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Taxonomy and Biogeographic Distribution of the Plenitentoria Group of Caddisflies of India

Textbook 2014 342 Pages

Biology - Zoology

Excerpt

Contents

Introduction

Materials and methods

Taxonomic & Biogeographic results
Family Lepidostomatidae
Key to Indian genera of Lepidostomatidae Ulmer

Genus Lepidostoma Rambur

Genus Paraphlegopteryx Ulmer

Family Branchycentridae
Genus Branchycentrus Curtis

Family Goeridae
Key to Indian genera of Georidae
Genus Goera Stephens

Family Limnephilidae

Subfamily Limnephilinae Kolenati

Key to Indian genera of Limnephilinae Kolenati
Genus Limnephilus Leach

Subfamily Pseudostenophylacinae Schmid
Key to Indian genera of Pseudostenophylacinae Schmid
Genus Pseudostenophylax Martynov
Genus Astratodina Mosely
Genus Phylostenax Mosely

Family Apataniidae
Genus Apatania Kolenati
Genus Apataniana Mosely

Family Uenoidae
Genus Uenoa Iwata

Family Phryganeidae

Key to Indian genera of Phryganeidae
Genus Eubasilissa Martynov

Conclusions and scope for further research

Abbreviations

Bibliography

INTRODUCTION

The Indian Himalaya is a mountain range that span ten states of India namely Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram & Tripura as well as hill regions of two states Assam & West Bengal. This region is responsible for providing fresh water to a large part of Indian subcontinent & contains varied fauna & flora. Himalayan region is the second “Hot spot” of biological diversity in India after Western Ghats. This “Hot spot” of biological diversity is supporting a large number of insect orders, among them Trichoptera (caddisflies) are economically one of the most important insect order whose immature stages are totally dependent on aquatic ecosystem.

The order Trichoptera comprises a group of holometabolous insects closely related to the order Lepidoptera, together the two orders form the superorder Amphiesmenoptera. Adult trichopterans ranges in size from minute with a wing span of less than 3 mm, to large with a wing span approaching 100 mm. Some species have striking colour and wing patterns but the colour generally varies from dull yellow to grey or from brown to black. They are moth like insects with wings covered by hair, not scales as in Lepidoptera. Adults have prominent antennae and in some species the antennae are exceptionally long (more than double the length of the forewing). With some exceptions the adults have well developed maxillary and labial palps, but never the coiled proboscis that characterizes most adult Lepidoptera.

Trichopteran larvae are probably best known for the transportable cases and fixed shelters that many, though not all, species construct. Silk has enabled the larvae to develop an enormous array of morphological adaptations for coping with life in almost any kind of freshwater ecosystem (Wiggins, 1996, 2004). These larvae can be distinguished from all other insects with segmented thoracic legs, by the presence of a pair of anal prolegs, each with a single curved terminal claw and very short, sometimes almost invisible single segmented antenna. The pupae are exarate and covered by a semitransparent integument and if fully developed reveals the pharate adult inside. The pupae usually possess a pair of strong functional mandibles (non functional in adult) and the abdomen with a number of segments adorned with characteristic sclerotised, dorsal hook-bearing plates. The larval and pupal stages of Trichoptera are, with a few exceptions, entirely dependent on an aquatic environment and are usually abundant in all freshwater ecosystems, from spring sources, mountain streams, large rivers, the splash zones of waterfalls marshy wetlands, along shorelines and in the depths of lakes, to temporary waters. Certain species are tolerant to high salinities and the species in family Chathamiidae have managed to colonise tidal pools along the sea shore in New Zealand and eastern Australia. Some species inhabit the brackish inshore waters of the Baltic and White seas.

Fischer (1960-1973) produced a world catalogue of caddisflies that recorded 5,546 species. The recently published work of Holzenthal et al. (2011) records 14,999 species (14, 291 extant, 608 fossil, 100 nomina dubia). These species are referred in 688 genera (601 mostly extant, 85 fossil, 2 nomina dubia) and 56 families (49 extant, 7 fossil). New species continue to be described at a considerable rate and it seems particularly from ongoing studies in the Neotropics, Madagascar, humid regions of Africa, South-east Asia, China and Phillipines that the prediction of Schmid (1984) and Flint et al. (1999) although considered an overestimates by Malicky (1993), that there are in excess of 50,000 species may be closer to the actual figure (de Moor and Ivanov, 2008). Out of 14,291 species discovered, more than half of these known species were recorded from only two regions, the Oriental and Neotropical Regions (de Moor and Ivanov, 2008). The highest species diversity is recorded in the Oriental region. With more than 3,700 species, it contains more than double the recorded species for each of the other region, except the Neotropics (de Moor and Ivanov, 2008). In India order Trichoptera is represented by 27 families, containing 1046 species under 94 genera (Sharma & Chandra 2009).

Trichoptera are abundant in all types of natural aquatic ecosystems. They are apneustic and rely on dissolved oxygen for respiration. With a high diversity of species having both case and shelter constructing larvae, they are useful indicators of organic pollution. Trichoptera have been used extensively in biomonitoring assays as indicator species, selected communities or assemblages of species or more broadly based family level identification of species being used to assess the health status of aquatic ecosystems. Trichoptera together with other aquatic insect orders, have also been used to assess aquatic biodiversity EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) or ETS (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Simuliidae) and habitat diversity (Hannaford & Resh, 1995; Hewlett, 2000; de Moor, 2002).

From an ecological perspective, Trichoptera are important processors of organic matter and provide a keystone taxon in the development of the river continuum concept (RCC) (Vannote et al. 1980). As processors of organic matter, collectively known as the functional feeding groups (FFG) of animals, they display the full array of feeding modes (Cummins, 1973). In lotic water filter feeding, shelter constructing species are important predators of blackfly larvae and help to keep population levels of pest species at acceptable level (de Moor, 1992). Trichoptera larvae, pupae and adults also form an important link in the food chain and they have also been used extensively by trout fishing enthusiasts as models for “flies” (McCafferty, 1981). Keeping in view the above mentioned taxonomic and ecological importance of this order, the current entomological research problem covering the families of Plenitentoria group of caddisflies have been selected and a platform has been established for the future workers, interested in studying different aspects of this group.

Inspite of their immense economic importance, these insects remained ignored at the hands of Indian naturalists. Whatever, scattered works are available those are all by the foreign workers who either got the material from various Indian museums on the loan basis or collected it during different expeditions. Out of the total caddisfly fauna (about 4000 species) as estimated by Schmid (1984) only one fourth is on record. The remaining is yet to be enlisted and worked out. The present study deals with the taxonomy of the Plenitentoria group of caddisflies from the Indian Himalaya which is represented by 8 families; Phryganeidae Leach, Phryganopsychidae Wiggins, Limnephilidae Kolenati, Apataniidae Wallengren, Uenoidae Iwata, Lepidostomatidae Ulmer, Branchycentridae Ulmer and Goeridae Ulmer. Till date 21 genera, covering 148 species of Plenitentoria group are recorded from India out of which 142 species are known from the Himalayan belt alone (Table II). The significant contributions to this group in India are by Schmid (1962, 1965, 1968, 1991, 1992), Kimmins (1950), Martynov (1936) and Mosely (1936, 1941, 1949a, b, c). However from many angles the existing knowledge on this group is far from completion, so the present research endeavor was taken to streamline the taxonomy of Plenitentoria group. During the present study 2008-2011 extensive and intensive survey of high altitude regions, ranging from 400 m amsl in Tamin (Arunachal Pradesh) to as high as 4000 m amsl in Apparwat (Jammu & Kashmir) were made. The list of the localities covered during these four years is given in table I and in maps. A noteworthy contribution of the present studies includes construction of the keys, covering the subfamilies, genera and species of entire Plenitentoria group. 77 species have been collected during the present study. Out of these 25 species of Lepidostoma Rambur and 1 species of Paraphylopgteryx Ulmer of the family Lepidostomatidae are new to science. 2 species of the genus Lepidostoma Rambur are first records from India, earlier reported from Nepal and Bhutan respectively. 2 species of the genus Pseudostenophylax Martynov and one species of the genus Limnephilus Leach belonging to the family Limnephilidae are new to science. 1 species of the genus Pseudostenophylax Martynov is a new record from India, which was earlier reported from Pakistan. 1 species of the genus Astratodina Mosely is recorded first time from India earlier recorded from Pakistan. 2 species of the genus Goera Stephens belonging to the family Goeridae are new to science. 2 species of the genus Eubasilissa Martynov belonging to the family Phryganeidae are new to science. Female of Eubasilissa asiatica Betten belonging to family Phryganeidae is described and illustrated for the first time. Field observations reveal that this group is almost non-existent below 1200 m. Family Limnephilidae is confined only to temperate zones. Some of the specimens particularly of the family Lepidotomatidae and Limnephilidae were also collected during day time from the vegetation near the rivers, lakes, streams, marshy grasses and also from the springs. Observations and field studies reveal that there is an excess of males in light-trap catches of Trichoptera, which is in accordance with earlier study (Svensson, 1972). It was observed that caddisflies are active and abundant between 5.30 p.m. to 10.30 p.m. in North eastern states and between 7 p.m. to 11.30 p.m. in North west Himalaya. After this period, their number starts declining. Holotypes have been designated for all the new species. Descriptive account of each species includes bibliographic reference, synonymy (if any), detailed description, material depository, material examined and diagnostic combinations. While compiling this work, the author is quite aware of the fact that no work is complete and foolproof as standards and parameters change with time and advancement of science. Last but not the least, it can be said with little authority and more hope that this work will smoothen and stabilize, the so far scattered and unstable taxonomic works concerning this group and will form a new platform for future workers who wish to work on this economically important order

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The research material dealing with the present studies comprises of about 1845 adult specimens belonging to 11 genera represented by 77 species of Plenitentoria group of caddisflies from the Indian Himalaya.

Collection: Specimens examined in this study were primarily collected using UV black light tubes consisting of a 22 watt U.V blacklight, powered by a sealed rechargeable 12- volt batteries, placed near the water edge and deployed for 1-3 hours beginning at dusk (Fig. 441). In some of the cases the collection was also made with the help of mercury-vapour bulb (160 watt). Some species of the genus Lepidostoma Rambur and Pseudostenophylax Martynov were collected from aquatic vegetation during day time with the help of sweeping nets. During last four years (2008-2011), various localities falling in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Predesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, West Bengal, Arunachal Predesh and Nagaland between an altitude of 450 m amsl-4000 m amsl were covered and surveyed. Mostly the collection was made from the interior of the forest areas having water streams and dense vegetation. The caddisflies were recognized in the field due to their sitting posture (wings held in a triangular roof over abdomen) and continuously vibrating long antenna. The adults were collected in a jar containing 70% alcohol specially designed for this purpose.

Preservation: Identification of most Trichoptera depends upon structures which get shrivel in dried specimens, therefore the specimens were preserved in wet form. Some species of genus Eubasilissa were preserved in dry form with regular fumigation with ethyl estate. The specimens collected during night were preserved in 70% alcohol with a drop of glycerin over the surface and were kept in a box specifically designed for the purpose. Labels carrying information regarding collection date, locality and altitude etc have been appended to each of the species in the vials. Alcohol in the vials is changed after regular intervals.

Dissection of the adults for the examination of external genitalia: In order to examine the male external genitalia, the abdominal tip of the concerned individual was removed with a fine tipped forceps. After removing, the genitalia were placed in 10-12% KOH over night or until most of the organic matter is digested. The genitalia were then taken out from the KOH and put in alcohol so that the organic matter left inside may become clear. Another method known as lactic acid procedure of Blahnik et al. (2007) were also used for clearing genitalia in which genitalia is placed in the test tube containing lactic acid. These tubes were placed in the dry bath and were heated up to a constant temperature of about 120°C for about an hour. After constant heating genitalia were washed with 90% alcohol and were placed in a stain cholorozol black for about a minute. After removing the genitalia from stain were viewed under the microscope for its morphological studies.

Procedure of study: Examination of various morphological characters at different levels was carried out. General morphology were used only upto the family and generic level. Species were sorted out on the basis of external morphology of genitalia only as general morphology of other body parts play minor or negligible role in species determination. Also female genitalia are also least developed in case of caddisflies and hence only male genitalia were used upto species identification. All the descriptions have been written on a uniform pattern. For this purpose the most typical specimen was selected in each case and variations, if any, are mentioned separately. Synonymies (if any) have been properly traced. Distributional data including date of collection, number of specimens examined and locality with altitude has been provided using a uniform pattern to facilitate comparison. The terminology proposed by Nielson (1957, 1980) for genitalia of both the sexes have been adopted. Labelled diagrams of the genitalia have been provided. Workable keys at various levels have been constructed. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) has been consulted, wherever required. Relative lengths have been used in the text as actual ratio proportions. Measurements have been made with the aid of slide micrometer and oculometer, whereas diagrams were drawn under stereoscope binocular microscope fitted with an ocular grid.

Taxonomic and Biogeographic results

Family Lepidostomatidae

Lepidostomatidae Ulmer, 1903: 89

Type genus: Lepidostoma Rambur, 1842

Diagnostic features: Basal joint of the antenna usually much longer than the head (Fig. 1), generally clothed with very long, outstanding hair or scales, often in the male with processes or spine-like teeth at the base; maxillary palps (Figs. 35, 36, 49, 61) in male generally membranous and clothed with thickened hairs or scales or both; number of joints varying from one to three, the normal five always in the female; labial palps (Figs. 35, 36, 49, 61) three jointed in both the sexes, basal joint small, about half the length of second which is slightly shorter than the third; pronotum with two pairs of warts usually circular or elliptical; mesonotum with two pairs of warts, scutum and Scutellum each with one pair (Fig. 1); abdomen slender, no ventral teeth in either sex; wings (Figs. 38, 39, 50, 51) generally oval, densely pubescent in the male, often furnished with scales and also with grooves and folds, the former being more more or less open furrows lined with scales, whilst the latter are strongly chitinised, closely overlapping portions of the membrane, generally in the post-costal area and usually in the anterior wing; often the costal margin of this wing is doubled over and concealed in a heavy fringe; sometimes there is a similar fringe along a central groove; the wings of the female are more regular and there are neither scales, grooves nor folds present; spurs 2,4,4 or 1,4,4 varying according to the species.

Distribution: It is a cosmopolitan and is comparatively well represented in Oriental region followed by Palearctic region.

Remarks: Family Lepidostomatidae was erected by Ulmer in 1903 and is now represented by approximately 444 species under 11 genera all over the World Morse, 2012. From the Oriental region this family is represented by 225 species falling under 4 genera. In India this family is represented by 48 species under 3 genera. As far as Indian species are concerned 44 species have been reported from Himalayan region and 4 species L. doligung (Malicky), L. dubitans (Mosely), L. palnia (Mosely) and L. lanca (Mosely) are reported from Southern India. A complete distribution of Indian species of the family Lepidostomatiade is given in the table III.

Key to Indian genera of Lepidostomatidae Ulmer

1. Forewing each with fork I absent & discoidal cell open

.. …Zephropsyche Weaver

- Forewing each with fork I present & discoidal cell usually closed 2

2. Forewing with fork I petiolate…..….. Paraphlegopteryx Ulmer

- Forewing with fork I sessile….… Lepidostoma Rambur

Genus Lepidostoma Rambur

Type species: Lepidostoma squamulosum Rambur 1842: 493-494 (designated by Ross 1944)

Synonymy

Acrunoecia Ulmer, 1907; type species, Mormonia parvula McLachlan.

Acrunoeciella Martynov, 1909; type species, Acrunoeciella chaldyrense Martynov

Adinarthrella Mosely, 1941; type species, Adinarthrella brunnea Mosely.

Adinarthrum Mosely, 1949a; type species, Adinarthrum kurseum Mosely.

Agoerodella Mosely, 1949a; type species, Agoerodella punkata Mosely.

Agoerodes Mosely, 1949a; type species Agoerodes convolutes Mosely.

Anacrunoecia Mosely, 1949b; type species Anacrunoecia atania Mosely

Dinarthrella Ulmer, 1907; type species Maniconeura destructa Ulmer.

Dinarthrena Mosely, 1941; type species Dinarthrena shanta Mosely.

Dinarthrum McLachlan, 1871; type species Dinarthrum ferox McLachlan

Goerodella Mosely, 1949c; type species Goerodella tesarum Mosely.

Goerodina Mosely, 1949c; type species Goerodina serrata Mosely.

Indocrunoecia Martynov, 1936; type species Indocrunoecia heterolepidia Martynov.

Kodala Mosely, 1949c; type species, Kodala lanca Mosely

Diagnostic features: Spurs 2, 4, 4. Male antennae each with scape (Fig. 35, 37, 59, 61) long, armed generally with distinct processes at its base, bearing large, unique, highly modified setae in certain species; however, these processes rudimentary, or absolutely wanting in some species, such that antennae cylindrical, simple. Maxillary palp (Fig. 35, 59, 61) each 2 segmented, 1st segment sometimes with extra apical or mesal lobes and 2nd segment often spatulate or lobiform, flexible and quite variable in length. Wings (Fig. 38, 39, 50, 51) covered with a mixture of highly variable hair and scales. Neuration irregular in forewings and generally regular in hind wings; forewings each usually with postcubital fold more than half as long as wing (Figs. 39, 50, 51). Forks I, II present (Fig. 38); presence of III, IV and V variable. Discoidal and thyridial cells varying in length. Hind wing venation usually not highly modified.

Distribution: Oriental, Palearctic, Afro tropical and Australasian

Remarks: Based on the type species Lepidostoma squamulosum Rambur, the genus Lepidostoma was established by Rambur (1842). Now, this genus is represented by 419 species worldwide Morse, 2012. From Oriental region by 202 species. In India this genus is represented by 33 species which were contributed by Mosely 1939, 1941, 1949a, 1949b, 1949c (17 species); 5 species by Martynov. 1936; McLachlan 1871, 1878; Malicky 1979, 2003, Ulmer 1905, 1906 and Weaver 1989, 2002 (2 species each); Navàs 1932 (1 species). Two other species L. brueckmanni (Malicky & Chantaramongkol) and L. palmiles (Ito) originally reported from Thailand & Nepal respectively have also been reported from India (Yang & Weaver, 2002). The present study deals with 16 previously described species, 2 as first record and 25 species new to science. In the present study Saini & Parey (2011) added 4 new species to this genus including the checklist to Indian Lepidostoma Rambur. Parey & Saini (2012) again added 4 new species from Indian Himalaya.

Lepidostoma sika (Mosely) (Figs. 28-30, 34-35, 38)

Agoerodes sika Mosely, 1949a: 243

Scapes (Fig. 35) 1.3 mm in length, without any subbasodorsal process but with a small dent near its base. Maxillary palp (Fig. 35) 0.97 mm in length, two segmented; first segment longer & apically dilated; second segment finger-like and vertically placed. Forewing (Fig. 38) with costal and subcostal veins covered with dense hair, post cubital fold up to middle of the wing, with 3 closed pseudocells. Average length of forewings 9.7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 28-30, 34): Segment IX apicodorsally slightly produced into a triangular projection; rectangular in lateral view. Segment X deeply & widely excised near its centre, forming two plates, each plate broadened near base and apically two lobed; lateral lobe short and rounded and mesal lobe slendrical and pointed near apex in dorsal view; lateral lobe appears much rounded and mesal lobe appear as a beak of a bird in lateral view. Inferior appendage single segmented and apically branched; lateral lobe of inferior appendage cylindrical with hooded head in dorsal view; mesal lobe much longer and apically pointed. Basodorsal process posteriad placed & apically clubbed. Phallus with phallobase truncate and phallocrypt excised. Parameres acute at apex.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Arunachal Pradesh, Tato, 1800 m, 14-iv-2001, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma sika (Mosely) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma assamense (Mosely) are as follows: segment X lateral processes shorter than mesal processes in case of former whereas, segment X lateral processes longer than mesal processes in case of latter. Mesal processes slendrical apically in L. sika whereas, these are triangular in dorsal view in case of L. assamense.

Lepidostoma assamense (Mosely)

(Figs. 31-33, 36-37, 39)

Anacrunoecia assamense Mosely, 1949b: 412-413

Scapes (Fig. 37) 1.94 mm, broadened near base and then apically narrower & with a single saubbasodorsal processes near its centre. Maxillary palp (Fig. 37) 1.3 mm, 2 segmented; basal segment curved and longer; second segment short & hidden below the scapes, bearing long hair on its surface. Forewing (Fig. 39) with post cubital up to the tip of the wing, with 5 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewings 8-9 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 31-33, 36): Segment X apicodorsally roundly triangular. Segment X excised near centre into dorsolateral and mesal processes; dorsolateral processes finger-like, separated from mesal processes by rounded excisions; mesal processes shorter than lateral processes & triangular in dorsal view; lateral processes appear clubbed apically and mesal lobe with serrated surface in lateral view. Inferior appendage single segmented and apically branched, short & stout near bottom and with two unequal branches; main branch long, with incurving & slightly dilated at centre; second branch shorter, slendrical and incurving; also main branch with a small dent like surface in dorsal view & in ventral view this dent-like surface is serrated. Phallus with phallobase truncate & phallocrypt apically dilated. Parameres short & symmetrical.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Meghalaya, Shillong, 1500 m, 12-iv-2009, [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]

Distribution: Nepal: Bhutan: India (Meghalaya).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma assamense (Mosely) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma tesarum (Mosely) are as follows: Segment X dorsolateral processes finger-like in case of former whereas, dorsolateral processes apically with incurving pointed process in case of latter.

Lepidostoma destructum (Ulmer)

(Figs. 40-42, 46-47, 50)

Maniconeuria destructa Ulmer, 1905: 35-36.

Scapes (Fig. 47) 1.8 mm, with a strong angular projection at the base; with single subbasodorsal process. Maxillary palp (Fig. 47) 0.97 mm, 2 segmented; first segment sharply bent & somewhat dilated near apex; beyond this segment there is a short, slender terminal segment. Forewing (Fig. 50) with post cubital fold slightly shorter in length than wing, post cubital fold with 8 pseudo cells. Average length of forewings 8-9 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 40-42, 46): Segment IX apicodorsally roundly produced into a triangular prominence. Segment X with a wide excision upto its centre & having dorsolateral & mesal processes; dorsolateral processes broad, with sinous outer margins & truncate apex in dorsal view; mesal processes shorter, diverging lateriad & with sub truncate apex; dorsolateral processes apically with a beak- like processes in lateral view & mesal processes in the form of a lobe with serrated surface in lateral view. Inferior appendage single segmented two branched; main branch crossing with one another and apically truncate in dorsal view & hammer-headed in lateral view; second branch dilated near base and apically cylinder with rounded apices in dorsal & lateral views. Basodorsal processes horizontally placed, almost 1/3 as long as inferior appendage in lateral view. Phallus with phallobase dilated, phallocrypt apically rounded, Parameres placed parallel to one another in ventral view.

Holotype depository: Paris Museum (France).

Material examined: Arunachal Pradesh, Hunli, 1800 m, 05-v-2011, 2[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Dirang, 1700 m, 07-x-2010, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal).

Diagnostic combination: The species under consideration is closely allied to Lepidostoma betteni (Martynov). The key characters which keep the two species disctinct have been discussed under the latter.

Lepidostoma tesarum (Mosely)

(Figs.43-45, 48-49, 50)

Goerodella tesarum Mosely, 1949b: 421-422.

Scapes (Fig. 49) 2.91 mm, each without any subbasodorsal processes but with a strong angular projection carrying tuft of setae at its surface. Maxillary palp (Fig. 49) 1.94 mm, 2 segmented; basal segment long, slightly curved towards its base; second segment short, covered with long setae. Forewing (Fig. 51) with post cubital fold much shorter than wing and almost as long as discoidal cell, with 3 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 9.7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 43-45, 48): Segment IX apicodorsally rounded; rectangular in lateral view. Segment X excised at the centre & produced into dorsolateral and mesal processes; dorsolateral processes in the form of triangular lobes with the apices of the triangle again produced in a long, downwardly directed spine as seen in lateral view; mesal process rounded & serrated apically. Inferior appendage each single segmented, bifurcated in midway, lateral lobe slendrical & apically produced; second lobe apically truncate; both lobes almost of the same size. Basodorsal process cylindrical & angled inward slightly. Phallus with phallobase rounded but with truncate apex; phallocrypt rounded apically. Parameres acute at apex.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Uttarakhand: Munsiayri, 2100 m, 27-vi-2010, 5 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Mandel, 1300 m, 07-vi-2010, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Himachal Pradesh: Ghiaghi, 1800 m, 29-vi- 2009, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Shayanachatti, 1900 m, 27-ix-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Baksunaag, 1600 m, 29- vi-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Bhutan: India (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma tesarum (Mosely) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma destructum (Ulmer) are as follows: In case of former dorsolateral processes are produced into triangular lobes with the apices of the triangle again produced into a long, downwardly directed spine while as in case of latter dorsolateral processes are produced into a truncate apices without any downwardly directed spines.

Lepidostoma divaricatum (Weaver)

(Figs. 52-54, 58-59, 62)

Goerodes divaricatus Weaver, 1989: 56.

Scapes (Fig. 59) 0.97 mm, without any subbasodorsal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 59) 0.8 mm, 2 segmented; both segments almost of the same length, apical segment somewhat triangular. Forewing (Fig. 62) without any post cubital fold. Average length of forewing 3-4 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 52-54, 58): Segment IX apicodorsally rounded. Segment X with a pair of dorsolateral and mesal processes; dorsolateral processes slendrical, diverging apically in dorsal view; mesal processes more slender in dorsal view, less tha 1/3 as long as dorsolateral processes. Inferior appendage each single segmented, apically three branched, main processes broadened near base, apex acute in dorsal and ventral view; subapical proceses slendrical; ventromesal process short & apically rounded in dorsal and ventral views. Basodorsal process extended posteriad. Phallus without parameres.

Holotype depository: CNCBI (Canada).

Material examined: Himachal Pradesh: Punjpull nala, 1700 m, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Indonesia: India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma divaricatum (Weaver) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma brevior (Ulmer) are as follows: Segment X with dorsolateral processes in dorsal view diverging in former whereas, segment X with dorsolateral processes in dorsal view converging in case of latter.

Lepidostoma inequale (Martynov)

(Figs. 55-57, 60-61, 63)

Dinarthrodes inequalis Martynov, 1936: 284-286.

Scapes (Fig. 61) 4.8 mm, much longer, without any subbasodorsal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 61) 1 mm, 2 segmented; first segment longer; second short and slightly curved, both segments covered with dense hairs. Forewing (Fig. 63) with post cubital fold half the length of wing, with 4 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 7-8 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 55-57, 60): Segment IX narrowed near centre and dilated towards sides in dorsal view. Segment X divided into dorsolateral and mesal processes; dorsolateral processes much longer, almost as long as inferior appendage and apically outcurving in dorsal view, turned upward toward its apices in lateral view; mesal process somewhat triangular near base and apically bilobed, both lobes excised in the centre in dorsal view, appear leaf-like in lateral view. Inferior appendage single segmented and apically two branched; main branch apically dilated whereas, second branch short & slender in dorsal view. Basodorsal process almost vertically placed & cylinder in lateral view. Phallus dilated near phallobase and phallocrypt rounded apically. Parameres lacking.

Holotype depository: RIZ (St. Petersburg).

Material examined: Uttarakhand: Tala, 1700 m, 12-vi-2009, 2[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 2[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Bhutan: India (Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The main key character by which Lepidostoma inequale (Martynov) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma palnia (Mosely) is as follows: Segment X dorsolateral processes apically diverging in case of former whereas, the same are converging in case of latter.

Lepidostoma liber Malicky

(Figs. 64-66, 70-71, 74)

Lepidostoma liber Malicky, 2007: 490.

Scapes (Fig. 71) 1.9 mm, proximally acutely angled, with two subequal subbasodorsal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 71) 0.97 mm, 2 segmented; first segment slendrical, than second apical segment; second segment curved downwards, a membranous process arise between these two segments. Forewing (Fig. 74) without any post cubital fold. Average length of forewing 8-9 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 64-66, 70): Segment IX apicodorsally triangular, rectangular in lateral view. Segment X produced into dorsolateral & mesal processes; dorsolateral process two lobed, one lobe slendrical, second one rounded but produced acutely in dorsal view. Inferior appendage single segmented, apically three branched; main branch rounded apically in dorsal view & spoon-shaped in lateral view; mesal branch longer than others; third branch acute apically with a small cleft at its base. Basodorsal process clubbed apically & almost vertically placed on the base of inferior appendage.

Holotype depository: Malicky‟s personal collection (Austria).

Material examined: Arunachal Pradesh, Loomla, 2300 m, 07-x-2010, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Bhutan: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma liber Malicky differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma dubitans Mosely are as follows: Segment X dorsolateral and mesal processes well developed in case of former whereas, segment X simple, without dorsolateral and mesal processes in case of latter. Basodorsal process of inferior appendage clubbed apically in L. liber whereas, basodorsal process of inferior appendage slendrical in case of L. dubitans.

Lepidostoma betteni (Martynov)

(Figs. 67-69, 72-73, 75)

Dinarthrella betteni Martynov, 1936: 286-288.

Scapes (Fig. 73) 1.94 mm, apically dilated, with a single subbasodorsal process having acutely curve toward base and densely covered with hair, basal portion of joint ending in a short almost triangular projection. Maxillary palp (Fig. 73) 0.97 mm, long, single segmented, curved upwards & covered with a tuft of long setae on its surface. Forewing (Fig. 75) with post cubital fold upto the tip of the wing, with 8 pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 8-9 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 67-69, 72): Segment IX apicodorsally with a rounded median projection. Segment X divided by a deep and wide excision near centre into dorsolateral and mesal processes; dorsolateral processes slendrical and apically almost pointed; mesal processes flat and apically truncate in dorsal view; laterally mesal processes appear rounded with serrated surface & the lateral process appear as a short finger-like, somewhat curved process. Inferior appendage single segmented but apically branched; both branches almost of the same length. Basodorsal process long, reaching near the base of upper branches. Phallus with phallobase dilated and truncate at apex, phallocrypt narrowed and then apically dilated. Parameres closely adhered together and only free at apices.

Holotype depository: Sikkim, Singhik, 1300 m, 14-ix-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 4[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Mangan, 1500 m, 12-v-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Uttarakhand, Gairsain, 1600 m, 16-vi-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Material examined: RIZ (St. Petersburg).

Distribution: India (Sikkim, Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma betteni (Martynov) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma destructum (Martynov) are as follows: Segment X with dorsolateral processes slendrical, mesal processes flat & truncate apically in former whereas, dorsolateral processes flat & truncate apically, mesal processes leaf-like in latter.

Lepidostoma ylesomi Weaver

(Figs. 76-78, 82-83, 86)

Lepidostoma ylesomi Weaver, 2002: 183.

Adinarthrella brunnea Mosely 1941: 776 (Synonym by Weaver, 2002).

Scapes (Fig. 83) 1 mm, without any subbasodorsal processes.Maxillary palp (Fig. 83) 0.97 mm, 2 segmented; basal segment elbowed in the proximal half & enormously dilated at the bend, then the joint is narrow to the apex; second segment slender & about as long as the first segment. Forewing (Fig. 86) with post cubital fold fold as long as subcostal vein, with 4 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 6-7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 76-78, 82): Segment IX apicordorsally rounded; line of demarcation between segment IX and segment X is not clearly visible. Segment X with a narrow & long excision at its centre & forming two plates; each plate triangular in dorsal view; dilated near base & apically rounded in lateral view. Inferior appendage each single segmented but apically branched; main branch apically rounded in dorsal view, cylindrical in lateral view; second branch slendrical, curved inward & with a small median cleft near base. Phallus much longer; phallocrypt rounded apically. Paramares much smaller than phallus.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Sikkim: Yuksum, 1800 m, 08-v-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Uttarakhand: Mandal, 1700 m, 07-06-2010, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Jammu & Kashmir: Pahalgam, 1600 m, 14-ix- 2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma ylesomi Weaver differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma inconspicus (Mosely) are as follows: segment X each apicodorsally triangular in former whereas, segment X each apicodorsally rounded in case of latter. Inferior appendage each with two distinct lobes in case of L. ylesomi Weaver whereas, inferior appendage each single lobed in case of L. inconspicum (Mosely). Basal segment of maxillary palp enormously dilated near base in case of L. ylesomi whereas, basal segment of maxillary palp almost slendrical and without any dilation near base in case of L. inconspicus.

Lepidostoma simplex (Kimmins)

(Figs.79-81, 84-85, 87)

Adinarthrum simplex Kimmins, 1964: 54-55.

Scapes (Fig. 84) 0.8 mm, with a single subbasodorsal process, thick & directed upwards. Maxillary palp (Fig. 84) each 0.97 mm, 2 segmented; first segment slendrical, slightly dilated near base; second segment short & curved (C-shaped). Forewing (Fig. 87) with post cubital fold upto the middle of the wing, with 2 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 3-4 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 79-81, 84): Segment IX apicodorsally triangular, somewhat rectangular in lateral view. Segment X excised in the centre & forming a triangular lobe on each side; each lobe is apically serrated and when seen laterally serrated margin appear as a triangular prominence near base of this segment. Inferior appendage each single segmented, broad, incurving & dilated to a truncate apex; laterally inferior appendage is slender with triangular apex. Basodorsal process directed upwards and is stouter. Phallus with phallobase truncate and phallocrypt also truncate in lateral view. Parameres reduced to a pair of short, blunt processes.

Holotype depository: BMNH (London).

Material examined: Uttarakhand: Pithoragarh, 13-vi-2008, 4[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Nepal: Bhutan: India (Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma simplex (Kimmins) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma ylesomi Weaver are as follows: Segment X excised near centre & forming a triangular lobe at each side; each lobe is apically serrated in former whereas, segment X excised near centre & forming a triangular lobe without any serrated side. Inferior appendage apically truncate in case of L. simplex whereas, the same is apically rounded in case of L. ylesomi.

Lepidostoma punjabicum (Martynov)

(Figs. 88-90, 94-95, 98)

Dinarthrum punjabicum Martynov, 1936: 282-283.

Scapes (Fig. 95) 2.9 mm, with two subequal subbasodorsal processes, basal segment long & the apical segment shorter. Maxillary palp (Fig. 95) 0.98 mm, 2 segmented; first segment long; second shorter than first & slendrical. Forewing (Fig. 98) with post cubital fold slightly shorter than wing, with 4 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 6-7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 88-90, 94): Segment IX apicodorsally roundly pointed. Segment X with a excision near its centre forming two simple plates, each plate somewhat rectangular in dorsal view and with two triangular projections in lateral view. Inferior appendage each two segmented; first segment slightly dilated near its apex in lateral view, second segment apically excised in all the three views. Phallus with phallobase triangular & parameres closely adhered and free only towards their tips.

Holotype depository: RIZ (St. Petersburg).

Material examined: Himachal Pradesh: Pung Pulla, 1800 m, 12- vii- 2010, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 3[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Purola, 1600m, 29-ix-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India: (Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma punjabicum (Martynov) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma latum (Martynov) are as follows: Segment IX apicodorsally somewhat triangular in case of former whereas, the same is apicodorsally slightly rounded in case of latter. Each lobe of segment X apically plane in case of L. punjabicum whereas, each lobe of segment X apically excised in case of L. latum.

Lepidostoma latum (Martynov)

(Figs. 91-93, 96-97, 99)

Dinarthrum latum Martynov, 1936: 282-283.

Scapes (Fig. 97) 3.8 mm, much longer, with two subbasodorsal proceeses, basal process apically tapering, apical process cylindrical. Maxillary palp (Fig. 97) 1 mm, 2 segmented, basal segment much longer, broadened near base and apically tapering, second segment cylindrical and curved ventriad. Forewing (Fig. 99) with post cubital fold concave shaped, with 3 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 8-9 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 91-93, 96): Segment IX apicodorsally nearly triangular. Segment X divided by a narrow excision near its centre into two simple plates; each plate broadened near base, sides somewhat truncate and finger-like near centre, with slight dentation near bottom in dorsal view. Inferior appendage each single segmented and apically excised in all the three views. Phallus with phallobase two stalked near its corners, phallocrypt apically rounded. Parameres antagonistical with one another near tips.

Holotype depository: RIZ (St. Petersburg).

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Tangmarg, 2600 m, 02-viii-2009, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Pahalgam, 2100 m, 02-viii-2009, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Aru, 2300 m, 14-viii-2010, 5 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Drass, 3300 m, 09-viii-2009, 5 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal).

Diagnostic combination: The species under consideration is closely allied to Lepidostoma punjabicum (McLachlan). The key characters which keep the two species disctinct have been discussed under the latter.

Lepidostoma parvulum (McLachlan)

(Figs. 100-102, 106-107, 110)

Mormonia parvulum McLachlan, 1871: 33.

Scapes (Fig. 107) 1.9 mm, each without any subbasodorsal processes but covered with long and dense hair on its surface. Maxillary palp (Fig. 107) 0.97 mm, 2 segmented; first segment cylindrical, second segment short & finger-like. Forewing with post cubital fold upto the middle of the wing, with 3 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 7-8 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 100-102, 106) : Segment IX apicodorsally roundly pointed; almost rectangular in lateral view. Segment X narrowly & deeply excised near centre forming dorsolateral and mesal processes; dorsolateral plate with broad base & apically rounded in dorsal view, triangular in lateral view; mesal processes triangular & with a small membranous lobe appearing finger- like in lateral view, mesal processes truncate with apically serrated margin. Inferior appendage each 2 segmented; basal segment long broadened near base & apically tapering; apical segment short & apex excised. Phallus with phallobase broad, stalked at one side, posteriorly oval-shaped. Parameres acute at apex.

Holotype depository: RIZ (St. Petersburg).

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Aru, 2300m, 29-viii-2008, 10 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Apharwat, 4000 m, 30-vii-2009, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Dobivan, 1500 m, 03-viii-2009, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Yusmarg, 2700 m, 01-viii-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Uzbekistan: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma parvulum (Mosely) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma inerme (McLachlan) are as follows: segment X with dorsolateral process much longer apically in former whereas, segment X with dorsolateral process not longer but slightly shorter in latter; mesal process apically triangular in case of L. parvulum whereas, mesal process almost rounded in case of L. inerme. Maxillary palp with second segment cylindrical in case of L. parvulum whereas, maxillary palp with second segment slendrical in case of L. inerme.

Lepidostoma inerme (McLachlan)

(Figs. 103-105, 108-109, 111)

Dinarthrum inerme McLachlan, 1878: 5-6.

Scapes (Fig. 109) 2.9 mm, without any subbasodorsal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 109) 1.9 mm, 2 segmented; basal segment much longer, cylindrical & densely covered with hairs; second segment shorter & slendrical. Forewing with post cubital fold as long as subcostal vein, with 4 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 7-8 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 103-105, 108): Segment IX apicodorsally rounded. Segment X divided by a deep excision into dorsolateral and mesal processes; dorsolateral processes broadened near base and apically rounded; mesal processes finger-like and with a small membranous projection below its ventral side in dorsal view; laterally dorsolateral process is finger-like, mesal process with its apical side rounded & basal portion somewhat truncate at apex. Inferior appendage each two segmented, first segment longer than second, apically triangular in lateral view; second segment shorter & with a truncate apex. Phallus with phallobase stalked. Parameres widely separated from one another.

Holotype depository: ZSI (India).

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Pahalgam, 2100 m, 28-viii-2008, 15 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 16 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Dobivan, 1600 m, 11-viii-2010, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Leh, 3000 m, 04-viii-2008, 4 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Gulmarg, 2900 m, 03-viii-2009, 8 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Baisern, 2100 m, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Aru, 2600 m, 14-viii-2010, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Himachal Pradesh: Traila, 1600 m, 17-vii-2010, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Uttarakhand: Mandel, 1700 m, 17-vi-2010, 8 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: China: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The species under consideration is closely allied to Lepidostoma parvulum (McLachlan). The key characters which keep the two species disctinct have been discussed under the latter.

Lepidostoma nagana (Mosely)

(Figs. 112-114, 118-119, 122)

Dinarthrum nagana Mosely, 1939: 338-339.

Scapes (Fig. 119) 2.9 mm, with two subbasodorsal processes, lower processes slendrical and the apical process stout & cylindrical. Maxillary palp (Fig. 119) 1.9 mm, 2 segmented; basal segment long, slightly broadened near base and apically tapering; second segment short. Forewing with post cubital fold slightly shorter than wing, with 4 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 6-7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 112-114, 118): Segment IX apicodorsally with a broad truncate apex. Segment X apically excised & forming two rounded lobes; each lobe almost squarish with truncate apex in lateral view. Inferior appendage two segmented; basal segment broadened near base, apical segment short with truncate apex in lateral view. Phallus short, phallobase truncate, phallocrypt rounded. Parameres twice in length than phallus and widely separated from one another.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Himachal Pradesh: Ahla, 2000 m, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma nagana (Mosely) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma ferox (McLachlan) are as follows: Segment IX apicodorsally with a broad truncate apex in case of former whereas, the same is apicodorsally rounded in case of latter.

Lepidostoma serratum (Mosely)

(Figs. 115-117, 120-121, 123)

Goerodina serrate Mosely, 1949c: 786-787.

Scapes (Fig. 121) 1.9 mm, each with a single subbasodorsal process having a small dent at its centre. Maxillary palp (Fig. 121) each 0.9 mm, 2 segmented; first segment long, slightly curved & covered with hair on its surface; second segment short and slendrical. Forewing with post cubital fold Average length of forewing 6-7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 115-117, 120): Segment IX apicodorsally produced into a rounded lobe. Segment X with a wide and deep excision at its centre dividing it into two strongly serrated triangular processes in dorsal and lateral view. Inferior appendage single segmented but apically two branched; main branch cylindrical and its apex tridentated; mesal branch long & slendrical. Basodorsal process vertically placed & with a characteristic hump in its middle. Phallus with phallobase stalked, phallocrypt rounded. Parameres crossing one another near centre.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Meghalaya: Cherrapunge, 1300 m, 29-v-2010, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Meghalaya).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Lepidostoma serratum (Mosely) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma dubitans (Mosely) is as follows: Segment X strongly serrated in case of former whereas, segment X simple, without any serration in case of latter.

Lepidostoma margula (Mosely)

(Figs. 124-126, 130-131, 134)

Agoerodes margula Mosely, 1949a: 241-242.

Scapes (Fig. 132) 1.94 mm, long, without any subbasososal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 132) 1 mm, 2 segmented; basal segment three times longer than apical segment; apical segment short. Forewing (Fig. 134) with Post cubital fold as long as subcostal vein, with 6 pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 6-7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 124-126, 130): Segment IX narrower in the centre and dilated towards its sides in dorsal view. Segment X divided by a excision into dorsolateral and mesal processes; dorsolateral processes diverging lateriad & finger-like in dorsal view; mesal processes short and oval in dorsal view, rounded in lateral view. Inferior appendage single segmented, main branch apically pointed and bearing two bud-like processes at its centre in dorsal view, lateral bud bearing almost 3 spine-like thick hair on its surface. Basodorsal processes vertically placed and slightly dilated at its apex. Phallus with phallobase truncate and phallocrypt rounded apically. Parameres placed parallel to one another in ventral view.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Sonmarg, 3000 m, 11-viii-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma margula (Mosely) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma steelae (Mosely) are as follows: inferior appendage apically with two apical bud-like processes in case of former whereas, inferior appendage apically simple without any bud-like process in case of latter. Basodorsal processes present in L. margula whereas, the same is absent in L. steelae.

Lepidostoma moulmina (Mosely)

(Figs. 127-129, 132-133, 135)

Adinarthrum moulmina Mosely, 1949a: 238.

Scapes (Fig. 133) 0.97 mm, dilated at apex & with a single subbasodorsal process, curved posteriad. Maxillary palp (Fig. 133) each 0.9 mm, 2 segmented; first segment longer, slightly dilated towards base; second segment cylindrical and shorter than first segment. Forewing (Fig. 135) with post cubital fold upto ¼ of wing, with 3 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 5-6 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 127-129, 132): Segment IX apicodorsally somewhat triangular. Segment X narrowly excised at centre and forming dorsolateral and mesal processes; dorsolateral processes short and rounded apically, mesal process triangular; laterally lateral process appear as triangular lobe and mesal processes appear as rounded lobe. Inferior appendage two segmented, first segment cylindrical & longer and the second segment short & slendrical. Basodorsal processes vertically lying below the base of inferior appendage. Phallus with phallobase stalked at one corner and roundly produced at other end, phallocrypt truncate apically. Parameres lying parallel to one another in ventral view.

Holotype depository: Stockholm Museum (Sweden).

Material examined: Assam: Jetinga, 900 m, 23-v-2010, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Assam, Meghalaya).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Lepidostoma moulmina (Mosely) differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma taunggya (Mosely) is as follows: Inferior appendage with second segment slendrical in case of former whereas, inferior appendage with second segment cylindrical in case of latter.

Lepidostoma kashmiricum Saini & Parey

(Figs. 136-138, 142-143, 146, 448)

Lepidostoma kashmiricum Saini & Parey 2011, (3062): 26-27

Scapes (Fig. 143) 1.44 mm, with 2 subbasodorsal processes, both processes situated posteriorly about midlength, basal process slightly shorter than apical process. Maxillary palp (Fig. 143) 0.96 mm, 2-segmented, basal segment short, apical segment twice as long basal segment, apex curved. Forewing (Fig. 146) with post cubital fold as long as wing, with 2 closed pseudo cells. Average length of each forewing 9.7 mm. Wing venation as in Fig

Male genitalia (Figs. 136-138, 142): Segment IX triangular in dorsal view. Segment X, produced into 2 long, slender, finger-like, lateral processes and 2 short and conical, mesal processes. Inferior appendages each single-segmented, its apex 3-branched; outer main branch with tuft of apical setae, middle branch (probably second article) longer than others and clubbed apically, ventromesal branch broad and with acute apex curved somewhat laterad; also, basodorsal process directed dorsad apically. Phallus long and slanting downwards; phallocrypt apically dilated. Parameres present, parallel with one another.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Jammu & Kashmir, Pahalgam, 2100 m, 14-viii-2009. Paratypes: West Bengal: Darjeeling, 2200 m, 14-iv-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Sikkim: Singhik, 1400 m, 14-ix-2009, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal, Sikkim).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma kashmiricum Saini & Parey differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma armatum (Ulmer) are as follows: Segment X having longer and more slender lateral processes and shorter and conical mesal processes in case of former whereas, segment X shorter & cylindrical lateral processes and longer & cylindrical mesal processes in case of latter.

Lepidostoma himachalicum Saini & Parey

(Figs. 139-141, 144-145, 147)

Lepidostoma himachalicum Saini & Parey 2011, (3062): 28

Scapes (Fig. 145) 2.88 mm, with 2 subbasodorsal posterior processes, basal process slightly shorter than apical process, apex membranous. Maxillary palp (Fig. 145) long, each 0.96 mm, 2-segmented, basal segment 3 times longer than terminal segment. Forewing (Fig. 146) with post cubital fold as long as forewing, with 4 closed pseudo cells. Length of each forewing 10 mm

Male genitalia (Figs. 139-141, 144): Apical margin of segment IX pentagonal in dorsal view. Tergum X forming pair of spanner-shaped plates, each deeply notched apicolaterally. Inferior appendages each 2- segmented, first article long and broad, second article shorter and shallowly excised at its apex. Phallus slender; phallobase truncate apically; parameres set across genitalia; phallocrypt slender, slanting downward.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Himachal Pradesh, Raskar 1700 m, 03- vii-2009.

Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma himachalicum Saini & Parey differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma punjabicum (Martynov) are as follows: Segment X apicodorsally notched in case of former whereas, segment X apicodorsally planner in case of latter.

Lepidostoma meghalayaense Saini & Parey

(Figs. 148-150, 154-155, 158)

Lepidostoma meghalayaense Saini & Parey 2011, (3062): 28-30

Scapes (Fig. 155) 0.96 mm, simple, unbranched. Maxillary palp (Fig. 155) 0.48 mm, 2-segmented, basal segment short, apical segment slightly longer than basal segment, slender. Forewing (Fig. 158) without post cubital fold. Length of each forewing 4.85mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 148-150, 154): Tergum IX narrow transverse strap at its centre dorsally and slightly broader towards its sides. Segment X excised to its base at its centre, with 2 pairs of processes each with apical tuft of setae, lateral processes finger-like and longer than mesal ones. Inferior appendage each 2 segmented, first article long, broad with a basodorsal process directed dorsad; second article slender, with deep excision at its apex. Phallus short, phallobase truncate, phallicata finger-like, parameres short.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Meghalaya, Cherrapunge, 1500 m, 25- v-2010. Paratypes: 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] from the same locality and data as that of holotype.

Distribution: India (Meghalaya).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma meghalayaense Saini & Parey differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma brueckmanni (Malicky & Chantaramongkol) are as follows: Maxillary palp clearly two segmented in case of former whereas, maxillary palp one segmented in case of latter. Segment X dorsolateral process single lobed in case of L. meghalayaense whereas, segment X two lobed in case of L. brueckmanni.

Lepidostoma dirangense Saini & Parey

(Figs. 151-153, 156-157, 159, 449)

Lepidostoma dirangense Saini & Parey 2011, (3062): 28-30

Scapes (Fig. 157) 1.44 mm, with single subbasodorsal process. Maxillary palp (Fig. 157) 1.12 mm, 2-segmented, equal in size, apical segment dilated. Forewing (Fig. 159) with post cubital fold as long as wing, with 5 closed pseudo cells. Length of each forewing 9.7 mm. Wing venation and setae as in Fig.

Male genitalia (Figs. 151-153, 156): Segment IX triangular dorsally. Segment X deeply excised at its centre to base, each half divided 3/4ths to base, resulting in 4 lobes, lateral lobes with apices dilated, middle lobes slightly shorter than lateral lobes and apically pointed in dorsal view. Inferior appendages each single segmented, with 3 branches: apex of main branch long, slender to dilated apex, curved mesad and sometimes crossing its counterpart; second branch (probably second article) short and sometimes crossing its counterpart; and slender basodorsal process directed dorsad. Phallus with slightly notched apex in ventral view, membranous, phallobase dilated, phallicata slender, parameres short.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Arunachal Pradesh, Dirang, 1600 m, 07-x-2010.

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma dirangense Saini & Parey differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma tesarum (Mosely) are as follows: segment X having dorsolateral processes slightly longer and dilated apically and dorosomesal processes triangular in case of former whereas, segment X having dorsolateral processes shorter and apically pointed, and dorsomesal processes rounded in case of latter.

Lepidostoma ahlae Parey & Saini

(Figs. 160-162, 166-167, 170)

Lepidostoma ahlae Parey & Saini, 2012: 58 (1) 36, 38-39

Scapes (Fig. 167) 4.85 mm in length, with two small subbasal processes dorsally. Maxillary palp (Fig. 167) 1.94 mm, two-segmented; basal segment much longer; apical one with pointed apex, both segments covered with dense setae. Forewing (Fig. 170) with post cubital fold slightly shorter than forewing, with 5 closed pseudo cells. Average length of each forewing 7.7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 160-162, 166): Segment IX apicodorsally produced into somewhat rounded tip. Segment X with dorsolateral plates broad at base, apically rounded; mesal processes narrow, situated closely to one another with small space between them; in lateral view dorsolateral plates triangular, apically rounded, with slightly serrate ventral margins, mesal processes somewhat dome- shaped, with very broad bases. Inferior appendages each two-segmented, 1st segment broad at base and narrower towards its apex, 2nd segment short with truncate apex; basodorsal processes absent. Phallus with phallobase and phallicata slender, cylindrical in lateral view. Parameres about as long as phallus and with two paramere spines closely adjacent to one another.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Himachal Pradesh: Ahla, 2000 m, 11- vii-2010 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Jammu and Kashmir: Pahalgam, 3100 m, 28-viii-2008, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].Yusmarg, 2800 m, 01-viii-2009, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which L. ahlae Parey & Saini differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma inerme (McLachlan) are as follows: Scapes each with two small subbasodorsal processes in case of former whereas, scapes without any subbasodorsal processes in case of latter. Maxillary palps with second segment apically tapering in case of L. ahlae whereas, maxillary palps with second rounded in case of L. inerme.

Lepidostoma sonmargae Parey & Saini

(Figs. 163-165, 168-169, 171, 443)

Lepidostoma sonmargae Parey & Saini 2012, 58 (1): 36

Scapes (Fig. 169) 3.88 mm, with two small subbasal processes dorsally, more distal process slightly curved. Maxillary palp (Fig. 169) 0.97 mm, two- segmented; 1st segment slightly thicker and longer than apical segment, covered with mixed hairs and scales. Forewing (Fig. 171) with post cubital fold slightly shorter than wing, with 4 closed pseudo cells. Length of each forewing 7.9 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 163-165, 168): Tergum IX apicodorsally produced into triangular projection. Segment X with narrow excision at its centre reaching to its base. Both dorsolateral and mesal processes well developed: dorsolateral processes triangular in dorsal view, mesal processes rounded and serrate in lateral view both pairs of processes appearing subquadrate. Inferior appendages each two-segmented, 1st segment apically rounded, 2nd segment apically excised in dorsal view; basodorsal processes absent. Phallus shorter than parameres, phallobase with anteroventral flange; paramere spines apically pointed and diverging from one another.

Holotype depository: MDZP (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Jammu & Kashmir: Sonmarg, 2900 m, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 11-viii-2008.

Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which L. sonmargae Parey & Saini differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma nagana (Mosely) are as follows: segment IX apicodorsally triangular in case of former whereas, segment IX apicodorsally truncate in case of latter.

Lepidostoma garhwalense Parey & Saini

(Figs. 172-174, 178-179, 182)

Lepidostoma garhwalense Parey & Saini 2012, 58 (1): 32-34

Scapes (Fig. 179) 1.0 mm, short and slightly curved at middle, with single subbasal process dorsally. Maxillary palp (Fig. 179) 0.97 mm, two-segmented; 1st segment broad; 2nd segment slender and densely covered with hair, both segments curved dorsad. Forewing (182) with post cubital fold slightly shorter than wing, with 8 closed pseudo cells. Length of each forewing 6.9 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 172-174, 178): Segment IX apicodorsally produced into triangular process. Distal margin of segment X produced into paired dorsolateral and mesal processes: Dorsolateral processes broad at base and apically triangular, mesal processes simple and with truncate and serrate apices, separated from each other by narrow, U-shaped excision nearly reaching tergum IX; when seen laterally mesal processes each appearing as rounded structure having serrated upper edge and non-serrated lower edge. Inferior appendages each 1- segmented, apically branched, branches of subequal length, lateral branch apically rounded, inner one truncate; basodorsal process slender, cylindrical, with serrated dorsal and ventral edges, half as long as inferior appendage. Phallus with phallobase round, phallicata broader and truncate apically.

Holotype depository: MDZP (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Uttrakhand, Gairsain, 2500 m, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 16- vi-2009.

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Lepidostoma garhwalense Parey & Saini differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma tesarum (Mosely) are as follows: segment IX apicodorsally triangular in case of former whereas, segment IX apicodorsally rounded in case of latter. Segment X dorsolateral processes apically triangular in case of L. garhwalense whereas, segment X dorsolateral processes apically acutely pointed in case of L. tesarum.

Lepidostoma truncatum Parey & Saini

(Figs. 175-177, 180-181, 183)

Lepidostoma truncatum Parey & Saini 2012, 58 (1): 34-35

Scapes (Fig. 181) 2.91 mm, with two subequal subbasodorsal processes curved toward each other. Maxillary palp (Fig. 181) each 0.98 mm, two-segmented; basal segment three times longer than apical one. Forewing (Fig. 183) with post cubital fold slightly shorter than wing, with 5 closed pseudo cella. Length of each forewing 7.7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 175-177, 180): Apicodorsal margin of segment IX bluntly pointed. Segment X divided by deep and narrow incision reaching to its base; each half bearing dorsolateral and mesal processes: in lateral view dorsolateral processes broad at base, mesal processes rounded and serrated apically; segment X appearing as bilobed structure. Inferior appendages each two-segmented, 1st segment triangular in outline with broadened base, 2nd segment broadened apically with slight apical excision; basodorsal processes absent. Phallobase with small dent at its centre, phallicata slender and cylindrical; parameres much longer than phallus.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Himachal Pradesh, Ahla, 2000 m, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 11-vii-2010.

Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key key character by which Lepidostoma truncatum Parey & Saini differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma ferox (McLachlan) are as follows: Scapes each with two basal processes in case of former whereas, scapes each with a single basal process in case of latter. Maxillary palps straight in case of L. truncatum whereas, maxillary palp curved in case of L. ferox.

Lepidostoma curvatum sp. nov.

(Figs. 184-186, 190-191, 194)

Male brown, head densely covered with dark brown hairs. Antennal scapes (Fig. 191) 2.4 mm long, with a single subbasodorsal process. Maxillary palp (Fig. 191) 0.96 mm, 2 segmented; basal segment longer than the distal segment; both segments curved upward into a c-shaped structure; distal segment hidden by long tuft of setae. Forewing (Fig. 194) with post cubital fold slightly shorter than wing, with 3 closed pseudo cells. Length of forewing 7.76 mm

Male genitalia (Figs. 184-186, 190): Tergite IX roundly produced in middle of posterodorsal margin; segment X, deeply and widely excised at its centre forming a pair of plates each plate broadened at its base with dorsolateral process slightly longer and pointed, whereas, dorsomesal processes with rounded apices, both apices bear long setae. Laterally segment X rounded, its upper surface wavy bearing long setae, a triangular process (actually dorsolateral process of segment X) bulged out from the centre of this segment. Inferior appendages each with main article nearly rectangular, apices branched, both branches nearly equal in length, ventroapical branch slendrical with apex pointed, second branch elongated with apex truncate. Basodorsal processes of each inferior appendage nearly cylindrical, apex slightly roundly pointed. phallocrypt rounded and phallobase squarish in lateral view. Two parameres elongated parallel.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Arunachal Pradesh, Tato 3200 m, 28-iv- 2010.

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma curvatum sp. nov differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma assamense (Mosely) are as follows: Inferior appendage with apex 2 branched, both branches equal in length in case of former whereas, inferior appendage with two unequal branches in case of latter.

Lepidostoma mandalense sp.nov.

(Figs. 187-189, 192-193, 195)

Scapes (Fig. 193) each 1 mm, with a single, cylindrical subbasodorsal processes at its base maxillary palp (Fig. 193) each 0.95 mm, two segmented; first segment long, straight and cylindrical; second segment short, curved downward bearing long setae on its surface. Forewing (Fig. 195) with post cubital fold upto the middle of the wing, with 2 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 5.76 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 187-189, 192): Segment IX apicodorsally narrowly triangular. Segment X simple, divided into two plates, both plates closely adhered along the central line without any excision, laterally segment X broadened towards the base and apically roundly produced. Inferior appendage each single segmented, broadened near base, apically triangular with excised surface in dorsal & ventral views; basodorsal process present, short & cylindrical. Phallus with phallobase truncate & dilated, phallicate slendrical and apically rounded. Parameres comparatively shorter and somewhat closely situated.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Uttarakhand: Mandal, 1800 m, 16-vi- 2010. Paratypes: Himachal Pradesh: Punjpulla, 1700 m, 20-vi-2011, 9 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Meghalaya: Cherrapunji, 1300 m, 28-v-2011, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya).

Etymology: The species name is after its type locality “Mandel” (Uttarakhand).

Diagnosis: This species resembles Lepidostoma inconspicus (Mosely) but can be distinguished from latter by having segment IX apicodorsally triangular (segment IX apicodrsally rounded in Lepidostoma inconspicus); plates of segment X closely adhered (segment X divided by a deep and broad dividing it into two distinct dorsal plates in Lepidostoma inconspicus); inferior appendages pointed in dorsal view & lateral views (inferior appendage rounded in dorsal as well as in lateral views in Lepidotoma inconspicus); basodorsal process present (basodorsal process absent in L. inconspicus).

Lepidostoma gangotri sp. nov.

(Figs. 196-198, 202-203, 206)

Scapes (Fig. 203) with two subequal subbasodorsal processes, basal process slendrical, apical process short & apically recurved; in some of the paratypes scapes with a single subbasodorsal process. Maxillary palp (Fig. 203) two segmented, basal segment long, slightly broadened near base and then apically narrower, second segment much smaller. Forewing (Fig. 206) with post cubital fold with 5 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 6-7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 196-198, 202): Segment IX apicodorsally rounded. Segment X narrowly & deeply excised leaving two plates, each plate with dorsolateral processes rounded near side in dorsal & lateral views; mesal processes ventrally folded in dorsal view, with truncate apex in lateral view. Inferior appendage single segmented, basal 1/3 broadened and then slendrical with apex rounded in dorsal & lateral view. Phallus with phallobase dilated, with a stalk at its bottom, phallicate cylindrical and apically rounded. Parameres slightly longer than phallus & placed across the genitalia.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Uttarakhand: Harsil, 2200 m, 07-vi- 2009. Paratypes: 3[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] on the same data as that of holotype. Uttarakhand: Auli, 2800 m, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 16-vi-2011. PinglaPani, 1900 m, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 11-vi-2011.

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand).

Etymology: This species is named after the river “Gangotri” in Uttarakhand.

Diagnosis: The new species belongs to L. ferox Branch. This species resembles Lepidostoma nagana Mosely but differs from it by having segment IX apicodorsally rounded (segment IX apicodorsally truncate in L. nagana). Mesal processes of segment X almost rectangular in lateral view (mesal processes of segment X almost rounded in lateral view in L. nagana). Scapes with subbasodorsal processs apically pointed (scapes with subbasodorsal processes apically curled in case of L. nagana). Maxillary palpi apically rounded (maxillary palpi apically pointed in case of L. nagana).

Lepidostoma badrinathense sp.nov.

(Figs. 199-201, 204-205, 207)

Scapes (Fig. 205) each 3.88 mm with two subbasodorsal processes, basal process apically curved, second process cylindrical. Maxillary palp (Fig. 205) each 2.97 mm, 2 segmented, basal segment much longer, slightly broader upto ½ and the narrow; second segment much smaller and oval in outline. Forewing (Fig. 207) with post cubital fold with 4 closed pseudo cells. Length of forewing 7.76 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 199-201, 204): Segment IX apicodorsally rounded, tip somewhat sclerotized; laterally nearly reactangular, broader towards bottom and top but slightly narrower in middle. Segment X simple distinctly divided into two plates, each plate apically truncate; laterally segment X appears roughly triangular, with posteroventral pointed tip. Inferior appendage each single segmented, its basal part slightly broadened, bulged & apically with excised tip in dorsal view; ventrally broadened near base and apically appears much excised; laterally slightly constricted near middle, with a tuft of setae. Phallus with phallobase broader and truncate, phallicate cylindrical. Parameres placed across the genitalia, closely adhered together upto ¼ and then tapering apically.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Uttarakhand: Badrinath, 3200 m, 24-vi- 2008.

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand).

Etymology: The species name is after its type locality “Badrinath”

(Uttrakhand).

Diagnosis: This species resembles Lepidostoma ulmeri but is different from latter by having segment IX apicodorsally broadly rounded (segment IX apicodorsally narrowly rounded in Lepidostoma ulmeri); phallicate cylindrical (phallicate slendrical in Lepidostoma ulmeri); parameres closely adhered together (parameres antagonistically with one another in L. ulmeri).

Lepidostoma pahalgamense sp. nov.

(Figs. 208-210, 214-215, 218)

Scapes (Fig. 215) each 3.97 mm, with two subbasodorsal processes; basal process slender and longer; apical processes short and almost rounded apically. Maxillary palp (Fig. 215) each 0.98 mm; two segmented, bearing mixed hair and scales; basal segment almost three times longer than apical segment. Forewing (Fig. 218) with post cubital fold as long as wing, with 5 closed pseudo cells. Average length of each forewing 6.97 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 208-210, 214): Tergum of segment IX nearly triangular. Segment X centrally divided by a deep incision, each half having dorsolateral and mesal processes; dorsolateral processes thickened basally and nearly triangular apically, mesal processes narrow and with slightly marginated surface; when seen laterally mesal processes appears as a triangular structure with base stretched almost upto the middle of segment IX, lateral processes appears squarish in outline covered with marginated surface. Inferior appendage each two segmented, 1st segment almost reactangular in lateral view; ventrally 1st segment broadened at base, 2nd segment appears as a bifid structure; basodorsal processes absent in each inferior appendage. Phallus with phallobase slightly stalked at one corner, phallocript long and slendrical. Parameres placed across the genitalia, longer than phallus and apically pointed.

Holotype depository: MDZP (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Jammu & Kashmir: Pahalagam, 3100, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 08-viii-2009.

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which L. pahalgamense sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma parvulum (McLachlan) are as follows: Segment X with dorsolateral processes much broadened, mesal processes with marginated surface in case of former whereas, segment X with dorsolateral processes hardly broadened, mesal processes without marginated surface in case of latter. Scapes each with two basal processes in case of L. pahalgamense sp. nov. whereas, scapes each with a single basal processes in L. parvulum.

Lepidostoma gulmargense sp. nov.

(Figs. 211-213, 216-217, 219, 446)

Scapes (Fig. 217) each 6.7 mm, with two subbasodorsal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 217) each 2.91 mm, two segmented; 1st segment as long as labial palp; 2nd segment short and capitate. Forewing (Fig. 219) with 4 closed pseudo cells behind the post cubital fold. Average length of each forewing 9.97 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 211-213, 216): Segment IX apicodorsally produced into a rounded structure, sides somewhat bulged. Segment X with a narrow excision reaching to the base of the segment IX, leaving dorsolateral and mesal processes; mesal processes thinner and nearly triangular apically; lateral processes broadened at base and apically rounded; a very thin membranous structure arise slightly below these two processes; when seen laterally lateral processes appear as squarish with marginated surface, mesal processes appear as a triangular projection and membranous structure hanging downward as triangle. Inferior appendage each two segmented, 1st segment broadened, 2nd segment appears as the neck of a zebra. Phallus with phallobase stalked at one corner and rounded at other side, phallocrypt slender. Parameres placed across the genitalia and closely adhered together.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Jammu & Kashmir: Gulmarg, 2900 m, 19-viii-2008, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 4 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which L. gulmargense sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma sonomax (Mosely) are as follows: segment X with dorsolateral processes much broadened at base and apically bulged in case of former whereas, segment X with dorsolateral processes short and apically compressed in case of latter.

Lepidostoma religiosum sp. nov.

(Figs. 220-222, 226-227, 230)

Scapes (Figs. 227) 1.95 mm, with two subequal sub basodorsal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 227) 0.97 mm, two segmented; 1st segment slightly broadened but finely narrowed at apex; 2nd segment much shorter and capitate. Forewing (Fig. 230) with post cubital fold slightly shorter than wing, with 3 closed pseudo cells. Average length of each forewing 5.82 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 220-222, 226): Tergum of segment IX much broadened, apicodorsally rounded. Segment X simple, symmetrical and each plate appears as half moon-shaped in outline, without any lateral or mesal processes. Inferior appendage each two segmented, 1st segment roughly rectangular with broadened apex in lateral view, 2nd segment narrow in middle, curved inward within segment X; when seen ventrally 1st segment broadened at base, 2nd segment narrow at base but dilated apically, with truncate apex; inferior appendages basodorsal process lacking. Phallus with phallobase truncate phallocrypt long, apex membranous. Parameres placed across the genitalia, broad but pointed apically.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Uttarakhand: Hanumanchatti, 2800 m, 25-iv-2008. 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Sikkim, Maltin, 2800 m, 20-v-2011.

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand, Sikkim).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which L. religiosum sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma kamba Mosely are as follows: Inferior appendage each with basodorsal process absent in case of former whereas, inferior appendage each with basodorsal process present in case of latter.

Lepidostoma setosum sp. nov.

(Figs. 223-225, 228-229, 231)

Scape (Fig. 229) 2.88 mm, with two subbasodorsal processes towards its base, proximal process longer than the distal one. Maxillary palp (Fig. 229) 1.44mm, two jointed; basal joint 3X longer than the apical one. Forewing (Fig. 231) with 3 closed pseudo cells behind the post cubital fold. Length of forewing 9.7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 223-225, 228): Tergite IX posterodorsally roundly produced, edges rounded but slanting. Segment X dorsally incised at centre, incision nearly reaching base, simple, symmetrical, each side almost square, curved downward along its apices. Inferior appendages each 1 segmented, segment broader near its base and terminally slightly excised at its centre, basodorsal process wanting. Phallus slanting downwards, phallobase broadened phallocript slender, terminally truncate. Parameres placed diagonally across the genitalia, very prominent and pointed.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Uttarakhand: Munsiayri, 2400m, 27-vi- 2010.

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Lepidostoma setosum sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma latum (Martynov) is as follows: segment X apically plane in case of former whereas, segment X apically excised in case of latter.

Lepidostoma rifati sp. nov.

(Figs. 232-234, 238-239, 242, 445)

Scapes (Fig. 239) each 0.8 mm, simple without any subbasodorsal processes. Maxillary palpi (Fig. 239) 0.95 mm, two segmented, first segment short, nearly rectangular, second segment long, apically curved into a pointed tip. Forewing (Fig. 242) without post cubital fold. Average length of forewing 6.79 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 232-234, 238): Segment IX rectangular in dorsal view with a tuft of setae at its centre and close to posterodorsal angles. Segment X with a pair of dorsal plates, each plate broadened near base and apically bidentated, each dent bears a tuft of long setae; a small conical process arises on each side near the base of segment X; laterally segment X is with serrated surface. Inferior appendage each single segmented much broadened near base and apically three branched, mesal branch much smaller than rest of the two branches. Basodorsal process capitates, marginated surface and visible only in dorsal view. Phallus with phallobase tapering near bottom and then almost rectangular, phallocrypt slendrical and apically pointed. Parameres absent.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Arunachal Pradesh: Jung 2200 m, 18-v- 2011. Paratypes: 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] from the same locality and date as that of the holotype. Lumpo, 2200 m, 17-05-2011, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Etymology: This species is named in honor of Dr. Rifat. H. Raina who accompanied the team during collection surveys.

Diagnostic combination: This species resembles with Lepidostoma heterolepidium Martynov. However, it can be differentiated from latter by having broadened and apically bidentated dorsal plate of segment X (dorsal plate of segment X almost slendrical and apically pointed in Lepidostoma heterolepidium); segment X with a reduced, triangular process near base in dorsal view (segment X with a prominent and cylindrical process near base in dorsal view in Lepidostoma heterolepidium); basodorsal process of inferior appendage present (basodorsal process of inferior appendage absent Lepidostoma heterolepidium); phallocrypt apically pointed (phallocrypt apically rounded in Lepidostoma heterolepidium).

Lepidostoma cherrapungense sp. nov.

(Figs. 235-237, 240-241, 243, 438)

Scapes (Fig. 241) each 0.48 mm without any subbasodorsal processes, Maxillary palp (Fig. 241) each 0.2 mm, single segmented. Forewing (Fig. 243) without post cubital fold. Average length of forewing 6.79 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 235-237, 240): Segment IX apicodorsally slightly rounded; laterally a U-shaped depression near centre of its posterior side. Segment X deeply & widely excised in the centre forming two distinct plates. Dorsolateral process apically with irregular dentation, dorsomesal process slender, finger-like. Laterally dorsolateral process appears two lobed, with apical lobe dentate, ventral one longer and apically acute; laterally mesal processes appear as a triangular structure which is apically truncate. Inferior appendage each single segmented, apically two branched, lateral branch longer than mesal branch, truncate apically in dorsal view; laterally both branches apically pointed. Phallus simple & hammer-like, phallobase broadened & truncate, phallocrypt apically rounded. Parameres absent.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Meghalaya: Cherrapunge, 1700 m, 20-v-2011. Paratypes: 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] with same locality and date as of holotype.

Etymology: The species is named after its type locality Cherrapunge (Meghalaya).

Diagnostic combination: This species goes close to Lepidostoma bifurcatum Yang & Weaver, but can be differentiated from latter by having dorsolateral processes of segment X dentated (dorsolateral processes of segment X lobed in L. bifurcatum); inferior appendage each broadened near base in lateral view (inferior appendage each slendrical near base in L. bifurcatum); phallobase truncate in lateral view (phallobase rounded in lateral view in L. bifurcatum); parameres absent (parameres present in L. bifurcatum); scapes without any basal processes (scapes with a single basal process in L. bifurcatum ); maxillary palpi single segmented (maxillary palpi two segmented in L. bifurcatum).

Lepidostoma tridentatum sp. nov.

(Figs. 244-246, 250-251, 254, 447)

Scapes (Fig. 251) each 0.97 mm, long, without any subbasodorsal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 251) each 0.6 mm mm, two segmented; 1st segment nearly as long as 2nd segment, latter bears a tuft of hairs on its surface. Forewing (Fig. 254) without post cubital fold. Length of each forewing 5.82 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 244-246, 250): Segment IX nearly reactangular in dorsal view, bearing a tuft of long setae in its centre, tip of anterolateral edge of pleurites also bear a tuft of setae. Segment X with a pair of dorsal plates, each plate bilobed, dorsolateral plate pointed at its tip and mesal plate tridentated apically, a finger-like process arises near the base of segment X. Inferior appendage each single segmented, apically 3-branched, middle branch vertically placed and spoon-shaped, rest of the two branches almost horizontally placed in dorsal view; ventrally each inferior appendage much broadened towards its base; laterally each inferior appendage nearly reactangular and apically tapering into a narrow branch, small branch is hidden behind the main branch. Phallus with phallobase having a small triangular stalk and then balloon-shaped, phallocrypt long, apically dilated, four lobed in ventral view. Parameres absent.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Arunachal Pradesh: Hunli, 1700 m, 03-v-2011.

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which L. tridentatum sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma heterolidium (Martynov) are as follows: Segment X with dorsolateral processes prominent, triangular in case of former whereas, segment X with dorsolateral processes reduced & pointed in case of latter. Mesal processes of segment X apically tridentated in case of L. tridentatum whereas, mesal process apically truncate in L. heterolipidium.

Lepidostoma khajjiarense sp. nov.

(Figs. 247-249, 252-253, 255)

Scapes (Fig. 253) each 0.97 mm, simple without any basal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 253) each 0.84 mm, 2 segmented, first segment narrow near base and apically dilated, second segment longer than first, slightly broadened in the middle and then slendrical, finger-like bearing long setae on its surface. Forewing (Fig. 255) without post cubital fold. Length of forewing 6.79 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 247-249, 252): Segment IX almost rectangular, narrow towards centre with tuft of setae and broadened laterally dorsal view. Segment X divided by a wide excision into two plates, both plates antagonistically lying one another; each plate apically pointed near its corners; segment X almost as long as inferior appendage in lateral view, posteriorly produced into an apically bifid lobe. Inferior appendage each single segmented, apically 3 branched, main branch triangularly pointed apically, mesal branch apically rounded and ventromesal branch placed laterad in dorsal view. Basodorsal process of inferior appendage present & apically rounded. Phallus with phallobase almost rounded near base, phallocrypt almost cylindrical & apically tongue-like. Parameres absent.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Himachal Pradesh: Khajjiar, 1700 m, 18-vi-2011.

Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh).

Etymology: The species name is after its type locality “Khajjiar” (Himachal Pradesh).

Lepidostoma vikrami sp. nov.

(Figs. 256-258, 262-263, 265, 437)

Scapes (Fig. 263) each 1.45 mm, without any subbasodorsal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 263) each 0.97 mm, two segmented, 1st segment three times longer than 2nd segment, latter with a small dent at its base. Forewing (Fig. 266) with 3 closed pseudo cells. Length of each forewing 7.76 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 256-258, 262): Segment IX apicodorsally produced into triangular projection, pleurites rounded in dorsal view. Segment X with dorsolateral lobes cylindrical , dorsomesal processes rounded but the apical portion is produced into a triangular projection with a narrow excision at its centre that extends upto its base; laterally, segment X appears as bilobed structure, apical lobe larger in size than basal lobe, later appears as a finger-like structure. Inferior appendages each single segmented but branched apically; dorsolateral branch slightly longer than the mesal branch. Basodorsal process of each inferior appendage is quite prominent. Phallus with phallobase truncate at base and dilated upto centre, phallocrypt slender. Parameres short.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Arunachal Pradesh: Hunli, 1700 m, 03- v-2011.

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which L. vikrami sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma steelae (Mosely) are as follows:

Scapes without any processes in case of former whereas, scapes with two subbasodorsal processes in case of latter. Apical segment of maxillary palp with a small dent near base in L. vikrami whereas, apical segment of maxillary palp without any dent near base in L. steelae.

Lepidostoma muzamili sp. nov.

(Figs. 259-261, 264-265, 267)

Scapes (Fig. 265) each 2.9 mm, long, with two subbasodorsal processes. Maxillary palp (Fig. 265) each 1 mm; two segmented; 1st much longer than 2nd segment with tuft of scales on its surface. Forewing (Fig. 267) with 3 closed pseudo cells. Length of each forewing7.76 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 259-261, 267): Segment IX appears as a wing of flying bird, with its tergum broadened and pleurites narrowed dorsally. Segment X narrowly excised in the middle and the excision is extending upto its base; laterally segment X is broadened at its base, apex is carved in the form of „C‟, and its extreme basolateral margin gives rise to a small finger like projection. Inferior appendage each single jointed, broadened upto its first half whereas, the second half slendrical in dorsal view. Basodorsal process small and pointed apically. Phallus with phallobase stalked, phallocrypt slendrical. Parameres pointed towards apex and set across the genitalia.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Uttarakhand: Sonprayag, 1900 m, 10- vi-2010. Paratypes 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] with the same data as that of holotype.

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which L. muzamili sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma sonomax (Mosely) are as follows: segment IX apically slightly pointed in case of former whereas, segment IX apically rounded in of latter. Segment X with dorsolateral processes apically triangular in dorsal view in case of L. muzamili whereas, dorsolateral processes apically rounded in case of L. sonomax.

Lepidostoma lakhwinderae sp. nov.

(Figs. 268-270, 274-275, 278, 444)

Scapes (Fig. 275) each 4.85 mm, with two subbasodorsal processes; basal processes slendrical and apically curved; second segment cylindrical and apically rounded. Maxillary palp (Fig. 275) 1.94 mm; two segmented; first segment much longer and about as long as labial palpi in lateral view; second segment short and straight. Forewing (Fig. 278) with 4 closed pseudo cells. Average length of forewing 9.7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 268-270, 274): Segment IX apicodorsally broadly rounded, somewhat dome-shaped. Segment X divided in the middle forming a pair of plates; dorsolateral processes of each plate is apically triangular and broadened near base whereas, mesal process is rounded at the apex. laterally mesal processes appear as a long lobe with sides truncate and apex rounded, lateral lobe much shorter than mesal one. Inferior appendage single segmented, broadened near base, apices somewhat converging in dorsal & ventral views. Phallus with phallobase dilated & truncate, rounded near one side, phallicate apically rounded. Parameres placed across the genitalia, apically tapering & antagonistically lying one another, nearly as long as phallus.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material Examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Jammu & Kashmir: Aru, 2700 m. Paratypes: 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] with same locality and data as that of holotype.

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Etymology: This species is named in honor of Lakwindar Kaur for her support and help during these years.

Diagnostic combination: This species closely resembles Lepidostoma nagana Mosely but is different from latter by having segment IX apicodorsally rounded (segment IX apicodorsally truncate in Lepidostoma nagana); segment X with dorsolateral processes apically triangular (segment X with dorsolateral processes apically rounded in L. nagana); laterally dorsolateral process much broadened (dorsolateral process slender in lateral view in L. nagana).

Lepidostoma mechukense sp. nov.

(Figs. 271-273, 276-277, 279, 440)

Antennal scape (Fig. 277) 1.4 mm, without any distinct processess. Maxillary palp (Fig. 277) 0.98mm, two segmented; basal segment 3x longer than distal one. Forewing (Fig. 279) with 3 closed pseudo cells. Length of each forewing 7.76 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 271-273, 276): Tergite IX dorsally extends posteriorly, extraordinarily bulged at its centre, sides somewhat triangular. Segment X excised at its centre forming two pair of processes; dorsolateral processes triangular, whereas, dorsomesal processes rounded, apices of each process bear setae, median and lateral processes separated from each other by a wide space, median processes closely proximed. Laterally segment X broadened at base and notched at tip, from the lateral base of this segment a slender triangular projection appears which is actually dorsolateral process of this segment. Inferior appendages with apices branched, both branches nearly slendrical, dorsolateral branch slightly longer than mesal branch, basodorsal process finger like in lateral view. Phallus with phallobase dilated, phallocrypt slendrical. Parameres absent.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: INDIA: Arunachal Pradesh: Mechuka, 3600m, 29- iv-2010.

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Lepidostoma mechukaense sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species Lepidostoma kimsa (Mosely) are as follows: segment IX apicodorsally produced in its centre in case of former whereas, segment IX apicodorsally rounded in case of latter.

Lepidostoma pyramidatum sp. nov.

(Figs. 280-285)

Scapes (Fig. 284) 2.88 mm, bearing two subbasodorsal processes; proximal process brownish, curved distally and longer than distal one. Maxillary palp (Fig. 284) 1.48 mm; basal segment three times longer than distal segment, bearing long setae. Forewing (Fig. 285) with 2 closed pseudo cells behind the post cubital fold. Average Length of forewing 6.5 mm.

Male genitalia(Figs. 280-283): Segment IX Pyramid shaped. Segment X deeply incised medially, each resulting lateral plate shallowly excised along its posterior margin, laterally bulging. In lateral view a small finger like projection present on basal ventral side of segment X. Inferior appendages 2-segmented, 1st segment, bearing stout setae distally 2X longer than 2nd terminal segment, basodorsal process absent. Phallobase broadened phallocrypt slender. Parameres thickened, diagonally lying across the genitalia.

Holotype depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Uttarakhand: Munsiayri, 2400m, 27-vi- 2010, 12 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Paratypes: Munsiayri, 2400m, 27-vi-2010; 3[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Hanumanchatti, 2200m, 25-iv-2008, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Arunachal Pradesh: Dirang, 1600m, 10-vi-2009.

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which L. pyramidatum sp. nov. differs by its closely allied species Lepidostoma ulmeri (Martynov) are as follows: segment X broadened and bulging at its sides in case of former whereas, segment X compressed and not broadened near sides in case of latter. Parameres converging with one another in case of L. pyramidatum whereas, parameres diverging with each other in case of L. ulmeri.

Genus Paraphlegopteryx Ulmer

Paraphlegopteryx Ulmer, 1907: 6-7.

Type species: Paraphlegopteryx tonkinensis Ulmer

Diagnostic feature: Vertex usually with minute whitish triangular projection. Setal warts typically having anterolateral, dorsoanterior, dorsoposterior and posterior pairs, similar. Scapes longer than head, simple and cylindrical. Maxillary palps short and finger like, 1- segmented in males, 5-segmented in females. Metascutellum sometimes normal and similar as in female or often modified having metascutellum varied, sometimes conspicuous dark brown (almost black), and either glossy or dull in appearance. Forewings (Fig. 22) with forks I, II, III and IV, with fork I always petiolate. Hind wing (Fig. 23) venation highly variable, r-m cell containing nygma.

Distribution: This genus is confined to the Oriental region only. Species records are known from Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam, the Zhejiang province of China and India.

Remarks: The genus Paraphlegopteryx Ulmer is recorded only from the Oriental region. Presently this genus includes 24 species over the globe.

In India this genus is represented by 14 species. Major contribution is by Weaver (1999) with 12 species, Martynov (1936) and Mosely (1949a) contributed 1 species each. The present study deals with 4 species. Paraphlegopteryx weaveri sp. nov. is added new to science.

Paraphlegopteryx composite Martynov

(Figs. 286-289)

Paraphlegopteryx composite Martynov, 1936: 291-293

Head and body generally brown. Head without scales; scapes 0.5 mm; maxillary palpi 0.40 mm. Metascutellum completely dark brown. Forewing 8.8 mm, covered with reddish brown setae.

Male genitalia (Figs. 286-289): Segment VIII and IX normal. Segment X with basolateral process short and slightly rounded in dorsal view, triangular in lateral view. Inferior appendage elongate with main article almost rectangular in lateral view; basodorsal process slender irregular finger-like in lateral view; second article (apicomesal process) long slender with apex slightly roundly pointed in lateral view, fingerlike with apex curved mesad in ventral view; apicoventral process slender and capitates with round apical knob bearing atleast four long thick setae in lateral view, apical knob short and broadly truncate in ventral view; ventromesal process fingerlike. Phallus with phallobase truncate and phallocrypt rounded in lateral view; parameres apically acute laterally.

Holotype depository: Unknown.

Material examined: Uttarakhand: Auli, 2700 m, 16-vi-2011, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand, West Bengal).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Paraphlegopteryx composita Martynov differs from its closely allied species Paraphlegopteryx orestes Weaver are as follows: ventromesal processes of inferior appendage present in case of former whereas, ventromesal processes of inferior appendage absent in case of latter. Phallus with phallocript apically truncate in Paraphlegopteryx composita whereas, the same is apically rounded in case of Paraphlegopteryx orestes.

Paraphlegopteryx normalis Mosely

(Figs. 290-293)

Paraphlegopteryx normalis Mosely, 1949: 788-789

Neoseverini aspiralis Ito, 1992: 105

Head and body generally dark brown. Head seta warts, scape and maxillary palp with many long brown bristles and without scales. Head setose, but without scales; scapes 1.3 mm; maxillary palpi 0.4 mm. Forewing 10 mm, bearing long tuft of dark brown bristles.

Male genitalia (Figs. 290-293): Segment IX with dorsum concave to accommodate bulbous expansion of tergite VIII. Segment X with basolateral lobes about 2x as long as basal width; main processes each with apex bilobed in lateral view, dorsal lobe more slender and lobiform, and ventral lobe apically broad; main processes separated by deep narrow mesal notch in dorsal view. Inferior appendage each with base of main article broad; basodorsal process broadly rounded, nearly semicircular in lateral view; apicodorsal process minute; second article (apicomesal process) as long as main article, nearly straight and fingerlike, but with apex pointed in lateral view; apicoventral process reduced and ventromesal process absent. Phallus with phallobase triangular and phallocrypt rounded apically. Parameres nearly straight in lateral view.

Holotype depository: ZSI (India).

Material examined: Uttarakhand: Munsiayri, 1700 m, 20-vi-2011, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Himachal Pradesh: Traila, 1700 m, 17-vi-2011, 4 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India: (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Paraphlegopteryx normalis Mosely differs from its closely allied species Paraphlegopteryx bulbosa Weaver includes: Segment X bilobed in lateral view in case of former whereas, segment X single lobed laterally in case of latter.

Paraphlegopteryx moselyi Weaver

(Figs. 294-297)

Paraphlegopteryx moselyi Weaver, 1999: 12-13.

Head & body generally dark brown. Head setose, but without scales. Scapes 0.8 mm; maxillary palpi 0.4 mm. Forewing 10 mm, with dark brown bristles and short stout scales.

Male genitalia (Figs. 294-297): Segments VIII and IX normal. Segment X with basolateral lobes short and almost rounded apically in lateral and dorsal views; main process somewhat trapezoidal with apex apex broadly rounded in lateral view; main processes triangular, apex somewhat rounded, and separated by V- shaped mesal notch in dorsal view. Inferior appendages with base of main article broad and rectangular, apicoventral ridge inclined slightly dorsad toward base of second article in lateral view; basodorsal process slender and curved posteriad in lateral view; apicodorsal process short and lobiform; second article (apicomesal process) long finger-like with trapezoidal apex, having apicodorsal angle acute; ventromesal process reduced to shallow shelf with minute apical lobe. Phallus with phallobase slightly rounded, phallocrypt truncate in lateral view. Parameres apically acute in lateral view.

Holotype depository: Canadian National Collection, Ottawa.

Material examined: Specimens: India: Arunachal Pradesh, Hunli, 1800 m, 3-v- 2011, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Sikkim, Uttaray, 2300 m, 15-v-2011, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Nepal: India (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic features: The key character by which Paraphlegopteryx moselyi Weaver differs from its closely allied species Paraphlegopteryx kamengensis Weaver by following character: Apicoventral processes of inferior appendage absent in case of former whereas, apicoventral processes of inferior appendage is present in case of latter.

Paraphlegopteryx weaveri sp. nov.

(Figs. 298-301)

Scapes, head, thorax and wings dark brown. Abdomen light brown. Head setose without scales (in alcohol). Average length of scapes 0.48 mm, maxillary palp 0.30 mm, forewing 8.73 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 298-301): Segment IX apicodorsally produced into a rounded structure at its centre but almost reactangular in lateral view. Segment X with basolateral process quite prominent, rounded apically, appearing as small hump-like projection in lateral view; mesal process triangular in dorsal view and rectangular in lateral view. Inferior appendage broadened near base appearing rectangular in lateral view, apically 4 branched, apicoventral branch reduced, apically rounded, acuminate bearing a tuft of setae in lateral view, slightly pointed in ventral view; main article (apicomesal branch) longer than other branches, slightly pointed apically in dorsal view, rounded in ventral and lateral view; apicodorsal dorsal branch triangular lateral view, roundly pointed dorsally; ventromesal branch about as long as segment X in dorsal view, finger-like. Basodorsal process long, slendrical and curved posteriad. Phallus with phallobase truncate and phallocript rounded apically rounded in lateral view. Parameres slightly shorter than phallus & apically tapering.

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Arunachal Pradesh, Zemithang, 1800 m.16-v 2011.Paratype: 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] from the same locality and data as that of holotype.

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Etymology: The species is named after J. S. Weaver for his outstanding contribution to Indian Lepidostomatidae.

Diagnostic features: The key character by which Paraphlegopteryx weaveri sp. nov. differs from its closely allied apecies Paraphlegopteryx moselyi Weaver are as follows: Segment IX apicodorsally rounded in case of former whereas, segment IX apicodorsally truncate in case of Paraphlegopteryx moselyi Weaver. Inferior appendage with ventromesal processes prominent and finger like in case of Paraphlegopteryx weaveri sp. nov. whereas, inferior appendage with ventromesal processes reduced in case of Paraphlegopteryx moselyi Weaver.

Family Branchycentridae Ulmer

Branchycentrinae Ulmer, 1903, p.85

Type genus: Branchycentrus Curtis

Branchycentridae Ross, 1944, p. 260

Diagnostic feature: Head particularly short and wide. Eye small and hairy, vertex with 3 pairs of warts. Pronotum (Fig. 2) with a single pair of rounded setal warts (Fig. 2). Ocelli absent. First antennal segment short and slightly thickened. Maxillary palpi 3-segmented in male (Fig. 3) and 5-segmented in female. Spurs 2, 2, 2 or 2, 3, 3 or 2, 4, 4. Glands of abdominal sternite V in shape of small sphere with opening on anterior margin of segment. Forewing (Fig. 16) with fork I, II, III & V present in male and I, II, III, IV & V or I, II, III & V in female. Hindwing (Fig. 17) with fork I & V or I, II & V in female. In forewing (Fig. 16) discoidal cell small and closed, thyridial cell very long and closed, and median cell open. Cu2 extends to wing margin & jointed to CuIb by cross vein. Anal veins occasionally simplified. In hindwing (Fig. 17) discoidal cell open or closed with three or 4 anal veins.

Distribution: This family is distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

Remarks: Ulmer (1903) originally established this group as a subfamily of Seriscostomatidae. It now contains 7 genera and about 100 species. Three of these are monotypic: Adicrophleps Flint (Neartic), Amiocentrus Ross (Neartic), Dolichocentrus Wiggins (Japan & Western North America)) contains only a half dozen species & Tsudaea Nozaki (Japan) with a single species. Branchycentrus Curtis (30 species) and Micrasema McLachlan (75 species) are both wide spread across the Holartic and Oriental region. In India this family is represented by 2 genera Branchycentrus Curtis and Micrasema McLachlan. Branchycentrus is represented by a single species and Micrasema contains 11 species from this region.

Keys to Indian genera of Branchycentridae

1. Spurs 2, 2, 3 or 2, 3, 3. Forewings with R1 sinuate at level with pterostigma. FII sessile... Branchycentrus Curtis

- Spurs 2, 2, 2. Forewings with R1 not sinuate at level with pterostigma. FII petiolate…..Micrasema McLachlan

Genus Branchycentrus Curtis

Branchycentrus Curtis, 1834, p. 216

Monobasic type species: Branchycentrus subnubilus Curtis

Sphinctogaster Provancher, 1877, p. 262

Monobasic type species: Sphintogaster lutescens Provancher

Ologoplectrodes Martynov, 1909, p. 294

Type species: Oligoplectrodes potanini Martynov

Diagnostic features: Antennae faintly crenulated on inferior face & distinctly thicker in male than in female. Maxillary palp of male short, thick, densely covered with erect hairs raised against face and comprising 3 subequal segments. In female maxillary palp slender and weakly developed, but with thickened 1st segment. Legs covered with short hairs and number of spines. Spurs 2, 2, 2 or 2, 3, 3. Wings (Figs. 16-17) covered with short sparse hairs. Hindwing (Fig. 17) as wide as forewing, subrectangular, with well developed anal area. In female R1 strongly sinuate at level of pterostigma. Forks I, II, III & V present in male and I, II, III, IV & V in female. Fork II sessile. There are three anal veins forming 3 cells. In hindwing (Fig. 17), fork I & V present in male & I, II, III & V in female. M single branched in male & 3 branched in female. Discoidal cell open.

Distribution: Holarctic and Oriental in distribution.

Remarks: Based on the type species Branchycentrus subnubilus Curtis, the genus was established by Curtis in 1834. This genus is represented by about 40 species over the globe. In Oriental region including India this genus is represented by 1 species. The present study deals with its single species distributed throughout the Indian Himalaya.

Branchycentrus kozlovi Martynov

(Figs. 302-305)

Branchycentrus kozlovi Martynov, 1909: 291-294.

Head & thorax fuscous with light, honey colored hairs; ocelli black; antennae fuscous with pale annulations; spurs 2, 3, 3; wings grayish with light brown coloured pubescence; length of forewing 9.7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 302-304): Segment IX apicodorsally produced into a rounded lobe, sides of this segment pointed bearing long setae on its surface; ventrally segment IX H- shaped. Segment X large hood with slightly excised apical margin in dorsal view; hood completely obscures all the genital parts from above. Inferior appendage curved inwards in lateral view; basal part of inferior appendage with a finger-like process; middle part rounded on its upper side; apically tapering; ventrally inferior appendage apically triangular and curved inwards. Phallus apically pointed in lateral view. Parameres almost rectangular in ventral view.

Female genitalia (Fig. 305): Female genitalia simple. Segment X apically with a small notch.

Holotype depository: Untraceable.

Material examined: Sikkim: Uttaray, 2200 m, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Jammu & Kashmir: Argam, 07-vii-2011, 1800 m, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Himachal Pradesh: Sanghani, 1700 m, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: China: Bhutan: India: Sikkim (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh).

Family Goeridae

Goerinae Ulmer, 1903, p. 81

Type genus: Goera Stephens

Diagnostic features: Head wide, with 3 or 4 pairs of wartson vertex. Pronotum with two pairs of setal warts (Fig. 4). Ocelli present or absent. First antennal segment large, simple & slightly thicker in males than in females. Maxillary palpi (Fig. 5) exhibiting strong sexual dimorphism, 2 or 3 segmented in males & 5 segmented with first 2 segments short, in female. Legs densely clothed with flattened hairs & bearing small spines. Spurs 2, 4, 4 or 2, 3, 4 or 1, 2, 2. Internal gland of abdominal sternite V absent. Wings densely hairy, fairly evenly elliptical with both pairs equal in width. Venation similar in both sexes and barely simplified, with forks I, II, III & V or I, II, & V present on both pairs. In front wing discoidal cell closed. Thyridial cell of variable length. Thyridial cells sometimes widened at extremity. One or 3 anal veins. In hindwings, discoidal cell open or closed.

Distribution: Cosmopolitan distribution except Neotropical America.

Remarks: The family Goeridae was erected by Stephens based on the type genus Goera in 1829. The family currently contains some 180 species under 11 genera worldwide. In Oriental region this family is represented by 110 species under 5 genera. In India this family is represented by 30 species under 2 genera.

Key to Indian genera of Goeridae Ulmer

1. Forewing with discoidal cell short, spurs 2, 4, 4 Goera Stephens

- Forewing with discoidal cell long, spurs 2, 4, 3….. Larcasia Navas

Goera Stephens, 1829, p. 28

Type species: Phryganea pilosa Fabricius (designated by Westwood in 1840)

Diagnostic feature: Head very short, with very prominent eyes. Maxillary palpi of male very small & comprising 2 segments. A large, membranous strongly erectile lobe equipped with flattened scales inserted behind 2nd segments. Spurs 2, 4, 4. Abdominal sternite VI with ventral row of 8 or 10 long spines in comb-like arrangement in male and 1 or 2 shorter points, surrounded by a few tiny teeth in females. Wings brownish & distinctly narrower in female than in male. Forewing (Fig. 18) with discoidal cell short & united from long distances with FI, FII. FIII petiolate. Thyridial cell very long. In hindwing (Fig. 19) discoidal cell open & FIII with long petiole.

Distribution: Holarctic, African, Australian and Oriental.

Remarks: Goera Stephens (1829) is the largest genus in the family Goeridae and is represented by 156 described species from the World (Morse, 2012). The greatest diversity of this genus is found in Oriental region (Malicky & Chantaramongkol 1992, Malicky 1995, Yang & Armitage 1996, Malicky & Chantaramongkol 1997, Armitage & Arefina 2003, Malicky 2008). In India this genus is represented by 28 species. Of these 28 species, 21 species were described by Schmid (1991), 5 by Mosely (1938) and 1 each by Betten (1909) & Navás (1932). Three species (G. paropadecha Schmid, G. parakaja Schmid and G. nigricornis Navás) are recorded from South India, and the remaining 25 species are reported from Himalayan belt. A complete distribution of Indian species of genus Goera is given in table IV. The present study deals with 6 species amongst which two species Goera arunachalica sp. nov. and Goera munsiaryensis sp. nov. are new to science.

Goera paracrita Schmid

(Figs. 306-309)

Goera paracrita Schmid, 1991: 306

Adults dark brown in colour. Average length of forewing 7-8 mm. Maxillary palp 2.42 mm in length, two segmented. 1st segment slendrical, 2nd cylindrical, covered with small setae on its surface & about 4 times longer than first segment & 2 times longer than scapes in dorsal view.

Male genitalia (Figs. 306-309): Segment IX with two broad lobes near its side and centrally with a narrow lobe in dorsal view; laterally broadened near its posterior side & anteriorly tapering ; ventrally this segment almost appears as rectangular. Dorsal process much longer, almost cylindrical & apically rounded, longer than preanal appendage in lateral view. Preanal appendage curved lateriad in dorsal view & apically rounded, laterally narrowed near base & apically clubbed. Ventrolateral processes strongly sclerotized, crossing one another near tip and apically acute in dorsal view. Inferior appendage apparently two segmented, first segment broadened near base, second segment with three processes; basal process triangular, lateral process pointed and the mesal process rounded in ventral view. Phallus apically membranous.

Parameres sclerotized & diverging outwards.

Material depository: Canadian National Collection (Canada).

Material examined: Uttarakhand: Tawaghat, 1500 m, 15-vi-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]

Shayanachatti, 1600 m, 27-ix-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Mandal, 1700 m, 17-vi-2010, 6 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Pathibasa, 1700 m, 13-vi-2010, 15 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Himachal Pradesh: Ahla, 1700 m, 11-vii-2010, 6 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Khajjiar, 1600 m, 13-vii-2010, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Traila, 1600 m, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], Barara, 1900 m, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which G. paracrita Schmid differs from its closely allied species G. mandana Mosely are as follows: Ventrolateral processes both apically acute in case of former whereas, one lobe of ventrolateral processes flattened to triangular lobe in case of latter. Phallus freely lying in between two parameres in case of G. paracrita whereas, phallus compressed within two parameres in case of G. mandana.

Goera mandana Mosely

(Figs. 310-313)

Goera mandana Mosely, 1938: 490

Adults light brown in colour. Average length of forewings 8-9 mm. Maxillary palp of male 2 segmented; basal segment small and terminal segment glabrous, form a membranous sac which is covered on the inner surface with dark small hairs. Average length of maxillary palp 1.94 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 310-313): Segment IX with two broad lobes near its side and centrally with a narrow lobe in dorsal view; laterally broadened near its posterior side & anteriorly tapering; ventrally narrowed near side and slightly broadened near centre. Dorsal process slightly narrower near base & apically clubbed in dorsal view; laterally dorsal process slightly longer than preanal appendage, curved near centre & then turned upwards . Preanal appendages cylindrical in dorsal view, apically clubbed in lateral view. Ventrolateral processes strongly sclerotized and one process of ventrolateral process flattened into a triangular lobe in dorsal view. Inferior appendage apparently two segmented; first segment hardly squarish in ventral view; second segment with three processes, basal process apically diverging outwards, lateral process slightly pointed and the mesal process finger-like in ventral view. Phallus compressed within parameres.

Material depository: BNMH (London).

Material examined: Assam: Jitinga, 800 m, 20-v-2010, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Uttarakhand: Gairsain, 1800 m, 16-vi-2009, 4 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Vietnam: Nepal: India (Assam, Andaman, Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which G. mandana Mosely stands far apart from its closely allied species G. paracrita Schmid have been discussed under the latter.

Goera yajnadatta Schmid

(Figs. 314-317)

Goera yajnadatta Schmid, 1991: 314

Adults dark brown. Average length of forewings 6-8 mm. Maxillary palp 2nd segment 3 times longer than 1st segment, cylindrical in shape and somewhat membranous. Average length of maxillary palp 0.97 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 314-317): Segment IX somewhat triangular in lateral view with subventral portion absent. Dorsal process cylindrical & shorter than preanal appendages in dorsal & lateral views. Preanal appendages narrowed near base and then apically dilated in dorsal and lateral view. Ventrolateral processes strongly sclerotized and longer than dorsal process. Inferior appendage single segmented. Distal process of inferior appendage two branched in lateral view, lateral branch short & apically pointed; mesal branch long & apically rounded. Phallus tubular. Parameres absent.

Material depository: Canadian National Collection (Canada).

Material examined: Specimens: Sikkim: Lachung, 2800 m, 15-v-2009, 4[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Arunachal Pradesh: Jung, 2600 m, 18-v-2011, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which G. yajnadatta Schmid differs from its closely allied species G. janaka Schmid is as follows: inferior appendage apically rounded in case of former whereas, the same is apically truncate in case of latter.

Goera vaichravana Schmid

(Figs. 318-321)

Goera vaichravana Schmid, 1991: 311

Adults light brown in colour and much smaller in size. Average length of forewings 5-6 mm. Maxillary palp two segmented, 1st segment slendrical. 2nd segment 3 times longer than 1st segment, cylindrical in shape & apically curved downwards. Average length of maxillary palp 0.97 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 318-321): Segment IX long with subventral portion much broadened and apically produced into pointed tip in lateral view. Dorsal process slender in dorsal view; slightly broadened near base and apically rounded in lateral view. Preanal appendages slender near base and apically clubbed in dorsal view; laterally cylinder and slightly curved downwards. Ventrolateral processes longer than dorsal process and almost cylindrical in dorsal and lateral view. Inferior appendage with a pair of unequal sclerotized processes; inferior appendage single segmented but apically with two branches; main branch longer, broadened near upto 1/3rd and apically tapering; second branch shorter and tapering apically in ventral view. Phallus oval-shaped & bounded by a pair of parameres.

Material depository: Canadian National Collection (Canada).

Material examined: Uttarakhand: Reetha Sahab, 1400 m, 12-v-2008, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 6[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Gairsain, 1800 m, 16-vi-2009, 5[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 4[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Nepal: India (Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which G. vaichravana Schmid differs from its closely allied species G. dilipa Schmid are as follows: Subventral portion of segment IX straight in case of former whereas, subventral portion of segment IX produced roundly in case of latter. Inferior appendage with main branch slendrical and apically pointed in case of G. vaichravana whereas, inferior appendage with main branch almost cylindrical and truncate apically in case of G. dilipa.

Goera arunachlica sp. nov.

(Figs. 322-326)

Colour golden brown. Maxillary palp each 0.96 mm in length. Distal segment of maxillay palp oval and membranous. A spine present in the male abdominal sternite V. Length of forewing 6.79 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 322-326): Segment IX roughly quadrangular in lateral view, without subventral portion. Preanal appendages slender, slightly dilated subapically. Dorsal process of segment X present, with a pair of ventrolateral processes apically adhered. Inferior appendage each with a strongly spine-like sclerotized processes curved, L-shaped. Basal processes of each inferior appendage subrectangular, distal segment fused with the basal segment, appearing as rod-like with acute apex, broadened proximally and tapering apically; a mesal process originating at the surface of the basal segment, incurved, laterally appearing as a small triangular structure with acute apex near the bottom of inferior appendage. Phallus simple, tube like, pointed apically in dorsal view. Parameres present and visible only in lateral view.

Material depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Arunachal Pradesh: Zemithang, 2000 m, 16-v-2011. Paratypes: 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] from the same locality and date as that of holotype.

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Goera arunachalica sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species G. ragu Schmid are as follows: Dorsal process more dilated in case of former whereas, dorsal processes slendrical in case of latter. Preanal appendages clubbed apically in case of G. arunachalica sp. nov. whereas, preanal appendage rounded apically in case of G. ragu.

Etymology: The name of the species is based on the state in which type locality falls.

Goera munsiaryensis sp. nov.

(Figs. 327-331)

Colour golden brown. Maxillary palp 0.68 mm length slightly dilated mesally and apically bulged. A spine present in the male abdominal sternite V. Average length of forewing 7.79 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 327-331): Segment IX somewhat triangular in lateral view, without subventral portion. Preanal appendages each slender at base and dilated apically. Dorsal process of segment X present, broadened near base and apically acute. Ventrolateral processes longer than dorsal processes. Inferior appendage with strongly sclerotized process broadened near base and pointed apically. Basal segment of each inferior appendage rectangular ventrally, distal segment fused with the basal one, a straight, mesal branch originating at the surface of basal segment; distal segment slender in lateral view and apically with two unequal branches, a finger-like process originating near the centre of basal segment laterally. Phallus tubular appears banana-like laterally. Parameres present.

Material depository: MDZPU (Patiala).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Uttarakhand: Munsiayri, 2400 m, 07- vi-2010. Paratypes: 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] from the same date and locality as that of type.

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Goera munsiaryensis sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species G.vaidehi Schmid are as follows: Dorsal processes apically acute in case of former whereas, dorsal processes apically rounded in case of latter. Distal segment of inferior appendage with two unequal branches in case of G. munsiaryensis whereas, distal segment of inferior appendage with a single branch in case of G. vaidehi.

Etymology: The name of the species is based on its type locality, “Munsiayri”.

FAMILY LIMNEPHILIDAE

Limnephilidae Kolenati, 1848: 30

Type genus: Limnephilus Leach, 1815.

Diagnostic features: Family Limnephilidae is an easily recognizable natural group of caddisflies the adults of which possess the following combination of distinct characters: head usually short but wide with all the three ocelli present (Fig. 6); antenna almost equal to the length of forewing, 1st antennal segment not longer than head; maxillary palpi 3-segmented in males having 1st segment very short and the other two long and subequal (Fig. 6); in females, maxillary palpi 5-segmented; legs bears well developed spines; tibial spurs sequence is 0- 1, 1-3, 1-4; mesoscutum has setae scattered in two elongate patches or confined to a pair of setal warts; mesoscutellar setae are within the ovoid mesial area or are confined to a pair of small warts; two pairs of wings fairly differently shaped; forewing narrow at base, distinctly wider at the level of anastomosis and elliptical at apex; hindwing wide with very ample anal area; venation very constant and almost complete, with forks I, II, III and V present in both pairs of wings; sexual dimorphism rare and weak; in forewing discoidal and thyridal cells closed and very long, median cell open; hindwing usually broader than forewing; discoidal cell generally long and occasionally open; 4 or 5 anal veins present.

Distribution: This family is represented in all cold and temperate regions of the World except South Africa.

Remarks: Family Limnephilidae was erected by Kolenati in 1848 taking Limnephilus Leach, 1815 as its type genus. This family is divided into 4 subfamilies: Limnephilinae Kolenati, 1848, Pseudostenophylinae Schmid, 1955, Drusinae Banks, 1916 & Dicosmoecinae Schmid, 1955. It is by far the largest trichopteran family represented by approximately 100 genera and 884 species all over the globe (Holzenthal et al. 2011). From the Oriental region (excluding India), the family Limnephilidae is represented by 102 species referable to 17 genera. From the Oriental region is represented by 12 genera with 104 species. From India this family is represented by 6 genera with 35 species under 2 subfamilies. These 6 genera are Astratodina Mosely, Asynarchus McLachlan, Pseudostenophylax Martynov, Limnephilus Leach, Phylostenax Mosely and Aplatyphylax Kimmins. Limnephilidae is so far not reported from the ranges of South Indian hills. A complete distribution of Indian species of the family Lepidostomatiade is given in the table V.

Key to Indian subfamilies of Limnephilidae

1. Phallic apparatus with small phallus & parameres forming very large membranous lobe...Pseudostenophylacinae Schmid

- Phallic apparatus with large phallus & paramers forming with small membranous lobes..Limnephilinae Kolenati

Subfamily Limnephilinae Kolenati

Limnephilinae Kolenati, 1848: 47

Diagnostic features: Head shape, eye size, antennal and palpi thickness variable. Eyes and ocelli large and prominent. Maxillary palp of male long and stout. 1st segment of front tarsi occasionally shorter than 2nd. Spurs vary considerably in size and shape. Forewing fairly narrow, truncate or rounded at tip. Hindwing constantly wider, with anal area highly developed. Pilosity of forewing varies considerably. Venation of primitive and complete type with forks I, II, III and IV present on both pair of wings. Venation very minor and always same in both sexes. In forewings discoidal cell very long.

Remarks: Subfamily Limnephilidae is the largest, most flourishing and widely distributed of the various subfamilies. The species are found throughout the Northern hemisphere and inhabit all types of lotic and lentic environments. From the Oriental region this subfamily is represented by 21 species falling under 8 genera. From India this subfamily is represented by 2 genera with 3 species. These 2 genera are Asynarchus McLachlan and Limnephilus Leach. The present study deals with a genus Limnephilus Leach.

Key to Indian genera of Limnephilinae Kolenati

1. Pronotum proportional in length to the length of head; intermediate appendage forming triangular, upward slanting plates or spurs; inferior appendage with a small part fused to segment IX, very thin and free portion poorly developed, spines free or dentate Limnephilus Leach

- Pronotum short; intermediate appendage always small located under superior appendage; Inferior appendage with relatively prominent part fused to segment IX; only small portion free and ends in two points…...Asynarchus McLachlan

Genus Limnephilus Leach

Limnephilus Leach, 1815: 136

Monobasic type species: Phryganea rhombicus Linneaus

Diagnostic features: Head relatively long & narrow with eyes protruding slightly. Antenna stout, thick & slightly shorter than forewing. Maxillary palp long & slender. Front legs with 1st tarsal segment generally longer than second in both the sexes. Femur and apex of tibia often with black brush-like hairs. Wings medium sized or fairly small. Forewings generally strip-like. Hindwings markedly wider than forewings.

Distribution: Holaractic.

Remarks: Limnephilus Leach is one of the most species diverse genus, with nearly 200 described widely distributed across the Holartic region and as far as Central America. In India by 2 species L. tibeticus Schmid and L. fuscovittatus Matsumura. The latter is originally described from Japan but Schmid, 1966 also reported this species from Sikkim (India).The present study deals with a single species which is new to science.

Limnephilus morsei Saini & Parey

(Figs. 332-336, 455)

Limnephilus morsei Saini & Parey, 2012

Adults brown in colour. Length of antennae 8- 10 mm. Forewing light brown but with dark spots throughout the costal region, hindwing transparent without any dark brown spots both in male and female. Average length of forewing 9.7 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 332-334): Segment IX broad, apically rounded, pointed near bottom, base of this segment covered by segment VIII in lateral view; superior appendages rounded, slightly bulged near base, with long setae on its surface, ventrally nearly rectangular, with a spine like process at its centre; intermediate appendages almost hidden behind superior appendage, only base of its appendage visible in lateral view; ventrally intermediate appendage sclerotized, apically bifid, just like comb of cock. Inferior appendages each triangular apically, narrowed near base, reaching to base of segment IX. Phallus elongated, 2 segmented, basal segment much longer, with wing-like projection near base, centrally rounded, apical segment short and rounded. Parameres placed near parallel to one another, apically with a tuft of spines.

Female genitalia (Figs. 335-336): Segment IX apically rounded in lateral view. Segment X with appendage, bifid apically, one apical lobe finger-like and second upper lobe pointed. Subgenital plate median lobe pointed apically, lateral lobe nearly triangular.

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: INDIA: Jammu & Kashmir: Apharwat, 4000 m, 05- viii-2008. Paratypes [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] from the same date and locality as that of holotype. Himachal Pradesh: Marhi, 3000 m, 18-viii-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India: (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh).

Etymology: Species is named after Dr. J. C. Morse (USA) for his outstanding contribution in the systematic of Trichoptera.

Diagnostic combination: This species resembles Limnephilus fuscovittus Matsumura but new species is different from latter by having superior appendage much rounded (nearly rounded in L. fuscovittus); inferior appendage each apically triangular, narrowed near base (in L. fuscovittus rounded apically and broadened near base). Female of new species differs from later by having segment X lower lobe longer than apical lobe (in L. fuscovittus upper lobe longer than lower lobe); segment IX truncate laterally (Segment IX rounded laterally in L. fuscivittus). Female of new species is also different from Limnephilus tibeticus by having segment X bifid apically (truncate in case of L. tibeticus); appendage of X segment reduced in new species (elongated in L. tibeticus). Median lobe of subgenital plate pointed apically (In case of L. tibeticus rounded apically).

Sub family Pseudostenophylacinae Schmid

Pseudostenophylacinae Schmid, 1955: 102

Type genus: Pseudostenophylax Martynov

Diagnostic features: Head very wide with eyes and ocelli large and very prominent. Antennae thick and strongly crenulated on inner surface. Maxillary palpi of [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] long and stout. Spur formula 1, 3, 3 or 1, 3, 4. Abdominal haemogill system absent. Wings fairly broadly rounded with hindwings not much wider than forewings. Membranous of forewings grainy and clothed with erect setae. Venation complete (Figs. 24, 25, 26, 27) with forks I, II, III and V present on both pairs of wings and all of them sessile. In forewings (Figs. 24, 26) discoidal and thyridial cells very long.

Remarks: Based on the type genus Pseudostenophylax subfamily Pseudostenophylacinae was erected by Schmid on 1955. This subfamily is mainly restricted to the Oriental region but there are 2 species of Pseudostenophylax which are endemic to Nearctic region only. In India this subfamily is represented by 5 genera with 33 species. Genus Pseudostenophylax Martynov is the largest genus of this subfamily represented by about 68 species from Oriental region.

Key to Indian genera of Pseudostenophylacinae Schmid

1. Meso tibia with 3 spurs 2

- Meso tibia with 2 spurs 3

2. Hind wing with specialized scales or specialized setae in the anal region either entirely or partly along A2 Pseudostenophylax Martynov

- Hind wing without such scales or setae. …...Astenophylina Mosely

3. In fore wing, R1 strongly elbowed at base of pterostigma and then noticeably concave near its apex and parallel to R1….. Aplatphylax Kimmins

- In fore wing, R1 not strongly elbowed at base of pterostigma or if so, then R2 not parallel with it towards its apex… 4

4. Fore femur with a groove on its lower surface lined with black setae; fore wing elongate, costal margin rounded, apex sub- acute...Astratodina Mosely

- Fore femur without groove or specialized spur, forewing elongate, costal margin straight, apex somewhat dilated Phylostenax Mosely

Genus Pseudostenophylax Martynov

Pseudostenophylax Martynov, 1909: 281

Type species: Pseudostenophylax fumousus Martynov (designation by Mosely, 1936)

Diagnostic features: Head very wide with eyes and ocelli large and very prominent. Antenna thick (Fig. 6) and strongly crenulated on inner surface. Maxillary palps (Fig. 6) of male long and stout, 1st segment short, 2nd and 3rd more than twice the length of 1st ; female 1st segment short, 2nd nearly twice its length, 3rd and 5th longer than 2nd , 4th as long as 2nd. Tibial spurs 1, 2, 2 or 1, 3, 3 or 1, 3, 4. Terminal segment of each tarsus without spines or with two or three very short ones only. Wings fairly broadly rounded and with hind wing not much wider than fore wing. Membrane of forewing grainy and clothed with erect setae. Venation complete with forks I, II, III, and V present on both pairs of wings and all of them sessile. In forewing discoidal and thyridal cells very long. In hind wing, posterior margin excised in the region of fork V. In anal area of male wing, there are specialized setae or scales.

Distribution: Oriental, Nearctic.

Remarks: The genus Pseudostenophylax is large, with an Oriental distribution centered around the Himalayas and south China. Only 2 species are Nearctic. All the species inhabit streams which generally arise from springs and are occasionally intermittent. From the Oriental region so far 68 species are reported whereas, the Indian fauna contains 23 species. The present work deals with 9 species. Pseudostenoplylax himachalensis sp. nov. and Pseudotenphylax gulmargensis sp. nov. are added new to sciences. Pseudostenophylax aniketos is reported first time from India Gurez Valley (Jammu & Kashmir), earlier reported from Pakistan.

Pseudostenophylax aniketos Schmid

(Figs. 337-341)

Pseudostenophylax aniketos Schmid, 1961: 216

Average length of forewings 15-16 mm. Body light brown except thorax which is dark brown.

Male genitalia (Figs. 337-340): Zone of spicules of tergite VIII in the hexagonal form. Segment IX moderately developed in lateral and ventral view; segment IX apicodorsally truncate in ventral view. Preanal appendages almost as long as intermediate appendages, slender, apically with 5 spines; laterally preanal appendages triangular, slightly bulged near middle at its upper surface. Intermediate appendages much prominent, almost squarish and apicodorsally produced in dorsal view; laterally intermediate appendages appears two branched, one branch is horizontally placed and the second branch inclined inwards. Inferior appendages each slightly excised near centre, produced into rounded structure near its ends in dorsal view; ventrally each plate of inferior appendage oval-shaped. Phallus with a pair of lobes near its centre bearing tuft of setae. Parameres apically rounded strongly armed with spines at apex of its external edge.

Female genitalia (Fig. 341): Segment IX with distinct tergite and sternite in lateral view. Segment X broadened near base and apically truncate in lateral view. Supragenital plate dome-shaped.

Holotype depository: ROM (Canada).

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Kanzalwan, 2500 m, 04-vii-2011, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Sonmarg, 2800 m, 26-vii-2011, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Pakistan: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Pseudostenophylax aniketos Schmid differs from its closely allied species Pseudostenophylax ithuriel Schmid are as follows: Zone of spicules of tergite VIII hexagonal shaped in case of former whereas, zone of spicules of tergite VIII rounded in case of latter. Inferior appendage rounded apically, parameres membranous in case of Ps. aniketos whereas, inferior appendage pointed apically, parameres sclerotized in case of Ps. ithuriel.

Pseudostenophylax mitchelli Mosely

(Figs. 342-345)

Pseudostenophylax mitchelli Mosely, 1936: 13-14

Average length of forewings 14 mm. Body light brown.

Male genitalia (Figs. 342-345): Zone of spicules of tergite VIII in two rounded lobes, each lobe placed to at the edge of tergite VIII. Segment IX moderately developed in lateral and ventral view; produced posteriorly and showing a triangular prominence near its anterior surface in lateral view; ventrally segment IX horse-shoe shaped, broadened near side and narrow near centre. Preanal appendage each leaf-like, curved near base in dorsal view; cylindrical inlateral view. Intermediate appendage each pointed near its edges in dorsal view; vertically placed in lateral view. Inferior appendages each well developed, widely excised near centre, broadened near base and apically produced as rounded lobe in dorsal view; ventrally each inferior appendage right angled form. Phallus apically excised. Parameres membranous and apically armed with spines.

Holotype depository: Untraceable.

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Apharwat, 4000 m, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 30-vii- 2009 Khilanmarg, 3100 m, 03-ix-2008, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Izmarg, 2700 m, 29-vi-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Pseudostenophylax mitchelli Mosely differs from its closely allied species Pseudostenophylax amplus McLachlan are as follows: Inferior appendage excised apically in dorsal view in case of former whereas, inferior appendage truncate apically in case of latter. Zone of spicules of tergite VIII prominently rounded and much darker in case of Ps. mitchelli whereas, zone of spicules of tergite VIII roughly rounded and lighter in colour in case of Ps. amplus.

Pseudostenophylax latifalcatus Schmid

(Figs. 346-349, 454)

Pseudostenophylax latifalcatus Schmid, 1991: 43

Average length of forewings 19-20 mm. Body dark brown except abdomen which is light brown.

Male genitalia (Figs. 346-348): Zone of spicules of tergite VIII posterioly truncate and apically rounded in dorsal view. Segment IX moderately developed in lateral and ventral view; anteriorly with a triangular projection in lateral view and slendrical narrow lobe in ventral view. Preanal appendage each cylindrical and rounded bearing long setae in dorsal view; somewhat rectangular in lateral view. Intermediate appendage slendrical in dorsal view and curved inward and vertically placed in lateral view. Inferior appendage each moderately developed in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view. Phallus apically excised. Parameres enlarged, apically slendrical and bearing spines on its apex.

Female genitalia (Figs. 349): Segment IX with distict tergite and sternite in lateral view. Segment X broadened near base and apically produced into a slendrical lobe. Supragenital plate very prominent and apically rounded.

Holotype depository: ROM (Canada).

Material examined: Sikkim: Lachen, 3100 m, 24-v-2011, 10 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 13[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Nepal: India (Sikkim).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Pseudostenophylax latifalcatus Schmid differs from its closely allied species Pseudostenophylax angulatus Schmid are as follows: Inferior appendage each apically pointed in lateral view in case of former whereas, inferior appendages each apically truncate in case of latter. Parameres slendrical in case of Ps. latifalcatus whereas, parameres apically cylindrical in case of Ps. angulatus.

Pseudostenophylax griseolus Martynov

(Figs. 350-353)

Pseudostenophylax griseolus Martynov, 1936: 302

Average length of forewings 8-8.5 mm. Body dark brown. Antenna, maxillary palpi and legs light brown in colour. Body uniformly covered with inconspicuous golden pubescence. In the forewing costa carries a row of long fulvous setae upto half of its length.

Male genitalia (Figs. 350-353): Zone of spicules of tergite VIII long, narrow and simple. Segment IX apicoventrally produced as triangular structure; lateral sides of this segment somewhat rounded. Inferior appendages somewhat oval shaped, broadened near lateral sides and constricting near mesal sides, bearing long hairs on its upper surface in ventral view; in lateral view inferior appendage not very long but large with apical edge slightly indented and relatively long and narrow with its internal superior part slightly bulbous in lateral view. Intermediate appendage rounded apically in lateral view and pointed at apex in dorsal view. Phallic apparatus large with phallus short and clearly indented at apex; sclerotized part of parameres strong and large.

Holotype depository: Untraceable.

Material examined: Himachal Pradesh, Kothi, 2900 m, 2[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 06-vii-2009.

Distribution: Bhutan: India (Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Pseudostenophylax griseolus Martynov differs from its closely allied species Pseudostenophylax amphion Schmid are as follows: Zone of spicules of tergite VIII short and large; preanal appendages triangular and number of spurs on hind tibia 4 in case of former whereas, in case of latter zone of spicules of tergite VIII long and narrow; preanal appendage long and narrow with its internal superior part slightly bulbous and number of spurs on hind tibia 4.

Pseudostenophylax schelpei Kimmins

(Figs. 354-358)

Pseudostenophylax schelpei Kimmins, 1950: 906

Average length of forewing 8-9 mm. Body dark brown in colour. Forewing fuscous with rounded yellow spots. Hindwing sub-hyaline. Body thickly covered with inconspicuous dark fuscous pubescence. In forewing costa covered with multiple row of minute setae.

Male genitalia (Figs. 354-357): Zone of spicules of tergite VIII uniformly brilliant black, appears in the form of a trapezium, in dorsal view, with two slight longitudinal basal depression and terminating in two angular lobes. Segment IX short and obtuse at height of the lateral faces; somewhat cylindrical in ventral view. Inferior appendages as long as wide with a deep internal indentation; triangular in ventral view, broadened near base and apically protruding as triangular lobe. Preanal appendage long, narrow and thin, arched towards the base and interior. Intermediate appendage vertical, thin spur-shaped, jointed to one another and slightly arched in front.

Female genitalia (Fig. 358): Segment IX situated very low and without distinct tergite and sternite. Segment X long, pointed and tube-like in lateral view. Supragenital plate small and lying below segment X.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Uttarakhand: Badrenath, 3100 m, 24-vi-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Govindham, 3200 m, 22-vi-2008, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India: (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Pseudostenophylax schelpei Kimmins remains far apart from its closely allied species Pseudostenophylax arwiel Schmid have been discussed under the latter.

Pseudostenophylax arwiel Schmid

(Figs. 359-362)

Pseudostenophylax arwiel Schmid, 1991: 35

Average length of forewings 8-8.5 mm. Body dark brown. Antenna, maxillary palpi and labial palp light brown. Forewing fuscous with yellow spots. Hindwing subhyaline. Body uniformly covered with inconspicuous fuscous pubescence. In forewing costa with very long setae present only at basal half.

Male genitalia (Figs. 359-362): Zone of spicules of tergite VIII relatively short, without particular shape and forming two weak apical concavities. Segment IX moderately developed and rectangular in ventral view. Inferior appendage as long as large and with a deep internal indentation. Preanal appendage appear oval, largely round except at its inferior edge which is concave in lateral view. Intermediate appendage long, thin and spur-like, narrowly jointed to one another and slightly curved in front.

Female genitalia: Unknown.

Holotype depository: ROM (Canada).

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Gulmarg, 2900 m, 29-ix-2008, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Khilanmarg, 3200 m, 30-vii-2009, 5 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Uttarakhand: Badrinath, 3100 m, 24- vi-2008, 7 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Pseudostenophylax arwiel Schmid differs from its closely allied species Pseudostenophylax schelpei Kimmins are as follows: Zone of spicules of tergite VIII trapezium in case of former whereas, zone of spicules of tergite VIII without any particular shape in case of latter. Inferior appendage longer than intermediate appendage in case of Ps. arwiel whereas, inferior appendage shorter than intermediate appendage in case of Ps. schelpei.

Pseudostenophylax micraulax (Martynov)

(Figs. 363-366)

Pseudostenophylax micraulax Martynov, 1936: 240

Pseudohalesus aberrans Mosely, 1936: 464-465

Pseudohalesus granulatus Martynov, 1928: 482-483

Pseudohalesus kaschmirus Martynov, 1928: 481-482

Halesus asiaticus Ulmer, 1907: 213

Average length of forewings 7-8 mm. Body dark brown in colour. Antenna, labial palpi, legs and abdomen light brown in colour. Hindwing sub-hyaline with anal area yellow. Body uniformly covered with minute dark fuscous pubescence. In forewing costa, R1 covered with minute spicules. Anal area of hindwing with irregularly scattered yellow setae.

Male genitalia (Figs. 363-366): Tergite VIII with zone of spicules very strong and splitted horizontally, its superior part form a prominent cone with setae at superior face only and inferior part is found in the former in a plain much inclined and in the form of a trapezium. Segment IX with its apical edge not concave, but its median angle much obtuse and strongly convex, almost rectangular in ventral view. Inferior appendages massive and with its apical edge slightly depressed. Intermediate appendage sufficiently thin and vertical, blade-like arranged transversally. Phallic apparatus of large size; phallus composed of two overlapped parts; inferior basal part conical; superior apical part desclerotized and articulate at base with the former. Parameres with basal membranous part cylindrical, sclerotized part thin, truncated and spiny at its apex.

Holotype depository: Untraceable.

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Khilanmarg, 3200 m, 30-ix-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 8, [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Kanzalwan, 2700 m, 28-vi-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Sonmarg, 3100 m, 11-viii-2008, 05-viii-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Himachal Pradesh: Barot, 2900 m, 28-v-2008, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Marhi, 3100 m, 08-viii-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: China: Kazakhstan: Pakistan: India (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: This species is isolated from all other species discussed under this genus on the basis of following characters: Spurs 1, 3, 3; zone of spicules of tergite VIII much prominent and splitted horizontally and not vertically.

Pseudotenphylax gulmargensis sp. nov.

(Figs. 367-371)

Average length of forewing 17-18 mm. Body reddish brown in colour. Spines on legs blackish and spurs light brownish. Spur formula 1, 3, 4. Average length of maxillary palpi 2.91 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 367-370): Zone of spicules of tergite VIII crescent- shaped in outline in dorsal view. Segment IX moderately developed in lateral and ventral views but reduced dorsally; it shows a triangular prominence near its centre in lateral view. Segment X highly reduced. Preanal appendage cylindrical in dorsal view and rounded apically; laterally appearing as a long triangular lobe. Intermediate appendage forming two lobes in dorsal view, each lobe broadened near base and apicodorsally acutely produced; laterally intermediate appendage lying almost vertically above the preanal appendage, rounded at its upper side and with a small triangular prominence at bottom side. A large membranous structure is situated below the intermediate appendage in dorsal view, and in lateral view the same structure appears somewhat spoon- shaped. Inferior appendage large, and oval in outline in dorsal view whereas, laterally it is somewhat finger-like; in ventral view it is apically rounded with a small pointed projection near centre. Phallus apically rounded and with a pair of small stalks bearing long setae on its surface. Parameres apically much bulged and strongly armed with spines at apex of its external edge, a small acute projection near tip is visible in dorsal view.

Female genitalia (Fig. 371): Segment IX with distinct tergite and sternite in lateral view. Segment X rounded near base and acutely pointed near apex.

Supragenital plate very prominent with a small cleft near base and apically rounded.

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Jammu & Kashmir, Gulmarg, 2800 m, 19-viii-2010. Paratype: 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] with same data as that of holotype.

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Etymology: The name of the species is based on the type locality “Gulmarg” (Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic features: This species closely resembles Pseudostenophylax kashmirensis Mosely but can be differentiated from it by having intermediate appendages apically slendrical in dorsal view (intermediate appendage apically triangular in dorsal view in Pseudostenophylax kashmirensis), when seen laterally intermediate appendage apically single branched (when seen laterally intermediate appendage apically two branched in Pseudostenophylax kashmirensis); preanal appendage apically clubbed (preanal appendages apically slightly rounded in Pseudostenophylax kashmirensis); phallus apically rounded (phallus apically slendrical in Pseudostenophylax kashmirensis); parameres apically pointed near tip (parameres apically not pointed near tip rather slightly triangular in Pseudostenophylax kashmirensis).

Pseudostenoplylax himachalica sp. nov.

(Figs. 372-376)

Average length of forewing 16-17 mm. Body dark brown in colour. Spines on legs blackish and spurs brownish in colour. Spur formula is 1, 3, 4. Average length of maxillary palpi 2 mm.

Male genitalia (Figs. 372-375): Zone of spicules of tergite VIII concave at its sides and apicodorsally produced into a triangular process. Segment IX appears moderately developed in lateral and ventral view but reduced dorsally; in lateral view this segment is apically truncate, showing a weak prominence at its posterodorsal angle; however, in ventral view segment IX is more developed and broadened near middle. Segment X highly reduced. Preanal appendages serrated near its base and apically cylindrical in dorsal view; laterally it is broadened near base and apically curved and pointed upwards. Intermediate appendages forming two antagonistically curved lobes with broadened base in dorsal view, finger-like and almost vertically produced in lateral view; a bi- lobed membranous area is lying below the intermediate appendage in dorsal view. Inferior appendage apically rounded and broadened near base in lateral view, excised in centre forming two plates and each plate rounded near its lateral sides and mesally bearing a small triangular prominence in dorsal view; ventrally each plate apically concave. Phallus long, centrally thin with a pair of spines at each side, apically and basally thick. Parameres curved apical sclerotized part beak-like and strongly armed with spines at apex of its external edge.

Female genitalia (Fig. 376): Segment IX consists of distinct tergite and sternite laterally. Segment X triangular & broadened near base laterally. Supragenital plate absent.

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Himachal Pradesh, Sathrundi, 2800 m, 12-vi-2011. Paratype: 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] and 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] with same collection data as of holotype.

Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh).

Etymology: The name of the species is based on the state Himachal Pradesh from where the type specimen was collected.

Diagnostic features: This species closely resembles Pseudostenophylax secretus Martynov but its distinctive features include: zone of spicules of tergite VIII apically pointed (zone of spicules of tergite VIII apically rounded in Pseudostenophylax secretus); intermediate appendages apically triangular in dorsal view and slendrical in lateral view, (intermediate appendages slightly pointed apically in dorsal view and cylindrical in lateral view in Pseudostenophylax secretus); preanal appendage curved upwards in lateral view (preanal appendage straight in Pseudostenophylax secretus); phallus centrally with a pair of spines (phallus without any spines in Pseudostenophylax secretus); parameres apically beak-like (parameres apically C-shaped in Pseudostenophylax secretus).

Genus Astratodina Mosely

Astratodina Mosely, 1936

Type species: Astratodina inermis Mosely, 1936: 450-451.

Diagostic features: Antennae slender, about the length of the anterior wings, basal joint large and rounded, particularly on the inner side, next joint short; maxillary palpi male, first joint short; second long, about four times the length of the first; third slightly shorter than the second; female basal joint short, about half the length of the second; third slightly longer than second; fourth slightly longer than the first; fifth about as long as the second. Forewing (Fig. 24) elongate, costa somewhat rounded, apex sub-acute discoidal cell long both in anterior as well as posterior wing (Fig. 25). Anterior femur with a groove lined with black setae which are present also on the tibiae, without spurs; first tarsal joint more than twice the length of the second ; spines black, no spines on the terminal tarsal joints; spurs 0, 2, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] ; 1, 2, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

This genus was erected by Mosely in 1936 with Astratodina inermis as its type species. Only 2 species i.e. Astratodina antenor Schmid, 1991 and Astratodina anteros Schmid, 1991 were known from the Indian fauna both of which are reported from the Himalayan region. The present study deals with 3 species of this genus, among which Astratodina inermis Mosely is a new report to Indian fauna earlier reported from Pakistan.

Astratodina antenor Schmid

(Figs. 377-380)

Astratodina antenor Schmid, 1991: 58

Male genitalia (Figs. 377-380): Tergite VIII with zone of spicules much developed, well large and two parts jointed to one another; half of segment IX concealed under VIII, ventrally broadened near its sides and narrowed near its centre; inferior appendage with its apical edge slightly concave, in lateral aspect, and its apex sufficiently prominent, when seen ventrally inferior appendage in the form of a broad triangular lobe but its apices are truncate; segment X not distinct; preanal appendage in dorsal position and does not mask the intermediate appendage in lateral view, but are lying above them, the latter not fused with edge of segment IX; intermediate appendage trifid, viewed from side, of complex form and reaching upto the apical edge of preanal appendage; parameres thin and narrow.

Holotype depository: ROM (Canada).

Material examined: Sikkim: Lachung, 3200 m, 15-v-2009, 6 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 2[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Sikkim).

Diagnostic combination: Astratodina antenor Schmid is characterized by more dark and pilosite of forewing much developed and is distinct from its allied species Astratodina anteros Schmid by the key characters such as: in the former, preanal appendage in relatively dorsal position and the intermediate appendage trifid while in latter, preanal appendage in lateral position is completely masking the intermediate appendage which is bifid.

Astratodina anteros Schmid

(Figs. 381-384)

Astratodina anteros Schmid, 1991: 59.

Male genitalia (Figs. 381-384): Tergite VIII with zone of spicules divided in two parts well separated from one another; one-fourth of segment IX concealed under VIII, inferior appendage divided into much broadened lobe and form a C- shaped cavity posteriorly; inferior appendage obtuse, viewed from side, it appears large, subcircular and entirely masking the intermediate appendage, largely fused at edge of segment IX, ventrally inferior appendage almost rectangular with apices slightly pointed; intermediate appendage bifid, in lateral aspect, ending in two points unequally thick but sharp and equally long; parameres thin, regularly curved outwards at apex and its base moderately concave laterally.

Holotype depository: ROM (Canada).

Material examined: Himachal Pradesh: Marhi, 3200 m, 08-viii-2008, 3[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Solang Valley, 2500 m, 15-vii-2009, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India: (Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combinations: Astratodina anteros Schmid is characterized by its preanal appendage subcircular, viewed from side, and completely masking the intermediate appendage, intermediate appendage bifid and its internal apical point subcylindrical and curved laterally. The key characters by which it differs from its closely allied species Astratodina antenor Schmid have been discussed under the latter.

Astratodina inermis Mosely

(Figs. 385-388, 452)

Astratodina inermis Mosely, 1936: 450-451

Head dark brown, antenna light brown in colour; maxillary palpi and legs brownish. Forewing elongate and granulous membrane.

Male genitalia (Figs. 385-388): Tergite VIII with zone of spicules tetragonal in shape in dorsal view; segment IX moderately developed in lateral view, half of this concealed under segment VIII; segment X not distinct; preanal appendage rounded in lateral aspect and conceals whole of the intermediate appendage, when seen dorsally preanal appendage somewhat rounded near ends and narrowed towards base; intermediate appendage horse-shoe shaped in lateral view, nearly rectangular in dorsal view apically sclerotized and curved at basal corner; inferior appendage rounded in dorsal and in lateral view; parameres longer than phallus, much membranous near base and apically slendrical, sclerotized and curved outwards.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Songmarg, 3100 m, 20-vii-2011, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Kanzalwan, 2300 m, 04-vii-2011, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Pakistan: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic features: Astratodina inermis Mosely differs from other species of this genus by having zone of spicules of tergite VIII tetragonal; intermediate appendages horse-shoe shaped; inferior appendages rounded in outline; parameres longer than phallus.

Genus Phylostenax Mosely

Phylostenax Mosely, 1936:184.

Type species: Phylostenax himalus Mosely (Original designation).

Diagnostic features: Insects large and brown, somewhat resembling Pseudostenophylax species but without the specialized scales of hind wing. Fore wing somewhat elongate, costal margin straight, apex only slightly dilated. In both wings second apical cellulae very broad and fork III very acute at base. In fore wing (Fig. 26) discoidal cell rather long and narrow, that of hind wing (Fig. 27) very broad at its distal end. Maxillary palp male, 1st segment small, 2nd and 3rd long and approximately equal in length. Legs, terminal tarsal segments with very few black spines. Tibial spurs 1, 2, 2.

Distribution: Oriental, Palearctic.

Remarks: Genus Phylostenax was erected by Mosely in 1936a taking Phylostenax himalus as its type species. Mosely first placed himalus species in the genus Platyphylax on the basis of number of tibial spurs. But McLachlan considered that the European species Platyphylax frauenfeldi was typical of the genus and that of the ultra European species would be better placed in other genera. So, Mosely created a new genus for this species. Genus Phylostenax has so far been reported by only one species. This species is abundantly available in whole of the Oriental and the Palearctic region.

Phylostenax himalus Mosely

(Figs. 389-392)

Phylostenax himalus Mosely, 1936: 469

Male genitalia (Figs. 389-392): Tergite VII with zone of spicules grouped in two round masses towards the side of the segment; segment IX reduced dorsally with its posterior edge not concave, ventrally segment IX slightly broadened near its side and narrowing centrally; inferior appendage single segmented, very small and wide, towards the centre is a tuft of black spines, ventraly inferior appendage in the form of a rounded balls; segment X not visible; Preanal appendage little developed and oval in lateral view; intermediate appendage situated very high, spur-shaped and branched, upper branches project beyond the margin of segment, appearing as two divergent rod-like processes, lower branch heavily chitinised and from above somewhat widely separated, broad, inclining towards each other, apices wide, truncate and turned slightly upwards.

Holotype depository: Untraceable.

Material examined: Arunachal Pradesh: Bombdila, 3200 m, 23-iv-2009, 4 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Himachal Pradesh: Baksunag, 2700 m, 25-v-2008, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Barot, 2900 m, 20- viii-8, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Sanghgani, 1700 m, 15-vi-2011, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Uttarakhand: Mandel, 1700 m, 12-vi-2011, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Sagar, 1500 m, 14-viii-2011, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Harsil, 1700 m, 07-vi-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Jammu & Kashmir: Baisern, 2200 m, 11-ix-2008, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Kargil, 3200 m, 29-vii-2009 7 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Japan: Afghanistan: Burma: Pakistan: India (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh).

FAMILY APATANIIDAE

Apataniidae Wallengren, 1886: 73.

Type genus: Apatania Kolenati, 1848 (original designation)

Apataniinae Ulmer, 1903: 74.

Type genus: Apatidea McLachlan, 1876.

Diagnosis: Head short with sides bulging. Eyes small. Maxillary palp 3 segmented in case of males (Fig. 7) and 5 segmented in case of females. Usual pattern of tibial spurs is 1, 2, 2 or 1, 2, 4. Wings medium sized with constant shape, similar in both sexes. Forewings elongated and obliquely elliptical with complete venation in which sub-costa ends on a cross vein joining the radius and the costal margin. Forks I, II, III and V present in both wings.

Remarks: Family Apatannidae was described as a separate family by Wallengren in 1886. Ulmer (1903) considered it as a subfamily of Limnephilidae. Wiggins (1996) treated the group as a distinct family and subsequent workers has accepted this designation. This is a northern and montane group found in North America, Europe and Asia. There are nearly about 203 species and 21 genera Worldwide (Holzenthal et al. 2011). From India this family is represented by 4 genera with 24 species. These genera include Apatania Kolenati (8 species), Apataniana Mosely (1 species), Moropsyche Banks (11 species) and Notania Mosely (4 species).

Key to Indian genera of Apataniidae Wallengren

1. In hindwing discoidal cell open; spurs 1, 2, 2 or 1, 3, 4 0r 1, 2, 3… 2

- In hindwing discoidal cell closed; spurs 1, 2, 4… Apataniana Mosely

2. 2nd segment of inferior appendage glabrous.…..Apatania Kolenati

- 2nd segment of inferior appendage spiniform 3

3. Discoidal cell in forewing closed; spurs 1, 2, 3…...Moropsyche Banks

- Discoidal cell in forewing open, spurs 1, 3, 4…..…Notania Mosely

Genus Apatania Kolenati

Apatania Kolenati.1848 : 75.

Type species: Phryganea vestita (desig. by Fischer, 1967).

Diagnostic Features: Head relatively narrow with sides bulging. Eyes small. Maxillary palp of male, 1st segment about half the length of 2nd which is slightly shorter than 3rd; female, basal segment short, about two-thirds the length of 2nd, 3rd equal to 2nd, 4th equal to 1st and slightly shorter than 5th . Antennal basal segment large, 2nd very short, remaining segments each longer than 2nd. Venation complete with all forks (FII, FII, FIII & FV) present. In forewing (Fig. 10), sub-costa ends abruptly on a transverse vein joining costa and the radius; radius heavily fringed with short thick setae; discoidal cell rather short and curved slightly upwards; fork I and III narrow or pointed. In hind wing (Fig. 11), discoidal cell open and fork I very short (Fig. 4). Tibial spurs 1, 2, 2 or 1, 2, 4.

Distribution: Holoarctic.

Remarks: Genus Apatania Kolenati is large and of Holoarctic distribution. It contains about 130 species half of which are Nearctic. Apatania species are essentially stenothermic i.e. dwelling in the cold springs. From the Oriental region, this genus is represented by 30 species, amongst which 8 species are from India.

All the Indian species are recorded from the Himalayan region. Mosely (l936) and Kimmins (1950) are credited with 1 species each from Jammu and Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh respectively. Schmid (1968) contributed 4 species from Uttaranchal, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim. Mey & Malicky (1993), Olah (2011) each contributed one species from Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh respectively. A complete distribution of Indian genus of Apatania is given in the table VI. The present study deals with 2 species.

Apatania bhimagada Schmid

(Figs. 393-396)

Apatania bhimagada Schmid, 1968a: 1240.

Average length of forewing 6-10 mm. Body nigrescent. Maxillary palpi, labial palps and legs are brown. Hindwing subhyaline. Body uniformly covered with simple, mixed golden brown pubescence.

Male genitalia (Figs. 393-395): Segment IX well developed. 1st segment of inferior appendage very thick and concave towards the exterior and the base; 2nd segment slightly longer than 1st, in lateral view, but more large and angular, in ventral aspect. Segment X short. preanal appendage free and attain one-third the length of external branch of segment X; external branch of segment X of considerable size, gradually thickened upto apex, equally concave at base, apex twisted at right angle towards the base and armed with a thick brush of black setae; internal branches of segment X fused in a thin band almost equal in length to that of inferior appendage. Phallus carries few subapical and apical spines. Paramere abruptly curved and sinuate at apical third.

Female (Fig. 396): Segment VIII without distinct tergite and sternite. Segment IX forms two ventrolateral quadrangular lobes. Segment X widely indented laterally.

Holotype depository: ROM (Canada).

Material examined: Arunachal Pradesh, Loomla, 2900 m, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 07-x-2010.

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters which keep Apatania bhimagada Schmid far apart from its closely allied species Apatania avyddhagada Schmid are: Apex of external branch of segment X is bent in a right angle towards the base and preanal appendage comparatively longer in case of former whereas, external branch of segment X twisted inwards and then upwards to almost 180° in case of latter.

Apatania brevis Mosely

(Figs. 397-400)

Apatania brevis Mosely, 1936: 477-478

Average length of forewing 5-9 mm. Head & ocelli black. Maxillary palp and labial palp brownish. Hindwings subhyaline.

Male genitalia (Figs. 397-399): Segment IX well developed. inferior appendage 2 segmented; 1st segment short, very stout & rounded; 2nd segment turned inwards and rather pointed in lateral view. Segment X with external branch very long, strongly chitinised, apically dilated and slightly turned downwards in lateral view; internal branches of segment X wide at base and produced in a long, slender & turned downwards in lateral view. Preanal appendage cylindrical in dorsal view and upwardly produced in lateral view. Phallus apically excised in ventral view, bearing a tuft of setae at its corners. Parameres broadened near base and criss-crossing one another in ventral view.

Female genitalia (Fig. 400): Segment VIII without distinct tergite and sternite. Segment IX with a finger-like processes near its base in lateral view. Segment X apically with a U-shaped excision in lateral view.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Varinag, 2200 m, 16-viii-2010, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] 2[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]; Kangan 2000 m, 19-viii-2010, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]; Apharwat, 4000 m, 25-viii-2010, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters which keep Apatania brevis Mosely far apart from its closely allied species Apatania dirghabahu Schmid are: 2nd segment of inferior appendage reduced & rounded in case of former whereas, 2nd segment of inferior appendage prominent & triangular in case of latter. Phallus with prominent setae at its corners in case of A. brevis whereas, phallus without setae in case of A. dirghabahu.

Genus Apataniana Mosely

Apataniana Mosely, 1936: 75.

Type species: Apataniana hutchinsoni Mosely (original designation).

Diagnostic features: Head relatively wide. Eyes small. Maxillary palpi male, 1st segment about half the length of the 2nd which is slightly shorter than 3rd ; female, 1st segment less than half the length of 2nd, 3rd segment almost as long as 1st and 2nd combined, 4th segment slightly shorter than 5th which is about twice the length of 1st . Antenna slender, about the same length as forewing, basal segment large, 2nd short, remaining segments each longer than 2nd. Fore wing alike in both sexes (fig. 12-13), sub-costa ending in a cross-vein joining the costa to radius. Forks I, II, III and V present. Discoidal cell closed, moderately long and narrow. Hind wing (fig. 13) broader than fore wing, sub- costa parallel with radius, construction differing in the sexes; in male there is a narrow fold or flap along costal margin towards the base of wing lined with coarse yellow setae; this fold is wanting in female. Discoidal cell closed. Forks 1, II, III and V present, in male, radius running into the first apical sector, first apical fork short and rather broad at the base, 2nd as long as the 3rd which is sessile, 5th short and with a distinct foot stalk. Tibial spurs 1, 2, 4.

Distribution: Oriental (India, Pakistan).

Remarks: This genus was erected by Mosely in 1936 to take the new species hutchinsoni from Tibet in which the characters of venation differ considerably from all other genera in Apataniidae. This genus is represented by a single species from India while 2 species are on record from Pakistan. The present study deals with only one species.

Apataniana charadija Schmid

(Figs. 401-402)

Apataniana charadija Schmid, 1968a: 1243.

Average length of forewing 8-8.5 mm. Body brown. Antenna orchraceous with nigrescent annulations. Forewing brown with white spots. Hindwing hyaline. Body entirely covered with sparse golden pubescence.

Male genitalia (Fig. 401-401): Segment IX well developed and broadly excised; inferior appendage 2-segmented, 1st segment long, thin and sub- cylindrical; 2nd segment about half the length of 1st and carries some sharp conical spines in sub-apical position; segment X much thick, very high and trilobed at apex; preanal appendage not visible; dorsal lobe of segment X not distinct from internal branches of segment X, all three fused and appear like a large black lobe, with concave sides, widened before its apex, then abruptly thin and shorter than external branches; external branch simple and in lateral view, triangular and directed obliquely upwards, phallus simple; parameres with few minute spines at its apex.

Holotype depository: ROM (Canada).

Material examined: Himachal Pradesh: Sarchu, 3200 m, 15-viii-2008, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh).

FAMILY UENOIDAE

Uenoinae Iwata 1927: 214

Uenoidae, Fischer 1973: 163

Type genus: Uenoa Iwata 1927: 204

Diagnostic features: Adults of this family are slender, medium to dark brown with uniform brown forewings; length of forewings 3-12 mm; head short, dorsum convex, ocelli present although medium ocellus lacking in Uenoa; coronal suture prominent; setae confined to setal warts; antennae approximately same length as forewing with scape as long as or longer than head in dorsal aspect; maxillary palpi in females 5-segmented, in males with 3 or fewer segments, usually thickened and variously modified in different genera. Pronotum (Fig. 8) with 2 pairs of setal warts, median pair nearly contiguous; mesonotum (Fig. 8) slender, scutum with 1 pair of elongate setal warts, Scutellum (Fig. 8) with single median setal wart; scutellum long and narrow, anterior apex acute and extended anteriorly beyond mid-point of mesonotum. Forewing (Fig. 14) usually narrow with dense hair covering, varying shades of brown, unpatterened, fringe of long stout setae along posterior margin; elongate concave thickening between bases of Sc and R1; hindwings (Fig. 15) rather narrow, row of stout hooked setae along anterior margin; venation similar in both sexes in Uenoa, and usually about same length as petiole in forewing; hindwing with branches of M and Cu variously fused. Legs with tibial spurs 1, 2-3, 4.

Distribution: This family is found in North America, eastern Asia, and southern Europe.

Remarks: It was originally described by Iwata (1927) as a subfamily of Seriscostomatidae. Martynov (1933) first established the Thremminae as a subfamily of the Sericostomatidae, but as pointed by Fischer (1970), the name was not accompanied by any diagnosis as required by Article 13 of the Code.

Hence, and as further noted by Fischer (1970), the first valid use of a family- group name based on Thremma appears to be Martynov’s later work of 1935- Thremminae, emended by Fischer as Thremmatinae; included in this subfamily by Martynov were the genera Thremma, Eothremma, Neothremma and Archithremma, the latter assigned to the Limnephilidae by Levanidova and Schmid 1981. Fisher (1970) cited Schmid (1952) as the first author to elevate the group to familial status as Thremmidae, emended to Thremmatidae Martynov (1935). Apparently recognizing that Uenoinae Iwata (1927) held priority over Thremmatidae Martynov (1935) as the older valid family-group name, Fischer later (1973) established Uenoidae as the name to be applied to the family, with Thremmatidae as a junior synonym; 2 subfamilies Thremmatinae (Thremma) and Uenoinae (Uenoa), were retained. Botosaneanu (1976) recognized the Thremmatidae (Thremma) and Uenoinae (Uenoa) as distinct families and argued against close relationship between them.

Family Uenodae is divided into two subfamilies Thremmatinae Martynov and Uenoinae Iwata. Former subfamily is divided into 3 genera Neophylax McLachlan (40 species), Oligophlebodes Ulmer (7 species) and Thremma McLachlan(7 species) while subfamily Uenoinae Iwata contains 4 genera Uenoa Iwata (11 spcies), Farula Milne(11 species), Neothremma Dodds & Hisaw (7 species) and Sericostriata Wiggins (1 species). Subfamily Uenoinae Iwata is found only in Oriental region.

Family Uenoidae is represented by 73 species with 7 genera all over the World (Morse, 2011). From the Oriental region this family is represented by 15 species under 2 genera. In India this family is represented by 4 species under a single genus Uenoa.

Genus Uenoa Iwata

Uenoa Iwata 1927: 214

Type species: Uenoa tokunagai Iwata

=Eothremma Martynov 1933: 150

Type species: Uenoa japonica Martynov

Uenoa, Tsuda 1937: 66; Eothremma as jr.syn.

Diagnostic features: Median ocellus absent; compound eyes finely setate; long axes of anterior setal warts parallel, setal warts posteromesad of lateral ocelli lacking or represented by a few setae; frontal setal warts divided into elongate lateral area and rounded mesal area in females, but in males these are united into a single enlarged bifurcate setal wart on each side; maxillary palp of male reduced to 1 or 2 segments, sometimes with a third minute segment; antennae with scape approximately as long as head. Wings with brown hair mainly on veins; venation similar in both sexes, forewing (Fig. 14) with M1 and M2 separate, discoidal cell short and wide; hindwings (Fig. 15) with R2 and R3 fused, discoidal cell open. Legs with tibial spurs 1, 3, 4.

Distribution: Oriental.

Remarks: Based on the type species Uenoa tokunagai Iwata, the genus Uenoa was established by Iwata (1927). This genus is represented by 6 species from Oriental region (barring India). Mosely (1939a) contributed 3 species from Myanmar and 1 from Pakistan, Hwang (1957), Kimmins (1964) and Hsu and Chen (1997) contributed 1 species each from China, Nepal and Taiwan respectively. In India this genus is represented by 4 species which are contributed one each by Martynov (1936), Mosely (1939b), Botosaneaneu (1979) and Wiggins, Weaver & Unzicker (1985). All the 4 species are found in the Himalayan belt. The present study deals with 1 species.

Uenoa hiberna Kimmins

(Figs. 403-405, 442)

Uenoa hiberna Kimmins, 1964: 52

=Uenoa janetscheki Botosaneanu, 1976: 194

Length of male forewing 5.7 mm. Maxillary palp of male apparently 1 segmented, 0.97 mm in length. Body dark brownish in colour except wings, which are light orange.

Male genitalia (Figs. 403-405): Segment IX annular, short dorsally, with flattened lateral sides; laterally segment IX very much broadened near base and converging near its distal half. Segment X with a pair of cylindrical, external lobes in dorsal view which appear apically broad and rounded and with a narrow stalk near base in lateral view; internal lobes of segment X long, apically excised & criss-crossing in dorsal view near its apex. Inferior appendage single segmented & almost squarish in dorsal view; laterally cylindrical & apically rounded bearing prominent short spines on its upper surface. Phallus apically pointed in dorsal view with almost triangular base in dorsal view. Parameres in the form of a paired slendrical lobes & apically pointed in dorsal view & hooded in lateral view.

Holotype depository: ROM (Canada).

Material examined: Sikkim: Dentam, 1700 m, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 14-v-2011.

Distribution: Nepal: Bhutan: India (Sikkim, West Bengal, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Uenoa hiberna Kimmins differs from its closely allied species Uenoa arcuata are as follows: paired internal branches of segment X apically excised in case of former whereas, paired internal branches of segment X apically rounded in case of latter. Parameres apically hooded in case of U. hiberna whereas, parameres apically pointed in case of Uenoa arcuata.

Family Phryganeidae

Phryganeidae Leach 1815:136

Phryganeidae Burmeister 1839:922

Type genus: Phryganea Linnaeus 1758

Diagnostic features: Caddisflies of moderate to large size, length of forewing 43 mm. Head (Fig. 9) with ocelli relatively large, dorsal setal warts well developed; antennae stout, about same length as forewings, scape (Fig. 9) short and bulbous, flagellar segments short with narrow peripheral groove; mouthparts extended, labrum elongate, length approximately twice the width. Maxillary palps five-segmented in females (four in Agrypnetes), four segmented in males of phryganeinae; five-segmented in males and females of Yphriinae. Thorax (Fig. 9) with pair of wartose lines of stout setae on mesoscutum, single median wart with marginal stout setae on mesoscutellum. Legs with prominent spines, tibial spurs stout and usually 2, 4, 4. Forewings usually with prominent reticulate pigmentation, reduced and faint in some species, covered with dense setae in some genera but setae sparse in others; colour of forewing mottled grey in many species, light brown in others, but tending to reddish-brown and with bright yellow spotting in others; in some species forewings uniform dark brown. Forewing with vein SC simple or divided towards apex, variable; branches of M of both wings fused in various combinations at generic and species levels. Discoidal cells closed in both fore and hind wings; bifurcation of R2 and R4 in forewing usually arising around middle of discoidal cell. Fore wings with fused anal vein 1A+2A+3A relatively short, approximately one-third length of first anal cell; anal veins not curved in parallel to posterior margin of wing as in Limnephilidae and other families, but 1A, 3A with inflection at junction with 2A. Abdomen with filamentous gill-like lobes in pleural membrane. Sternum of segment V in both males and females with external openings to pair of small glands.

Distribution: It is a cosmopolitan family and is confined for the most part to higher latitudes of world’s North Temperate Zone.

Remarks: Family Phryganeidae was erected by Leach (1815). It currently contains some 80 extant species in 15 genera. (Holzenthal et al. 2011). From the Oriental region this family is represented by 4 genera and 17 species. In India this family is represented by 2 genera and 8 species.

Key to Indian genera of Phryganeidae

1. Hind wing with a broad subapical yellow band extending posteriorly from anterior edge of wing… Eubasilissa Martynov

- Hind wing without any such kind of markings ….Neurocyta Navas

Genus Eubasilissa Martynov

Ragina Martynov, 1924: 79.

Eubasilissa Martynov, 1930: 87; new name

Type species: Holostomis regina McLachlan (Original designation).

Diagnostic features: Length of fore wing 18-43 mm. Dorsum of head dark brown; setae very stout, confined to warts; antennae generally dark brown. Dorsum of thorax and all of abdomen dark brown, thorax below attachment of wings lighter, basal segments of legs light brown with light setae, tibiae and tarsi dark brown, spurs and spines dark brown to black; dorsal setal warts of head and thorax and veins of forewing near base with unique long, thick, straight bristles. Forewing (Fig. 20) with variable dark brown reticulations on yellow background; hindwing (Fig. 21) brown, with a broad, subapical yellow band or patch extending posteriorly from anterior edge of wing. Hindwing (Fig. 21) of male with M 1+2 occasionally divided; forewing of female with M3 and M4 usually separate; hindwing of female with M1 and M2 separate, M 3+4 united; in most of species, forewings (Fig. 20) of both sexes with cross vein sc-r usually indistinct or absent, although in E. maclachlani cross vein usually well developed.

Distribution: Oriental, Palearctic.

Remarks: The species assigned to this genus are the largest living caddisflies. This group is entirely Asian, and most of the species are confined to the mountains rising between India and adjoining Afghanistan, Nepal, Burma, China and Tibet; some occur also in Korea and Japan. This genus contains about 20 species (Morse, 2012). From Oriental region this genus is represented by 14 species and in India it is represented by 7 species. A complete distribution of Indian species of genus Eubasilissa is given in table VII. All these 7 species are recorded from the Himalayan region. Amongst these 7 species 3 are contributed by Schmid (1962), and one each by White (1862), Betten (1909), Martynov (1930) and 1 by Ghosh & Chaudhury (1987). The present study deals with 5 species. Eubasilissa sikkimensis sp. nov. and Eubasilissa schmidi sp. nov. have been reported as new to science.

Eubasilissa maclachlani (White)

(Figs. 406-409, 414-415, 433)

Holostomis maclachlani White, 1862: 26

Eubasilissa maclachlani Martynov, 1930: 87

Average length of forewing 28-40 mm. Frontoclypeus and labrum light brown. Forewing with brown reticulation dense & more uniform in size & arrangement; anterior & central portion of the wing with brown spots more widely spaced but dense in apical third of the wing. Hindwing with subapical, longitudinal yellow band, not quite reaching; row of small brown spots across anterior edge of yellow band; costal & subcostal cells yellow for short distance mesad from subapical band, basal part brown.

Male genitalia (Figs. 406-409): Segment IX with posteroventral edge of sternum turned up as triangular median lobe with transverse edges. Segment X cleft medially almost to base, bearing a pair of short, apically almost pointed mesal processes and long & slender dorsolateral processes; preanal appendages long & slendrical in dorsal view and apically slightly dilated in lateral view. Inferior appendage in lateral aspect with sinous edges tapering towards blunt tip. Phallotheca extended into ventromesal rectangular plate with median pointed tooth; endotheca with a pair of short and apically pointed sclerites.

Female genitalia (Figs. 414-415): Subgenital plate with median lobe longer & narrower; lateral lobes reduced.

Holotype depository: NHM (London).

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Patnitop, 2700 m, 14-viii-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Nagaland: Pfutsero, 1800 m, 08-v-2010, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Arunachal Pradesh: Ziro, 1800 m, 02-iv-2009, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], Dirang, 2100 m, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], Mechuka, 2300 m, 29-iv-2010, 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Sikkim: Golitar, 1900 m, 13-ix-2009, 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: Bhutan: Nepal: India (Jammu & Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Eubasilissa maclachlani (White) differs from its closely allied species Eubasilissa avalokhita Schmid are as follows: Segment IX with posteroventral edge turned up as triangular median lobe with transverse ridges in case of former whereas, segment IX with posteroventral edge turned up as erect lobe with median edge blade-like in case of latter.

Eubasilissa sikkimensis sp. nov.

(Figs. 410-413, 416-417, 435-436)

Average length of forewing 27 mm. Head and thorax dark brown. Labrum & labial palpi brown. Colour pattern and wing venation as in figs.

Male genitalia (Figs. 410-413): Segment IX narrow up to upper ½ then broadened towards middle with rounded anterior surface in lateral view; dorsally tergum IX nearly elliptical bearing tuft of setae over its surface, its posteroventral edge extended into a dome-shaped lobe in caudal view. Segment X divided by a long and wide excision into posterolateral and mesal processes; excision reaching up to bottom of segment X; posterolateral slightly longer than posteromesal process, with tuft of long setae over its surface with slightly rounded surface near side in dorsal and lateral views; preanal appendages each long, finger like in dorsal view, originating near bottom edge of segment X in lateral view. Inferior appendage each glabrous near bottom, apically narrow and rounded in lateral view. Phallotheca produced into a long, narrow lobe with dentated surface; membranous endotheca with long, apically tapering sclerites.

Female genitalia (Figs. 416-417) : Subgenital plate terminated in rounded median lobe with shorter, triangular lobe at each side; posterior edge of vaginal opening heavily sclerotized; vaginal pouch large, almost triangular, its posterior surface rounded and anterior one truncate in caudal view; tergum squarish, sternum rounded near centre and somewhat pointed near corner; median lobe finger-like in lateral view.

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Eubasilissa sikkimensis sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species Eubasilissa maclachlani (White) are as follows: Posteroventral edge of segment IX simple in case of former whereas, posteroventral edge of segment IX with transverse ridges in case of latter. Phallotheca with dentated lobe in case of E. sikkimensis sp. nov. whereas, phallotheca with a simple lobe in E. maclachlani. endotheca with a straight sclerites in case of E. sikkimensis whereas, endotheca with grooved sclerites in E. maclachlani.

Etymology: The name of the species is based on the state in which the type locality falls.

Distribution: India (Sikkim).

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Sikkim: Lachung, 2600 m 14-viii- 2009. Paratype: 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] from same locality and data.

Eubasilissa alaknanda Schmid

(Figs. 418-420, 424-425, 432, 439)

Eubasilissa alaknanda Schmid, 1962: 165

Average length of forewing 27-28 mm. Body fairly uniform brown, legs with basal segments yellowish brown, tibiae and tarsi somewhat darker. Forewing yellow with brown patches and reticulations, extensive uninterrupted yellow area in subapical part of wing; distally apical portion has diffuse brown and yellow markings in males, more uniform brown in females. Hindwing brown, subapical yellow band not reaching posterior margin, and not extended along costal area.

Male genitalia (Figs. 418-420): Segment IX narrowed at centre and broadened near sides in lateral aspect; posteroventral edge slightly extended but without raised median lobe. Segment X almost rounded, lacking preanal appendages and posterior processes in dorsal view and lateral view. Inferior appendages short, terminal segment in lateral aspect tapered with small ventral lobe. Phallotheca with posteroventral sclerotized lip with a short and rounded apex; endotheca with a pair of small sclerites.

Female genitalia (Figs. 424-425): Subgenital plate with median lobe rounded bearing a tuft of setae on its surface in ventral view.

Holotype depository: ROM (Canada).

Material examined: Uttarakhand: Chopta, 2700 m, 06-vii-2010, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]; Munsiayri, 1800 m, 27-vi-2010, 6 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 3 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].ss

Distribution: India (Uttarakhand).

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Eubasilissa alaknanda Schmid differs from its closely allied species Eubasilissa asiatica (Betten) is as follows: Segment X lacking preanal appendages in case of former whereas, segment X with small preanal appendages in case of latter.

Eubasilissa asiatica (Betten)

(Figs. 421-423, 426-427, 434, 450)

Neuronia asiatica Betten, 1909: 242

Eubasilissa asiatica Martynov, 1930: 90

Eubasilissa asiatica Schmid, 1962: 156

Average length of forewings 22- 23 mm. Head brown, antennae light brown, with dark bands; thorax and abdomen brown; legs with tibiae and tarsi somewhat darker than basal segments. Forewing with orange-yellow ground colour bearing light brown, irregular reticulations, larger along anterior margin, fine and diffuse posteriorly, and apically condensed into more brownish area. Hindwing dark brown with subapical yellow band.

Male genitalia (Figs. 421-423): Segment IX inverted U-shaped, narrow at centre, broadened towards sides in dorsal view, posteroventral edge produced into truncate and excised surface; segment X produced into a rounded lobe, apically almost triangular in dorsal view, laterally apex pointed; preanal appendages each reduced into a rounded structure in dorsal view. Inferior appendages each elongated in lateral view, truncate apically, ventral notch pointed, curved inwards. Phallotheca with its posteroventral edge produced ventrally into a sclerotized, slender lobe; membranous endotheca with pair of curved spike-like sclerites.

Female genitalia (Figs. 426-427): Subgenital plate with median lobe bilobed, both lobes closely adhered together with a small median gap between two lobes; lateral lobes narrow, triangular; laterally median lobe appears as spoon- shaped, lateral lobe slendrical; segment IX apicolaterally with bulged lobe.

Vaginal sclerites highly modified, main sclerite broad near anterior end with a small opening, centrally a pair of triangular sclerites and a long horizontal sclerited with rounded ends; a small anterior part of vaginal sclerite is hidden under segment VIII. Vaginal pouch long with rounded ends.

Holotype depository: ZSI (Kolkata, India)

Material examined: Jammu & Kashmir: Kanzalwan, 2300 m 5-ix-2010, 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]; Apharwat, 4000 m 30-vii-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]. Himachal Pradesh: Punjpullah, 1700 m 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], 1[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]; Kothi, 2300 m 06-vii-2009, 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten].

Distribution: India (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh).

Diagnostic combination: The key characters by which Eubasilissa asiatica (Betten) differs from its closely allied species Eubasilissa alaknanda Schmid have been discussed under latter.

Eubasilissa schmidi sp. nov.

(Figs. 428-431, 451)

Average length of forewing 27-28 mm. Head and thorax dark brown. Labrum with first two segments yellowish, third dark brown; labial palpi yellowish. Colour pattern of wings as in fig. 14.

Male genitalia (Figs. 428-231): Segment IX almost rectangular in lateral view, narrow near centre and broadened near edges, apex rounded in dorsal view, posteroventral edge produced into a rounded lobe with apex excised in caudal view. Segment X with a slight short excision near its apex; posteromesal process reduced, posterolateral process well developed and finger-like in dorsal view; preanal appendage well developed, apically rounded in dorsal view. Inferior appendage each broadened near base, apex tapering in lateral view. Phallotheca produced into short, ventral lip, apically pointed; endotheca with a short lobe, broadened near base and acute apically.

Female: Unknown.

Diagnostic combination: The key character by which Eubasilissa schmidi sp. nov. differs from its closely allied species Eubasilissa avalokhita Schmid are as follows: Segment IX with posteroventral edge rounded lobe in case of former whereas, posteroventral lobe blade-like in case of latter. Segment X posterolateral processes well developed in E. schmidi sp. nov. whereas, segment X posterolateral processes reduced in case of E. avalokhita.

Etymology: This species is named in honor of F. Schmid for his great contribution to the taxonomy of Indian Trichoptera.

Distribution:India (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh)

Material examined: Holotype [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten]: India: Jammu & Kashmir: Baderwah, 1800 m 23-vii-2009. Paratypes 2 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] Himachal Pradesh: Ghiaghi, 1700 m 29-vi- 2009; 1 [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten], Mornala, 1700 m, 11-vi-2009

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH IN INDIA

Order Trichoptera is economically one of the most important insect order. Inspite of this a very little information is available in India. Whatever scattered works are available those are all by the foreign workers who either got the material from the various Indian museums on loan basis or collected it during different expeditions. So all those works are neither uniform, nor thorough and systematic. This group remained neglected at the hands of the Indian naturalists because of difficulty in procuring the material and translating (most of the concerned literature on Indian Trichoptera is in the languages other than English). According to Schmid (1984), who made an outstanding contribution to the systematic of Indian caddisflies there are more than 4000 species of this group awaiting their discovery in India. So far only 1000 species are on record from Indian subcontinent. According to Morse (2003) India records the highest density of species per unit area i.e. 1.6 species per kilohectare. The basic problems concerning what occurs in India (how many genera, species) and where they are found (distribution) are still lying unsolved. Literature reflects that previous workers instead of smoothening the past works and synthesizing that with new, worked with a target of describing new taxa from here and there, and thus there are numerous lacunae and gaps in the previous works. From many angles the existing knowledge on this group is so much fragmentary, inadequate and incomplete that all the previous works lack keys at the generic and the species level. Even the available descriptions are not complete. The works of the previous researchers need improvement through additional collections, redescriptions and updating the taxonomic status of different taxa. The present research endeavour was undertaken with a view to achieve these objectives and streamline the works concerning this order and particularly the Plenitentoria group which includes 8 families from this region. During the course of study, the first year was full of difficulties as the present author was a beginner on this group. The major problem was to procure the literature as our Indian libraries are not fully equipped with important books and journals. So I contacted several persons who were globally working on this insect order. I was fortunate enough that I got a major help from Dr. J. C. Morse (Clemson University, U.S.A) who is an authority on this order and was kind enough to send me all the literature through email or sometimes in the form of hard copies. Based on the available information, workable dichotomous keys at the subfamily, generic and the species level of Plenitentoria group have been constructed which collectively form an outstanding and worth-mentioning feature of my present studies. To update the taxonomic status of this group, an intensive and extensive faunistic survey have been undertaken to cover the different localities of Himalayan ranges between an altitude of 400 m amsl in Tamin (Arunachal Pradesh) to 4000 m amsl in Apparwat (Jammu & Kashmir) since 2008-2011 in pre and post monsoon seasons in North-East and North- West Himalayas. No collection was made in the winter months i.e. November to February as the insects undergo hibernation due to winter. Keeping in view the time devoted and the field area covered, the results were quite encouraging and satisfactory.

The perusal of the relevant literature shows that by and large collections were made from a few and selected places, thus leaving a large scope for exploring unexplored localities in order to collect more material and discover new species and first records. In the present context, the taxonomic study of 77 species based on my personal collections from Indian Himalaya during the last four years would definitely lay a sound foundation for the more extensive and thorough studies on the Indian Plenitentoria group and thus, would provide a base for the future workers. 25 species of Lepidostoma Rambur and 1 Species of Paraphylopgteryx Ulmer of the family Lepidostomatidae are new to science. Also 2 species of the genus Lepidostoma Rambur constitute first record from India.

Two species of the genus Pseudostenophylax Martynov and one species of the Limnephilus Leach belonging to the family Limnephilidae are new to science. 1 species of the genus Pseudostenophylax Martynov is recorded first time from India, which was earlier reported from Pakistan. 1 species of the genus Astratodina Mosely is recorded first time from India earlier recorded from Pakistan. 2 species of the genus Goera Stephens belonging to the family Goeridae are new to science. 2 species of the genus Eubasilissa Martynov belonging to the family Phryganeidae are new to Science. Female of Eubasilissa asiatica Betten belonging to family Phryganeidae is described and illustrated first time. A detailed account of each species has been prepared which includes: bibliographic references, synonymy (if any), morphological description of genitalia along with other body features, material depository, material examined, complete collection data, distribution and diagnostic combinations this has certainly updated the existing status of this group. The structure of genitalia was found to be of great taxonomic significance and provides essential characters for the diagnosis of the species. Inspite of good assemblage of data, the old descriptions of the genitalia need updating. In the present studies, the details of the shapes of the genital segments and their appendages and characters from the phallic apparatus have been taken into account for separating closely related species. According to Schmid (1984) a specimen which is mutilated and is deprived of its genitalia, usually does not lends itself to determination. Accordingly, examination of various morphological characters pertaining to ocelli, head, antenna, maxillary palp, labial palp, thoracic warts, legs and wings was carried out at various levels. Descriptions of the female genitalia are very rare in the literature as male genitalia are highly developed and are sufficient to distinguish the species. However, an attempt has been made to study and associate the females with the males on the basis of some common morphological characters. The distributional patterns including altitude, collection localities etc. were taken as supportive evidence for the association of the counterparts. However, due to limitation of time and the literature only few females could be studied. In the end, exact collection localities and distributional maps for all the species included in this work have been provided with a view to remove anomalies in the earlier works. The taxonomic treatment given to the collected material has been fully justified in the present study.

Conclusions based on field surveys reveal that optimum range for collection of Plenitentoria group is between 1200-4000 m amsl. Most of the species remain confined in this zone and the group is practically non-existent below 1200 m. Genera like Apatania, Astratodina, Limnephilus, Pseudostenophylax flourish at an altitude above 2800 m. Though most of the species in Plenitentoria group are active during night but some of the individuals in the families Lepidostomatidae and Limnephilidae are also diurnal. Trichoptera adults start emerging quite early (March-May) in North eastern states of Himalaya and somewhat late (May-June) in North western ranges. Adult life span is about 35-40 days. Since they are available for about six months (April-September), so it is understood that they are multivoltine in nature.

It is further suggested that this work may be extended to the remote high altitude areas of entire India, which may be thoroughly screened, so that the actual position of these insects can be brought to light. It is very likely that species so far recorded only from the neighbouring countries (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and Myanmar) may be found within the Indian faunistic limits as well. So while making the complete survey of these insects, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and south Indian hills must be taken into consideration with special attention to Nilgiri and Kodakanal hills. Also molecular phylogeny of Indian trichopteran can be an interesting aspect to study. Larval studies on this group will be interested aspect of future study, as trichopteran larvae are used in bio-monitoring surveys and thus serve as good indicator species of pollution and climate change. It is earnestly hoped that the present studies will form a sound base for future workers in the field of caddisfly taxonomy. It is further suggested that this work may be extended to the remote high altitude areas of entire India, which may be thoroughly screened, so that the actual position of these insects can be brought to light. It is very likely that species so far recorded only from the neighbouring countries (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and Myanmar) may be found within the Indian faunistic limits as well. So while making the complete survey of these insects, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and south Indian hills must be taken into consideration with special attention to Nilgiri and Kodakanal hill.

Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

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Yang, L. and Armitage, B. J. 1996. The genus Goera (Trichoptera: Goeridae) in China. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98: 551-569

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Maps

Area Surveyed

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Arunachal Pradesh

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Uttarakhand

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Himachal Pradesh

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Jammu & Kashmir

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Tables

Table 1. LOCALITIES VISITED DURING THE YEAR 2008 - 2011

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Year 2009

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Year 2010

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Year 2011

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Table 1I. Distribution of Indian families of Plenitentoria Group along with number of species and genera in each family.

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Table III. Distribution of Family Lepidostomatidae in India

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Table IV. Distribution of Family Goeridae in India

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Table V. Distribution of Family Limnephilidae in India

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Table VI. Distribution of family Apataniidae in India

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Table VII. Distribution of family Phryganeidae in India

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Figures

Fig. 1: Dorsal view of pronotum & mesonotum of Lepidostoma yunnanense (Lepidostomatidae).

Fig. 2: Dorsal view of pronotum & mesonotum of Branchycentrus kozlovi (Branchycentridae).

Fig. 3: Lateral view of maxillary palp of Branchycentrus kozlovi (Branchycentridae).

Fig. 4: Dorsal view of pronotum & mesonotum of Goera paracrita (Goeridae).

Fig. 5: Lateral view of maxillary palp and labial palp of Goera paracrita (Goeridae).

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Fig. 6: Dorsal view of head of Limnephilus rhombuscus (Limnephilidae).

Fig. 7: Lateral view of head of Apatania devisaraspali (Apataniidae).

Fig. 8: Dorsal view of Uenoa hiberna (Uenoidae).

Fig. 9: Dorsal view of Phryganea cinerea (Phryganeidae).

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Fig. 10: Forewing of Apatania devisaraspali (Apataniidae).

Fig. 11: Hindwing of the genus Apatania devisaraspali (Apataniidae).

Fig. 12: Forewing of the genus Apataniana charadija (Apataniidae).

Fig. 13: Hindwing of the genus Apataniana charadija (Apataniidae).

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Fig. 14: Forewing of Uenoa hiberna (Uenoidae).

Fig. 15: Hindwing of Uenoa hiberna (Uenoidae).

Fig. 16: Forewing of Branchycentrus kozlovi (Branchycentridae).

Fig. 17: Hindwing of the genus Branchycentrus kozlovi (Branchycentridae).

Fig. 18: Forewing of Goera mandana (Goeridae).

Fig. 19: Hindwing of Goera mandana (Goeridae).

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Fig. 20: Forewing of Eubasilissa alaknanda (Phryganeidae).

Fig. 21: Hindwing Eubasilissa alaknanda (Phryganeidae).

Fig. 22: Forewing of Paraphlegopteryx weaveri (Lepidostomatidae).

Fig. 23: Hindwing of the genus Paraphlegopteryx weaveri (Lepidostomatidae).

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Fig. 24. Forewing of Astratodina antenor (Limnephilidae).

Fig. 25. Hindwing of Astratodina antenor (Limnephilidae).

Fig. 26. Forewing of Phylostenax himalus (Limnephilidae).

Fig. 27. Hindwing of Phylostenax himalus (Limnephilidae).

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Fig. 28. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma sika.

Fig. 29. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma sika.

Fig. 30. Lateral of male genitalia of Lepidostoma sika.

Fig. 31. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma assamense.

Fig. 32. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma assamense.

Fig. 33. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma assamense.

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Fig. 34. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma sika.

Fig. 35. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma sika

Fig. 36. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma assamense.

Fig. 37. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma assamense.

Fig. 38. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma sika.

Fig. 39. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma assamense.

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Fig. 40. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma destructum.

Fig. 41. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma destructum.

Fig. 42. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma destructum.

Fig. 43. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma tesarum.

Fig. 44. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma tesarum.

Fig. 45. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma tesarum.

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Fig. 46. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma destructum.

Fig. 47. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma destructum.

Fig. 48. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma tesarum.

Fig. 49. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma tesarum.

Fig. 50. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma destructum.

Fig. 51. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma tesarum.

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Fig. 52. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma divaricatum.

Fig. 53. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma divaricatum.

Fig. 54. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma divaricatum.

Fig. 55. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma inequale.

Fig. 56. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma inequale.

Fig. 57. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma inequale.

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Fig. 58. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma divaricatum.

Fig. 59. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma divaricatum.

Fig. 60. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma inequale.

Fig. 61. Lateral view of maxillary palpof Lepidostoma inequale.

Fig. 62. Dorsal view of forewing of of Lepidostoma divaricatum.

Fig. 63. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma inequale.

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Fig. 64. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma liber.

Fig. 65. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma liber.

Fig. 66. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma liber.

Fig. 67. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma betteni.

Fig. 68. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma betteni.

Fig. 69. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma betteni.

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Fig. 70. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma liber.

Fig. 71. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma liber.

Fig. 72. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma betteni.

Fig. 73. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma betteni.

Fig. 74. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma liber.

Fig. 75. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma betteni.

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Fig. 76. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma ylesomi.

Fig. 77. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma ylesomi.

Fig. 78. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma ylesomi.

Fig. 79. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma simplex.

Fig. 80. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma simplex.

Fig. 81. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma simplex.

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Fig. 82. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma ylesomi.

Fig. 83. Lateral view of maxillary palp of of Lepidostoma ylesomi.

Fig. 84. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma simplex.

Fig. 85. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma simplex.

Fig. 86. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma ylesomi.

Fig. 87. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma simplex.

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Fig. 88. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma punjabicum.

Fig. 89. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma punjabicum.

Fig. 90. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma punjabicum.

Fig. 91. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma latum.

Fig. 92. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma latum.

Fig. 93. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma latum.

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Fig. 94. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma punjabicum.

Fig. 95. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma punjabicum.

Fig. 96. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma latum.

Fig. 97. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma latum.

Fig. 98. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma punjabicum.

Fig. 99. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma latum.

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Fig. 100. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma parvulum.

Fig. 101. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma parvulum.

Fig. 102. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma parvulum.

Fig. 103. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma inerme.

Fig. 104. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma inerme.

Fig. 105. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma inerme.

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Fig. 106. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma parvulum.

Fig. 107. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma parvulum.

Fig. 108. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma inerme.

Fig. 109. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma inerme.

Fig. 110. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma parvulum.

Fig. 111. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma inerme.

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Fig. 112. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma nagana.

Fig. 113. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma nagana.

Fig. 114. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma nagana.

Fig. 115. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma serratum.

Fig. 116. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma serratum.

Fig. 117. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma serratum.

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Fig. 118. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma nagana.

Fig. 119. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma nagana.

Fig. 120. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma serratum.

Fig. 121. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma serratum.

Fig. 122. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma nagana.

Fig. 123. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma serratum.

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Fig. 124. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma margula.

Fig. 125. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma margula.

Fig. 126. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma margula.

Fig. 127. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma moulmina.

Fig. 128. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma moulmina.

Fig. 129. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma moulmina.

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Fig. 130. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma margula.

Fig. 131. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma margula.

Fig. 132. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma moulmina.

Fig. 133. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma moulmina.

Fig. 134. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma margula.

Fig. 135. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma moulmina.

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Fig. 136. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma kashmiricum.

Fig. 137. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma kashmiricum.

Fig. 138. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma kashmiricum.

Fig. 139. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma himachalicum.

Fig. 140. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma himachalicum.

Fig. 141. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma himachalicum.

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Fig. 142. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma kashmiricum.

Fig. 143. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma kashmiricum.

Fig. 144. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma himachalicum.

Fig. 145. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma himachalicum.

Fig. 146. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma kashmiricum.

Fig. 147. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma himachalicum.

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Fig. 148. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma meghalayense.

Fig. 149. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma meghlayense.

Fig. 150. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma meghalayense.

Fig. 151. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma dirangense.

Fig. 152. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma dirangense.

Fig. 153. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma dirangense.

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Fig. 154. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma meghalayense.

Fig. 155. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma meghalayense.

Fig. 156. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma dirangense.

Fig. 157. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma dirangense.

Fig. 158. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma meghalayense.

Fig. 159. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma dirangense.

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Fig. 160. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma ahlae.

Fig. 161. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma ahlae.

Fig. 162. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma ahlae.

Fig. 163. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma sonmargae

Fig. 164. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma sonmargae.

Fig. 165. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma sonmargae.

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Fig. 166. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma ahlae.

Fig. 167. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma ahlae.

Fig. 168. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma sonmargae.

Fig. 169. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma sonmargae.

Fig. 170. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma ahlae.

Fig. 171. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma sonmargae.

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Fig. 172. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma garwalense.

Fig. 173. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma garwalense.

Fig. 174. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma garwalense.

Fig. 175. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma truncatum.

Fig. 176. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma truncatum.

Fig. 177. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma truncatum.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 178. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma garwalense.

Fig. 179. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma garwalense.

Fig. 180. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma truncatum.

Fig. 181. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma truncatum.

Fig. 182. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma garwalense.

Fig. 183. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma truncatum.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 184. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma curvatum.

Fig. 185. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma curvatum.

Fig. 186. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma curvatum.

Fig. 187. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma mandelense.

Fig. 188. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma mandelense.

Fig. 189. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma mandelense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 190. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma curvatum.

Fig. 191. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma curvatum.

Fig. 192. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma mandelense.

Fig. 193. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma mandelense.

Fig. 194. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma curvatum.

Fig. 195. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma mandelense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 196. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma gangotri.

Fig. 197. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma gangotri.

Fig. 198. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma gangotri.

Fig. 199. Dorsal view of male genetalia of Lepidostoma badrinathense.

Fig. 200. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma badrinathense.

Fig. 201. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma badrinathense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 202. Lateral view phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma gangotri.

Fig. 203. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma gangotri.

Fig. 204. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma badrinathense.

Fig. 205. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma badrinathense.

Fig. 206. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma gangotri.

Fig. 207. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma badrinathense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 208. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma pahalgamense.

Fig. 209. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma pahalgamense.

Fig. 210. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma pahalgamense.

Fig. 211. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma gulmargense.

Fig. 212. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma gulmargense.

Fig. 213. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma gulmargense

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 214. Lateral view phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma pahalgamense.

Fig. 215. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma pahalgamense.

Fig. 216. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma gulmargense.

Fig. 217. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma gulmargense.

Fig. 218. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma pahalgamense.

Fig. 219. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma gulmargense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 220. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma religiosum.

Fig. 221. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma religiosum.

Fig. 222. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma religiosum.

Fig. 223. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma setosum.

Fig. 224. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma setosum.

Fig. 225. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma setosum.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 226. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma religiosum.

Fig. 227. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma religiosum.

Fig. 228. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma setosum.

Fig. 229. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma setosum.

Fig. 230. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma religiosum.

Fig. 231. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma setosum.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 232. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma rifati.

Fig. 233. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma rifati.

Fig. 234. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma rifati.

Fig. 235. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma cherrapungense.

Fig. 236. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma cherrapungense.

Fig. 237. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma cherrapungense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 238. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma rifati.

Fig. 239. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma rifati.

Fig. 240. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma cherrapungense.

Fig. 241. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma cherrapungense.

Fig. 242. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma rifati.

Fig. 243. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma cherrapungense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 244. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma tridentatum.

Fig. 245. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma tridentatum.

Fig. 246. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma tridentatum.

Fig. 247. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma khajjiarense.

Fig. 248. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma khajjiarense.

Fig. 249. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma khajjiarense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 250. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma tridentatum

Fig. 251. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma tridentatum.

Fig. 252. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma khajjiarense.

Fig. 253. Lateral view maxillary palp of Lepidostoma khajjiarense.

Fig. 254. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma tridentatum.

Fig. 255. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma khajjiarense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 256. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma vikrami.

Fig. 257. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma vikrami.

Fig. 258. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma vikrami.

Fig. 259. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma muzamili.

Fig. 260. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma muzamili.

Fig. 261. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma muzamili.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 262. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma vikrami.

Fig. 263. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma vikrami.

Fig. 264. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma muzamili.

Fig. 265. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma muzamili.

Fig. 266. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma vikrami.

Fig. 267. Dorsal view forewing of Lepidostoma muzamili.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 268. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma lakhwinderae.

Fig. 269. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma lakhwinderae.

Fig. 270. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma lakhwinderae.

Fig. 271. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma mechukense.

Fig. 272. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma mechukense.

Fig. 273. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma mechukense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 274. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma lakhwinderae.

Fig. 275. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma lakhwinderae.

Fig. 276. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Lepidostoma mechukense.

Fig. 277. Lateral view of maxillary palp of Lepidostoma mechukense.

Fig. 278. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma lakhwinderae.

Fig. 279. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma mechukense.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 280. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma pyrimidatum.

Fig. 281. Ventral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma pyrimidatum.

Fig. 282. Lateral view of male genitalia of Lepidostoma pyrimidatum.

Fig. 283. Lateral view of phallus of Lepidostoma pyrimidatum.

Fig. 284. Lateral view of maxillary palp & scapes of Lepidostoma pyrimidatum.

Fig. 285. Dorsal view of forewing of Lepidostoma pyrimidatum.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 286. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx composite.

Fig. 287. Ventral view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx composite.

Fig. 288. Lateral view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx composite.

Fig. 289. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Paraphlegopteryx composite.

Fig. 290. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx normalis.

Fig. 291. Ventral view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx normalis.

Fig. 292. Lateral view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx normalis.

Fig. 293. Lateral view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx normalis.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 294. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx moselyi.

Fig. 295. Ventral view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx moselyi.

Fig. 296. Lateral view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx moselyi.

Fig. 297. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Paraphlegopteryx moselyi.

Fig. 298. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx weaveri.

Fig. 299. Ventral view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx weaveri.

Fig. 300. Lateral view of male genitalia of Paraphlegopteryx weaveri.

Fig. 301. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Paraphlegopteryx weaveri.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 302. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Branchycentrus kozlovi.

Fig. 303. Ventral view of male genitalia of Branchycentrus kozlovi.

Fig. 304. Lateral view of male genitalia of Branchycentrus kozlovi.

Fig. 305. Lateral view of female genitalia of Branchycentrus kozlovi.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 306. Dorsal view of male genitalia Goera paracrita.

Fig. 307. Ventral view of male genitalia Goera paracrita.

Fig. 308. Lateral view of male genitalia Goera paracrita.

Fig. 309. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Goera paracrita.

Fig. 310. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Goera mandana.

Fig. 311. Ventral view of male genitalia of Goera mandana.

Fig. 312. Lateral view of male genitalia of Goera mandana.

Fig. 313. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Goera mandana.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 314. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Goera yajnadatta.

Fig. 315. Ventral view of male genitalia of Goera yajnadatta.

Fig. 316. Lateral view of male genitalia of Goera yajnadatta.

Fig. 317. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Goera yajnadatta.

Fig. 318. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Goera vaichravana.

Fig. 319. Ventral view of male genitalia of Goera vaichravana.

Fig. 320. Lateral view of male genitalia of Goera vaichravana.

Fig. 321. Dorsal view of phallus of Goera vaichravana.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 322. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Goera arunachlica.

Fig. 323. Ventral view of male genitalia of Goera arunachlica.

Fig. 324. Lateral view of male genitalia of Goera arunachlica.

Fig. 325. Dorsal view of phallic appaatus of Goera arunachlica.

Fig. 326. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Goera arunachlica.

Fig. 327. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Goera munsiaryensis.

Fig. 328. Ventral view of male genitalia of Goera munsiaryensis.

Fig. 329. Lateral view of male genitalia of Goera munsiaryensis.

Fig. 330. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Goera munsiaryensis..

Fig. 331. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Goera munsiaryensis.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 332. Lateral view of male genitalia of Limnephilus morsei.

Fig. 333. Ventral view of male genitalia of Limnephilus morsei.

Fig. 334. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Limnephilus morsei.

Fig. 335. Lateral view of female genitalia of Limnephilus morsei.

Fig. 336. Ventral view of female genitalia of Limnephilus morsei.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 337. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax aniketos.

Fig. 338. Ventral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax aniketos.

Fig. 339. Lateral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax aniketos.

Fig. 340. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Pseudostenophylax aniketos.

Fig. 341. Lateral view of female genitalia of Pseudostenophylax aniketos.

Fig. 342. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax mitchelli.

Fig. 343. Ventral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax mitchelli.

Fig. 344. Lateral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax mitchelli.

Fig. 345. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Pseudostenophylax mitchelli.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 346. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Psedostenophylax latifacatus.

Fig. 347. Ventral view of male genitalia of Psedostenophylax latifacatus.

Fig. 348. Lateral view of male genitalia of Psedostenophylax latifacatus.

Fig. 349. Lateral view of female genitalia of Psedostenophylax latifacatus.

Fig. 350. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Psedostenophylax griseolus.

Fig. 351. Ventral view of male genitalia of Psedostenophylax griseolus.

Fig. 352. Lateral view of male genitalia of Psedostenophylax griseolus.

Fig. 353. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Psedostenophylax griseolus.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 354. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax schelpei.

Fig. 355. Ventral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax schelpei.

Fig. 356. Lateral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax schelpei.

Fig. 357. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Pseudostenophylax schelpei.

Fig. 358. Lateral view of female genitalia of Pseudostenophylax schelpei.

Fig. 359. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax arwiel.

Fig. 360. Ventral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax arwiel.

Fig. 361. Lateral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax arwiel.

Fig. 362. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Pseudostenophylax arwiel.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 363. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax micraulax.

Fig. 364. Lateral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax micraulax.

Fig. 365. Ventral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax micraulax.

Fig. 366. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Pseudostenophylax micraulax.

Fig. 367. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax gulmargensis.

Fig. 368. Ventral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax gulmargensis.

Fig. 369. Lateral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax gulmargensis.

Fig. 370. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Pseudostenophylax gulmargensis.

Fig. 371. Lateral view of female genitalia of Pseudostenophylax gulmargensis.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 372. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax himachalica.

Fig. 373. Ventral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax himachalica.

Fig. 374. Lateral view of male genitalia of Pseudostenophylax himachalica.

Fig. 375. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Pseudostenophylax himachalica.

Fig. 376. Lateral view of female genitalia of Pseudostenophylax himachalica.

Fig. 377. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Astratodina antenor.

Fig. 378. Ventral view of male genitalia of Astratodina antenor.

Fig. 379. Lateral view of male genitalia of Astratodina antenor.

Fig. 380. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Astratodina antenor.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 381. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Astratodina anteros.

Fig. 382. Ventral view of male genitalia of Astratodina anteros.

Fig. 383. Lateral view of male genitalia of Astratodina anteros.

Fig. 384. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Astratodina anteros.

Fig. 385. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Astratodina inermis.

Fig. 386. Lateral view of male genitalia of Astratodina inermis.

Fig. 387. Ventral view of male genitalia of Astratodina inermis.

Fig. 388. Dorsal view of phallic apparatus of Astratodina inermis.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 389. Dorsal view male genitalia of Phylostenax himalus.

Fig. 390. Ventral view male genitalia of Phylostenax himalus.

Fig. 391. Lateral view male genitalia of Phylostenax himalus.

Fig. 392. Lateral view of phallic apparatus of Phylostenax himalus.

Fig. 393. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Apatania bhigmagada.

Fig. 394. Lateral view of male genitalia of Apatania bhigmagada.

Fig. 395. Ventral view of male genitalia of Apatania bhigmagada.

Fig. 396. Lateral view of female genitalia of Apatania bhigmagada.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 397. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Apatania brevis.

Fig. 398. Lateral view of male genitalia of Apatania brevis.

Fig. 399. Ventral view of male genitalia of Apatania brevis.

Fig. 400. Lateral view of female genitalia of Apatania brevis.

Fig. 401. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Apataniana charadija.

Fig. 402. Lateral view of male genitalia of Apataniana charadija.

Fig. 403. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Uenoa hiberna.

Fig. 404. Lateral view of male genitalia of Uenoa hiberna.

Fig. 405. Ventral view of male genitalia of Uenoa hiberna.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 406. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Eubasilissa maclachlani.

Fig. 407. Lateral view of male genitalia of Eubasilissa maclachlani.

Fig. 408. Ventral view of male genitalia of Eubasillisa maclachlani.

Fig. 409. Lateral view of phallus of Eubasilissa maclachlani.

Fig. 410. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Eubasilissa sikkimensis.

Fig. 411. Lateral view of male genitalia of Eubasilissa sikkimensis.

Fig. 412. Ventral view of male genitalia of Eubasilissa sikkimensis.

Fig. 413. Lateral view of phallus of Eubasilissa sikkimensis.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 421. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Eubasilissa asiatica.

Fig. 422. Lateral view of male genitalia of Eubasilissa asiatica.

Fig. 423. Lateral view of phallus of Eubasilissa asiatica.

Fig. 424. Lateral view of female genitalia of Eubasilissa alaknanda.

Fig. 425. Ventral view of female genitalia of Eubasilissa alaknanda.

Fig. 426. Lateral view of female genitalia of Eubasilissa asiatica.

Fig. 427. Ventral view of female genitalia of Eubasilissa asiatica.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 428. Dorsal view of male genitalia of Eubasilissa schmidi.

Fig. 429. Lateral view of male genitalia of Eubasilissa schmidi.

Fig. 430. Ventral view of male genitalia of Eubasilissa schmidi.

Fig. 431. Lateral view of phallus of Eubasilissa schmidi.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 432. Live photograph of Eubasilissa alaknanda.

Fig. 433. Live photograph of Eubasilissa maclachlani.

Fig. 434. Live photograph of Eubasilissa asiatica.

Fig. 435. Live photograph of Eubasilissa sikkimensis.

Fig. 436. Collection site of Eubasilissa sikkimensis (Lachung, Sikkim).

Fig. 437. Collection site of Lepidostoma vikrami (Hunli, Arunachal Pradesh).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 438. Collection site of Lepidostoma cherrapungense (Cherrapunge, Meghalaya).

Fig. 439. Collection site of Eubasilissa alaknanda (Munsiayri, Uttarakhand).

Fig. 440. Collection site of Lepidostoma mechukense (Mechuka, Arunachal Pradesh).

Fig. 441. Trichoptera light trapping.

Fig. 442. Collection site of Uenoa hiberna (Dentam, Sikkim).

Fig. 443. Collection site of Lepidostoma sonmargae (Sonmarg, Jammu & Kashmir).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 444. Collection site of Lepidostoma lakhwinderae (Aru, Jammu & Kashmir).

Fig. 445. Collection site of Lepidostoma rifati (Hunli, Arunachal Pradesh).

Fig. 446. Collection site of Lepidostoma gulmargense (Gulmarg, Jammu & Kashmir).

Fig. 447. Collection site of Lepidostoma tridentatum (Hunli, Arunachal Pradesh).

Fig. 448. Collection site of Lepidostoma kashmiricum (Pahalgam, Jammu & Kashmir).

Fig. 449. Collection site of Lepidostoma dirangense (Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 450. Collection site of Eubasilissa asiatica (Gurez, Jammu & Kashmir).

Fig. 451. Collection site of Eubasilissa schmidi (Baderwah, jammu & Kashmir).

Fig. 452. Collection site of Astratodina inermis (Sonmarg, Jammu & Kashmir).

Fig. 453. Collection site of Eubasilissa maclachlani (Anini, Arunachal Pradesh).

Fig. 454. Collection site of Pseudostenophylax latifalcatus (Lachung, Sikkim).

Fig. 455. Collection site of Limnephilus morsei (Apharwat, Jammu & Kashmir).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Details

Pages
342
Year
2014
ISBN (Book)
9783668488915
File size
4.3 MB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v367100
Institution / College
Punjabi University
Grade
Tags
taxonomy biogeographic distribution plenitentoria group caddisflies india

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Title: Taxonomy and Biogeographic Distribution of the Plenitentoria Group of Caddisflies of India