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Leader's reliance on types of power to influence their employee in the private sector of Afghanistan

Master's Thesis 2016 66 Pages

Business economics - Controlling

Excerpt

Table of content

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Chapter One
1 Introduction and overview
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Problem Statement
1.3 Research Question
1.4 Objectives
1.5 Significance
1.6 Scheme of thesis

Chapter Two 2 Literature Review
2.1 Leadership, Influence, and Power
2.2 Influence
2.2.1.1 Rational/Logical Persuasion
2.2.1.2 Inspirational Appeal
2.2.1.3 Consultation
2.2.1.4 Collaboration
2.2.2 Outcomes of Influence
2.2.2.1 Commitment
2.2.2.2 Compliance
2.2.2.3 Resistance
2.2.3 Influence Process
2.2.3.1Instrumental Compliance
2.2.3.2Internalization
2.2.3.3 Personal Identification
2.3 Leadership and power
2.4 Authority versus power
2.5 Power
2.5.1 Legitimate Power
2.5.2 Reward Power
2.5.3 Coercive Power
2.5.4 Referent Power
2.5.5 Expert Power
2.5.6 Informational Power
2.5.7 Ecological Power
2.5.8 Connection Power
2.6 Conclusion of the literature

Chapter Three
3 Research Methodology
3.1 Population
3.2 Sample Size
3.3 Procedure
3.4 Research Tools
3.4.1 Primary Data:
3.4.2 Secondary Data:
3.5 Limitation of the Study
3.6 Scope of the Study

Chapter Four
4 Analysis and Findings
4.1 Reliability Test
4.2 Overall the leadership in AWCC
4.3 Male versus Female practiced leadership styles
4.4 Expert power analysis
4.5 Referent power analysis
4.6 Reward power analysis
4.7 Coercive power analysis
4.8 Summary of leaders’ reliance on power in AWCC
4.9 Male versus Female leader reliance on the type of power
4.10 Summary of male and female reliance on power

Chapter Five
5 Conclusion, Recommendation and Appendixes
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation
5.3 Reference
5.4 Appendixes

Dedication

To Mom and Dad,

who always encouraged and fully

supported me on this adventure.

Acknowledgement

It is near impossible to draw up a full list of people who have contributed to the current research project. However, I would like to thank as many as I can.

My very first thanks goes to Almighty Allah for all the grace, power, confidences and patients who provided me for successful completion of this degree, also I am blessing and praying to Almighty Allah for providing more power, confidence and patient for successful completion of my future educational objectives.

I feel proud in expressing my deepest sense of gratitude to Mr. Inamullah Khan Lecturer, of Kardan University, who is the supervisor of this project. His scholastic, consistent advice, encouraging behavior, valuable suggestion, personal interest and dynamic supervision enabled me to complete the present Project. This research work was hard to be accomplished without his cooperation.

I would like to thanks Mr. Shahid Shams, Mr. Kalimullah Khan and our entire team of lecturers whose extremist well and encouraging behaviors lead us to accomplish the MBA program.

Last of all no acknowledgement could never express my obligations to my loving dad, mom, brothers, sisters and all family because my success is really the result of their devoted prayers and motivations. I can never compensate their unlimited love and kindness; especially I would like to devote my success and MBA accomplishment to my caring, loving and supporter mom, dad and brothers.

And at the end I am really thankful to all of the fellows who created a very nice and pleasant environment, whose good memories will remain forever with me, especially I would never forget the time spent with Shafiqullah Arb, Mustafa Lodeen, Shokrullah Ahmadzada, Milad Mehraban, and Manizha Ehsan.

THANK YOU

Abdul Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract

Leadership is practicing and exercising of power in nature, for this, leaders are to develop a power-based organization to utilize their power in an effective way to influence subordinates for achieving organizational goals. In today’s organization, power is a permanent reality and will exist until the organization's life. Leaders in organizations seek to acquire power and then use the power for the achievement of organizational goal with having the goal achievement roadmap in their minds.

Reliance on the power is an integral part of leader’s job while it has direct influence over subordinate performance, job satisfaction, and effectivity. Therefore, considering leader’s power as an important factor in organizational development and success the researcher has decided to study the local telecommunication company (AWCC) which has employed over 6000 individual and having 263 line management positions in all over the country. This is an investigative nature of research that tend to find the types of power that higher management or leadership positions of AWCC uses in Kabul to influence their subordinates. Meanwhile, this research has a comparative section that incorporates the reliance of male leaders versus female leaders on the type of power to influence their followers.

The information in this research is extracted from primary and secondary sources of information, the researcher used books, journals, and research papers for collecting secondary information, and for the primary source of information, and the main tool was questionnaires and personal visits with AWCC employees.

Type of leadership styles used by male and female in AWCC as a summary it is to say that females as a leader widely, in AWCC, do not involve themselves in the routine tasks of the employees and give them a free environment to perform their own way the task and activities. On the other hand, males as a leader get involved in the routine task of the employees. Male supervisors in AWCC has to type of involvement in the employee's task and activities whether as direction giver, autocratic leadership style, or as a supporter, democratic leadership style.

Based on the literature review on the types of power the researcher has found that there are several types of the power being practiced in the organizations around the world (Each of them separately described in chapter two of this research under the heading of types of power). For this study to see the reliance of leader on the type of power in AWCC the researcher has only examined the usage of four types of power which are an expert, referent, reward, and coercive powers.

So, based on average findings (detail has been provided in chapter four of this research) among four power options provided to AWCC employees on average the usage of expert power has been voted among other alternatives.

To conclude, male leaders rely on expert power and avoid using reward and coercive power at most and slightly avoids using referent power as well, but female as leader almost uses all of the given power types majorly relies on the use of coercive and expert power and respectively exercise the referent and reward power as well.

Chapter One

1 Introduction and overview

1.1 Introduction

Leadership is practicing and exercising of power in nature, for this, leaders are to develop a power-based organization to utilize their power in an effective way to influence subordinates for achieving organizational goals. In today’s organization, power is a permanent reality and will exist until the organization's life. Leaders in organizations seek to acquire power and then use the power for the achievement of organizational goal with having the goal achievement roadmap in their minds.

Reliance on the power is an integral part of leader’s job while it has direct influence over subordinate performance, job satisfaction, and effectivity. Therefore, considering leader’s power as an important factor in organizational development and success the researcher has decided to study the local telecommunication company (AWCC) which has employed over 6000 individual and having 263 line management positions in all over the country. This is an investigative nature of research that tend to find the types of power that higher management or leadership positions of AWCC uses in Kabul to influence their subordinates. Meanwhile, this research has a comparative section that incorporates the reliance of male leaders versus female leaders on the type of power to influence their followers.

1.2 Problem Statement

Leader’s power type has an influential effect on employees; therefore, we have to understand that leader’s reliance on the types of power and understand its effect on employees in the private sector of Afghanistan. This research will serve as a guideline tool for leadership development and practices in the private sector of Afghanistan.

Massively, in private sector businesses of Afghanistan legal, legitimate, power is been widely used which results in miss use and overloading the employee with irrelevant work and task.

Stress is another major consideration for the purpose of this research. Almost each individual working in the private sector of Afghanistan is psychologically disturbed and stressed up. As an understanding, the work itself is never a stress full activity but rather the task giver or assigner can make it a stress full task.

1.3 Research Question

This research mainly focuses on finding a possible outcome for the following question which is mainly about the types of power do AWCC leadership rely on to influence the employees to perform in specified manner.

- Which type of leadership power do leaders rely on while performing their duties in AWCC?

1.4 Objectives

The objectives of the research are:

- To know the types of power that leaders rely on while leading AWCC employees.
- To have a comparison of male versus female leadership reliance on the power in AWCC.
- To suggest which type of power is appropriate for leaders in AWCC.

1.5 Significance

This research will be highly beneficial to AWCC in Kabul, through which they can decide which leadership powers should be followed that carries most influential effects. Meanwhile, leadership students can use this research as a framework for understanding the types of power and its influential effects along with pros and cons of successive usage of a single type of a power.

1.6 Scheme of thesis

Chapter One: Introduction and overview

This chapter includes a background to the study, its objectives, problem statement, and significance of the study, scope of study and chapter plan of study.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

This chapter reviews the literature about what is done related to the topic. That includes the point of view of several authors about the leader reliance on the type of power to influence their employees. Meanwhile, it provides information on the AWCC which is the ground for this study.

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

This chapter describes the methods chosen to conduct this research. Further the research population, sampling techniques, research procedures, and tools used in this research are described.

Chapter Four: Analysis and findings

This chapter is the main part of this thesis where the research is analyzed and the findings of this research are discussed.

Chapter Five: Conclusion and recommendations

In this chapter, the purpose of conducting this research is concluded and the researcher’s recommendations are given to the problems pointed in this research. Also in this chapter, the references and material used during data collection are cited.

Chapter Two 2 Literature Review

2.1 Leadership, Influence, and Power

The common question since the 1900s is that what is leadership? Leadership has been passed through several stages of development, that almost each decade it was defined with a new definition and aspects. It is been defined since the 1900s in many different ways, which resulted in differentiated definitions, and several different aspects of leadership have been explored due to these differences. Each definition of leadership has been developed based on the prospectus of the researcher on the concept of leadership with keeping a different aspect into consideration. (McGraw-Hill, 2006)

Leadership is the process of mobilizing others to achieve organizational desired objective and lead organization in a more effective and efficient way (Kumar & Jain, 2013).

A leader is a person who influences a person or group of people for the achievement of a prescribed and specified goal. This definition majorly focuses on a person, people, and purpose which the true leader controls that in an effective way (Gleanings, 2007).

To understand how leaders mobilize others, it is required to know what influence is, how persons are influenced, and what relation does power has with influence. Here onward, we will focus on the two complex phenomena of influence and power.

2.2 Influence

According to Gary Yukl for leadership, influence is an essential component. The effectivity of a leader depends on how successful s/he is to influence its followers in a specified direction and performance of decisions. Another approach of defining the relationship of influence and leadership is to state the sayings of Dr. Maxwell “Leadership Is Influence: Nothing More, Nothing Less”; so, what influence is?

Influence is the capacity of a leader to affect the behavior of its follower to an aimed direction (Cohen, Morgan, & Pollack, 1992).

Influence is the process in which a leader communicates the ideas with a subordinate or a group of subordinates, gives their commitment that they will work achievement of a goal, further, motivates them in their tasks, supports their ideas and creativities and finally reaches the goal (Lussier & Achua).

Exactly what are the elements that bring about one individual to say yes to someone else? What's more, which procedures most successfully utilize these components to realize such consistency? It is asked why it is that a request expressed certainly will be rejected while a request that has the same support in a marginally distinctive manner will be successful. The individuals who don't know how to motivate individuals to say yes soon fall away; the individuals who do, stay and flourish. In spite of the fact that there are a huge number of various strategies that consistency specialists utilize to create yes, the dominant part fall inside six essential classifications. Each of these classifications is administered by a crucial mental rule that coordinates human behavior: consistency, reciprocation, social proof, authority, liking, and scarcity. The evidence suggests that the ever-accelerating pace and informational crush of modern life will make this particular form of unthinking compliance more and more prevalent in the future. It will be progressively vital for the general public to understand the how and why of automatic influence (Robert B. Cialdini, 1983, 1984).

2.2.1 Influence Tactics

According to Rykrsmith (2011) influence is to alter the behavior of someone toward some specified actions, so she has described four most effective tactics of influence.

2.2.1.1 Rational/Logical Persuasion

The most common tactic of influence is to present the fact and logical reasons for an argument and an issue.

2.2.1.2 Inspirational Appeal

The second most used influence tactic is to motivate and inspire the follower by providing future success and linking the outcome to ideas and values of that the follower which they honor it.

2.2.1.3 Consultation

It’s an indirect tactic of influencing, but if it is used directly to influence it will fail. The consultation process is to give an advice on how to do or perform something, which indirectly leads to influence.

2.2.1.4 Collaboration

Similar to the consultation it is an indirect approach of influencing, but the inverse of the consultation there we give an advice but here mutually advice is generated and they get committed to performing the task.

2.2.2 Outcomes of Influence

The outcome of influence is the immediate reaction of the follower to the influence attempt. There are mostly three possible outcomes of an influence attempt which are: commitment, compliance, and resistance (Yukl, 2012).

2.2.2.1 Commitment

It is the outcome of an influence attempt which the follower internally agree and enthusiastically ready to perform the task, decision, or request.

2.2.2.2 Compliance

It is the stage where the follower after influence attempt agrees to the decision, but not enthusiastically ready to perform and give innovative suggestions for improvement and performance of the action.

2.2.2.3 Resistance

The outcome of an influence attempt, where the follower resists requesting and possibly tries at most to avoid the performance of the task.

2.2.3 Influence Process

The process of influence of a follower by a leader has three types which carry the inception and perceptions of the follower in relation to decision and task of the leader (Yukl, 2012).

2.2.3.1Instrumental Compliance

The follower performs an assigned task or requests to receive the benefit or avoid the punishment which is controlled by the leader.

2.2.3.2Internalization

The follower became committed to perform the assigned task and duties because s/he feels internally that the assigned task is correct in relation to their belief and trust.

2.2.3.3 Personal Identification

The follower attempts to copy and imitates the actions and behaviors of the leader. The follower will build a close relation with the leader and probably the follower is ready for acceptance and esteem.

2.3 Leadership and power

Leadership is practicing and exercising of power in nature, for this, leaders are expected to develop power based organization to utilize their power in an effective way to influence subordinates for achieving organizational goals. In today’s organization power is a permanent reality and will be existed till the organization’s life. Leaders in organizations seek to acquire power and then use the power for the achievement of organizational goal with having the goal achievement roadmap in their minds (James L. Gibson, John M. Ivancevich, & H., 1985).

Leadership is the process of acquiring the power to influence subordinates in an effective way (John R. Schermerhorn Jr., James G. Hunt, & Richa, 1985). Here might be a question that why leaders need power? There are several reasons for this like; leaders should have the power to make the subordinates work for the accomplishment of their tasks, making the subordinates inevitable to do, what they do not want to do, need leadership power (Allan R. Cohen et, 1984).

2.4 Authority versus power

Christians mostly argue that we are interested in authority, no in power. According to their perception, the word authority seems more positive and more spiritual while the word power sounds negative. However, building up a contrast in between authority and power is not as spiritual as it might seem at first look. The Christians give the example of Jesus prophet, that he had authority and power, as he was giving orders to unclean spirits with authority (exousia) and power (dynamis) (Lukes, 1986).

The Greek word dynamis means the ability to do something. It can be translated with force, strength or power. The Greek word exousia refers more closely to the permission, the legitimation to do something, for example; a bank robber has the full power to take all the money with having a gun in his hand but he has not the legitimation support to take money. In other situations, people might have the legitimation support to do something but not have the power to enforce this right. Power and authority are deeply linked to each other having one of them are useless (Lukes, 1986)

2.5 Power

One of the important sections in leader’s job is to influence the people toward achievement of specified goal and behaving in several specified ways. Rather than personal traits and behaviors of a leader, there are limitation and situations where leaders rely on power to overcome and influence the followers. (Mr. P. Tailor & Mrs. S. Tailor)

As a definition of power, it is the capacity of the leader to influence the behavior and attitude of a specific unit in a specified time and situation. (Yukl, 2012)

According to Yukl, there are several type and sources of power available where majority accepted it has been distinguished into two main types of power which include the five power types of French and Raven Power Taxonomy as well. Position and Personal powers.

Position powers are based and derived from the authority and dictatorship of job which are:

- Legitimate Power
- Reward Power
- Coercive Power
- 1nformation Power
- Ecological Power

Personal powers are based on the personal traits and behaviors of leaders which are:

- Referent Power
- Expert Power

Here onward we will elaborate each of the power’s type in details

2.5.1 Legitimate Power

This power is derived from the formal authority of a job position. Mostly such powers are initially introduced and written in the basic job description or terms of reference a job. Such kinds of power are in a limited scope of written employment contracts and predesigned structures, and it defers based on the organizational chart of an entity and authority level of a position (Yukl, 2012).

Leaders in official positions or titles have access to power resulting in a legitimate power of the job. As a part of leaders’ job responsibilities, leaders are expected to develop certain mission and vision for an organization and develop a set of job and activities. Typically organization members agree that those in leadership roles and status have the authority to request certain behaviors from employees in support of the stated vision and activities. (Randall, 2012)

In the organizations every leader possesses a title and that title or position has authorities and responsibilities. The responsibilities of the title of a leader make him inevitable to create vision, values, and design structures and processes for the organization to get to the settled visions and give value to the organization

Employees of the organization may also know that their leader has authority and expectations from them, employees would follow their leader in order to see the stated vision and give value to the organization (Randall, Donna M., 2012). For creation of ethical work climate leader would use his power for creating the structures of:

- Recruitment and hiring: they will only recruit a person who has commitment for the vision and respects the values of the organization
- Orientation session: in which they familiarize the newcomer with organization and prescribe values to him
- Coaching or mentoring programs: the newcomer is being paired with an old and superstar employee of the company in order to imitate him and to have respect for the organization values.
- Training: workshops and training events will be held to employees for the refreshment of the organizational values.
- Codes of conduct: leader will create a well-explained code of conduct of the organization to describe what is right and what is wrong.
- Protection of whistleblowing: there might be some employees who may report unethical practices of the organization; the leader will try his best to avoid such issues.

The mentioned strategies are linked with legitimation power of a leader. Schein in 1990 stated that the climate of the organization emerges from the culture of a particular organization, he added, many organization has failed to change due to not taking organizational culture as important as it is (Schein, 1990).

Trevino stated in 1986 that code of conduct for the organization is useless until and unless those codes of conduct are according to organizational culture and are practiced fairly Or simply when the followers believe that the leader has the right to instruct them and they have the obligation to follow instructions. Therefore, legitimacy power is created by the leaders’ job title, such as captain, doctor, parent or director, combined with the follower’s belief that the job title gives the leader the right to give them orders (Mr. P. Tailor & Mrs. S. Tailor).

2.5.2 Reward Power

According to (Luneneburg, 2012 ) this is a type of power when the leader is able to offer a reward to his followers for completing the task or performing in the desired manner. Rewards can be in forms of gift hampers, holidays, promotions, commission and pay rise. While based on the (Yukl, 2012) reward power is when the follower has the concept of that the leader has control over an important desired resources.

Reward power is the most supportive power based on studies of Randall while Yukl in his book states when using the reward power the leader should have full understanding of the right to use the resource and his abilities, and leaders are to avoid repetitive usage of this power because it can lead to addictive manner of the follower where they would demand reward for each of the activities. Also, Yukl suggests the best way to use this power is to use it in friendship and personal behavior.

The scope and limitation of reward power are derived from the formal position of the job which varies organization to organization and even within organization level to level of the organizational chart.

Mr. P. Tailor & Mrs. S. Tailor describe that this reward effectivity will be only there if; initially – “the reward appeals to the followers”. For example, there is no point offering crisps as a reward to somebody that likes chocolate. This is because they will not view crisps as a reward, so there is no incentive to perform the task.

Subsequently – the leader has to give such belief to followers that the leader will give them the reward which is promised when the task is completed.

Finally – “the reward should be of the same size to the task the follower has to complete:” For example, it would be not appropriate to reward an employee with a promotion for making a cup of coffee. Similarly, a follower would feel undervalued if he/she is rewarded with a 100AFN gift voucher after he/she spent six months doing their manager's job without a pay rise.

When using this type of power it is needed to be careful to prevent followers becoming used to rewards and denying completing routine tasks without a reward. Mostly rewards should not be offered to followers to complete duties which are part of their normal role. This is because as an employee they are rewarded with salary for their contractual obligations (Yukl, 2012).

Researchers have proven that if a company has a desire for ethical behavior, the particular company must take in mind about the following point for the improvement in the ethical behavior of employees (Randall, Donna M., 2012). The points are as follow:

- Performance management
- Performance appraisal
- Reward system

Leaders should consider the allocation of bonus, rise in salaries, promote an employee, and leave days and complaints of the employees deeply. Trevino in 1986 and Trevino and brown in 2005 in their researchers and observations discovered that through rewarding an employee, other employees receive a very powerful message that they are treated rightly or wrongly, further they would act accordingly (Trevino, 1986) (L. K. Trevino, 2005).

One of the major responsibility of a senior manager is to identify the behavior and performance of each and every individual, then recognize the right person to be rewarded and reward that person for his performance and behavior. Some expert belief that if in an organization unethical behavior is rewarded than the occurrence of unethical behavior starts (Randall, Donna M., 2012).

Another reason why to offer reward carefully is that subsequent use can reduce the impact or influence that offering a reward initially had on the follower.

2.5.3 Coercive Power

On the contrary to the reward power, (Luneneburg, 2012 )defines coercive power is based on the leader having control over what will happen if the followers do not perform as required. If the follower fails to perform the required action, the leader will impose a punishment on him/her. The punishment can take multiple forms including salary cut, job loss, verbal abuse, and withdrawal of job promotion. While practicing this power the leader should be careful enough to not break the law.

This type of power is widely used in autocratic leadership based associations. Such as army camp where this kind of power is base form massively used, therefore, anticipating the bad consequences and worst side effects the leaders should be careful enough to avoid the unnecessary usage of this power (Yukl, 2012).

The coercive power of leader’s forces subordinates to follow their leaders as they want. Leaders by using their coercive power can punish those subordinates who are not acting as settled code of conducts, the level of unethical acts differ and leaders will punish accordingly, punish could be firing, demotion, threat letters, warning letters, and some other ways (Randall, Donna M., 2012).

In the year 2005 Trevino and brown stated that punishment of a subordinate in a case of unethical action can convey a powerful message within the organization and it has an effective impact on other subordinates as well they will try to avoid unethical actions in the organization (L. K. Trevino, 2005). Hegarty and Sims in 1978 after experiments and researches came to know that punishment of subordinates discourages unethical conducts and lessen the number of unethical acts among other subordinates (W. H. Hegarty, 1978).

Employees would observe unethical acts done by others and see the consequences of unethical conducts, learn from that and they also see the action of leadership against them (Randall, Donna M., 2012).

Using coercive power has its challenges; the basic reason of coercive power is to keep subordinates away from unethical conducts. Subordinates would have the fear of doing of unethical acts because of being caught and punishment. According to Bazerman and Tenbrunsel in 2011 keeping subordinates away from unethical acts, the leader might forget about the actual behavior and merits of subordinates (Randall, Donna M., 2012) (M. H. Bazerman, 2011).

The cost of using coercive power could be; the organization might get fined by the government, the cost of firing and then hiring a new person, and finally the cost of the reputation of the organization because the turnover rate increases.

Ethical challenges differ to every leader. The basic thing for a leader is to know his entire subordinate what is acceptable to him and what is not. This message would pass hidden messages that ethical challenges are not what the leader expects from them or that is an organizational value but ethical challenges are a legal matter (Randall, Donna M., 2012).

For coercive power, it is required that followers should have believed that if upon their failure the leader has the ability to punish them the way leader has imposed it. Also, the punishment has to be of the type that the follower does not want to be imposed on. For instance, if we band coffee on a tea drinker it is unlikely to influence them.

As Mr. P. Tailor & Mrs. S. Tailor had described the reward power should have been proportionated to achievements, thus they have also suggested that the penalty or punishment should be proportionate to the action or task not achieved.

For example, it won’t be proportionate to decrease the salary of a follower for 100AFN when his monthly salary is 100,000AFN and he/she has failed to perform over six month duties; similarly, to fire a follower if he/she fail to return on time from the lunch break for the first time.

Tailors also describe the sensitivity of this power that it should be used very carefully; because it is overuse might result to unhappy followers which can lead them to be negative or unmotivated, or may lead them to limit themselves only to contractual duties.

Donna M. Randall observation worth mentioning here that in an environment where coercive powers are frequently practiced the followers may engage themselves in a cost-benefit analysis rather than evaluating the task or behavior on its own.

2.5.4 Referent Power

According to Gary Yukl, this power only comes from the personal trait of the leader. When others desire to be like the leader, or desire to have those conducts, deeds, behaviors, or attitudes. Gary Yukl in his book Leadership in Organization has used a terminology as of “personal identification” which says that referent power influence process is through personal identities and traits, therefore, such leaders are more appreciated if they have a strong feeling of admiration, affection, and loyalty.

While Tailors say that this power is created when there is believe in follower that leader has a quality that they wish to have it; where the followers try and attempt to copy their leaders. All followers will not be admired of a single leader because personal traits and admiration of followers defer. A leader will have referent power only over few of the followers he/she leads while there are leaders who are been followed by billions of people such as Gandhi, who led millions of people through his personal traits.

Always talking about organizational values and standards by the leader will not be effective as much as referring employees own values and attitudes inconsistent with organizational values. Leaders can influence subordinates by their own personality and ethics. For transferring his personal ethical traits leader can use many options like; telling subordinates his own experiences and stories, listening to subordinates carefully and with concern, this little thing matters too much, they will engage themselves much in ethical conduct (Randall, Donna M., 2012).

Trevino and brown in the year 2006 insistently claim, ethical leadership increase ethical decision making, satisfaction, self-motivation, commitment, and improve the behavior of followers (L. K. Trevino, 2005). For top management of the organization role modeling of ethical codes is essential which further communicates about the importance of ethical codes in the organization (Randall, Donna M., 2012).

Leaders to gain the referent power they had to convey their values to the follower by engaging in social activities rather than bounding themselves in the framework of official activities. They can engage in informal communications with followers, listen to followers enthusiastically, and address followers’ issues with a persuasive manner (Randall, 2012).

2.5.5 Expert Power

Tailors observation clearly state the nature of this power from its name that expert power derives from the “expert” skills or knowledge of the leader which the followers require accomplishing any given task or job.

According to Gary Yukl when the importance of a task performance or problem solution is very high then the level of expert power increases accordingly. That is why task-relevant knowledge and skills are the major source personal power in an organization. Carrying lots of expertise and unique knowledge in performing a specified task will carry expert power as well if the follower is dependent and liable to perform that task otherwise, all the expertise will not enforce any power.

Leaders can hold better fame by recognition of their expertise and through expertise can gain power as well. A leader in the organization should have complete knowledge of ethical issues which members of particular organization faces. Successful leaders let their subordinate know that he is interested in knowing ethical challenges and that is important to him.

Letting the subordinates know about the interest in ethical challenges, make subordinates awake and see for leader’s direction when they are faced with options in ethical challenges and it is a positive signal to the leader that he is in the right path. In such case, the leader must keep himself updated and have complete knowledge of ethics in the organization, and then he would be capable of giving directions to his subordinates in choosing alternatives (Randall, Donna M., 2012).

Trevino and brown in the year 2005 have observed in organizations, that ethical leaders are taking decisions based on the organizational code of conducts (L. K. Trevino, 2005). Sims in 1992 stated that leaders should create their own ethical codes and ethical guidelines, these ethical guidelines have positive impacts on the ethical behavior of subordinates (Sims, 1992). Here, leaders may face in developing their own ethical codes due to lack of time, resource and heavy workload, it is also possible that leaders would not bear the cost of punishment of their subordinates who are acted unethically.

It is highly recommended and required that if a leader wanted to have the expert power over his/her subordinates they should possess and gain enough knowledge about the performance of the task and the problems which might arise in between. Because this power only does not rely on the leader but it can be with lower level management and subordinates (Randall, 2012).

2.5.6 Informational Power

This type of power derives from having control over important information. Though, now a day’s information is a sixth major resource of an organization and a competitive base for decision making. So, having control on such information gives a power to the leader over the followers (Yukl, 2012). Once again this power is not supplemented with any position or a chair, but rather like referent power some active participation in communication networks are required.

2.5.7 Ecological Power

There is indirect power available for the leader when he possesses a right or control over the physical resources such as environment, technology, and organization. Also, when the practiced norms, values, and behaviors known as an organizational culture are established by the leader will indirectly influence the followers to imply the rules and regulations (Yukl, 2012).

2.5.8 Connection Power

This is the type of power that comes to existence with leader’s relationships with influential peoples. Leader most of the time rely on the use of contacts and friends who has an influence on the person we are dealing with. Sometimes it is difficult to influence other if you are alone, but the right connection can give you power or at least the idea of having a power. If the follower knows that leader is connected with powerful entities or friendly with power holders will emerge a source of influential power on them (Robert & Christopher , 2010).

2.6 Conclusion of the literature

The common phenomena among all powers are that when the leader has an impression over follower and the followers have the belief on leader then power can be performed. Each of the power types has its own influence over the followers, and a combination of multiple powers can have increased influence. While using multiple powers the leader should be careful enough to not damage another source of power. For example, the excess use of coercive power may lead to lessening the referent power over the followers.

Daft in his book The Leadership Experience states that leaders should mostly exercise personal power rather than positional power. Because the vast use of positional power leads to damage and decrease its influential effect (Daft, 2005).

Chapter Three

3 Research Methodology

3.1 Population

The purpose of this research is to understand the leader’s reliance on the type of power in Afghan wireless telecommunication company in Kabul, since the leadership, influence and power are a broader areas of study that can include numerous type of analysis, and years of study. Thus, the researcher chooses to provide a baseline to AWCC headquarters in Kabul. This study is to know that out of many types of leadership power AWCC leaders rely on which of these four selected types of power which are Expert, Referent, Reward and Coercive.

Target population for this study is the four hundred and sixty-eight (468) employees of AWCC headquarters, who are directly supervised by thirty-seven line mangers. These thirty-seven line managers reliance on the type of power will be studied and evaluated. These positions are at most the leadership and powerful positions that widely use power to influence the 468 employees who are officer level employees.

3.2 Sample Size

An organized questionnaire designed with coordination of leadership expert, lecturer of Kardan’s MBA program and supervisor of this research. The researcher has determined to study 50 percent of the population which makes a total of 234 respondents. Considering a known population of the research, the researcher has chosen a widely and comprehensively used technique of random sampling for 50 percent targeted population. The researcher has distributed the questionnaires randomly to the sections and departments of thirty-four line mangers in AWCC. While the collection of the questionnaires, more than 50 respondents failed to give back the questionnaires or have not filled the questionnaires at all. And the researcher had left with only 182 filled questionnaires. Before inserting the data into the statistical program (SPSS) for analysis purpose 22 questionnaires failed to match the requirements and were incomplete to pursue further analysis on them, therefore, only 160 questionnaires which were valid for analysis into the SPSS were proceeded to carry on further analysis.

3.3 Procedure

The information in this research is extracted from primary and secondary sources of information, the researcher used books, journals, and research papers for collecting secondary information, and for the primary source of information, and the main tool was questionnaires and personal visits with AWCC employees. Though, it is a descriptive research the researcher is only to describe the reliance of leader on the type of power, therefore, the researcher is limited to define the independent variables because of the nature of the research.

The researcher followed the following structures for each of the power analysis in this research, hereafter.

Initially, each of the questions related to any of the power will be described statistically that will state the frequency percentage response of the respondents. Secondly, the descriptive statistics mean analysis method for each of the question will be used to further enhance the analysis by describing the mean for each of the questions. And, finally, using the same descriptive statistics method mean for a computed command of expert power will be analyzed.

There is a section of comparative analysis of male versus female reliance on the power for that the researcher has used compare mean method considering the powers as dependent variable to independent variable of supervisors’ gender.

3.4 Research Tools

3.4.1 Primary Data:

The primary data of this research is the information collected from 160 employees of AWCC in Kabul; this information was generated from a questionnaire with five sections including an angle question for gender and a warm up question followed by twenty-six specified Likert scale questions about each of the power. The questionnaire includes six question which defines the expert power, nine Likert scale question to define the referent power, five questions on reward power, and finally nine question to elaborate the coercive power. The questionnaire for this research has been tested using statistical method Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Test. Based on the research standards and widely acceptable range for the reliability of data is above than 0.64 where the questionnaire for this research is been acceptably reliable for pursuing the research process, which has a value of 0.731 that is in the acceptable range of a research.

Meanwhile, it is to mention that the questionnaire for this research has been designed using information from the following sources (Dr. Jan P. Bosman, 2004), (Daugherty & Williams), and (Sampson, 2012).

3.4.2 Secondary Data:

The researcher used reliable sources of secondary information such as book, journals, and research papers for information gathering. The list of all sources used in this research has been noted in appendix 5.3 of chapter five of this research.

3.5 Limitation of the Study

This study only provides a guideline to Kabul-based AWCC. The researcher has used the employees working with Afghan Wireless in Kabul (as a primary data) for the preparation of this report. Kabul-based employees were approached at majority by the researcher himself, but still a minority number of the respondents were approached via a personal network and sources of the researcher which may incorporate some chances of error and lessen the reliably of accuracy in filling the questionnaires.

3.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is limited to provide guideline only to Kabul-based AWCC headquarters; this research is not applicable to any other part of Afghanistan and elsewhere. The literature review of the research is applicable all over the world.

Chapter Four

4 Analysis and Findings

4.1 Reliability Test

Scale: ALL VARIABLES

Table 4. 1

Case Processing Summary

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a. List wise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

Table 4. 2

Reliability Statistics

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Interpretation:

The questionnaire for this research has been tested using statistical method Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Test. Based on the research standards and widely acceptable range for the reliability of data is above than 0.64 where the questionnaire for this research is been acceptably reliable for pursuing the research process, which has a value of 0.731 that is in the acceptable range of a research.

4.2 Overall the leadership in AWCC

Table 4. 3

In our organization your supervisor is

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Interpretation:

As warm up for the topic, the respondents were asked a general question about the practical leadership style in AWCC. This question was modified in a manner which could describe the four widely used leadership styles that are Autocratic leadership style, Democratic leadership style, Laissez-faire or free-rein leadership style, and Paternalistic leadership style. The employees working in AWCC based on statistics displayed in above table 44 percent which makes the highest percentage have said that their leader is supportive and delegates authority to others. Therefore, it is to say that majority of the responded has voted for democratic leadership style being practiced in AWCC main office. Secondly, the up next to high voted leadership style is autocratic that makes 32 percent and they have noted that their leader is direction giver and hold all the authority with them self. Thirdly, with 24 percent of the vote the free-rein leadership style is practiced where the leader is not involved in the routine tasks of employees. Meanwhile, the respondents were given another option as well which was about paternalistic leadership style where the leader believe he/she is the only one who know everything, totally a one man shore, and no one has voted for the implementation of such leadership style in AWCC headquarters.

4.3 Male versus Female practiced leadership styles

Table 4. 4

What is the gender of your supervisor? * In our organization your supervisor is......... Cross tabulation

Count

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Interpretation:

After the cross tabulation of the supervisor/leader gender with the same question about the leadership styles practiced in the AWCC, the researcher has come up with an interesting finding that respondents whose supervisor was a male mainly they are practicing the first two types of leadership styles, autocratic and democratic. And, the respondents whose supervisor was a female have voted for the free-rein type of leadership style.

So, we can say that females as a leader widely, in AWCC, do not involve themselves in the routine tasks of the employees and give them a free environment to perform their own way the task and activities. On the other hand, males as a leader get involved in the routine task of the employees. Male supervisors in AWCC has to type of involvement in the employee's task and activities whether as direction giver, autocratic leadership style, or as a supporter, democratic leadership style.

4.4 Expert power analysis

Table 4. 5

I have learned a lot from our supervisor on how to do my job more effectively

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Interpretation:

To know the practice of expert power in the AWCC the respondents were asked about their learning from their respective supervisors. Sixty percent of the respondents have shown a positive reaction to the stated question that they devote their learning to their supervisor. And forty percent of the respondents have been in a neutral condition where they were not sure about the source of their learning.

Table 4. 6

I trust that our success is only because of our supervisor’s expertise.

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Interpretation:

In an organization the performance of a team is mostly measured by the success and achievement of the team or a unit. The success itself widely depends on expertise and knowledge of the working team. And, when it is required to know whether the leader has expert power or not we have to see the devotion level of employees’ success to their supervisors. If a team devotes their success to their team leader it states a positive usage of the expert power of the team leader. In the case of AWCC only 25 percent of the respondents devote their success to their supervisors. A wide range of 50 percent is in a neutral condition, and very slightly above then the percentage of those who devote their success to their supervisors 25.6 percent of the respondents totally disagreed with the statement that they are not allotting their success to their supervisors.

Table 4. 7

There is no big problem in my job because my supervisor knows our field the best possible way.

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Interpretation:

Problem-solving and situation handling is a critical job of every leader. The quality of problem-solving in a field reflects the knowledge and expertise of the leader in the field to break down the task in a more mechanized ways to avoid possible conflict and problem in the working field. The leaders in AWCC are been successful problem solvers and situation handlers. The statistics suggest that more than ninety-nine percent of the respondents have voted that their supervisors are good problem solvers and they have no problem in their jobs indirectly their quality of problem solving indicates their knowledge and expertise in the field.

Table 4. 8

I respect my supervisor’s direction because of his/her knowledge and experience.

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Interpretation:

As a managerial function of the leader to lead is one of the leaders’ main activities to motivate and inspire the followers to perform the best way possible. When a leader directions and orders are followed in a respectful manner it explains the expert power usage of the leader. In AWCC around 48 percent of the employees respect the direction of their supervisor and above than average that makes above than 48 percent the followers are in neutral condition and only a minor percentage of close to four percent disagree to the statement.

Table 4. 9

My supervisor gives me constructive feedbacks.

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Interpretation:

Feedback plays an important role in the leader-follower relationship. Leader’s effectiveness is measured by the expertise its follower. Therefore, a leader must always give and provide its followers with constructive feedbacks to improve their working and professional skills. Well, it also depends on the expertise of the leader to provide constructive feedback when a leader him/herself is not able to understand the complexity of the issue so how possible to provide feedback. In AWCC, only a minor percentage of 23 agree that their supervisor is providing them constructive feedbacks while the majority of the respondents are in neutral and disagreement position to the statement about the effectivity of the feedback.

Table 4. 10

My supervisor explains the complex issues clearly.

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Interpretation:

Since, the section is about the usage of expert power in the organization the researcher has quoted another statement which could explain the expertise of leader. The statement is about the explanation of complex issue in a clearest and understandable way which directly indicates the expertise of a leader in the specific field and work area. In the case of AWCC, almost sixty percent of respondents agree with the statement, close to eighteen percent disagree with the statement and only twenty percent are neutral about the statement.

Table 4. 11

Descriptive Statistics

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Interpretation:

To summarize all the statements reflecting usage of expert power the research is using mean analysis a descriptive statistics method which has following outcomes:

The level of respondents on job learning from the supervisor in AWCC on average all of the employees agree to the statement that their effectivity on the job is due to the learning from their supervisor. The mean figure has a slight deviation of 0.125 which is toward being in neutral condition.

On average all of the employees are in a neutral condition about devoting their success to their supervisors, so, we can have an understanding that leaders mostly lead and give direction to the employees in AWCC and rather they do not take an active part in routine activities with employees. Thus, they do not devote their success to their supervisors.

The employees of AWCC on average is in between strongly agree and agree on condition and basically closer to agree that their supervisors are problem handler and solver where there is no big problem in their working area.

AWCC employees were given a direct statement about the expertise and knowledge of the supervisor that is “I respect my supervisor’s direction because of his/her knowledge and experience.” On average all the employees of AWCC are in between neutral and agreement state to the statement which is 0.08 on average closer to agreement state.

The view of AWCC employees on feedback as part of leader’s expertise on average is neutral and only a slight average of 0.13 is toward agreement otherwise as of all the condition is neither agreement nor disagreement. Though, the statement of constructive feedback and employees’ neutral view suggests that supervisors in AWCC provide feedback but they are not constructive feedbacks.

As a leaders’ expertise it is to elaborate the most complex issue in an understandable and easy manner to followers. To the statement on average all of the AWCC employees are in between agreement and neutral condition slightly deviating by 0.15 on average toward being neutral.

Table 4. 12

Descriptive Statistics

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Interpretation:

To have the mean of all of the averages of elaborative statements about the expert power usage in AWCC using mean analysis of descriptive statistics on a computed variable of the expert power we have come up with a value of 2.5188. The figure suggests that practice of expert power is in between neutral and agreement status.

4.5 Referent power analysis

Table 4. 13

My supervisor is not a supervisor at all s/he treats me like his/her friend.

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Interpretation:

Referent power comes to existence when the personal traits of the leader influence over the followers. One of the personal traits of the leader is the friendly and personal behavior of the supervisor with respective followers. To understand the referent power usage of the leader in AWCC the employees were given a statement about the friendly behavior their supervisor and here is their reactions. Around the forty percent of the respondents has been in agreement status and among which majority have a strong agreement to the statement. Where opposite to strong agreement many more of the respondents that makes sixty percent has a neutral feeling about their supervisors’ friendly behavior in the working environment.

Table 4. 14

I am sure if I face a personal problem my supervisor will help me out.

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Interpretation:

As a personal trait of the leaders, in AWCC, the respondents were given a statement which states the involvement of leaders in solving the personal problems of the employees. To the given statement the fifty-five percent of the employees of AWCC have a negative reaction to the statement and among them thirty-five percent of the respondents have a strong negative disagreement. In comparison to those who disagree with the statement there 25 percent of the employees who believes that their supervisor will help them solve their personal problems. And finally, twenty percent of the respondents have not shared their point of view being in neutral condition.

Table 4. 15

We (me and my supervisor) sometimes go to lunch for enjoyment outside the office.

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Interpretation:

Giving free time and informal time to the follower will give them a chance to discuss personal problems with the employees and make them stress-free to work more effectively and efficiently. This is the quality that all of the supervisors do not have and this quality is a personal trait. To know the quality existence in the supervisors of AWCC the employees were given a statement that whether their supervisor with them goes for lunch outside the office for enjoyment and relaxing time to the employees. Here is what the employees have responded, thirty-one percent of the respondents have agreed that their supervisors go with them out, twenty-three percent have never approached their supervisor for going out and they exactly don’t know whether they will go with them or not, and forty-five percent of the respondents have a strong disagreement with the statement that their supervisor doesn’t go with them out. Probably the have approached them to go out but they might have denied to.

Table 4. 16

I just want my attitude and behavior be like my supervisor.

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Interpretation:

As a human psychology every individual is willing to be like someone who is been appreciated by the society, whose behavior is welcomed by the surroundings. In an organizational context, an employee will be willing to be like his supervisor. Only if, his supervisor’s behavior is appreciated by everyone around. The AWCC employees were given an option that whether they want to be like their supervisor or not. Here is what they have responded, twenty-nine percent has agreed that they wanted to be like them, twenty-four percent has neither agreed nor disagreed to be like their supervisor, and forty-seven percent has totally disagreed to be like their supervisor.

Table4. 17

When I am off or feeling sad my supervisor always treat me with humble words and makes my mood to work.

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Interpretation:

One of the leader’s personal qualities is to change the mood of employees and make them to a working mood. And one of the personal traits is to take best of the employees in any of the conditions. To see this quality in AWCC supervisor the employees were stated with a statement about their feeling when they are not in mood how their supervisors are treating them. The responses figure is amazingly half are in a neutral condition which might not have been in the bad mood to check their supervisor reaction while the rest half has disagreed with the statement that their supervisor has not treated them fairly whenever they were not in working mood.

Table 4. 18

My supervisor has done a lot for me so I am ready to do anything for him/her.

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Interpretation:

As a personal behavior of leader it is to give sacrifices for the sake of your follower. To have a psychological influence over the employee and whenever you wish that employee should give sacrifices and do more for you. It is only possible whenever the leader had already sacrificed. The employees of AWCC were asked about the level of their readiness for performing any given task by their supervisors. Only eleven percent of the employees are ready to perform and do anything for their supervisor, forty percent were neutral about their devotion level, and rest forty-five percent of the respondents are not ready to do anything more than their routine responsibility.

Table 4. 19

My supervisor encourages me to re-examine critical assumptions, and or to seek differing perspective when solving problems.

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Interpretation:

As earlier in the section of expert power we have discussed that problem solving and handling is and expertise of a leader. And when leader let the follower take part in the problem-solving process and let the follower experience and experiment the possible solution will further help the development process of the follower. This is a personal trait quality of the leader to let and involve a follower in a process. Here, forty percent of the AWCC employees have agreed that their supervisor let them in the process, the majority has given a neutral point of view and a minority of three percent has disagreed with the statement.

Table 4. 20

My supervisor listens to me attentively.

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Interpretation:

Providing an open room for discussion is the rare personal behavior of leaders. If a leader is able to provide an open room of discussion to its followers this practice will have a positive influence over employees to be open, to not stress up in the working environment. The question might raise that a leader how can provide an open room for discussion it is when the leader gives attention to the employee's word and listen to them more attentively and passionately. This situation has been checked in AWCC where half of the respondent agreed to the statement that their supervisor had listened to them attentively and rest half had been in neutral condition.

Table 4. 21

My supervisor’s honesty and dedication to work make me work more enthusiastically.

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Interpretation:

As the main source of referent power the personal traits and behaviors have been addressed. And honesty and dedication are the main players of the personal trait in a working environment. The dedication and honesty leader have direct influence over the dedication and honesty of follower. The AWCC employees have been forty-five percent in favor that their supervisors had been honest and dedicated, while around fifty percent of the respondents had a neutral point of view, and only five percent had a negative view about their supervisors’ honesty and dedication.

Table 4. 22

Descriptive Statistics

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Interpretation:

To conclude the referent power component statements the researcher has used mean analyses a descriptive statistics method hereafter are the findings of mean analysis of statements reflecting referent power:

With a deviation of 0.3 toward being neutral rest on average all of the employees of AWCC have agreed that their supervisor treats them as of their friend.

In the case of employees personal problem on average employees believes that their supervisor will not be there for them. As per statistics suggestion on average the condition is between neutral and disagreement slightly deviating toward being in disagreement.

On average the employees’ point of view about supervisors going out with them for lunch outside the office is between neutral and disagreement.

Considering the statistics on average the employees are not willing to be to like their supervisor somehow based on deviation toward disagreement some of the employees even avoid being like their supervisors.

Employees on average are between neutral and disagreement about that their supervisor makes their mood on whenever they are not feeling good to work or not in the mood to work.

On average the employees are not ready to sacrifices for their supervisors. As they were given a situation to sacrifice for the sake of their supervisor some had been in neutral condition while some other has totally denied sacrificing for them.

The employees were between agreement and neutral condition on average when they were asked about their allowance and involvement in problem-solving process and discussions.

The supervisors in AWCC are attentive to the half of employees’ voice on average while the rest half had been neutral on average about the attentive listening of the leader toward their voice.

Similar to the attentive listening of the supervisors the employees had the same mean for the honesty and dedication level of their supervisors in the organization.

Table 4. 23

Descriptive Statistics

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Interpretation:

To have the mean of all of the averages of elaborative statements about the referent power usage in AWCC using mean analysis of descriptive statistics on a computed variable of the referent power we have come up with a value of 3.0778. The figure suggests that practice of referent power on average is neutral. On average the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed with the practice of referent power in the AWCC.

4.6 Reward power analysis

Table 4. 24

If I perform the tasks in a well-mannered, my supervisor is only to give me a promotion.

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Interpretation:

A reward is a major tool in influencing employees to work. The reward has many different types and natures. Promotion is one of the widely used types of reward. To see the usage of reward power the employees of AWCC were given a choice to see whether their supervisor has the right to give them a promotion or not. To the given statement only three and a half percent of the respondents agreed, and forty-four percent have not shared their point of view about the statement, while the rest fifty-one percent has disagreed with the statement that their supervisor is not able to give them promotion.

Table 4. 25

My supervisor has the right to give me a week off and enjoy my time.

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Interpretation:

Another type of the reward is to give your employees some time off to enjoy their time and be stress-free and work more energized. As per international labor law the vocation is the right of a worker. Hence, there is no special policy in the local private business of Afghanistan to give off time to the employees, but a supervisor is always able to provide a relaxation time to their employees to be more energized. To check this phenomenon in AWCC the respondents were given a statement that their supervisor has the right to give them weeks off that they can enjoy their time and be more enthusiastically ready to work up to the mark. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents agreed with the statement while sixty percent of the respondents have disagreed with the statement, and only five percent has not shared their point of view.

Table 4. 26

If I chase the target my supervisor is going to give me a bonus.

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Interpretation:

Employees performance is always effected with appreciation and understanding of their efforts. It is the leaders’ job to always recognize and appreciate the efforts of an employee. When an employee is been credited for his efforts and achievements for sure he/she will put more into action to show more. In the case of AWCC ninety-seven percent of the respondents have disagreed and among them above then fifty-five percent has strongly disagreed with the statement that if they chase their target their supervisor will give them a bonus and will recognize their works and efforts.

Table 4. 27

My supervisor is fair enough in performance appraisal and he/she rewards respectively.

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Interpretation:

Performance appraisal is a timely task of the supervisor. According to the policy of each organization monthly, bimonthly, bi-annually, or annually the performance of each employee is supervised and monitored. Though, the employee is always responsible for his/her reporting line, the reporting line is the only one who can measure the performance of its employees over the period of the time accurately. Supervisors are the direct reporting line to employees for their routine task and activities. AWCC employees were given a situation that their supervisors are fair enough in performance appraisal and have the right to reward them respective to their performance. The statistics suggest an equal response for agreement and disagreement to the statement, so we can say that half of the respondents’ supervisors are fair with them while their performance appraisal opposite to rest half of the respondents.

Table 4. 28

My supervisor believes that reward is most effective to influence us.

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Interpretation:

As an option the employees of AWCC were given a statement that their supervisor believes that reward is a most effective tool to influence them. The reaction to the statement is that twenty-four percent has agreed, thirty-two percent have not shared their point of view, and rest forty-four percent of the respondents have disagreed to given statement.

Table 4. 29

Descriptive Statistics

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Interpretation:

Using mean analysis for all of the above statements about understanding the practice of reward power in AWCC the research has come up with the following finding on average about the view of AWCC employees on the reward power defining statements.

The respondents on average believe that if they perform the task in a well-mannered their supervisor is not the only who could give them promotion. It is to say that in their organization the responsible party to promote and assign position is some else the supervisor.

As a relaxation the supervisor must give free time to their employees in the AWCC on average all of the employees has denied that their supervisor has the right to give them off time for the relaxation.

Considering the appreciation and bonus giving the power of the supervisor the employees of AWCC has strongly disagreed with given statement. So the supervisors in AWCC have no appreciation and bonus giving policies for the achievement of their employees’ achievements.

The point of view of the AWCC employees on average is neutral about the fairness of their supervisors in their job performance appraisal; still the statistics show a slight deviation toward disagreement.

In general the employees of AWCC on average have a neutral view about their supervisors’ believe that reward is the most effective tool to influence them.

Table 4. 30

Descriptive Statistics

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Interpretation:

From the given statements about the elaboration of the reward power usage in the organization the research has created a computed command using the statistical mean method. Using mean analysis of descriptive statistics on a computed variable of the reward power the researcher has come up with a value of 3.5425. The figure suggests that practice of referent power on average is between neutral and disagreement slightly deviating toward disagreement. On average the respondents slightly disagreed with the practice of reward power in the AWCC.

4.7 Coercive power analysis

Table 4. 31

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I have to get done right on time otherwise my supervisor is going to fire me.

Interpretation:

The employees of AWCC were given some statements opposite to the statements of reward power which can define the usage of coercive power there. Coercive power is the just opposite to reward or we can see a negative reward. When in an organization different types of the punishments are widely used it is to say there coercive power is in practice.

Taking someone off the job or firing an employee due to performance shortage is an example of using coercive power in the organization. The AWCC employees were given a statement where if they don’t get their task down right on time they will be fired by their supervisor. To the statement twenty-four percent has agreed where the majority of them strongly agreed, and around seventy percent of the respondents have shown a strong negative reaction to the statement saying that their supervisor has no right to fire them or take them off the job if they perform not to the mark or on time.

Table 4. 32

My supervisor will give me punishment if I will not be on time.

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Interpretation:

Different types of punishment can be used by a leader while practicing the coercive power in an organization. Here in AWCC case to the statement of punishment just for not being on time twenty-two percent of the respondents have agreed, a strong agreement. So, we can say some of the supervisors are very restricted about the time which can result in punishment. While similar to the first statement of coercive power rest of the seventy percent have disagreed with the statement. Where the supervisors are not that much tight about the timing may be restricted about timing but not to punish their employees.

Table 4. 33

If I did not meet the target my supervisor is going to cut my salary.

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Interpretation:

As a practice of coercive power in organization leaders are tent to cut salaries of the employees for not performing to the mark and lacking to meet the targets. In AWCC to check the practice of coercive power the employees were stated with a statement if they do not meet their target their supervisor will cut off their salary for some of the business days. Amazingly, the reaction to the statement was eight percent negative only a minority of twenty percent had agreed to the statement.

Table 4. 34

Because of the punishments of my supervisor, I am not able to take leaves and reach to my personal life.

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Interpretation:

The effectivity of an employee totally depends on his/her mind relaxation. Personal problems are of those issues which are uncontrollable by the employers. As a labor law right the employees has the right to take paid leaves to reach out their personal problems. This practice will help the employee to recover and be effective to the organization. Though, there is a legal right to take off but still in some of the organizations due to occasional punishments the employees are not practicing their rights. In AWCC to the statement some of the respondents agreed and a similar number of the respondents has not shared their point of view while rest of fifty-four percent has disagreed with the statement that they are free to take leave and able to take leave without facing any punishment.

Table 4. 35

My supervisor punishes me if I do something opposite to codes of conduct.

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Interpretation:

Every organization has some sort of rules and policies to be obeyed by the employees working in surrounding. These are the policies that the employees are contractually bound to play and follow. The breach of such conducts might cause to disciplinary actions. The level of breach and obedience level always differs place to place. The immediate reaction to the breach is never recommended by supervisors because it requires stepwise disciplinary action. The supervisors’ punishment directly to the breach of codes of conduct leads to the aggressive use of coercive power. In case of the AWCC nineteen percent has strongly agreed that their supervisor will punish them if they break the policy, forty-six percent of the respondents might not have faced breach situation to see the reaction of their supervisor that is why they have not shared their point of view, and rest thirty-four percent of the employees disagreed to the statement.

Table 4. 36

My supervisor gives warning letters, demotion, or other punishments frequently to employees.

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Interpretation:

Successive usage of coercive power leads to lessening the effect of other powers as well. Warning letters and demotion are other forms of punishment. In AWCC the employees were given a statement that their supervisor gives them warning letters and demotion frequently. The purpose of this statement is to check the existence and frequency of coercive power usage in AWCC. Twenty-four percent of the respondents reacted positively to the statement, twenty percent reacted neutral, and rest fifty-seven percent has shown a negative reaction to the statement.

Table 4. 37

Descriptive Statistics

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Interpretation:

Let’s go through all the above statements which define coercive power using on average or descriptive statistics’ mean analysis. The researcher has come up with following findings of on average views of the AWCC employees about the coercive power statements.

In the case of firing as a punishment on average the AWCC employees reacted between neutral and disagreement, also, the figure is deviating a bit more toward disagreement. That if they perform not to the mark or on time their supervisor will not fire them, or we can say that their supervisor has no right to fire them.

Being on time is another issue, if the employees fail to be on time they might face some usage of coercive power. But in AWCC on average all of the employees have disagreed with the statement that their supervisors are not that much strict about the office timing. They might be strict about timing but they are not punishing in the case of failure.

The most common punishment in the local organization in the area is a salary cut upon failure to reach the milestone. The salary cutting is itself use of coercive power in an organization. AWCC employees on average have in between neutral and disagreement point of view. Which can be elaborated that on average there is no salary cut as a punishment in AWCC.

No exercising a legal right of taking off to reach out the personal issue is another way that implies the use of coercive power in an organization. The employees in AWCC on average denies to that statement and they are freely exercising their right and there is no such threat to avoid using their right of taking personal leaves.

With a very slight deviation toward agreement on average all of the employees of AWCC are neutral about the punishment of performing opposite to the codes of conduct. This can be implied that in AWCC codes of conduct are followed in a well-organized manner that employees never fail to act upon them to face any serious action.

AWCC employees were given other options and types of punishment which coercive power can be exercised on that are warning letter and demotion. On average the employees of AWCC have shared a neutral point of view with deviation toward disagreement. So we can say that these types of punishment are also not used in AWCC premises.

Table 4. 38

Descriptive Statistics

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Interpretation:

Considering those above six statements of the definition of coercive power in AWCC and their respective mean the researcher has created a computed command of Coercive power using mean and statistical approaches. Using mean analysis of descriptive statistics on computed command of coercive power we have come up with a value of 3.4198. The figure suggests that practice of coercive power on average is between neutral and disagreement deviating toward disagreement. On average the respondents slightly disagreed with the practice of reward power in the AWCC

4.8 Summary of leaders’ reliance on power in AWCC

Table 4. 39

Descriptive Statistics

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Employees of the AWCC were given a total of twenty-six statements to share their point of view on them. These twenty-six statements were incorporated of six statements defining the use of expert power, nine statements which could elaborate the use of referent power, five statements for explaining of reward power, and six statements for the coercive power practices.

The researcher has used different statistical approaches, such as frequency and mean analysis, to sum up the power usage and leaders’ reliance on the type of power in AWCC. These descriptive statistics approaches or analysis have been performed on the computed or combined commands of power each of them defined via its respective statements.

Based on the literature review on the types of power the researcher has found that there are several types of the power being practiced in the organizations around the world (Each of them separately described in chapter two of this research under the heading of types of power). For this study to see the reliance of leader on the type of power in AWCC the researcher has only examined the usage of four types of power which are an expert, referent, reward, and coercive powers.

To conclude, looking into statistics shown in above table, in AWCC the leaders rely on the usage of expert power comparative to other power being provided to them during the experiment. The statistical figure of 2.5188 means of computed command of variable expert power suggests that in AWCC on average all of the employees have voted for the usage of expert power there. Secondly the usage of referent power has been voted as neutral. The employees neither agreed nor disagreed to the usage of this power in AWCC. Comparing to the usage of expert power the referent power might be slightly in use while the average statistics figure suggests being neutral on the use of this power. For the rest two powers, reward and coercive, the employees on average have shown a negative reaction to the practice of those powers in AWCC.

So, finally based on findings among four power options provided to AWCC employees on average the usage of expert power has been voted among other alternatives.

4.9 Male versus Female leader reliance on the type of power

Table 4. 40

Report

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Interpretation:

Using compare mean analysis to compare the reliance of male versus female leader reliance on the type of power in AWCC the researcher has come up with finding that in AWCC females as leader rely more on power than male leaders.

Though, as discussed above the leaders in AWCC overall rely on expert power, referent power had a neutral vote and for rest of two powers there was disagreement for the usage of them.

Considering the expert power both of the leaders, male and female, equally rely on the usage of the power. So, we can conclude that in AWCC as far as expertise in a field is a concern both male and female leaders are of expertise and well qualified for their jobs.

We had a neutral point of view, neither agreement nor disagreement, about the usage of referent power in AWCC on average of all. While the comparison suggests that slightly the usage of referent power by females has a deviation toward agreement and vice versa the males’ reliance has a deviation toward disagreement. It is to say that in AWCC comparatively female leaders rely on the referent power as well.

Reward power on average of all had a disagreement for the usage of power, but here the level of disagreement even enhance further for male leaders, and suggest that females as leader rely on this power as well. The female leaders have to right to reward but males do not; well may be both have the power to reward but females are practicing this power.

As far as punishment is concern overall we had a point of view between neutral and disagreement, but here shockingly it is total disagreement for the usage of coercive power and punishment by male leaders, and female as a leader are more dangers than males. The reliance of female leader on coercive power has been voted between agreement and strongly agreement.

4.10 Summary of male and female reliance on power

As a summary, male leaders rely on expert power and avoid using reward and coercive power at most and slightly avoids using referent power as well, but female as leader almost uses all of the given power types majorly relies on the use of coercive and expert power and respectively exercise the referent and reward power as well.

Chapter Five

5 Conclusion, Recommendation and Appendixes

5.1 Conclusion

As a conclusion to leadership styles being used in AWCC it is to say that majority of the respondents have voted for democratic leadership style being practiced in AWCC main office. Secondly, the up next to high voted leadership style is autocratic that makes 32 percent and they have noted that their leader is direction giver and hold all the authority with them self. Thirdly, with 24 percent of the vote the free-rein leadership style is practiced where the leader is not involved in the routine tasks of employees. Meanwhile, the respondents were given another option as well which was about paternalistic leadership style where the leader believe he/she is the only one who know everything, totally a one man shore, and no one has voted for the implementation of such leadership style in AWCC headquarters.

Type of leadership styles used by male and female in AWCC as a summary it is to say that females as a leader widely, in AWCC, do not involve themselves in the routine tasks of the employees and give them a free environment to perform their own way the task and activities. On the other hand, males as a leader get involved in the routine task of the employees. Male supervisors in AWCC has to type of involvement in the employee's task and activities whether as direction giver, autocratic leadership style, or as a supporter, democratic leadership style.

Based on the literature review on the types of power the researcher has found that there are several types of the power being practiced in the organizations around the world (Each of them separately described in chapter two of this research under the heading of types of power). For this study to see the reliance of leader on the type of power in AWCC the researcher has only examined the usage of four types of power which are an expert, referent, reward, and coercive powers.

To conclude in AWCC the leaders rely on the usage of expert power comparative to other power being provided to them during the experiment. The statistical figure of 2.5188 means of computed command of variable expert power suggests that in AWCC on average all of the employees have voted for the usage of expert power there. Secondly the usage of referent power has been voted as neutral. The employees neither agreed nor disagreed to the usage of this power in AWCC. Comparing to the usage of expert power the referent power might be slightly in use while the average statistics figure suggests being neutral on the use of this power. For the rest two powers, reward and coercive, the employees on average have shown a negative reaction to the practice of those powers in AWCC.

So, finally based on findings among four power options provided to AWCC employees on average the usage of expert power has been voted among other alternatives.

Using compare mean analysis to compare the reliance of male versus female leader reliance on the type of power in AWCC the researcher has come up with finding that in AWCC females as leader rely more on power than male leaders.

Considering the expert power we can conclude that in AWCC as far as expertise in a field is a concern both male and female leaders are of expertise and well qualified for their jobs.

While the comparison suggests that slightly the usage of referent power by females has a deviation toward agreement and vice versa the males’ reliance has a deviation toward disagreement. It is to say that in AWCC comparatively female leaders rely on the referent power as well.

Reward power on average of all had a disagreement for the usage of power, but here the level of disagreement even enhance further for male leaders, and suggest that females as leader rely on this power as well. The female leaders have to right to reward but males do not; well may be both have the power to reward but females are practicing this power.

As far as punishment is concern overall we had a point of view between neutral and disagreement, but here shockingly it is total disagreement for the usage of coercive power and punishment by male leaders, and female as a leader are more dangers than males. The reliance of female leader on coercive power has been voted between agreement and strongly agreement.

As a summary, male leaders rely on expert power and avoid using reward and coercive power at most and slightly avoids using referent power as well, but female as leader almost uses all of the given power types majorly relies on the use of coercive and expert power and respectively exercise the referent and reward power as well.

5.2 Recommendation

The researcher after doing a literature review on the topic understanding its pros and cons, practical study of the implementation of the topic in AWCC, and considering the findings have following recommendations.

- Reward power is not used in AWCC; it is recommended using reward power in AWCC. The beauty of reward power is that it boosts up the performance of employees. If in AWCC the leaders are not able to provide financial reward still it is required to practice the reward power by providing non-financial rewards such as appreciation letter and success certificates. By this practice leader makes sure that they are aware of the efforts given by the employees and their efforts are understand and recognized. This makes the employees sure that he/she is been followed and their efforts are well considered. Also, a tip for leaders that they should not make this power usage frequent. Because a frequent use of the reward can reduce the impact or influence that offering a reward initially had on the follower.
- The referent power has been voted as neutral for both male and female leader; it is highly recommended that leaders beside their formal power they should exhibit some character and personal traits. This phenomenon mostly believed that traits are by birth, but no these traits and behaviors can be learned by practice and attention.
- Occasional use of coercive power is also recommended; male leaders totally avoid to use this power and on the contrary it is been used frequently by female leaders in AWCC. It is recommended that male leaders for some special occasions where other powers fail to perform should use the coercive power. And female leaders should avoid the frequent practice of this power because it is overuse might result to unhappy followers which can lead them to be negative or unmotivated, or may lead them to limit themselves only to contractual duties.
- This had been a descriptive research only testifying the reliance of the leaders on the type of power in AWCC, future research can be done that what are the impacts on the employee's performance if they are relying on these powers. Also another research can be to see the leadership styles used by them based on usage of these powers. And finally a comparative research can be done on communication industry power reliance analysis.

5.3 Reference

Afghan Wireless. (2016). About Us. Retrieved April 1, 2016, from Afghan Wireless: http://afghan-wireless.com/about-us/

Allan R. Cohen et. (1984). Effective behaviour in organization. Homewood Irwin.

Cohen, P., Morgan, J., & Pollack, M. (1992). Intentions in communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Daft, R. L. (2005). The leadership experience . Mason: OH: Thomson.

Daugherty, R. P., & Williams, S. P. (n.d.). Power and Influence: Strategies for leaders. Stillwater: Oklahoma State University .

Dr Jan P Bosman, P. (2004). Organizational Behaviour, Leadership Power and Influence. The Da Vinci Institute for Technology Management (Pty) Ltd.

Gleanings, A. (2007, July). http://www.vtaide.com. Retrieved from http://www.vtaide.com: http://www.vtaide.com/gleanings/leader.htm

James L. Gibson, , John M. Ivancevich,, & James H. . (1985). Organizations: Behavior, Structure, Processes. Plano: Business Publications, Inc.

John R. Schermerhorn Jr., James G. Hunt, & Richa. (1985). Managing Organizational Behavior. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Kumar, D. K., & Jain, M. (2013). Leadership Management: Principles, Models and Theories. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies, 310.

L. K. Trevino, &. ,. (2005). The role of leaders in influencing unethical behavior in the workplace. CA. sage.

Lukes, S. (1986). Political sociology/ power. New York: New York press.

Luneneburg, F. C. (2012 ). Power and Leadership: An Influence Process . International Journal of Managment, Business, and Administration, 1-9.

Lussier, R. N., & Achua, C. F. (n.d.). Theory, Application, Skill Development.

M. H. Bazerman, &. A. (2011). Why we fail to do what’s right and what to do about it. Princeton University Press.

Maxwell, D. J. (2005, October 6-7). Leadership Journal. Retrieved March 22, 2016, from Christianity Today: http://www.christianitytoday.com/le/2007/july-online-only/090905.html

McGraw-Hill. (2006). Organization Leadership and Change Management. Apollos University: McGraw-Hill Primis.

Mr. P. Tailor, & Mrs. S. Tailor. (n.d.). LEADERSHIP POWER. Retrieved February 14, 2016, from http://www.learnmanagement2.com/leadership%20power.htm

Randall, D. M. (2012). Leadership and the use of power: shaping an ethical climate. THE JOURNAL OF APPLIED CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP, 29-35.

Randall, D. M. (Vol. 6, No. 1 Spring 2012). Leadership and the use of power: shaping an ethical climate. The journal of applied christian leadership, 28-35.

Robert B. Cialdini, P. (1983, 1984). Influence The Psychology of Persuasion . Arizona: Arizona State University.

Robert, N., & Christopher , F. (2010). LEADERSHIP Theory, Application, & Skill Development 4e. Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning .

Rykrsmith, E. (2011, November 15). Becoming a Better Influencer: 4 Most Effective Influence Tactics (Part I). Retrieved April 01, 2016, from Intuit QuickBase: http://quickbase.intuit.com/blog/becoming-a-better-influencer-4-most-effective-influence-tactics-part-i

Sampson, S. (2012). Influence Tactics and Leader Effectiveness: how effective, contemporary leaders influence subordinates. Queensland University of Technology .

Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational culture.

Sims, R. L. (1992). The challenge of ethical behavior in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 505-514.

Trevino, L. K. (1986). Ethical decision making in organizations. Academy of management.

W. H. Hegarty, &. H. (1978). Some determinants of unethical decision behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 451-457.

Yukl, G. (March 08, 2012). Leadership in organizations. University at Albany state university of New York: Pearson Education Limited; Global edition.

5.4 Appendixes

Primary data for this research is been collected via following questionnaires:

Questionnaires

This questionnaire is been developed to gather the primary information about Leaders’ reliance on the types of power(s) to influence their employee in the private sector of Afghanistan. You are kindly requested to select only one appropriate answer to each of the questions. For general guideline and understanding, we have quoted the word supervisor onward in this questionnaire by which we mean to say the leader, boss or a manager who has influence and control over a group of individuals. The information provided will be used only for the preparation of a thesis project report; we promise to not disclose the given information for any other purpose. Your kind cooperation is highly appreciated.

For Different angles

1. What is the gender of your supervisor

a. Male
b. Female

Warm Up Question

2. In our organization your supervisor is.

a. Only a direction giver and hold all the authority with him/herself.
b. Supportive and s/he delegates his/her authority to others as well.
c. Not involve in our routine tasks and he/she let us do our routine our own way.
d. The one who believes that s/he is only who knows everything.

For expert Power

3. I have learned a lot from our supervisor on how to do my job more effectively

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

4. I trust that our success is only because of our supervisor’s expertise

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

5. There is no big problem in my job because my supervisor knows our field the best possible way

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

6. I respect my supervisor’s direction because of his/her knowledge and experience

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

7. My supervisor gives me constructive feedbacks

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

8. My supervisor explains the complex issues clearly

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

For referent power

9. My supervisor is not a supervisor at all s/he treats me like his/her friend

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

10. I am sure if I face a personal problem my supervisor will help me out

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

11. We (me and my supervisor ) sometimes go to lunch for enjoyment outside office

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

12. I just want my attitude and behavior be like my supervisor

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

13. When I am off or feeling sad my supervisor always treat me with humble words and makes my mood to work.

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

14. My supervisor has done a lot for me so I am ready to do anything for him/her

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

15. My supervisor encourages me to re-examine critical assumptions, and or to seek differing perspective when solving problems.

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

16. My supervisor listens to me attentively.

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

17. My supervisor’s honesty and dedication to work makes me work more enthusiastically.

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

For reward power

18. If I perform the tasks in a well-mannered, my supervisor is the only to give me promotion

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

19. My supervisor has the right to give me a week off and enjoy my time

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

20. If I chase the target my supervisor is going to give me a bonus

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

21. My supervisor is fair enough in performance appraisal and he/she rewards respectively

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

22. My supervisor believes that reward is most effective to influence us

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

For coercive power

23. I have to get done right on time otherwise, my supervisor is going to fire me

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

24. My supervisor will give me punishment if I will not be on time

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

25. If I did not meet the target my supervisor is going to cut my salary

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

26. Because of the punishments of my supervisor, I am not able to take leaves and reach to my personal life

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

27. My supervisor punishes me if I do something opposite to codes of conduct

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

28. My supervisor gives warning letters, demotion, or other punishments frequently to employees

a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
e. Strongly disagree

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Title: Leader's reliance on types of power to influence their employee in the private sector of Afghanistan