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Fundamentals of Procrastination. Introduction of basic concepts and approaches regarding procrastination

Elaboration 2017 7 Pages

Psychology - Work, Business, Organisational and Economic Psychology

Excerpt

Table of contents

Tables and figures

Fundamentals of Procrastination

References

Tables and figures

Figure 1: Types of procrastination according to their escalation level, cause and outcome (Source: own representation, adapted from Studienberatung FU Berlin, 2011).

Figure 2: The dynamic model of procrastination (Source: Krause and Freund, 2014).

Figure 3: The dynamics of goal focus during goal pursuit (Source: Kraus and Freund, 2014, p. 138).

Fundamentals of Procrastination

The term procrastination is nowadays rather widespread even in popular culture and media. The term is defined as the tendency to delay the beginning or the completion of an action beyond a time so that the successful accomplishment of the task is hardly possible and the postponement results in discomfort (Solomon and Rothblum, 1984; Steel, 2007).

It is possible to discriminate between different kinds of procrastinators, as the underlying mechanics differ. The several types of procrastination are (Rückert, 2014):

- Arousal procrastination: deliberate decision to move, pressure needed to be able to work.
- Mechanism: Task completion at the last minute produces a feeling that cannot be achieved with well-planned work.
- Avoidance procrastination: fixation on intentions, preparatory work, no usage of decisive moments, low impulsive control and carelessness, unfitting assessment of the time needed to complete the task, poor time management, unsatisfactory understanding of the task in accordance with important personal goals, lack of combination of the task with positive feelings.
- Mechanism: Avoidance of reluctance and a need for self-protection. If one does not believe in success, a task more likely to be postponed, also if tasks are unpleasant, one is easily distractible and impulsive and both the goals and the rewards for the work lie too far in the future.

It is also possible to differ between the procrastination situations (Rückert, 2014):

- Trait-procrastination: Is as stable as a personality trait (and indeed is closely related to low values on the Big 5 personality factor conscientiousness).
- State-procrastination: Situational postponement corresponds more to a motivational conflict.

Fatal procrastination: if the procrastination behavior is caused by states of mental illness, it can have severe or fatal outcomes for the concerned (Rückert, 2014).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: Types of procrastination according to their escalation level, cause and outcome (Source: own representation, adapted from Studienberatung FU Berlin, 2011).

The presented types of procrastination can be ordered according to their escalation level, i.e. their level of influence on the casualty (see figure 1).

It already is clear, that procrastination is a very complex topic to deal with, as it has a variety of outcomes and moderating factors. A good overview of this combination of factors is given by Krause and Freund (2014) in their dynamic procrastination model (see figure 2).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2: The dynamic model of procrastination (Source: Krause and Freund, 2014).

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Details

Pages
7
Year
2017
ISBN (eBook)
9783668431997
File size
490 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v358402
Institution / College
University of Malta – Edward de Bono Institute
Grade
2,3
Tags
procrastination taxonomy goal persuit model dynamic model aufschieben prokrastinieren prokrastination

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Title: Fundamentals of Procrastination. Introduction of basic concepts and approaches regarding procrastination