FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
PROGRAMME : Human Resources Management
MODULE TITLE : Human Resources Management 2
QUESTION : Discuss the relevance of Garavan 1991s model of hrm development.
Prescriptive model HRD of 1991 is still relevant and its relevance can be traced in Garavan’s definition of Human Resources Development [HRD] used as a guide in this essay which states that, “HRD is the strategic management of training, development and of management or professional education interventions so as to achieve the objectives of the organization while at the same time ensuring the full utilization of the knowledge in detail and skills of individual employees.” (Garavan 1991). Gilley and Eggland (1989) concluded that, “HRD is an organized learning activity within the organization used to improve performance and personal growth for the purpose of improving the job, the individual and the organization at large.”
HRD practices advocate integration with organizational missions and goals in this context are seen as a vital factor in organizational learning, training and development. These aspects are also viewed as making an effective contribution to business goals and organisational growth. Barham et al (1987) pointed out that, “HRD involves a move from activities that are fragmented to a situation where training and development is either more systematically linked to such goals or else is so systematically integrated with organizational needs that it is seen as a necessity for organizational survival.” So these HRD practises are in a sense stating that without the implementation of HRD in the organisation it may find its self-struggling to stay in the business industry basically incurring heavy losses and in a that perspective failing to survive. All business oriented goals are too make maximum profits whilst minimising loses and HRD is a useful tool to achieving the mentioned goal in the organisation.
Garavan (1991) environmental scanning aspect argues, “That a competitive environment presents major opportunities as it highlights the role of human resources as a key component of business success.” This in turn will present the opportunity to discuss HRD strategies at the highest level and will ensure that the first characteristic discussed above strategic integration is achieved. The environment can also act as a threat to the HRD function. Stiff competition, if not tackled effectively will reduce profit margins and consequently lead to a reduction in training budgets. This situation clearly points to the need for HRD strategy to be well positioned in the overall business context including organizational learning. So the environmental scanning theme looks at the broader external influences that affect profits such as competition from other firms or even a weak economy. These factors in turn affect training programmes because when a company experiences losses it may introduce budget cuts on development programmes. Frequent environmental scanning results in greater performance.
The line manager is best placed to assess on an ongoing basis the training and development needs of subordinates and can facilitate the identifying of development routes for subordinates and is ideally placed to provide advice, direction and counselling to subordinates. Therefore the competence of line managers is vital to a successful implementation of strategic HRD and organizational learning. In many organizations expenditure on the training programmes is not or does not reflect investment in a financial sense but instead is perceived as a cost to the organisation. “When management training is considered it is concentrated towards the bottom end of the management hierarchy in most cases.” (Brown et al 1989). It is obvious that increased investment in organizational learning requires the active participation of top management in the training process because their leadership has strong effects on top management innovation and also has significant influence within the organisation. In support of the HRD-specific views of leadership the human resource management context directly influences leadership and moderates its relationship with organizational learning. So for optimum organisational performance to be achieved both the top and line managers must work together in implementation of HRD training programmes and they themselves must also be participants of these programmes. Garavan HRD practices when aligned correctly with top management should contribute to business strategy based on knowledge of their competencies and capabilities of the organization and including their understanding of the organizational learning that will be required to support specified strategic directions led by top management in the organisation.
Organizational learning should be engaged in HRD policy and plan formulation because it acts not only as a source of information for all managers, but also clearly sets out for employees the different types of education, and learning and development activities that they can undertake to help develop their skills and knowledge, and therefore it complements career development activities. McCracken and Wallace (2000) explained that, “HRD has a role in systematic implementation of strategies, policies and plans.” HRD practices develop the internal learning consultancy capabilities, allowing the organization to shape further its mission and goals, as well as HRD strategies, policies and plans. Policies, strategies and plans which analyse the management of racial and gender identities and conflicts as core components of corporate culture. Culture within the organisation can be a useful tool because if the organisation translates it culture to be hard work, loyalty and so forth the work force will conform to their influences. Developing the ability to influence corporate culture is very important in the process of organizational learning transformation.
HRM is a key component of corporation’s competitive strategic action and also in HRD. It offers a flexible means of achieving market access, scale economies and competence development. Buckley and Caple (1990) rightly pointed out that, “in the past HRD had adopted a closed system mode of thinking.” This has had the consequence of making it unresponsive to organizational needs, unaware of how its activities link in with HRM activities and lack of any significant evaluation. HRD must view itself as one strategy available to an organization wishing to retain, develop and motivate its human resources to increase the value of organizational learning. The Garavan HRD prescriptive model is more of an open system that interacts with the environment its operating in and this leads to it being in a continues evolution as the environment also experiences “new initiatives (technological, productive or commercial) .” (Pérez López et al. 2006 pg. 217).
A key component of the HRD process is that of strategic evaluation. If the HRD function wishes to have a strategic focus, then it must evaluate its activities that it is performing within the organisation. Evaluation of the contribution of HRD to individual employees and organisational effectiveness is necessary to prove that HRD is doing what it was designed to do. Zenger and Hurgis (1982) stressed that, “…strategically-oriented HRD functions spend time evaluating their activities, and they use measures that seem most relevant to the management of their own organization.” In that sense HRD benefits can be quantified on a scale. Evidence from such evaluations usually indicate that an increase in the level of participation in HRD activities was associated with an increase in productivity and employee satisfaction.
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Brown H., Peccei R., Sandberg J., & Welchman R. (1989). Management training and development: In search of an integrated approach. Journal of General Management.
McCracken M., & Wallace M. (2000). Towards a redefinition of strategic HRD. Journal of European Industrial.
Perez Lopez S., Peon J. M. M. & Ordas C. J. V. (2006). Human resource management as a determining factor in organizational learning. Management Learning.
Zenger J. H. & Hurgis K. (1982). Assessing training results: It's time to take the plunge. Training and Development.