine d) fruit stalk, e) flake and seed, f) spines. Authors own images.

Figure 2.34. Sample A22 description a) jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit c) flake and seed d) spine, e) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine.

Figure 2.35. Sample A23 description a) jackfruit, b) longitudinal section of jackfruit, c) spines, d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, e) pith, f) stalk attachment to fruit. Authors own images.

Figure 2.36. Seed description and morphology of sample A1 to A23. The last two pictures (1 and 2) show seed germination and seed covering membrane. Authors own images.

Figure 3.37. Mean monthly rainfall (mm), maximum and minimum temperatures (°C) in Kerala, India (1871-2005; Krishnakumar et al., 2009)

Figure 3.38. Map of Kerala showing the various sample collection sites (JK1 to JK7). Authors own work.

Figure 3.39. Sample JK1 description a) jackfruit, b) spines c) stalk d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake and seeds, e) vertical section of jackfruit, f) flakes, seed and spines, g) flake, seed and chakini. Authors own images.

Figure 3.40. Sample JK2 description a) jackfruit tree, b) flakes c) cross section of jackfruit d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake and seeds, e) spines, f) flakes, seed and spines, g) seeds. Authors own images.

Figure 3.41. Sample JK3 description a) jackfruit, b) half opened portion of jackfruit, c) leaf, flake and spines, d) spines, flake and seeds, e) flake, f) seed and chakini. Authors own images.

Figure 3.42. Sample JK4 description a) jackfruit, b) fruit stalk, c) vertical section of jackfruit, d) & e) spines, f) fruit stock leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds, chakini and spine, g) flake and seed. Authors own images.

Figure 3.43. Sample JK5 description a) jackfruit, b) spines, c) fruit stalk, d) leaf, flake with seed and spine, e) flake. Authors own images.

Figure 3.44. Sample JK6 description a) jackfruit, b) & c) spines d) vertical section of jackfruit, e) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, f) flake. Authors own images.

Figure 3.45. Sample JK7 description a) jackfruit, b) vertical section of jackfruit, c) pith d) fruit stalk leaf, branch leaf, flake, seeds and spine, e) leaf apex shape. Own images.

Figure 3.46. Major phytochemical components of jackfruit a) carotenoids; b) prenylflavones; c) sterols

Figure 3.47. Proximate analysis of % of acid insoluble ash and % of nitrogen free extract on dry matter basis. Authors own work.

Figure 4.48. Mean monthly rainfall (mm), maximum and minimum temperatures (°C) in Kerala, India (1871-2005; Krishnakumar et al., 2009). Authors own work.

Figure 4.49. Jackfruit production scenario in Kerala and district-wise distribution (farm guide 2008-2009; department of agriculture, government of Kerala)

Figure 4.50. Map of Kerala showing the location of various jackfruit processing industries across Kerala. Authors own work.

Figure 4.51. Jackfruit trees a) jackfruit with varying sizes b) different stages of fruiting c) tree bearing fruits d) fruits plucked e) small type of jackfruit f) sections of jackfruit g) jackfruit seeds h) seeded fruit i) unseeded fruit. Authors own images.

Figure 4.52. a) Dehydrated unripe jackfruit flakes (top left) b) Dehydrated ripe jackfruit flakes (middle left); c) Dehydrated jackfruit (bottom left) d) an advertisement of dehydrated jackfruit (top right) e) Jackfruit flakes in a drier (bottom right). Authors own images.

Figure 4.53. a) Processing raw jackfruit (top left); b) Open drier (middle left); c) An electric drier (bottom left) d) A closed drier (top right) e) Placing jackfruit flakes in drier; f) Fan for air circulation in an electric dryer. Authors own images.

Figure 4.54. Jackfruit promotion council a) Women at jackfruit processing (top left) ;b) A drier(bottom left); c) jackfruit chips collected for packing (top right) d) Raw jackfruits (bottom right). Authors own images.

Figure 4.55. a) Waste after pulp extraction (top left); b) Concentrated jackfruit pulp (middle left); c) Pulp extracting machine (bottom left) d) Washing off the machine (top right); e) Raw jackfruit seeds (bottom right). Authors own images.

Figure 4.56. a) A jackfruit processing unit (top left); b) Packed jackfruit products (middle left); c) Seeded jackfruit flakes for drying (bottom left) d) Jackfruit grinder (top right) e) Jackfruit flakes being treated under polyhouse. Authors own images.

Figure 4.57. a) Jackfruit squash (top left); b) Jackfruit jam (middle left); c) Dried jackfruit seed; d) Dehydrated jackfruit in honey(top right); e) jackfruit chips in honey (middle right); f) jackfruit seed flour (bottom right). Authors own images.

Figure 4.58. a) Packed dehydrated unripe jackfruit (top left); b) Packed jackfruit seed flour (middle left); c) jackfruit seed flour (bottom left); d) Dehydrated ripe jackfruit (top right); e) Jackfruit chips (middle right); f) ‘chakka varattiyathu”. Authors own images.

Figure 4.59. a) Fully matured jackfruit flakes under polyhouse (top left); b) premature jackfruit flakes in polyhouse (middle left); c) dried ripened jackfruit flakes (bottom left); d) dried jackfruit seeds (right). Authors own images.

Figure 4.60. a) Jackfruit jam (top left); b) Dried jackfruit seed (middle left); c) Preserved jackfruit pulp (bottom left);.d) Packed dehydrated mature jackfruit (top right); e) Jackfruit bar/slab (bottom right). Authors own images.

Figure 4.61. a) jackfruit toffee (top left); b) Dehydrated jackfruit (bottom left); c) Jackfruit pakkavada (top right); d) Jackfruit chips (bottom right). Authors own images.

Figure 4.62. a) jackfruit mixture (top left); b) jackfruit unniappam (middle left); c) Label for packing (top right); e) Jackfruit halva (bottom right). Authors own images.

Figure 4.63. Flow chart showing farm level processing and marketing of various jackfruit products

Figure 4.64. Farm to fork distribution chart of jackfruit products.

Table of tables

Table 2.1. Phenolic, flavinoid content and antioxidant activity of araticum, papaya and jackfruit in undigested and digested extracts (Modified after; Pavan et al., 2011)

Table 2.2. Biochemical difference in various jackfruit varieties in South India (Chrips et al., 2008)

Table 2.3. Uses of different jackfruit parts (Chrips et al., 2008)

Table 2.4. Uses of different lectins from jackfruit parts (Chrips et al., 2008)

Table 2.5. Different vernacular names of Artocarpus heterophyllus in India (Modified after; Baliga et al., 2011)

Table 2.6. Common names, uses and distribution of major Artocarpus species (Modified after; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010)

Table 2.7. Chemical composition of jackfruit (Modified after; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010)

Table 2.8. Description of the jackfruit varieties (A1 to A23) and locations in Kerala

Table 2.9. Branch leaf features and properties of jackfruit varieties (A1 to A23) in Kerala

Table 2.10. Fruit stalk leaf composition and properties of jackfruit varieties (A1 to A23) in Kerala

Table 2.11. Fruit features and properties of jackfruit varieties (A1 to A10) in Kerala

Table 2.12. Fruit features and properties of jackfruit varieties (A11 to A23) in Kerala

Table 2.13. General features and properties (tree, branch leaf, fruit stalk leaf and fruit) of jackfruit varieties (A1 to A12) in Kerala

Table 2.14. General features and properties (tree, branch leaf, fruit stalk leaf and fruit) of jackfruit varieties (A13 to A23) in Kerala

Table 3.1. Phenolic, flavinoid content and antioxidant activity of araticum, papaya and jackfruit in undigested and digested extracts (Modified after; Pavan et al., 2011)

Table 3.2. Biochemical difference in various jackfruit varieties in South India (Chrips et al., 2008)

Table 3.3. Uses of different jackfruit parts (Chrips et al., 2008)

Table 3.4. Different vernacular names of Artocarpus heterophyllus in India (Modified after; Baliga et al., 2011)

Table 3.5. Common names, uses and distribution of major Artocarpus species (Modified after; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010)

Table 3.6. Chemical composition of jackfruit (Modified after; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010)

Table 3.7. Description of the jackfruit variety samples (JK1 to JK7) and their special features

Table 3.8. General features of jackfruit variety samples (JK1 to JK7)

Table 3.9. Proximate composition of jackfruit variety samples on as such basis (JK1 to JK7)

Table 3.10. Proximate composition of jackfruit variety samples on dry matter basis (JK1 to JK7)

Table 4.1. Area, production and productivity of jackfruit in Asia (APAARI, 2012)

Table 4.2. Area, production and productivity of jackfruit in different States of India (APAARI, 2012)

Table 4.3. Uses of different jackfruit parts (Chrips et al., 2008)

Table 4.4. Different vernacular names of Artocarpus heterophyllus in India (Modified after; Baliga et al., 2011)

Table 4.5. Chemical composition of jackfruit (Modified after; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010)

Table 4.6. Free sugars in soft and firm varieties of jackfruit (Modified after; Rahman et al., 1999)

Table 4.7. Starch and dietary fiber content in soft and firm varieties of jackfruit (Modified after; Rahman et al., 1999)

Table 4.8. Brief description about jackfruit processing industries (small and large scale) across Kerala

Table 4.9. Criteria’s used to classify factories that process jackfruit across Kerala

List of abbreviations

A1 : Variety 1

A2 : Variety 2

A3 : Variety 3

A4 : Variety 4

A4 : Variety 4

A5 : Variety 5

A6 : Variety 6

A7 : Variety 7

A8 : Variety 8

A9 : Variety 9

A10 : Variety 10

A11 : Variety 11

A12 : Variety 12

A13 : Variety 13

A14 : Variety 14

A15 : Variety 15

A16 : Variety 16

A17 : Variety 17

A18 : Variety 18

A19 : Variety 19

A20 : Variety 20

A21 : Variety 21

A22 : Variety 22

A23 : Variety 23

AC : Acute

BE : Broadly elliptical

BY : Bright yellow

BY : Bright yellow

CA : Crude Ash

CK : Chakini (Perianth)

CLA : Clavate

CMFRI : Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute

D : Dense

Da : Dalton

DG : Dark green

DM : Dry Matter

DP : Depressed

E : Erect

ELP : Ellipsoid

ELP : Elliptical

EX : Excellent

FD : Fruit diameter

FK : Flake

FL : Flake length

FL : Flat

FL : Fruit length; Flake length

FP : Fruit perimeter

FPL : Fruit pith length

FRW : Fruit rind width

FSB : Fruit stalk breadth

FSL : Fruit stalk length

FSW : Flake with seed weight

FT : Flake taste; Flattened

FW : Flake weight; Fruit weight

G : Green

GD : Good

GPS : Global Positioning System

GY : Greenish yellow

H : Horizontal

HI : High

I : Intermediate

IN : Inflated

IR : Irregular

J : Juvenile

JFS : Seed

JK1 : Jackfruit Sample 1

JK2 : Jackfruit Sample 2

JK3 : Jackfruit Sample 3

JK4 : Jackfruit Sample 4

JK5 : Jackfruit Sample 5

JK6 : Jackfruit Sample 6

JK7 : Jackfruit Sample 7

K : Koozha

L : Low

LAF : Laminated Aluminium Foil

LF : Leaves

LG : Light green

LY : Light yellow

M : Mature

ME : Medium

MJ : Mega Jule

MU : Mucronulate

NEE : Narrowly elliptic

NFE : Nitrogen Free Extract

NPDS : Number of partially developed seeds

NSPI : Number of spines per inch

O : Opposite

OB : Obovate

OBG : Oblong

OBT : Obtuse

OD : Old

ODB : Obloid

ORAC : Oxygen radical absorbance capacity

P : Pyramidal

ppm : Parts per million

PR : Poor

PW : Pith width

R : Rough

R : Rural

RD : Reddish

RET : Retuse

S : Sparse

SD : Standard Deviation

SL : Seed length; Spine length

SM : Smooth

SMC : Semicircular

SO : Slightly orange

SP : Seed perimeter

SP : Spherical

SP : Spheroid

SPY : Spiny

sqf : Square feet

SRP : Sharp pointed

SSP : Slightly spherical

SU : Semi-urban

SW : Seed weight; Seed width

TEAC : Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity

TF : Total flakes

TKR : Thick rough

TKS : Thick smooth

TR : Thin rough

TS : Thin smooth

U : Urban

V : Varika

VER : Verticullate

VR : Very rough

WY : Whitish yellow

Y : Yellow

YU : Young

Chapter 1 General introduction

1. Introduction

Artocarpus heterophyllus belonging to the Moraceae family, and popularly called jackfruit in English, is native to India and seen in abundance in the Western Ghats (Jagadeesh et al., 2007a; Baliga et al., 2011; Reddy et al., 2004; Jagadeesh et al., 2007b; Prakash et al., 2009; Wangchu et al., 2013). Apart from India, jackfruit is commonly grown in home gardens of tropical and sub-tropical countries, especially Sri Lanka; Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Brazil (Jagadeesh et al., 2007b; Baliga et al., 2011; Dutta et al., 2011; Siti Balqis and Rosma, 2011; Lin et al., 2009; Saxena et al., 2009a Maia et al., 2004; Hameed, 2009). In India, it is widely distributed in the States of Assam, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka (Wangchu et., 2013) and considered to be the ‘poor man’s food’ (Jagadeesh et al., 2007a; Prakash et al., 2009). In Malayalam (regional language of Kerala, India) jackfruit is called “Chakka” while the ancient Indian language Sanskrit refers to it as Atibruhatphala (Baliga et al., 2011; Haq, 2006; Prakash et al., 2009). The morphology of the tree varies from 10 to 30 m in height; with long tap root and dense crown (Wangchu et al., 2013) producing the largest tree-born fruit in the world (Baliga et al., 2011; Prakash et al., 2009). The fruit weighs up to 50 kg, but average weight is reckoned to be 10 kg, with an edible 30-35% portion of the bulb (Jagadeesh et al., 2007a; Baliga et al., 2011; Saxena et al., 2009b; Hameed, 2009; Swami et al., 2012; Selvaraj and Pal, 1989).

Jackfruit is considered as national fruit in Bangladesh and highly appreciated in India due to low price and availability in summer season when food is scarce (Muralidharan et al., 1997; Morton, 1987; Schnell et al., 2001). The fruit provide 2 MJ per kg/wet weight of ripe perianth and contain high levels of carbohydrates, protein, starch, calcium and vitamins (Swami et al., 2012; Ahmed et al., 1986; Burkill, 1997; Saxena et al., 2009a). Boiled and cooked jackfruit seeds are included in the diets, providing 77% starch content, hence exploited as a plentiful source of starch (Bobbio et al., 1978; Tulyathan et al., 2002; Mukprasirt and Sajjaanantakul, 2004; Odoemelam, 2005). Jackfruit is widely used in culinary preparation, baking, canned jackfruit, baby food, jams, jellies, juice, chips and desserts. Advances in food processing technologies have further expanded the possibilities in creating ever newer varieties (Burkill, 1997; Swami et al., 2012; Selvaraj and Pal, 1989; Narasimham, 1990; Roy and Joshi, 1995; Haq, 2006). Jackfruit is widely accepted by consumers, researchers and food industries due to the presence of bioactive compounds and diversity of products made out of it (Swami et al., 2012; Saxena et al., 2009a; Dutta et al., 2011; Lin et al., 2009; Devalaraja et al., 2011). Various parts of the jackfruit tree have been used for medicine and the hard wood used for construction (Roy and Joshi, 1995; Alagiapillai et al., 1996). The aim of this research is to contribute to the current state of knowledge, so as to enhance the medicinal and industrial application applications of jackfruit.

Artocarpus species (15 varieties of edible fruits), known to occupy various niches and habitats, comprise mainly bread fruit and jackfruit (Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; Wangchu et al., 2013). Jackfruit is monecious and pollinated flowers take several months to develop into ripe fruit, depending on climatic and soil conditions (Morton, 1987; Baliga et al., 2011). According to Prakash et al (2009) jackfruit consist of an inner fleshy edible region (bulb), middle fused region (syncarp) and outer spiney region (spike). When ripe, the fruit get fleshy, outer spines widen and flesh gets soft and yellow (Saxena et al., 2009). The thorny outer bark and axis are not edible (Baliga et al., 2011).

The jackfruits were classified based on their phonotypical and organoleptic characteristics with variation in bulb colour as well as shape, size, odour, flake size, flake colour and period of maturity (Haq, 2006; Prakash et al., 2009; Jagadeesh et al., 2007b; Jagadeesh et al., 2007a). Two types of ecotypes are recognised flake characteristics, one with soft and spongy while other with firm carpels which called by different names in regional languages (Baliga et al., 2011; Amma et al., 2011; Shyamalamma et al., 2008; Muralidharan et al., 1997; Odoemelam, 2005).

2. Research objectives and hypothesis

The objectives of this study are (1) to identify and characterize the different varieties of jackfruit to be found in Kerala; (2) to provide a comprehensive overview of the nutritional aspects of jackfruit varieties and parts; (3) to determine the scope of value addition and marketing of Jackfruit varieties.

The study is based on the following hypotheses:

(1) Jackfruit varieties in Kerala differ in morphological features and these variations are related to climatic and soil properties.
(2) Jackfruit varieties in Kerala differ in various nutritional and biochemical properties.
(3) Jackfruit processing industries in Kerala are scarce and limited capacity; a wide difference exists in capacity and technical sophistication among different types of Jackfruit processing industries across Kerala.

3. Conclusions

Being one of the underutilized fruits in India, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. has promising leads to further scientific researches and livelihood strategies. The tree indigenous to the Western Ghats is an important source of nutritious food in the summer season.

References

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Amma, S.P., Kumaran, K., Valavi, S.G., Peter, K.V. & Thottappilly, G. (2011). Jackfruit in South India. The jackfruit, Studium Press LLC, Houston, USA.

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Bobbio, F.O., el Dash, A.A., Bobbio, P.A. & Rodrigues, L.R. (1978). Isolation and characterization of the physicochemical properties of the starch of jackfruit seeds ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ). Cereal Chemistry , 55(4), 505-511.

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Narasimham, P. (1990). Breadfruit and jackfruit. In: Nagy S, Shaw PE, Wardowski WF, editors, Fruits of tropical and subtropical origin Lake Alfred, FL: Florida Science Source. p 193–259.

Odoemelam, S.A. (2005). Functional properties of raw and heat processed jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) flour. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 4(6), 366-370.

Prakash, O., Kumar, R., Mishra, A. & Gupta, R. (2009). Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit): an overview. Pharmacognosy Reviews , 3(6), 353-358.

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Saxena, A. Bawa, A.S. & Raju, P.S. (2009). Optimization of a multitarget preservation technique for jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) bulbs. Journal of Food Engineering , 91(1), 18-28.

Schnell, R.J., Olano, C.T., Campbell, R.J. & Brown, J.S. (2001). AFLP analysis of genetic diversity within a jackfruit germplasm collection. Scientia Horticulturae , 91(3), 261-274.

Selvaraj, Y. & Pal, D.K. (1989). Biochemical changes during the ripening of jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus L.). Journal of Food Science Techolonlogy , 26(6), 304-307.

Shyamalamma, S., Chandra, S.B.C., Hegde, M. & Naryanswamy, P. (2008). Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Genetics and Molecular Research, 7(3) 645-656.

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Wangchu, L., Singh, D. & Mitra, S.K. (2013). Studies on the diversity and selection of superior types in jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution , 60(5), 1749-1762.

Chapter 2 Morphological diversity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) varieties in Kerala: an overview

Morphological diversity of jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) varieties in Kerala: an overview

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal1*, Sajeshkumar N.K1, Jiby John Mathew1 and Alen N Albin1

* premjosev@gmail.com

1Department of Biotechnology, Mar Augusthinose College, Ramapuram, Kerala, India-686576

Abstract

Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) is commonly grown in home gardens of tropical and sub-tropical countries. The fruit contains high levels of carbohydrates, protein, starch, calcium and vitamins. Jack fruit has diverse medicinal uses especially as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-fungal agent. Jackfruit is considered to be an underutilized fruit where most of the fruits get wasted due to ignorance, lack of post-harvest technology and gaps in supply chain systems. Jackfruit contains more protein, calcium, iron, vitamins and other essential nutrients, compared to common fruits. To find out the morphological variations among jackfruits in Kerala we conducted an elaborate survey and found out varieties using parameters such as tree characteristics, leaf characterises, fruit characteristics of selected samples as measure. Both qualitative and quantitative data were measured using field visit and standard methods and morphological indicators. After analysis of data morphological variations among the jack fruit samples were identified. This includes the morphological difference between fruit stalk leaf and branch leaves. In the fruits themselves, colour, shape and size are also found to vary among the samples. These variations may have some relationship to climatic factors such as rainfall, pH and soil properties. Morphological variations affect the selection of the varieties. Encouragement should be given to the marketing as well as creation of value added products from this underutilized fruit tree.

Keywords: Anti-oxidant; Jackfruit; Jackalin; Monecious; Underutilized fruit.

2.1. Introduction

Artocarpus heterophyllus belongs to the Moraceae family. Colloquially called jackfruit in English, it is native to India and is seen abundantly in the Western Ghats (Jagadeesh et al., 2007a; Baliga et al., 2011; Reddy et al., 2014; Jagadeesh et al., 2007b; Prakash et al., 2009; Wangchu et al., 2013). Apart from India, jackfruit is commonly grown in home gardens of tropical and sub-tropical countries, especially Sri Lanka; Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Brazil (Jagadeesh et al., 2007b; Baliga et al., 2011; Dutta et al., 2011; Siti Balqis and Rosma, 2011; Lin et al., 2009; Saxena et al., 2009a; Maia et al., 2004; Hameed, 2009; Hossain, 1996). In India, it widely distributed in the States of Assam, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka (Wangchu et., 2013) and is considered to be the ‘poor man’s food’ (Jagadeesh et al., 2007a; Prakash et al., 2009). In Malayalam (regional language in Kerala, India) jackfruit is called “Chakka” while the ancient Indian language Sanskrit refers to it as Atibruhatphala (Baliga et al., 2011; Haq, 2006; Prakash et al., 2009). The morphology of the tree varies from 10 to 30 m in height; with long tap root and dense crown (Wangchu et al., 2013) producing the largest tree-born fruit in the world (Baliga et al., 2011; Prakash et al., 2009). The fruit weighs up to 50 kg, but average weight is reckoned to be 10 kg. Only 30-35% of the bulb is edible (Jagadeesh et al., 2007a; Baliga et al., 2011; Saxena et al., 2009b; Hameed, 2009; Swami et al., 2012; Selvaraj and Pal.,1989).

Jackfruit is considered as national fruit in Bangladesh and highly valued in India due to low price and availability in summer season when food is scarce (Muralidharan et al., 1997; Morton, 1987; Schnell et al., 2001). The fruit provide 2 MJ per kg/wet weight of ripe perianth and contain high levels of carbohydrates, protein, starch, calcium and vitamins (Swami et al., 2012; Ahmed et al., 1986; Burkill, 1997; Saxena et al., 2009a). Boiled and cooked jackfruit seeds are included in the diets providing 77% starch content, which is exploited as a potent source of starch (Bobbio et al., 1978; Tulyathan et al., 2002; Mukprasirt and Sajjaanantakul, 2004; Odoemelam, 2005). Jackfruit is widely used in culinary preparation, baking, candied jackfruit, baby food, jams, jellies, juice, chips and desserts. Advances in food processing technologies further expanded the possibilities in creating new brands (Burkill, 1997; Swami et al., 2012; Selvaraj and Pal, 1989; Narasimham, 1990; Roy and Joshi, 1995 Haq, 2006). Jackfruit is widely accepted by consumers, researchers and food industries due to the presence of bioactive compounds and diversity of products made out of it (Swami et al., 2012; Saxena et al., 2009a; Dutta et al., 2011; Lin et al., 2009; Devalaraja et al., 2011). Various parts of jackfruit tree have been used for medicine and the hard wood used as building and furniture material.

2.1.1Taxonomical classification

Kingdom: Plantae-- planta, plantes, plants, vegetal

Subkingdom: Tracheobionta -- vascular plants

Division: Magnoliophyta -- angiosperms, flowering plants, phanerogames

Class: Magnoliopsida -- dicots, dicotyledones, dicotyledons

Subclass: Hamamelidae

Order: Urticales

Family: Moraceae - mulberries

Genus: Artocarpus - breadfruit

Species: Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

2.2. Review of literature

The Artocarpus heterophyllus is an average tree, commonly known as jackfruit, and belongs to the family Moraceae. Jackfruit is native to the Western Ghats of India, and the rain forest of Malaysia. It is also found in central and eastern Africa, south eastern Asia, the Caribean, Florida, Brazil, Australia, Puerto Rico, and many Pacific Islands (Rajasekhar et al., 2010; Theivasanthi and Alagar, 2008; kanjilal et al., 1940; Talbot, 1911; Brandis, 1906; Gamble, 1902; Beddome, 1873; Wight, 1843). Jackfruit trees produce a heavier yield compared to other trees and bear the largest known edible fruit weighing up to 35 kg. It can reach a height of 10 to 15 m in five years, with dark green oval-shaped leaves. Jackfruit height increases 1.5 m/yr, when the tree reaches maturity, slowing to 0.5 m. The tree has a life-span of 60 to 70 years (Narkhede et al., 2011).The wood is strong, hard, durable and easy to carve, with saw, or machine. It is used to make furniture, house construction such as, windows, doors, roof, in making oars, masts, rafters, implements and some musical instruments and tambooras (Haque, 1999; Gunasena, 1993). Artocarpus heterophyllus is a bisexual plant. Both male and female flowers are found on the same plant. At the early stage the male flower is green in colour, at maturity it becomes yellowish. The pollen grains, yellow in colour, get dispersed widely. The female flower is an aggregate of small flowers later develop in fruit (Brown and Crane, 2010).

There are 2 types of jackfruit in Kerala, popularly called ‘Varika’ and ‘Koozha’. The Varika has slightly hard fleshy bulbs and Koozha has soft bulbs (Morton, 1987). There are up to 500 seeds in each jackfruit. They are recalcitrant and can be stored in cool humid conditions up to one month (Theivasanthi and Alagar, 2008). The kidney shaped seeds has thin, smooth white, coriaceous testa (Gunasena., 1993). Seeds account for about 10 to 15% of total fruit weight and have high carbohydrate and protein contents (Bobbio et al., 1978; Kumar et al., 1988). Jackfruit seeds are nutritious, rich in fat, carbohydrates, minerals and potassium. The elements such as manganese and magnesium have also been detected in seed powder. The seed contains two lectins namely artocarpin and Jacalin (Theivasanthi and Alagar, 2008). The bulbs of ripe jackfruit are consumed fresh or processed into canned products (Bobbio et al., 1978; Kumar et al., 1988). Ice-cream, jelly, jam, alcoholic beverages, nectars or fruit powder can be processed by ripe sweet bulbs of the jackfruit (Elevitch and Manner, 2006; Morton, 1987). Jackfruit powder is used in instant soups, snacks, bakery products, dairy products, beverages, pasta, candy, baby food (Omar et al., 2011). Jackfruit produces secondary metabolites like proteins, alkaloids, flavanoids, steroids and phenolic substances which are used to prevent many diseases and improve health (Om prakash et al., 2007). The yellowish bulbs of the fruit are fleshy, fibrous and rich in sugar as well as carotinoids and is the perianth portion of the fruit. The bulbs are a rich source of carbohydrates, minerals, carboxylic acids, dietary fibre and vitamins such as thiamine and ascorbic (Omar et al., 2011).

A sticky, white milky latex is exuded from all parts of the body when injured. The entire tree has several medicinal properties. The plant has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-fungal and immune dilatory properties. Ripe bulbs are sweet, cooling, aphrodisiac, laxative and are also used as a brain tonic. The young fruits are astringent, acrid and carminative. The seeds are diuretic and constipating. The wood is used in convulsions and is nervine, anti-diabetic, sedative. The latex is used in ophthalmic disorders, dystopia, pharyngitis and also as an antibacterial agent. Mixed with vinegar the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swelling (Rajasekar et al., 2010).The Jackfruit is an important source of compounds like morin, dihydromorin, cynomacurin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin, cycloheterophyllin, artocarpesin, oxydihydroartocarpesin, artocarpin, norartocarpin, cycloartinone, betulinic acid, artocarpanone and heterophylox.

The Artocarpus species contain a diversity of compounds, especially phenolic compounds, flavonoids, stilbenoids, arylbenzofurons, carotenoids, volatile acid sterols and tannins in varying measure depending on the variety (Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; Baliga et al., 2011; Hakim et al., 2006; Arung et al., 2006; Chandrika et al., 2005; De Faria et al., 2009; Ko et al., 1998; Venkataraman, 1972; Wong et al., 1992; Maia et al., 2004). Fructos, glucose and sucrose are the major sugars in jackfruit, while capric, myristic, lauric, palmitic, oleic, stearic, linoleic and arachidic acids are the major fatty acids (Chowdhury et al., 1997; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; Rahman et al., 1999; Ong et al., 2006).

The seeds contain β-carotene, α-carotene, β-zeacarotene, α-zeacarotene and crocetin which are mostly present in trans form (Baliga et al., 2011; Chandrika et al., 2005; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; De Faria et al., 2009). The occurrence of Jacalin (lectin) in the jackfruit seeds was first reported in 1979 which is a tetrameric two chain lectin molecular mass 65 KDa combining a heavy α-chain (133 amino acid) with light β-chain (20-21 amino acid) (Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; Chatterjee et al., 1979; Young et al., 1991). Jacalin is the major protein representing over 50% in jackfruit seeds (Kabir et al., 1993) and can bind to human IgA (Chatterjee et al., 1979; Pereira et al., 1980; Saxon et al., 1987) and T-antigen (Sastry et al., 1986). In addition to Jacalin, Artocarpin, a polyspecfic lectin which can react with a variety of monosaccharide is also present in jackfruit seeds (Chowdhury et al., 1991; Barre et al., 2004). Artocarpin is a 159 amino acid polypeptide chain which is a non-glycosylated version of Jacalin, showing 52% identity in sequences (Rosa et al., 1999; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010). The seeds have a higher protein content than from beef and fishes, with a high carbohydrate content and 11.4% oil content, making it an alternative source for animal diet (Ajayi, 2008).

These phytonutrients have a wide range of health benefits especially antimicrobial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antiulcer, antioxidant and anti-ageing properties (Swami et al., 2012; Haq, 2006; Loizzo et al., 2010; Siritapetawee et al., 2012; Ko et al., 1998). Root has been found effective against asthma, skin diseases, diarrhoea and fever (Samaddar, 1985). The presence of phytonutrients further enhances the scope for development of value added products (Umesh et al., 2010; Jagtap and Bapat, 2013).

The morphological features of a particular variety may vary due to many factors including variety feature, soil and climatic parameters, management practices. The nutritional quality may also differ in parts other than fruit especially leaves, seeds, flowers, stem and bark. Some varieties have a significant difference between them while they may exhibit only slight morphological character difference. The objective of this research is to classify the jackfruit varieties based on morphological features.

2.3. Hypothesis

The current research is based on the following hypotheses:

1) Jackfruit varieties in Kerala differ in morphological features.
2) Morphological features play a crucial role in acceptance and propagation of a variety.
3) Morphological variations are related to climatic and soil properties.

2.4. Materials and Methods

2.4.1 Botanical description and varieties

Artocarpus species (15 edible varieties), known to occupy various niches and habitats, comprise mainly bread fruit and jackfruit (Jagtap and Bapat, 2010; Wangchu et al., 2013). Jackfruit is monecious and pollinated flowers take several months to develop into ripe fruit, depending on climatic and soil conditions (Morton, 1987; Baliga et al., 2011). According to Prakash et al. (2009) jackfruit consists of lower fleshy edible region (bulb), middle fused region (syncarp) and outer spiney region (spike). When ripe, the fruit gets fleshy; outer spines widened and flesh get soft and yellow (Saxena et al., 2009b). The thorny outer bark and axis are not edible (Baliga et al., 2011).

The jackfruits were classified based on their phonotypical and organoleptic characteristics with variation in bulb colour as well as shape, size, odour, flake size, flake colour and period of maturity (Haq, 2006; Prakash et al., 2009; Jagadeesh et al., 2007b; Jagadeesh et al., 2007a). Two types of ecotypes are recognised flake characteristics, one with soft and spongy while other with firm carpals which are called by different names in regional languages (Baliga et al., 2011; Amma et al., 2011; Shyamalamma et al., 2008; Muralidharan et al., 1997; Odoemelam, 2005).

2.4.2 Nutritional and vitamin composition

Studies have proved that the nutritional and photochemical composition among jackfruit varies depending on the cultivar as well as region (Baliga et al., 2011; Arkroyd et al., 1966; Azad, 2000; Haq, 2006; Narasimham, 1990). It is a good source of vitamins (A, C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin) and minerals (calcium, potassium, iron, sodium, zinc) (Swami et al., 2012; Haq, 2006; Narasimham, 1990; Arkroyd et al., 1966; Azad, 2000). Protein and carbohydrate concentration also vary in seeds across India. Some varieties contain as much as 6.8% protein in seeds (Baliga et al., 2011; Chrips et al., 2008).

Table 2.1. Phenolic, flavinoid content and antioxidant activity of araticum, papaya and jackfruit in undigested and digested extracts (Modified after; Pavan et al., 2011).

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Numbers represent means ± one standard deviation (SD) of the mean

Table 2.2. Biochemical difference in various jackfruit varieties in South India (Chrips et al., 2008).

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Numbers represent means ± one standard deviation (SD) of the mean.

2.4.3 Study area

The samples were collected from different places in Kerala, including high altitude areas. Kerala state covers an area of 38,863 km² situated between the Western Ghats to the east and Arabian Sea to the west. The State has a population of over 3 crore. There is an average rainfall of 3,107 mm. District wise, the rate of rainfall in areas covered was: 2,310.4 mm in Kollam, 3,060.2 mm in Kottayam, 2,481.08 in Wayanad, 3,422.58 in Ernakulam. The soil in Kerala is mostly acidic ranging from pH 4.5 to 6.2.

2.4.4 Sample collection

Twenty three locations were selected in Kerala based on an elaborative baseline survey conducted from February 2015 to March 2015.The samples were collected on the basis of an elaborative iterative survey as well as traditional knowledge from local people, A total of 23 samples were collected from different parts of Kerala. Locations of the target areas were recorded using a Trimble Geoexplorer II (Trimble Navigation Ltd, Sunnyvale, California) and data were transferred using GPS pathfinder Office software (Trimble Navigation Ltd, Sunnyvale, California) . The places where the samples were collected are: Yeroor, Alencherry, Edamulakkal, Vayanadu, Ambalavayal, Azhacherry, Chakkampuzha and Ramapuram.

2.4.5 Morphological descriptors for Jackfruit tree classification

Different varieties of jackfruit are found in Kerala. Specific characteristics of different varieties have been studied. The instruments used to collect data are: measuring scale (30 cm), tape (160 cm) weighing machine, camera, field book, twine etc. First an elaborative survey was made. From this survey, 23 samples and data such as type, local name, GPS position were selected. The parameters fixed for general characteristics were: tree vigour, age of tree, tree height, trunk perimeter, canopy structure, branching density, branching type, trunk surface, branching pattern (Khan et al., 2010).

Branch leaf and fruit stock leaf were also collected and analysed within various parameters including length, breadth, tip length, petiole length, petiole width, longest distance between veins, shortest distance between veins, leaf colour, leaf texture, leaf blade shape, leaf apex shape, leaf base shape. About fruit the information collected concerned fruit bearing position, fruit shape, stalk attachment to fruit, fruit rind colour, fruit surface, shape of fruit spine, spine density, fruit attraction, flake colour, flake taste (FT), fruit stalk length (FSL), fruit stalk breadth (FSB), fruit length (FL), fruit diameter (FD), fruit perimeter (FP), fruit weight (FW), fruit pith length (FPL), pith width (PW), total flakes (TF), flake length (FL), flake with seed weight (FSW), flake weight (FW), seed length (Sl), seed width (SW), seed perimeter (SP), seed weight (SW), number of partially developed seeds (NPDS), fruit rind width (FRW), spine length (SL), number of spines per inch (NSPI).

2.4.6 Statistical analysis

The results of the survey were analyzed and descriptive statistics were applied using SPSS 12.0 (SPSS Inc., an IBM Company, Chicago, USA). Graphs were generated using Sigma Plot 7 (Systat Software Inc., Chicago, USA).

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Figure 2.1. Mean monthly rainfall (mm), maximum and minimum temperatures (°C) in Kerala, India (1871-2005; Krishnakumar et al., 2009).

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Figure 2.2. Introduced and indigenous regions of Artocarpus heterophyllus around the world (Modified after; Haq, 2006).

Table 2.3. Uses of different jackfruit parts (Chrips et al., 2008).

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Table 2.4. Uses of different lectins from jackfruit parts (Chrips et al., 2008).

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Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.3. Map of Kerala showing the various sample collection sites (A1 to A23). Authors own work

Table 2.5. Different vernacular names of Artocarpus heterophyllus in India (Modified after; Baliga et al., 2011).

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Table 2.6. Common names, uses and distribution of major Artocarpus species (Modified after; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010).

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Table 2.7. Chemical composition of jackfruit (Modified after; Jagtap and Bapat, 2010).

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Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthaltenFigure 2.4. Morphological characters of jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.). (Modified after; Haq, 2006).

2.5. Results and discussion

Among the 23 samples there were 11 Varika and 12 Koozha, from regions of 28 to 933 meters altitude. For data analysis, the data were classified into three categories; general characteristics, leaf characteristics and fruit characteristics.

2.5.1 General characteristics

This includes Local name, GPS position, Altitude, Tree vigour, Age of tree, Tree height, Trunk perimeter, Canopy structure, Branching density, Branching type, Trunk surface, Branching pattern.

Tree vigour is graded as low (<17ft), medium (17 to 40 ft), high (>40). Of the samples collected, 13 were medium, 10 samples high, there being no low vigour samples in the present collection. As for the age of tree, there was only 1 juvenile tree, 3 young trees, 9 medium trees, 5 old trees, and 5 mature trees.

Tree height ranges from 17 ft to 80 ft, trunk perimeter from 95 cm to140 cm. A10 and A17 had the lowest trunk perimeter and A9 and A15 the highest trunk perimeter of 140 cm. In matter of canopy structure, 14 were broadly pyramidal, 5 pyramidal, 2 oblong and 2 irregular.

Fifteen of the 23 samples had medium type branching density; 4 samples had sparse type branching density, 4 had dense type branching density. Most of the samples showed a branching pattern of slender main trunk with a few branches on top. According to the data analysis, all of the mature varieties had rough trunk surface. Juvenile and young samples had smooth surface, but medium and old varieties had both smooth and rough surfaces. The majority of the samples (14) had opposite type of branching pattern, 4 samples had erect type. Three samples had horizontal branching pattern. Only 2 were irregular.

2.5.2 Leaf characteristics

Both branch leaves and fruit stock leaves were collected from the samples. All the branch leaves were green; a few were dark green, but A2 was light green. In respect of fruit stock leaves most of the samples had a leaf colour of light green, except in samples A9 and A18 which were greenish in colour. The branch leaves had an average length and width of 13.41 cm and 7.89 cm respectively and fruit stock leaves had an average length and width of 14.52 cm and 8.5 cm respectively.

The branch leaves had an average petiole length and width of 2.17 cm and 0.28 cm respectively. But the petiole of fruit stock leaves had an average length and width of 3.5 cm and 0.38 respectively. From this data we can see that the fruit stock leaf is morphologically different from the branch leaves. Based on leaf colour and leaf size this means that fruit stalk leaves are light green in colour and slightly larger than the branch leaves. There are two types of leaves in a jackfruit tree. In the case of leaf texture, most branch leaves were smooth (19) but a few were rough (4), fruit stalk leaves were also smooth (17) but a few were rough (6). The leaves may be thick or thin. Shape of most leaves is obovate but a few were slightly spherical (A8, A21) and broadly elliptical. In most leaves the apex shape is mucronulate, but a few were obtuse, retuse and acute respectively. Leaf base shapes vary from oblique to obtuse, cuneate, and shortly attenuate.

2.5.3 Fruit

According to the data, the main fruit bearing portion in tree is the main trunk (18). Fruits appear not only on main trunk but also on primary branches and secondary branches but in varieties like A2 there were no fruits on the main trunk, but only primary branches.

Most of the fruits were obloid in shape (8), some were ellipsoidal (7), only four samples were spherical. A few were oblong (3), one sample irregular. In most of the varieties, the stalk attachment to fruit is flattened (15) others were inflated and depressed.

Fruit colour ranged from green to greenish yellow to bright yellow. Most samples were green except A7 and A19. In all samples the fruit surfaces were spiney. Shape of the fruit spine in most samples is intermediate. A5, A10, A20 samples had flat spines. Spine was dense is dense in most varieties and A5, A10, A20 samples had sparse density.

Fruit attraction was excellent in A3, A5, A15, A19, A20 and A21. Fruit colour ranged from Yellow to Bright yellow, Light yellow, Whitish yellow, slightly Orange and Reddish. A3 had reddish flakes and had the best sweetness among the 23 samples.

Fruit stalk length was highest in A7 (90cm) and lowest in A5 (4.5cm). Fruit stalk breadth varied from 1.3 cm to 3 cm. Sample A5 was the smallest fruit (2 kg) in the sample, A13 the largest (16 kg). Only the spheroid fruits did not reach weight beyond 4 kg. Fruit length varied from 16 cm to 66 cm. Fruit diameter ranged from 14 to 31 cm. Fruit perimeter ranged from 31 to 100 cm. Number of flakes in fruit varied from 13 to 652. Flake with seed weight was high in A15 (42.27 g) and low in A9 (6.57 g); also A9 had lowest flake weight (2.47 g). A13 had the highest flake weight (13.43 g). The largest seed, found in A21, had a weight of 13.34 g. The smallest seed was found in A9 (2.25g). The spine length ranged from 0.1 cm to 0.8 cm. The number of partially developed seed was high (70) in A4, low (2) in A10, A12, A19, A20. Fruit rind width ranged from 0.7 cm to 2.0 cm.

From data analysis A3 was found to be most suitable for human consumption because it was the sweetest variety among the samples. Variation was also found in shape of fruits, and fruit spines. These two variations were found in sample A10. Fruit colour variation was yellow to bright yellow colour instead of green. This was found in samples such as A7, A15, A19 and A23.

Jackfruit trees are mostly cross pollinated. Therefore the morphological variations are present in most samples. So the variations are not related to different parameters like climate, soil pH but were genetically determined. This work has some similarity with the work of Khan et al. (2010). Both projects involved interviews and shared certain parameters, but the difference is that Khan et al. (2010) collected samples from forest, public lands, homesteads but in this study, samples based on survey and morphological variations of inhabited areas only.

Morphological variations exist in different forms. There are variations within a single variety and between varieties. Presence of variations in fruit stalk leaves and branch leaves is an example of variations within a single variety. Presence of variations in fruit rind colour, fruit shape, canopy structure, examples of variation between varieties.

The sample A13 can be used in jackfruit industries. Because of the larger size of the flake it gives more yield. Jackfruit industry using seed powders can use the seeds of sample A21 because of their larger size. A21 can also be used as an animal food because of its high rind width. Nowadays in Kerala new value added products from jackfruit made by certain small-scale companies are coming out. These industries are at their beginning stage most products from these companies are sold in local markets. At present, only a small quantity is marketed outside Kerala. There may be a chance of changes in nutritional quality in varieties with morphological variation. Sometimes, the popular varieties do not have nutritional qualities. Sample A3 had most sweetness due to its genetic variation. So conservation of the varieties among jackfruits is an important matter we need to discuss. Clonal propagation methods such as budding, grafting, layering methods can be used for the fast propagation of this variety.

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Figure 2.5. Jackfruit trees a) jackfruit with varying sizes, b) different stages of fruiting, c) tree bearing fruit, d) fruit plucked, e) small type of jackfruit f) jackfruit cut open g) jackfruit seeds h) seeded jackfruit i) unseeded fruit. Authors own images.

Table 2.8. Description of the jackfruit varieties (A1 to A23) and locations in Kerala.

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*V: Varika; K: Koozha

Table 2.9. Branch leaf features and properties of jackfruit varieties (A1 to A23) in Kerala.

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Numbers represent means ± one standard deviation (SD) of the mean

Table 2.10. Fruit stalk leaf composition and properties of jackfruit varieties (A1 to A23) in Kerala.

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Numbers represent means ± one standard deviation (SD) of the mean

Table 2.11. Fruit features and properties of jackfruit varieties (A1 to A10) in Kerala.

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FSL: Fruit stalk length; FSB: Fruit stalk breadth; FL: Fruit length; FD: Fruit diameter; FP: Fruit perimeter; FW: Fruit weight; FPL: Fruit pith length

PW: Pith width; TF: Total flakes; FT: Flake taste; FL: Flake length; FSW: Flake with seed weight; FW: Flake weight; SL: Seed length

SW: Seed width; SP: Seed perimeter; SW: Seed weight; NPDS: Number of partially developed seeds; FRW: Fruit rind width; SL: Spine length; NSPI: Number of spines per inch

+: Less sweet; ++: Sweet; +++: Moderate Sweet; ++++: Sweeter; +++++: Sweetest.

Numbers represent means ± one standard deviation (SD) of the mean

[...]

Details

Pages
191
Year
2016
ISBN (eBook)
9783668461758
ISBN (Book)
9783668461765
File size
69.2 MB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v367582
Institution / College
Mar Augusthinose College
Grade
1.5
Tags
morphological artocarpus kerala

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Title: Morphological diversity, nutritional quality and value addition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) in Kerala