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Personality subtypes and involvement in risky sexual behaviour

Among students in secondary schools in Nyakach Sub-county, Kisumu County, Kenya

Master's Thesis 2016 94 Pages

Psychology - Social Psychology

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

ABBREVIATION AND ACRONYMS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Scope and Delimitation of the study
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Theoretical frame work
1.7.1 Theory of Planned Behavior
1.7.2 Eysenck’s Personality Theory
1.8 Conceptual Framework
1.9 Definition of Operational Terms

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Introversive personality subtype and involvement risky sexual behavior
2.3 Extroversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behavior
2.4 Neurotic personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour
2.5 Psychoticism and involvement in risky sexual behaviour
2.6 Strategies of addressing risky sexual behaviour

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Target Population
3.4 Sample size and sampling procedure
3.5 Descriptions of research instruments
3.5.1 Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire for students (appendix I)
3.5.2 Risk Sexual Behaviour Questionnaire for students (appendix II)
3.6 Validity and reliability of Research Instruments
3.6.1 Validity of Questionnaires
3.6.2 Reliability of the Questionnaires
3.7 Description of data collection procedures
3.8 Description of data analysis procedures
3.8.1 Quantitative data analysis
3.9 Ethical Considerations

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 FINDINGS, INTERPRETATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Questionnaires Return Rate
4.3 Respondents demographic characteristics
4.3.1 Student respondents’ sex
4.4 Introversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour
4.4.1 Introversive Personality Sub-Type
4.4.2 Introversive Personality Sub-Type and Risky Sexual Behaviour
4.4.3 Correlation: Introversion and Involvement in Risky Sexual Behaviour
4.5 Extroversive Personality Sub-Types and Involvement in Risky Sexual
Behaviour
4.5.1 Classifying the Respondents as having Extroversive Personality
Sub-type
4.5.2 Extroversive Personality Sub-Type and Risky sexual Behaviour
4.5.3 Correlation between Extroversive and Risky Sexual Behaviour
4.6 Neuroticism and Involvement in Risky Sexual Behaviour
4.6.1 Determining Neurotic Personality Sub-type
4.6.2 Neuroticism Personality Sub-Type and Risky sexual Behaviour
4.6.3 Correlation between Neuroticism and Risky sexual Behaviour
4.7 Psychoticism and Involvement in Risky Sexual Behaviour
4.7.1 Determining Psychoticism Personality Sub-type
4.7.2 Psychoticism and Risky Sexual Behaviour
4.7.3 Correlation between Psychoticism and Involvement in Risky sexual
Behaviour
4.8 Personality Sub-types Distribution and Involvement in Risky Sexual
Behaviour
4.9 Regression Analysis for Involvement in Risky Sexual Behaviour

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 SUMMARY OF THE STUDY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of the study
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 Suggestion for further study

REFERENCES

APPENDIX I: Students Personality Questionnaire

APPENDIX II: SEXUAL RISKS SCALE

APPENDIX III: TIME SCHEDULE

APPENDIX IV: BUDGET

DEDICATION

This piece of work is dedicated to my lovely wife Beldine Omanyo and my beautiful daughter Queen Esther Omanyo for being a source of encouragement to me during the compilation of this Thesis by according me sufficient moral support.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I sincerely acknowledge the following individuals for their support during the compilation of this thesis report: The University Supervisors, Dr. Aloka and Ochome Everlyne for continued and relentless academic and technical support, my family members Solomon and Jared for moral and financial support, my Church Pastor, Pastor Tom Ogelo for spiritual and financial Support and Cherwa Mixed Secondary School Principal, Mr. Jared Ngeso for giving me peaceful environment for study and research work.

ABSTRACT

Risky sexual behaviour is a common habit among young people in the world, and its relation with personality has not been explored exhaustively, especially in Kenya. The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between personality sub-types and involvement in risky sexual behaviour among secondary school students in Nyakach Sub-county, Kisumu County, Kenya. The study was guided by the following research objectives; to establish the relationship between introversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour; to find out the relationship between extroversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour; to determine the relationship between the neurotic personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour and to investigate the relationship between the Psychoticism and involvement in risky sexual behavior. The study was informed by two theories that is, the Eysenck’s Theory of personality and the Theory of Planned Behavior. The research design used in this study was the Correlational research design. The sample size of this study was 46 schools representing 88% of the target population. As for the students, 390 students were sampled from total target population 15,678. This study used multistage random sampling to select the schools and students. Quantitative data was collected using Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Risky Sexual Behaviour Questionnaires. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentages and mean) as well as inferential statistics (Pearson Correlation and multiple regressions). The major findings of the study showed relationship between personality sub-types and involvement in risky sexual behaviour (for introversion r=-0.439, extroversion r=0.786, neuroticism r=-0.410 and Psychoticism r=0.025). Multiple regression at R2=0.679 showing that personality subtypes are significant predicators of involvement in risky sexual behaviour at 67.9%. Reliability of questionnaires was obtained through internal consistency with cronbach’s constant at 0.632.The study recommended that the Ministry of Education should develop working guidelines to educate and mould the students in a way that they reduce their risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. Categorizing and profiling the students into their most dominant personality subtypes is one way that can be used to offer strategic counseling so as to handle various students depending on their personality subtypes. This will help reduce the tendency of students to involve in risky sexual behaviour. Stringent policy and laws on alcohol distribution should be developed and determined to ensure students, especially those who are considered to be underage, do not access alcohol since their risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviour increases with the consumption of alcohol and other drugs. The Ministry of Education should ensure that sex education as contained in the syllabus at various levels should be detailed and emphatic on the use of condoms so as to be able to debug the myths and negative attitudes that students have towards the use of condoms.

ABBREVIATION AND ACRONYMS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1: Sampling matrix for respondents

Table 3.2: Sampling matrix for schools

Table 3.3: Sampling matrix for classes

Table 3.4: case processing summary.

Table 3.5: Reliability statistics..

Table 3.6: Data analysis matrix

Table 4.1: Questionnaire Return Rate

Table 4.2: Student Respondents Gender

Table 4.3: Responses on the Introversive Scale

Table 4.4: Score on Various Personality Subtype Scale by Highly Introversive Students

Table 4.5: Perspective of Introversive Personality sub type on Risky Sexual Behaviour

Table 4.6: Correlation - Introversive and Involvement in Risky Sexual Behaviour

Table 4.7: Responses on the Extroversive Scale

Table 4.8: Score on various personality subtype scale by highly extroversive students

Table 4.9: Performance on the Sexual Risk Scale by Extroversive Subtype

Table 4.10: Correlation - Extroversive and Involvement in Risky Sexual Behaviour

Table 4.11: Students Response on the Neuroticism Scale

Table 4.12: Score on Various Personality Subtype Scale by Highly Neurotic Students

Table 4.13: Performance of Neuroticism on the Risky Sexual Behaviour Scale

Table 4.14: Correlation between Neuroticism and Risky Sexual Behaviour

Table 4.15: Students Response on the Psychoticism Scale

Table 4.16: Score on Various Personality Subtype Scale by Highly Psychotic Students

Table 4.17: Psychoticism Performance on the Risky Sexual Behaviour Scale

Table 4.18: Correlation -Psychoticism and Involvement in Risky sexual Behaviour

Table 4.19: Personality Sub-type distribution and Risky Sexual Behaviour Score

Table 4.20: Regression Analysis Model Summary

Table 4.21: ANOVAb

Table 4.22: Multiple regression analysis for Risky Sexual Behaviour

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: TPB Model

Figure 1.2: Conceptual framework

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Risky sexual behaviour is a common habit among young people, and its relation with personality has not been explored exhaustively, especially in Kenya. Centre for Disease control and Prevention (CDC) (2013) conducted a research on sexual risk behavior: HIV, STD and Teen Pregnancy Prevention and found that many young people engage in risky sexual behavior that can result in unintended health outcomes. For example, among USA high school students surveyed in 2013: 47% had ever had sexual intercourse, 34% had sexual intercourse during the previous three months and out of these 41% did not use a condom the last time they had sex. 15% had had sex with four or more people during their life. Only 22% of sexually experience students have ever been tested for HIV. Nearly 10,000 young people (age 13 – 24) were diagnosed with HIV infections in the United States in 2013. Nearly a half of the 20 million new STDs each year were among young people, between the ages of 15 to 24 in United States (CDC report, 2013).

Deresse and Debebe (2014) conducted a research in Ethiopia and reported that risky sexual behaviour increases the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health Consequences such as unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. From survey conducted on 508 students for Boditi Secondary school and preparatory school, 95% of the students were found to be sexually active. About 20.5% of the students had committed sex with more than one sexual partner in their life times and in six months prior to survey. Concerning the frequency of condom use, 69% used condom with casual friends inconsistently or never.

Soboka and Gemedu (2015) conducted a research among Arba Minch University students, Ethiopia, and suggested that youth fertility regulation and pregnancy prevention are among the major health care challenges of the 21stcentury in developing and developed countries. Among 404 participants, 127 (31.4%) reported having at least one risky sexual behaviors in their lifetime. Risky sexual behaviour was high among the respondents who were engaged in non- health field of study, who were rural residents before joining the campus and who don’t discuss sexual issues with their parents. In addition, risky sexual behaviour was higher among the respondents who use drugs following the study of prevalence of risky sexual behavior among Arba Minch University students which was high at 31.4 %.

Mulu, Mulat and Bayeh (2014) conducted a research study among students at Bahir Dar University and suggested that sexual behaviour is the Core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youth. According to the study of 817 study participants, 297 (36. 4%) students had ever had sex. The mean age at first sexual practice was 18.6 years. Unprotected sex, having multiple partners, sex with commercial sex workers and sex for the exchange of money was practiced by 184 (62%), 126 (42.7%), 22 (7.4%) and 12 (4%) of sexually active students respectively. The proportion of attending night clubs and watches porn videos was 130 (15.8%) and 534 (65.4%) respectively. Male respondents had a significant positive association with watching porn videos and attending night clubs. Watching porn videos, khat chewing and taking alcohol frequently were significantly associated with forever had sex and having multiple sexual partners.

Berhan and Berhan (2015) study revealed that out of 19,148 males aged 15 – 24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 Months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher risk sex. The proportion of higher risk sex among male youth aged 15 – 19 years old was nearly 90% in 21 out of 26 Countries. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher risks sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15 – 19 years old and 20 – 24 years old respectively. Male youths’ socio – economic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice high risk sex.

Gemechu and Worku (2014) study among university college student in Ethiopia, suggested that among 374 respondents, 160 (41.8%) reported that they had sexual experience. Majority of the participants were in the age range of 20 – 24 Years. The mean reported age for first sex was 17. 6 Years. Students who were sexually active before joining college were two times at risk of having multiple sexual partners, compared to their counter parts. Students who were in rented houses, who watched pornography, who use alcohol and drugs were at a high risk of engaging in risky sexual activities. Multiple partnership and inconsistency in condom use were more prevalent.

Otieno (2015) reported on the risky HIV sexual behaviour and depression among university of Nairobi students and found out that prevalence rates of HIV infection among the youth are disproportionately high compared to that of other age groups in Kenya. The percentage of those who had even been diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections was 9.71% and for HIV was 3.04%. Nearly 30% reported having had multiple partners in the previous 12 months, 27.4% of the students did not use condoms with sexual partners and 21% had engaged in sex after drinking within the previous 3 months.

UNAIDS report (2012) on prevention of HIV among young people found out that condom use among young people with multiple partners stood at 67.3% for males and 37.1% among females. It was also noted that the young people were aged 15 to 24 years.

Kenya AIDS indicator survey (2012) released recently by Health Cabinet Secretary, James Macharia at a Nairobi Hotel reported that HIV prevalence in Nyanza rose by 0.2 percent over the past five years. This despite an increase in the number of circumcised males in the region. A previous research done in 2007 estimated that HIV prevalence rate in the region was 14.9%. This revelation faults scientific finding and popular belief that circumcision help reduce HIV infection by a wider margin. Currently the HIV/AIDS prevalence in Nyanza stands at 15.1% making it the region with highest prevalence rate in Kenya.

Kenya forum net (2013) reported that in Kisumu County, people living with HIV are 113,000 and the number of new infections stood at 7,100 (in the year 2011). The HIV prevalence rate in Kisumu stands at 18.7%.

Dak Achana II report (2008) revealed that HIV prevalence is high in the Lake side region of Nyakach. According to Kenya Health Information Soft ware(KHIS) data for Nyakach sub county: in the year 2014, a total of 13,554 children( age 14 years and above) were under patient cotrimoxaz treatment of HIV/AIDS, one child was at WHO stage 4 of

HIV/AIDS, 96 children were at WHO stage 1, 240 children were under Prophylasis therapy, 123 children were at WHO stage 2 of HIV/AIDS, 8 children were enrolled ART in patients, 2 children were enrolled ART- PMTCT, one child was under PEP for sexual assault, 129 were enrolled ART – all others, 22 children were enrolled for ART- CWC, 33 children were on PEP others and 220 were not started on ART(KHIS data, 2014).

The cumulative HIV data (children 14 years and above) from 2012 to 2014 were as follows in Nyakach: 50332 children were under cotrimoxazal therapy for HIV, 6 under WHO stage 4, 260 under WHO stage 1, 608 under prophlysis therapy, 215 under WHO stage 2, 19 enrolled ART, 68 enrolled ART PMTCT, 34 on PEP and 581 not started on ART. As it is observed from the above literature and data from international level to local level, risk sexual behavior is a significant issue affecting young people in schools in various ways. The present study therefore sought to establish the relationship between personality subtypes and involvement in risky sexual behaviour among the secondary school students in Nyakach Sub County, Kenya.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Following the KHIS data for people living with HIV/AIDS in Nyakach Sub County, it is evident that persistence in risky sexual behaviour is a major problem among the residents of Nyakach especially among young people. The causes of high prevalence of risky sexual behaviour in Nyakach may be attributed to socioeconomic, cultural, developmental and behavioural aspects of life.

Specific forms of adolescent substance use significantly predicts risky sexual behaviour at age 21 years, after other substance use and early measures of sexual behaviour were controlled (Jie Guo, 2002). Risk sexual behaviour is responsible for HIV, STIs and teen pregnancy (CDC, 2013). The magnitude of risky sexual behaviour among high school students reflects that risky sexual behaviour increase the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health consequences such as unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion and sexual transmitted infections including HIV and STDs (Deresse, 2014). Engaging in sexual intercourse is high risk behaviour for youth because of the potential, physical and socio – emotional risks they present. Youth may or may not be ready for socio and emotional implications of sexual activity and many sexual active youth do not use safe sexual practices (Maria Rosario, 2007).

Review of available literature shows that the researches have been done on effects and factors promoting involvement in risky sexual behaviour, leaving out the behavioural aspect of personality. The present study therefore filled the gap by investigating the relationship between personality subtypes and involvement in risky sexual behaviour among secondary School students in Nyakach Sub County, Kisumu County.

1.3 Research Objectives

The research was guided by the following research objectives:

(i) To establish the relationship between introversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.
(ii) To find out the relationship between extroversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.
(iii) To determine the relationship between the neurotic personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.
(iv) To investigate the relationship between the Psychoticism and involvement in risky sexual behavior.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested:

Ha1: There is statistically significant relationship between introversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Ho1: There is no statistically significant relationship between introversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behavior.

Ha2: There is statistically significant relationship between extroversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Ho2: There is no statistically significant relationship between extroversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Ha3: There is statistically significant relationship between neurotic personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Ho3: There is no statistically significant relationship between neurotic personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behavior.

Ha4: There is statistically significant relationship between Psychoticism personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Ho4: There is no statistically significant relationship between Psychoticism personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

1.5 Scope and Delimitation of the study

The research was conducted and confined within the boundaries of Nyakach Sub County – Kisumu County in Kenya. The study was done in Secondary Schools of Nyakach Sub County. The personalities of students were measured using Eysenck’s Personality inventory and were classified as introversion, extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism. The participation in risky sexual behavior was measured using special design questionnaire for risky sexual behaviour scales of: consistency in condom use, number of sexual partners, abstinence and sexual debut age. The research was limited to finding out the relationship between the personality subtypes and involvement in risky sexual behaviour among secondary school student in Nyakach Sub County. The sub county is chosen because of risky sexual activities prevalence (KHIS data for Nyakach, 2014). Student population is chosen because of the diverse characteristics which can be measured.

1.6 Significance of the study

The study has a number of beneficial contributions. First the findings of this study could be instrumental to the Ministry of Education in designing a curriculum on sex education which helps reduce cases of risk sexual behaviour among students. Secondly, parents and teachers may gain from the knowledge pool by creating supportive home and school environment for the learners. Thirdly, the Teachers Service Commission may adopt the strategies explored in reducing risk sexual activities to help in teachers discipline and management. Fourthly, the teacher counselors might be enlightened on strategies of reducing risky sex which can be applied in guidance and counseling sessions. Lastly, the students would be informed on predisposition factors to risk sexual activities and other researchers can use the recommendations from this study for further research.

1.7 Theoretical frame work

Theoretical framework is the compilation of thoughts and theories on a research topic. It tries to identify the core set of subtopics of connection within a research study, showing how they are related. This study was informed by Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Eysenck personality theory.

1.7.1 Theory of Planned Behavior

The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is one of the most widely cited and applied behavior theories. It is one of a closely interrelated family of theories which adopt a cognitive approach to explaining behavior which centers on individuals’ attitudes and beliefs. The TPB (Ajzen and Madden 1986) evolved from theories of reasoned action.

FishBein and Ajzen (1975) posited intention to act as the best predictor of behavior. Intention is itself an outcome of the combination of attitude towards a behavior. That is the positive or negative evaluation of behavior and its expected outcome and subjective norms which are the social pressure exerted on an individual resulting from their perceptions of what others think they should do and their inclination to comply with these. The TPB added a third set of factors as affecting intention (and behavior): perceived behavioural control. This is the perceived case or difficulty with which the individual will be able to perform or carry out the behaviour and is very similar to notions of self efficacy (Bandura, 1997).The key components of TPB are illustrated (Munro, 2007) .This is as presented in figure 1.1

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: BMC Public Health Journal 2007:104

The TPB is suited to predicting behavior and retrospective analysis of behavior and has been particularly widely used in relation to health (Armitage and conner 2001, Taylor 2007). Evidence suggested that TPB can predict 20-30% of variance in components of behavior brought about via intervention and a greater proportion of intention. Strong correlations are reported between behaviors and both attitude towards the behavior and perceive behavior control components of the theory. To date only weak correlations have been established between behavior and subjective norms. Armitage and conner (2001) however suggest that this issue is most likely to be methodological and stated that the few studies which measured subjective norms appropriately actually illustrate reasonable strong relationship with behavior.

The TPB is not considered useful or effective relation to planning and designing the type of intervention that will result into behavior change (Webb, 2010). Using the theory to explain and predict likely behavior may, however, be a useful to method for identifying particular influence on behavior that could be targeted for change. Hardeman (2002) concluded that even authors use TPB to develop parts of the intervention; they seem to see the theory as more useful in identifying cognitive target for change than in offering suggestions on how these cognitions might be changed.

The TPB informed the study in the following ways. First, TPB helps in the understanding of the process of development of risky sexual behavior by suggesting cognitive aspect like attitude, subjective norms and self efficacy. Secondly the understanding of the development of risky sexual behavior through TPB may help the researcher in proposing some strategies for addressing the cases of risky sexual behavior. And lastly the study will help in building the theory of planned behavior by addressing the weakness of theory cited by Hardeman (2002).

1.7.2 Eysenck’s Personality Theory

Eysenck (1952, 1967 and 1982) developed a very influential model of personality based on the results of factor analyses of responses on personality questionnaires: extraversion, neuroticism and Psychoticism. During 1940 Eysenck was working at Moodsley psychiatric hospital in London. His job was to make initial assessment of each patient before their mental disorder was diagnosed by a psychiatrics. Through this position he compiled a battery of questions about behavior which he later applied to 700 soldiers who were being treated for neurotic disorders at the Hospital (Eysenck, 1947).He found that the soldiers’ answers seemed to link naturally with one another suggesting that there is a number of different personality traits which were being revealed by the soldiers. He called those first orders personality traits (Mc Leod, 2014).

He used a technique called factor analysis. The technique reduced to a number of factors which can be grouped together under separate headings called dimensions. Eysenck found that their behaviour could not be represented by two dimensions. Introversions / extraversions (E), Neuroticism (stables Vs stability (V). The two dimensions of neuroticism Stable Vs unstable) and introversion – extraversion combine to form a variety of personality characteristics. Extroverts are sociable and excitement and change craving thus can become bored easy, they tend to be care free optimistic and impulsive. Introverts are reserved, plan their actions and control their emotions, they tend to be serious reliable and pessimistic. Neurotics tends to be anxious worried and moody. They are overly emotional and find it difficult to calm down once upset. Eysenck related the personality of individual to the functioning automatic nervous system. Personality is dependent on the belief between excitement and inhibition process of the automatic nervous system (ANS). Neurotic individuals have ANS that respond quickly to stress. According to Eysenck, personality is measured using the Eysenck personality inventory (EPI) (Mc Leod, 2014).

Eysenck’s personality theory informed the study in the following ways: First, the personalities of the students were classified according to Eysenck’s model as introversion, extraversion, neuroticism and Psychoticism. Secondly, EPI developed the Eysenck was used to measure the personalities of students and lastly objectives of study are organized using Eysenck’s model of personality. One of the major weakness of this theory is that personality is classified into distinct subtypes, yet personality is a continuum of several traits that is an individual will always portray different levels of personality subtypes.

1.8 Conceptual Framework

Conceptual Framework work is a tool researcher use to guide their study. It is a sort of map guiding the variables. It is an asset of ideas used to structure independent variable in research. The framework informs the study design sample and data collection strategies. It also determines the final interpretation of results. In this study the conceptual framework guided the researcher in finding out the independent variable that could influence dependant variable. Crossman (2013) defines an intervening variable as one that occurs between the independent and dependant variable. It is an internal hypothetical state that is used to explain relationship between observed variables in an empirical research. The intervening variable in this study are sex and alcohol/drug use.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1. 2 : Conceptual framework showing variables

A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action The independent variable in this study is personality subtypes which is structured into introversion, extraversion, neuroticism and Psychoticism. The dependant variable in the research is involvement in risky sexual behavior. The two variables are related in such a way that both of them are influenced by environment and genetics. Sex, being male or female, may influence someone’s involvement in risky sexual behaviour. Girls are more prone to risky sexual behaviour than boys hence the influence of sex was controlled by comparing the influences in both sexes. Class is a developmental stage. Students in a particular class are under a given age set, for example form 2 class may get involved in risky sexual behaviour because at this class most of them are at adolescent. Alcohol or drug use alters an individual behaviour. Once cognition is lost the individual can participate in risky sexual behaviour. These intervening variables were significant in explaining the relationship between personality subtypes and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

1.9 Definition of Operational Terms

The following terms have been defined for the purpose of understanding this study:

Personality: Refers to enduring personal characteristic that are revealed in particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations.

Personality Subtypes: Refers to either being introvert, extrovert, neurotic or psychotic as proposed by Hans Eysenck

Risky sexual behaviour: Refers to behaviour or an activity which may lead an individual to contract HIV/ AIDS or STI through sexual contact by varied means.

Involvement in risky sexual behaviour: refers to the dependent variable which describes an individual participation in risky sex which can result into contracting HIV or STIs.

Extroverts: In this research is defined according to Eysenck as sociable, excitement craving, change craving and carefree individual. They tend to optimistic and impulsive.

Introverts: In this research is defined according to Eysenck as reserved, serious, reliable and pessimistic individuals. They plan their actions and control their emotions.

Neurotics: In this research are defined as anxious and worried individuals.

Psychoticism: Is defined as lacking empathy, cruel, loner, aggressive and troublesome individuals. They can do anything to succeed, including stepping on others. They are cold.

Students: Refers to persons studying in secondary schools ages 13 – 20.

Secondary School: Refers to a second level of learning after primary school level in Kenya

Sex: is intervening variable suggesting the sex of an individual as male or female.

Alcohol / Drug Use: involvement in issues related to alcohol or drug use

Children: Student population age 13 years to 18 years.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

This chapter presents a review of related literature on the relationship between personality subtypes and involvement in risky sexual behavior among students in secondary schools across the world. Previous international, regional (Africa) and local (Kenya) researchers have used various design and statistical techniques in studying the relationship between personality and involvement in risky sexual behavior among students.

2.2 Introversive personality subtype and involvement risky sexual behavior

Zietsch, Verweij, Bailey, Wright and Martin (2010) conducted a research on genetic and environmental influence on risky sexual behavior and its relationship with personality in Australia. The participants were drawn from Australia National Health and Research Council Twins Registry (ATR). The research design used was a cohort study , which was conducted in two phases, in phase one all twins pairs (N=4269 aged between 18 and 25) and in phase, two an additional group pairs in an older cohort (aged 27 and 57 years old) was asked to participate in sexual behavior and attitude study . The study found that risky sexual behavior was significantly negatively correlated with introversion (r =-0.27).The findings suggested that genetic influences that shape our personality may also predispose us to risky sexual behavior .Whereas the above reviewed study involved older participants (ages 27 to 57) who are not secondary school students, the present study has filled in the gap by conducting a correlation study among the secondary students in Nyakach sub- county, Kenya.

Kaufman, Peterson, and Geher (2011) conducted a research on predicting preferences for sex acts, the trait which matter most and why? The research was carried out at New York University – U.S.A using a survey design. A sample of 607 young adults (144 males and 463 females) completed measures of each of those traits as well as a measure of preference for specific sex acts (a long with providing information on their sexual orientation).The trait predicted variety in preferences for sex acts with mating intelligence being the most predictive (for instance mating intelligence was positively related to sex difference emerged e.g. male show a stronger preference for anal sex than the female do). Extraversion seems to have obvious social and reproductive benefits compared with introversion. However introversion’s high incidence in human population begs the question of why introversion survives across generations (Nettle & Clegg, 2008). While the above reviewed study was more descriptive and predictive in preference to sex acts without touching the issue of group differences, the present study has bridged the gap by conducting both co relational and group difference study.

Zafar and Meenakish (2012) conducted a research on the relationship between extroversion-introversion and risk taking in the context of the second language acquisition among VIT university students. The study suggested that two of the most examined dimensions of personality that have an affective influence on language learning are extroversion and introversion. The qualitative research was done through analysis of the past studies. The results concluded that a more introverted personality may be better suited to classroom learning especially reading and writing skills. Risk takers who are believed to be inherently extroverts, are more likely to take their existing language system to the limit. The above reviewed study looks into introversion in terms of risk taking in language acquisition, neglecting the other aspects of risk taking behaviours like risky sexual behaviour. The present study has bridged the gap by including risky sexual behaviour as a part of the study.

Harbaugh (2010) conducted a research on the effect of personality styles (level of extroversion-introversion) on social media use. The self reported assessment was done. The survey design was used. The results indicated that heavy face book users, who spend more than two hours daily on the site, are seen by themselves and others as more outgoing and extroverted. The introverts do not spend most of their time in social media hence are at lower risk of media influence than extroverts. Introverts and extroverts are pre-dominant in human population. The above reviewed study shows that introversion-extroversion is related to social media use, which may be one factor contributing to involvement in risky sex, but fails to show how it influences student’s involvement in risky sexual behaviour. The present study has bridged the gap by showing how introversion is related to involvement in risky sexual behaviour when social media is controlled.

Nidhi and Prerna (2010) on the research topic: relationship between risk taking behaviour, personality and sensation seeking tendencies among NCC cadets in India. The sample consisted of 100 participants. A survey design was used. The results indicated that there is a significant relation between personality and sensation. Risk taking was found to be minimal among introverts and maximum in extroverts. The above reviewed study tries to seek relationship between personality and risk taking, but neglects the risky sexual behaviour perspective. The present study has bridged the gap by studying the relationship between introversion and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Schmitt and Todd (2008) on the research topic: Big five traits related to short term mating; from personality to promiscuity across 46 nations, conducted a descriptive project with 13,243 participants from 46 nations. Several traits showed consistent links with short term mating; extraversion positively correlated with interest in short term mating as compared with introversion. Low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness also related to short term mating, especially with extra pair mating. While the above reviewed study focuses on personality traits and short term mating based on the big five model, the idea of sexual risk was left out. The present study has bridged the gap by considering involvement in risky sexual behavior.

Sarkis (2014) on the published article entitled: do extroverts really take more risks? Why you may want introverts on your business team. The study was done by qualitative review of several literatures. The result showed that introverts are more likely to take calculated risks than their extroverted peers. The calculated risks are defined as risk in which a person steps back and look at the pros and cons of a decision before taking action. Whereas the above literature concentrated on calculated risk which can be taken by introverts, the perspective of calculated risk of involvement in risky sexual behavior was left out. The present study has bridged the gap by including involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Contessa, Suarez, Kyriakides and Nadzam (2013) conducted a research on the influence of surgeon personality factors on risk tolerance. The research was qualitative in nature and design. The results indicated that surgeons who scored as extroverted were more tolerant of risk than their introverted peers. They scored as less likely to be reluctant to admit a mistake to a physician than those who were introverted. The above reviewed literature looked into the influence of surgeon personality factors on risk tolerance, but did not consider the students and risky sexual behaviour perspective. The present study has bridged the gap by investigating the relationship between student personality subtypes and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Roy (2000) conducted a research on introversion and risk factor for suicidal behaviour in depression in South Africa. The research design used was experimental in nature. Depressed students who had attempted suicide (N=41) were compared with depressed who had never attempted suicide (N=56) and normal controls (N=56) for their scores on three personality questionnaires. The results indicated that in particular only depressed patients who attempted suicide had significant lower introversion scores than the control. Whereas the above reviewed study focuses on introversion as a significant predictor of suicidal risk, it has mixed the perspective of depression leaving out risky sexual behaviour. The present study has bridged the gap by investigating the relationship between introversion and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

David (2001) conducted a research on introversion and extroversion: implications for depression and suicidality in South Africa. The results indicated that introversion is especially promising in its relationship to phenomenology and outcome of depression, and may represent an underlying heritable trait of etiologic significance. Lower risk of suicidality is in introverts. Whereas the above reviewed study looked into introversion: implications on depression and suicidality, the study is weak because it did not consider the perspective of sexual risk. The present studies has brigded the gap by considering risky sexual behaviour.

Mwende (2013) reported online on the article: introverts and dating in Kenya that extroverts are more involved in dating than introverts. This involvement in dating activities exposes the introverts at lower risk of engaging in risky sex than extroverts. Whereas the above literature focuses on introversion and dating, the perspective of sexual risk is not well covered. The present study has bridged the gap by considering risky sexual behaviour.

Hart (2011) reported on the article: the good side of introverts in Kenya that extroverts like fun and take more risks than introverts who are withdrawn and are careful in taking risk. Whereas the above reviewed literature focused on general risk taking, the element of risky sexual behaviour was left out. The present study has included the perspective of risky sexual behaviour.

2.3 Extroversive personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behavior

Mc Ghee, Ehrler and Buck halt (2012) conducted a research on the relationship between five factors personality traits and risk – taking behavior in preadolescents .The participants in the study were drawn from a public school in Georgia – USA (27males and 28 females) .The result indicated that high extraversion and openness to experience and low conscientiousness were correlated with high risk – taking. The five factors personality inventory (FPI –Children) was significantly predictive of risk taking behavior and accounted for 42% of the risk taking variance based on a multiple regression analysis. The finding suggested that the same mechanisms that are associated with adult risk taking may already be present in children as young as 10 to 12 years of age. Whereas the above reviewed study dwelt on the personality and general risk taking, it did not consider the risky sexual behavior and Eysenck’s personality dimension. The present study bridged the gap by narrowing down to the risk – taking behavior called risk sexual behavior and using Eysenck’s personality perspective instead of the five factors model.

Marina (2013) conducted a research on association between personality traits risk taking on behavioral task and risky behavior in Croatia. The five factors theory of personality was used. A sample of 92 students completed IPIP : a 300 item version of personality questionnaire used to asses five domains of personality .A composite measure of general propensity towards risky behavior was compiled of seven items .The result were as follows ,extraversion and agreeableness were positively and openness was negatively was correlated to risky behavior. Whereas the reviewed study explored risk taking on behavioral task using five model factors, it was not specific to risk sexual behavior. The present study bridged the gap by looking into a specific behavior task called risky sexual behavior how it is related to personality considering the Eysenck’s dimension of personality.

Jeneice (2013) studied perceived susceptibility to negative consequences of risky sexual behavior among college students. The participants consisted of 170 undergraduate enrolled in counseling psychology courses at Boll state university in Muncie, Indiana. The research design used was survey .The research showed that college students understand the risk associated with risky sex, but make up to close 50% of new STI cases every year. Previous research suggested that lower perceived susceptility to negative consequences; extraversion openness and neuroticism are all related to risky sex.While the above reviewed study consider perceived susceptibility to negative consequences of risky sexual behavior, it did not consider secondary school students and Eysenck dimension of personality, the present study filled in the gap by considering secondary school population and Eysenck dimension of personality.

Schmitt (2010) on the research topic: big five related to risky sexual behavior across ten world regions; differential personality association of sexual promiscuity and relationship infidelity used 16,362 participants from 52 nations. The design used was a survey. It was found that high level of extroversion correlates to sexual promiscuity. The above reviewed study looked into the elements of risky sexual behaviour like promiscuity and relationship infidelity, neglecting the aspect of risk of HIV infection. The present study filled in the gap by considering risky sexual behavior as that which can lead into HIV infection.

Ondrej and Geckova (2010) conducted a research on psychological and behaviourial factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among Slovak students. A sample 832 students was used in the study. The psychological factors considered in the study were self esteem, well being, extraversion, neuroticism and religiousness. Extroversion was measured using an abbreviated form of the revised Eysenck personality questionnaire. Inconsistence condom use among extroverts stood at 73.5% and among neurotic personality at 75.8%. Multiple sexual partnerships stood at 40.6% among extroverts and 29% among neurotic personality type. The above reviewed study looked into psychological factors and behavioral factors associated with risky sexual behaviour, considering only two personality dimensions. The present study bridged the gap by considering four dimensions of personality.

Rui (2015) conducted a research on the topic; Personality moderates the link between women’s testosterone and relationship status? The role of extroversion and sensation seeking. 73 women participated in this study. Research showed that testosterone is lower among partnered women, but not for women with more unrestricted sociosexuality. Results showed that there are two fundamental personality traits (extroversion and sensation seeking) which are indices of mating effort and might moderate the association between testosterone and relationship status. While the above study focuses on extroversion as a moderating factor between testosterone and relationship status, the perspective of relationship between extraversion and risky sexual behavior was left out. The present study filled in the gap by studying relationship between extroversion and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Alvergne (2010) on personality and testosterone in men from a high fertility population in northern Kenya suggested that extroversion, a personality dimension associated with sociability, activity and dominance, predicts a man’s mating effort in various human populations. At a proximate level, individual difference in extroversion are likely to be mediated through testosterone; a strong hormonal correlate with men’s reproductive effort. The result of the study showed extroversion predicts higher testosterone in men. While the above study focuses on testosterone in men only, leaving the youths. The present study bridged the gap by investigating relationship between extroversion and involvement in risky sexual behaviour among youths.

Shuper, Narges and Rehm (2014) on the topic: Personality as a predictor of unprotected sexual behaviour among people living with HIV/ AIDS. A qualitative research approach was used (documental analysis). 26 students yielded through the systematic search, sensation seeking and sexual compulsivity were constraints most frequently examined; with few studies investigating personality apologize. Personality constructs that were more conceptually proximal to sexual act, such as sexual compulsivity and sexual related components on sensation seeking, showed relatively direct associations with unprotected sex. Extroversion predicted the likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Whereas more conceptually distal constructs such as generalized impulsivity demonstrates only weak or indirect associations. Whereas the above reviewed literature studies personality as a predictor of unprotected sexual behaviour, it is only focused on people living with HIV/ AIDS. The present study bridged the gap by involving students without determining their HIV – status.

Denis (2011) on the research paper 9 entitled weak states and successful elites: Extroversion strategies in Africa reported that extrovert leaders takes more risk especially in matters related to terrorism and other serious policy issues. The research was conducted in several African states such as DR. Congo Somalia and Chad. Whereas the above literature focuses on extroversion in leadership of African countries, the perspective of the students and risky sexual behaviour has been left out. The present study sought to investigate the relationship between extroversion and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Camelia and Joan (2009) reported on the research article genetic determinants of financial risk taking, a study done among Ariaal men living in Northern Kenya, that harmful stimuli are related to personality traits such as extroversion and novelty seeking. The study used an experimental approach. Whereas the above reviewed literature focuses on the financial risk and extroversion, the element of risky sexual behaviour has been neglected. The present study filled in the gap by investigating the relationship between extroversion and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

2.4 Neurotic personality subtype and involvement in risky sexual behaviour

Shakerian (2013) conducted a research on investigating personality trait and pre marital affair with opposite sex among university students of Sanandaj city. The study investigated the occurrence of communication and friendship among male and female, University students of Sanandaj city by considering their personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness and conscientiousness). Research population in this descriptive correlation study included male and female University students from post – diploma to Masters Level at State and non state university of Sanandaj. Sampling was done by two phase random cluster sampling method which considered the entire sample in second phase in the mentioned clusters. Totally 467 university students in 23 cluster or class took part in this study in the second education semester of 2010 – 2011. Regression analysis of the result proves that neuroticism personality has a meaningful contribution towards the premarital affair. Whereas the study reviewed investigate sexual behaviour. It was only limited to the pre – marital affair. The present study bridged the gap by studying relationship between personality and involvement in risky sex. While the above reviewed study focus on university student population of Sanandaj City, ignoring the secondary schools, the present study bridged the gap by considering secondary school students in Nyakach Sub County, Kenya.

Adrienne and Bischel (2014) conducted a research on association between self rated health and personality. The objective of the study was to examine how big five personality factors predict variability in self rated health in a sample of older Africa Americans from the Baltimore study of block aging. Personality was measured by NEO personality inventory revised and self rated health was used by the Health Problems checklist. The participants were 202 women and 87 men ages ranging from 49 to 90 (M = 67.2 years, SD 8.55). Multiple regressions showed that neuroticism was significant regression predictors of self rated health, after controlling demography factors. In conclusion the findings suggested that individual personality traits may influence health ratings, behaviour and decision making. Whereas the above reviewed study concerns the influence of personality on health ratings behaviours and decision making without being specific to risky sexual behaviour. The present study bridges the gap by studying the relationship between personality and risky sexual behaviour. While the reviewed study focused on the five factor model of model of personality, the present study focused on Eysenck dimensions of personality which is much simply to analyze.

Merritt and Ian (2012) on the research entitled: Personality self efficacy and risk taking in Porkour game. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of self efficacy, on the relationship between personality and risk taking in porkour. The participants were 277 porkour practitioners. The result was that greater reckless risk taking behaviours were associated with high neuroticism and low conscientiousness. Mediation analysis showed that self efficacy exerted significant indirect mediation on the relationship between personality traits of neuroticism and conscientious and risk taking. The percentage of neuroticism in a population was found to stand at 15% of the population. Whereas the above reviewed study focused on the mediation between personality and risk taking, it only viewed it in terms of porkour game and not risky sex. The present study bridged the gap by considering the relationship between personality and risky sex with gender and class as intervening variable.

Settles, Fischer, Melisa and Smith (2012) conducted a research entitled Negative Urgency; A personality predictor of externalizing behavior characterized by neuroticism, low conscientiousness and disagreeableness. The participants were 111 female, ranging from ages 22 to 56 (M =32.32, SD =7.3) 64.9% of the sample was Caucasian, 25.2% Africa. America 1.8%. Asian American 0.9%. Hispanic American and 2.7% other racial ethnic groups. The experimental designed was used whereby diagnosed participants were members of four groups alcohol dependent (n = 44), depression (n= 22) control (n= 22) and sub clinical (n = 23). The findings were that high neuroticism traits predicted internalizing dysfunction but predicted none of these externalizing criteria beyond negative urgency. Whereas the above reviewed study considered a personality predictor of externalizing behaviour based on the neuroticism, it did not consider extraversion and introversion as the aspects of personality. The present study considered student population in Kenya Secondary Schools, extraversion and introversion. The reviewed study only focused on the female gender, the present study considered both genders.

Gurdal and Ertacs (2012) conducted a research on personality group decision making and leadership. The research design used was experimental which was adopted from Gneezy and potters (1997).The experiment involved 10 Turkish Liras between a risk free option and a risky option. Openness and agreeableness emerged as significant determinants of the willingness to lead; non- leaders women and non – leader’s men scored lower on openness and higher in agreeableness as compared to both leaders’ men and leaders women. Neuroticism explained the within gender variance in individual risk averse than men. While the above reviewed study considered risky decision making focusing on the openness, agreeableness and neuroticism by applying the experimental model, the present study bridged the gaps by introducing the personality perspective of introversion to risk sex and by using co relational study.

Serdir (2011) conducted a research on five factor personality traits and risky sport participation. The purpose of this study was to examine difference between risky sport participants and non participants. The sample included 328 individuals. The results showed that risky sport participants have significantly lower levels of conscientiousness and neuroticism. Whereas the above reviewed study consider risky sport participation without involving risky sex. The present study has studied the relationship between personality and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Olalekan (2014) on personality, self efficacy and health anxiety as predictors of health risk behaviour among scavengers in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria. The study utilizes the big five personality model. 202 scavengers participated in the study. It was found that the conscientiousness, predicted personality safety of health risk. Neuroticism significantly predicted violence related behaviour. While the above reviewed literature focuses on personality, self efficacy and health anxiety as predictor of health risk behaviour among scavengers, it did not look into risk sex related health behaviour. The present study bridged the gap by considering personality and risky sexual behaviour participation.

Lahey (2010) on public health significance of neuroticism. Neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to report with negative emotions to threat, frustration or loss. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of profound of much different health risk (mental and physical disorders comobidity among them and the frequency of mental and general health service use). Indeed neuroticism apparently is predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Whereas the study reviewed above focuses on neuroticism and significant health risk. It did not consider the aspect of risk sexual behaviour hence the present study helped in the assessment of relationship between personality and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Luke (2010) on the topic, risky sex in Urban Kenya: The bitter side of sugar daddy affair. Sugar daddy relationships are marked by large age and economic disparities between partners and are believed to be a major factor in speed of risky sex in Sub – Saharan Africa. A survey design was used in this research. Data on the survey sample men between age 21 – 45and their recent partnerships were analyzed to calculate prevalence of sugar daddy relationship. This article describes the study findings and present facts about intergenerational sexual relationships. Whereas the study reviewed above involved the study of risky sex in urban Kenya, it did not consider the aspect of rural and youths. The present study bridged the gap by studying the relationship between personality and risky sex among schools located in both urban and rural Parts of Nyakach.

Krista, Jeffrey, Henry and Paul (2002) conducted a research on personality pathways to unsafe sex among 201 African participants. The results indicated that high neuroticism is associated with HIV risk behaviours. Neuroticism facet of impulsivity indicated an inability to resist cravings and urges. Since the above reviewed study was carried out in several African countries, the study did not consider the students perspective. The present study bridged the gap by considering the students perspective specifically in Nyakach Sub County.

Lubomir and Jana (2015) on the online article risk preference under acute stress conducted a qualitative research and reported that neuroticism is significantly related with acute risk taking in financial sector, banking sector and everyday life. Whereas the above reviewed study was conducted in Kenya, the perspectives of sexual risk preferences were not investigated. The present study bridged the gap by investigating the relationship between neuroticism and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

2.5 Psychoticism and involvement in risky sexual behaviour

Momtaz and Mohammed (2012) on the research topic: Sexual Risk among substance users and its relation to personality profile. 100 participants were used in the study. The quasi experimental design was used. The result showed that there was statistically significant difference in extroversion and neuroticism between cases of control. There were statistically significant difference between the cases and controls in terms of sexual sub scale of RAB. There was a significant correlation between Psychoticism and criminality sub scales in Eysenck personality questionnaire and the RAB in the case group. Whereas the study reviewed above entailed sexual risk among substance users and its relationship to personality. It did not single out risky sexual behaviour on its own hence the present study bridged the gap by looking into the relationship between personality and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Durvasula and Reagan (2015) on the research title: Personality and sexual risk in HIV positive gay man. The present study examines the association between wide variety of personality variables and sexual risk factor because gay population has high HIV prevalence in the United States. A sample of 107 HIV positive gay was used in the study. Personality was assessed multi-dimensionally using MCMI – III, Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) NEO – PI – R, Sensation Seeking Sides (SSS) and a structured clinical interview to asses’ personality disorders. The results revealed that a greater proportion of men with cluster B personality disorder (PD) diagnosis (borderline, narcissistic, antisocial or histrionic) reported having two or more sexual partners compared to those without a cluster B PD. Psychotic features, and hostile control scales were observed in men who reported consistent condom use(less risk). While the above reviewed study looks into risky sex and personality among gay men, it did not consider gay females and students. The present study bridged the gap by considering the students in the assessment of risky sexual behaviour.

Annette, Elizabeth and Ostergen (2012) on the study: Youth, Sexual risk – taking behaviour and mental health: A study of University students in Uganda. A sample of 980 students was used. Self administered questionnaire assessing socio demographic and religious background factors, mental health, alcohol use and sexual behaviour was used. The result showed that Psychoticism was also significantly associated with high numbers of sexual partners. Female students were found to be at more risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviour than their male counterparts. Whereas the above reviewed study focused on risky sex and mental health, the present study only focused on personality and how it is related to risky sex.

Brown, Lubman and pexton (2010) on the topic: Sexual risk behaviour in young people with first episode psychosis. Sixty seven sexually active young people with first episode psychosis and 48 healthy control participants (aged 18 – 29) closely matched on assessing a comprehensive range of sexual risk behaviour. The result was that few differences in the rates of sexual risk behaviour were reported by the first episode sample and their peers. Compared with control participants, young people with the first episode psychosis reported significantly more inconsistent in condom use. Whereas the above reviewed literature focused on risky sexual behaviour among people with first episode of psychosis, it did not relate it with personality; hence the present study focused on normal people without psychosis and personality dimension was considered.

Unruh (2015) on the dark triads and risky behaviour conducted a research with a sample of 115 under graduate college students using a survey design. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between Psychoticism and life history on mating risk, which included engaging in unprotected sex and multiple sexual partnerships. The above reviewed study focuses on the dark triads: narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy, neglecting the other personality dimensions. The present study bridged the gap by considering other personality dimensions.

Sonja and Stewart (2014) on the research: risk taking behaviour and criminal offending; an investigation of sensation seeking and the Eysenck personality questionnaire. The research used 92 male offenders in two Southeast Queensland prisons. Eysenck’s Psychoticism trait was demonstrated to be a clear marker of the more broad impulsive, unsocialized sensation seeking factor rather than representing a super-trait in its own right. While the above reviewed study focuses on risk taking behaviour and criminal offending among prisoners, leaving the youths and schools, the present bridged the gap by involving the youths and schools in the study of relationship between personality and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Verhulst (2010) on the research topic: the nature of the relationship between personality traits and political attitudes, conducted a survey research on a sample of 20,559 participants. The results indicated that Psychoticism was strongly related to conservative positions on punishment, religion and sex attitudes. Psychoticism and social attitudes were due to a common genetic influence. Whereas the above reviewed study focuses on personality traits and political attitudes, the aspect of risky sexual behaviour is left out. The present study bridged the gap by considering the aspects of risky sexual behaviour as part of sex attitudes.

Watson and Pulford (2010) conducted a research on personality differences in high risk sport amateurs and instructors. The study involved 38 men and 28 women across three groups of participants. The results indicated that amateurs scored significantly higher on Psychoticism and self efficacy than the instructors and non-participants. Whereas the above reviewed study focuses on personality differences in high risk sports, the aspect of risky sexual behaviour is left out. The present study bridged the gap by investigating the relationship between Psychoticism and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Michael, Tandrea and Nadine (2009) conducted a research on impact of Psychoticism on perceived hassles, depression, hostility and hopelessness in non-psychiatric Africans (n=134). The results indicated that Psychoticism has substantial effect on several important characteristics: perceived daily hassles, depression and hostility. Depression mediated the association between Psychoticism and hopelessness. Psychoticism appears to cause meaningful dysfunction even among non-psychiatric individuals. Whereas the reviewed study focuses on impact of Psychoticism, its relationship with risky sexual behaviour is not explored. The present study bridged the gap by considering relationship between Psychoticism and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Ndetei (2009) conducted a cross sectional study of co-occurring suicidal risk and Psychoticism in Nairobi (n=691). The results indicated that significant positive correlation (p<0.05) between Psychoticism and suicidal symptoms. Whereas the above reviewed literature involves a cross sectional study in Nairobi, the student population was left out. The present study bridged the gap by investigating the relationship between Psychoticism and risky sexual behaviour.

Kaijaleena (2008) on research dissertation university students attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Finland and Kenya using comparative study among 525 first year students(Finnish 411 and Kenyan 114) reported that sexual risk was significantly related to psychotic signs. Whereas the reviewed study focuses on students’ attitude towards HIV/AIDS, the idea of personality and risky sexual behaviour is left out. The present study bridged the gap by considering personality and Psychoticism.

2.6 Strategies of addressing risky sexual behaviour

Terzian (2011) on preventing multiple risky behaviors among adolescents, seven strategies. The strategies proposed are as follows: support and strengthen family function, increase connection between students and their schools, make communities safe and supportive for children with caring adults, promote involvement in high quality out of school time programme, provide children and youth with opportunities to build social and emotional competence and provide children and youth with high quality education during and middle childhood. While the above study reviewed proposes seven strategies which are environmental and behavioral without involving aspect of personality, the present study proposed a strategy for addressing risky sexual behaviour based on personality.

Centre for disease and prevention (CDC) (2014) suggested that many young people engage in risky sexual behaviour that can result into unintended health outcome for example among U.S.A High School students survey in 2013, 46.85% had ever had sexual intercourse, 34% had sexual intercourse during the previous three months and of this 40.9% did not use condom the last time they had a sex. 15% had sex with four or more people during their life time. Sexual risk behavior place adolescent at risk of HIV Infection, other sexually transmitted diseases and unintended pregnancy. CDC proposed the following ways of preventing sexual risk behaviour: To reduce sexual risk behaviour and related health problem among youth, Schools and other people can help youths adopt long life attitude and behaviour that can reduce their risk for HIV and STDs infection. Therefore, in accordance with the proposal of the CDC, the present study came up with a behaviour modification model based on personality in order to reduce the participation of youths in risky sexual behaviour.

Chowdry etal (2013) on research paper: reducing risky behaviour through provision of information. The department of education commissioned this report from the (CuBec) to explore whether engagement in risky behaviour could be reduced by providing young people with information. First, the report sets the context by summarizing a selection of existing empirical research about pa tterns of risky behaviour among young people supplemented with our own empirical analysis. The current literature was reviewed on effectiveness of two specific approaches to supplying young people with information to reduce participation in risky behaviour: providing information on consequences of that behaviour and providing the information about the true prevalence of the behaviour among their peers (Socio norms). The consequences approach is based on assumption that young people under estimate the potential cost of participation in risky behaviour: providing information on the consequences should therefore make such behaviour less attractive. The socio norms approach notes that young people typically over estimate the prevalence of risky behaviour among their peers and hold that young people’s behaviour is influence by perception of what their peers do. Tackling any misperception could therefore reduce participation in risky behaviour. Whereas the above reviewed study focuses on reducing risky behaviour through cognitive approach, it has neglected both behavioural and developmental approach. The present bridged the gap by proposing a strategy of reducing risky behaviour focusing on behavioural aspects of personality.

Firtz (2011) courtesy of USAID conducted research on alcohol and risky sex; breaking the link. According to WHO alcohol use is the world third largest risk factor for disease and disability (WHO, 2011). Research conducted around the world much of it in the high HIV prevalent Sub – Saharan countries show quietly that alcohol consumption is associated with risky sex. The author proposed alcohol use should be checked in order to reduce participation in risky sexual behaviour. Whereas the reviewed literature considered the aspect of alcoholism in risky sexual behaviour involvement, it does not look into the aspect of personality aspect which may influence alcoholism and risky sex. The present study considered personality aspects.

Loew and Thomson (2011) on the research paper; teens and Risky Sexual behaviour what school counselors need to know. The literature reviewed provided an overview of the research pertaining to adolescent decision making, early sex and other risky behaviours. The role of parents’, school counselors and what the counselors need to know is critical to providing information teens need to avoid. Literature describing how school counselors can incorporate sex education programme is presented and /insight and how to approach adolescent about early sexual activities and how to maintain confidentiality is presented in this study. Whereas the above reviewed literature focuses on teens, it neglected the influence of personality. The present study informed counselors on the relationship between students’ personality and involvement in risky sexual behaviour.

Jackson, Henderson and Frank (2012) on the research topic: an overview of prevention of multiple risk behaviour in adolescent and young adulthood proposed the following strategy of prevention: The most promising programme approaches for reducing multiple risk behaviour simultaneously address multiple domains of risks and protective factors predictive of the behaviour. These programmes seek to increase resilience and promote parental/ family influences and healthy school environment, supportive of positive social and emotional development. However, wider influences on risky behaviour such as media, culture and social climate also need to be addressed through broader policy change. Whereas the above reviewed study looks at various strategies for addressing sexual behaviour, it overlooks the personality factor hence the presence study considered the personality influence on risky sexual behaviour.

Magu, Wanzala , Mutungi and Gathara (2013) on research topic: Sexual Risky Behaviour and Condom Use among students in Kenya universities, proposes the following strategies of reducing risky sexual behaviour. To help students make informed sexual decisions various partners must be involved to broaden their clinical and educational effort. It essential that youth receive HIV education on condom accessibility and have access to health services. Condom user barriers and challenges among youth need to be emphasized in supportive environment in mobilizing the institutions of learning to become a vehicle for HIV prevention. Youths can be reached through campaigns, clubs religious groups, sports, work places and the media. Whereas the above literature proposed environmental strategies of addressing sexual behaviour, it neglected innate ability of an individual hence the presence study incorporated the personality as innate ability of an individual.

Carter (2014) on the topic counseling during routine HIV care reduces rates of risky sex among people on ART in South Africa. HIV prevention counseling delivered during routine care reduces risky behaviour in people receiving ART in South Africa; according to research published in the online edition of the journal AIDS. Approximately 2,000 were randomized to receive risk reduction counseling or standard care. Results demonstrated a substantial decline in HIV risk behaviour and persistence of reduced risk behaviour supported by the continued presence of the intervention. Whereas the above reviewed literature focuses on prevention counseling in general without including aspects of personality, the present study bridged the gap by exploring a personality dimension counseling approach to assist in reduction of risk sexual behaviour in youths.

University of North Carolina (2015) on the topic: A Risky Sex Prevention Intervention for Middle School age minority girls (GEMM). The study identifies risk sexual behaviour is caused by lack of assertiveness. This study is unique in promoting increases in racial pride as a component of empowerment to help African America girls self protect against HIV. Whereas the reviewed study depends on racial empowerment, personality factors are neglected hence the present study addressed the issues related to personalities.

Mwaura (2009) on HIV prevention strategies prevention in Kenya. According to this study Kenya has put strategies like VCT, STI diagnosis and Management, abstinence, being faithful to one partner, use of condoms, male circumcision, prevention of ,mother to child transmission, behaviour change communication, safe blood supply and injection safety. Whereas all the reviewed strategies have been exhausted, HIV prevalence is still higher, hence a way should be devised to persuade youth from risky sexual behaviour. The present study added to the body of existing knowledge on HIV and AIDS prevention.

Horizon Programme Impact (2014) on ABC messages for HIV prevention in Kenya: Clarity and confusion, barriers and facilitators. A great deal of attention has been focused recently on the promotion of ABC of HIV prevention – abstinence, being faithful to one partner and consistence condom use. The Horizon Programme and FHI/ Impact developed a collaborative research in 2014 to explore how adults and youths and Kenya define and perceive the ABC terms and behaviours. Findings highlight potential challenges in promoting each of the ABC behaviours, as well as some positive elements that can be built upon when developing a programme. The research design used was surveyed. 538 flower farmers ages 18 – 49 and 1,365 in school youth ages 13 – 19 in two communities in Nakuru District, Naivasha and Molo were used in the study. The results indicated both youths and adults had an almost universal awareness on HIV and the great majority had heard the ABC terms. Specifically 88% of adult and 84% of youths had heard abstinence, 97% of adults and 93% had heard be faithful and 95% of adult and 84% of youths had heard condom use. The recommendation was: prevention strategies that is balanced and does not include contradicting messages should be formed and the intervention should focus on interactive and interpersonal activities. Since the perception of ABC model is being distorted and people are developing a negative attitude towards the model, the present study addressed this gap coming up with a personality approach model to help in the campaign for reduction of HIV / AIDS.

Esther, Pascaline and Kremer (2010) conducted a research on preventing HIV and teen pregnancy in Kenya. A sample of 328 primary schools was used in the study. They reported that the roles of teacher training and education subsidies are important in combating risky sexual behaviour among young people. Whereas the above study focuses on strategies like well designed teacher training and improved subsidies, the perspective of role of personality is left out. The present study sought to bridge the gap by including the personality dimension.

Magu (2012) conducted a research on sexual risk among youths in Kenya. Using a cross sectional research design, the study reported significant relationship between condom use and gender. Whereas the above study focuses only on condom use as a strategy of addressing involvement in risky sexual behaviour, the personality strategy has not been explored. The present study bridged the gap by exploring the personality strategies of addressing risky sexual behaviour.

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the research methodology which includes the research design, population, sample description of the research instruments, data collection and data analysis procedures.

3.2 Research Design

The research design which was used in the research study is Correlational research design. A correlation is simply defined as relationship between some given variables (Kowalczyk, 2015). A Correlational research can take several forms including: naturalistic observation, survey design and archival research (Kowalczyk, 2015).

The Correlational study guided the research in the following ways: data analysis involved computing correlation coefficients like contingency coefficient and Pearson product moment. Predictive correlation by use of multiple regression analysis helped the researcher in predicting personality subtype which has higher chances of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. The use of correlation to study group difference helped the researcher in comparison of group’s risk means of personality subtypes which is significant in hypotheses testing and generalization of the findings. Correlational research is chosen for this study because it is flexible, .since it can take diverse forms: a relationship study, a predictive study or a group difference study.

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Details

Pages
94
Year
2016
ISBN (eBook)
9783668388598
ISBN (Book)
9783668388604
File size
881 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v343635
Grade
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personality among nyakach sub-county kisumu county keny

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Title: Personality subtypes and involvement in risky sexual behaviour