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Developing guidelines on propagation and management of Almaciga (Agathis philippinensis Warb.) for the Batak indigenous cultural community in Sitio Kalakwasan, Bgy. Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines

Master's Thesis 2016 65 Pages

South Asian Studies, South-Eastern Asian Studies

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENT

Acknowledgement

Abstract

List of tables

List of figures

List of appendices

Chapter I Introduction
Background of the Study
Statement of the problem
Significance of the study
Scope and limitation

Chapter II Review of related literature
Status of Almaciga and its role to indigenous people
The significance of native tree nurseries and future resource management scenarios
The Conceptual Framework
Definition of terms

Chapter III Research methodology
The study area
Secondary Data Collected from the propagation and nursery project
Establishment and monitoring of nursery
Development of management plans and review of policy/ies
Statistical Treatments

Chapter IV Results and discussion
Guidelines on Almaciga propagation, nursery and management
Indigenous knowledge, practices and future management plans of the Batak tribe on Almaciga Tree in Sitio Kalakwasan, Barangay Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan
Socio-demographic Profiles of the respondents
Knowledge of the respondents towards biology and ecology of Almaciga
Indigenous practices on Almaciga resin collection and trade-related issues and concerns
Current NTFP and Almaciga related policy/ies and laws

Chapter V Summary, conclusion and recommendations
Summary
Conclusion
Recommendations

Literature cited

Appendices

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author’s first and foremost gratitude is due to the Almighty Creator for the spiritual nourishments and the LIFE he had given.

Gratitude is likewise for Fauna and Flora International, Philippine Tropical Forest Conservation Fund, Centre for Sustainability and Malampaya Foundation Scholarship Program for granting project funds and scholarships that made this effort possible.

To all the advisory committee members, Drs. Ramon M. Docto, Patrick A. Regoniel, Ronald Edilberto A. Ona, Maria Rosario Aynon A. Gonzales and Sonia A. Bonagua for their patient reviews during the development of the research proposal and valuable suggestions and guidance throughout the completion of this thesis.

Fieldworks were made enjoyable with the companies of the Batak Tribe in Sitio Kalakwasan, the team of the Centre for Sustainability, student volunteers from WPU lead by Ms. Anna Gabua and other colleagues and friends who are too many to mention here who are expressed supports and help mutually.

Lastly, to my beloved family who showed their love, care, understanding, patience and undying support.

Thanks for you are all part of this effort. God bless us all!

E.D.J.

ABSTRACT

JOSE, E. D., 2016. DEVELOPING GUIDELINES ON PROPAGATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ALMACIGA (Agathis philippinensis Warb.) FOR THE BATAK INDIGENOUS CULTURAL COMMUNITY IN SITIO KALAKWASAN, BGY. TANABAG, PUERTO PRINCESA CITY, PALAWAN, PHILIPPINES. Graduate School, College of Sciences, Palawan State University, Tiniguiban, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines.

This study was initiated to develop management guidelines on Almaciga reforestation and sustainable resin harvesting for the Batak indigenous cultural community in Sitio Kalakwasan, Bgy. Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City. Secondary data from a nursery experiments were used combined with key informant interviews, household interviews and focus group discussions in order to determine the traditional resource management system/s the Batak tribe practiced in their ancestral lands. Additionally, relevant government policies were reviewed to realign its compatibility with the customary practices of the tribe. Results revealed that indigenous customary practices are deemed sustainable but because of influxes of other non-indigent people practicing unsustainable resource use, the indigenous practices was altered towards unsustainable way in competence for living subsidy. The government policies are likewise conflicting and poorly implemented in which regulations of unsustainable resource exploitations were remain uncontrolled. The tribal resolutions and ordinance/s to be develop as an expansion of this study is a critical and first step to attain sustainability of Almaciga as well as survival of the on-going species rehabilitation project in the study area. This study provided recommendations as basis and guidelines in developing sustainable management of Almaciga speices in the study area and for the Batak tribe who are dependent on Almaciga resin industry as subsistence livelihood.

Keyword: Almaciga, Agathis philippinensis Warb., resource management, sustainability, Batak, Cleopatra’s Needle, Puerto Princesa, Palawan.

LIST OF TABLES

1 Summary statistics on Almaciga resin related livelihood information of the Batak tribe in Sitio Kalawasan, Bgy. Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City.

LIST OF FIGURES

1 The conceptual diagram..…
2 Cone collection expedition. a: one of the mother trees surveyed; b: cones of the mother trees; c: net traps around mother tree to capture falling cones and/or seeds…..…
3 Seed collection and processing. a: the researcher and field assistants during cones and seeds collection; b. new seedlings growing in experimental nurseries….
4 The hypothetical experimental seed bed plan in a split-split plot design. a: elevation; b: moisture, humidity, nutrients and other related environmental parameters; c: disease and pest treatments….
5 Box plot showing the percentage germination of the seeds propagated in experimental seed beds in the nurseries.
6 Canonical correspondence analysis showing environmental factors that correspond to the number of propagated seeds in the experimental seedbeds. T=treatments. Environmental parameters: N, P, K=soil nutrients; pH; soil moisture; humidity; light; and; temperature…
7 Common molds and faunal consumer of Almaciga seeds and seedlings in the nursery. Left to right from top to bottom: beetle, molds, earwig, fire ant, damaged seedling, rodents (S. juvencus and M. panglima caught in camera trap in the nursery).
8 Linear correlation of the percentage mortality with the age of the seedlings.
9 Interviews (left) and focus group discussions (right) with student volunteers and Batak in Sitio Kalakwasan, Bgy. Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City..

LIST OF APPENDICES

1 Survey questionnaire guide used during KIIs, HII and FGDs

2 Environmental parameters tested for canonical correspondence analysis in relation to seeds germinated in 3X3 treatment split-split plot design

Chapter I INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Agathis philippinensis Warb. (Almaciga) is a coniferous tree—the largest and historically most dominant tree of Palawan’s upland primary forests. In the Cleopatra’s Needle forest in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Almaciga resin collection serves as the main livelihood for the indigenous cultural communities (ICCs) living in the proximities of the forest providing approximately 80% of their total income. For the Batak tribe alone in Sitio Kalakwasan, Barangay Tanabag, the Almaciga tree has remarkable value as their lives; culture and income revolve around this tree. Ownership of individual trees is passed down from generation to generation. The customary practices of the Batak tribe in seeking livelihood mainly depend on forest products – primarily non-timber forest products (NTFP). Currently Almaciga (A. philippinensis) resin-generated income constitutes 98% of the main livelihood of this tribe (Jose, et al., in prep.). However, overharvesting is evident in the area due to influx of resin collectors coming from areas where the trees have vanished and this threatens the remaining population of the species in the area. The trees eventually become weak due to over-tapping and will collapse in the near future if no action is taken. This means that the traditional livelihood and thus the future for this ICC is very uncertain.

Options to conserve Almaciga include replacement of dead or badly-damaged trees in the forest by either planting seedlings or allowing growth of naturally-generated young trees prior to extracting resins (Lacuna-Richman, 2004; 2006). As such, this research is part of a project intended to provide seed-propagated seedlings to reforest the degrading population of the species in the study area. The resulting review of pre-existing management plans carried out in this research will serve to capacitate the indigenous people stakeholders manage their resources in their ancestral domain and as a basis for local or regional conservation and sustainability of the species.

Statement of the problem

Although logging has been banned by the national and local government for Almaciga in the country, there is evidence of continuing decline of its population throughout the Philippines due to small-scale illegal logging and unsustainable resin harvesting. The methods of traditional natural resource use by the IPs however has been proven sustainable since time immemorial but these have been greatly undermined due to competition with the non-IPs in natural resource use and to sustain subsistence living. Such activities have degraded the health and population of valuable natural resources such it is almost impossible to recover/rehabilitate resources–and meanwhile, unsustainable practices still continue. The challenge for environmental managers/management is to deal with how sustainable resource use and practices be implemented considering that sustainable indigenous practices are now fading. It is the aim of this study to revisit the sustainable resource uses by the Batak tribe in Bgy. Tanabag - specifically for Almaciga - and to develop local policy/ies empowering this tribe to manage their resources in their ancestral lands. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are the indigenous and current Almaciga status and rehabilitation initiatives and guidelines in the study area?
2. What are the existing Almaciga related practices of the Batak?
3. What are the existing local policies in connection with Almaciga management?
4. Is it necessary to revive strategic and management plans on Almaciga reforestation and resin harvesting in the study area?

Significance of the study

For species-rehabilitation purposes, this study serves as the first seed-based Almaciga propagation nursery and management guidelines in Palawan and the entire Philippines. The knowledge and experience gained in the whole process of the study, together with the nursery guide subsequently developed will be used by the ICCs in the creation of community-based Almaciga nursery projects. This study is further significant in that it sought to revive a sustainable management plan for Almaciga—the main source of livelihood of the ICCs in the study area. The tribe in the study area was equipped with enhanced knowledge towards sustainability of Almaciga through revitalized existing local management and development plans incorporated with the ADSDPP concurrently developed in another project of Centre for Sustainability in which this thesis is part of.

Scope and limitation

The scope of the study is to develop Almaciga propagation and management guidelines based on the result of the experiments and review of NTFP management practices and policy/ies initiated in this study. Furthermore, the study will provide a rationalized indigenous approach on management of future Almaciga reforestation project as well as of resin harvesting strategy in its wild population in the study area. The developed management plan is limited for and use of the Batak tribe and in the area of Bgy. Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City. However, the developed management plans can be adopted by other community groups who are willing to implement the same process for the sustainability of the species in their respective area/s.

Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This presents the literature reviews on Almaciga propagation, nursery and natural resource management.

Status of Almaciga and its role to indigenous people

Almaciga (Agathis philippinensis) is a species of conifer endemic to the Philippines. It is a large coniferous tree reaching 60 meters in height and 300 centimeters in diameter and occurs in upland tropical forests at altitudes between 200 to more than 1,000 meters above sea level (Boer and Ella, 2000). Almaciga is present in primary forests at medium and high altitudes from the Babuyan Islands and Northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao (Ella and Domingo, 2011). Almaciga yields high quality resin known as Manila copal used as a raw material for varnish, lacquers, paper paint driers, linoleum, printing inks, and other uses (Brown, 1921; Mantel, 1950; Boer and Ella, 2000; Ella, 2000; Saminao and Ella, 2014). Manila copal is considered an important dollar earner among the country’s non-timber forest products. Its timber is excellent for paneling and commands a high price in the world market while Palawan is the largest Almaciga resin producer in the Philippines (Razal, 2013). It has also been suggested as a material for pulp and paper because of its long fibers (Samiano and Ella, 2014).

Almaciga is rapidly vanishing even if its logging is currently banned by the Philippine government (Halos and Principe, 1978; Mittelman, et al., 1997; Ella and Domingo, 2011). Resin collection has further contributed to the declining population of the species in the country. In Palawan, collection of resin is an important source of income for indigenous peoples (IPs) and many rural communities, next to cashew and seaweeds (Goloubinoff, et al., undated). Due to its high market demand however, the number of collectors has increased, including non-IPs, wherein most of them practice unsustainable tapping methods leading to resin yield and quality decline and at worst, the death of trees (Wakker, 1993; Tiwari, 2000). If these malpractices prevail, Almaciga is prone to extinction affecting the livelihood of communities depending on it. Furthermore, with climate change as a global concern, recurrence of natural calamities like typhoons and forest fires will have impacts on forest ecosystems, particularly vulnerable and threatened species like Almaciga (Razal, 2013).

At present, Almaciga covers about 80% of the total income of the peoples in the ICCs of Palawan province (Ella, 2008) and for the Batak in the study area, 98% is provided by Almaciga resin-generated income (Jose, et al., in prep.). Historically, Almaciga resin was not used by the Batak peoples as a commercial livelihood but became the major livelihood source in recent times due to policy interventions that limits these indigenous peoples’ customs to live and survive in their traditional way and in their ancestral territory/ies (Novelino, undated; Novelino, 2007). Similarly, a local policy enforcing bans on slash-and-burn farming and shifting/swidden cultivation was further cause for the Batak tribe in the area to harvest Almaciga resin and other NWFPs as alternatives (Novelino, undated) and for them to sustain subsistence living. Hybrid NGOs came to the forefront in the recent past for addressing alternative livelihood programs but all failed because of the tribes’ preference to return to their traditional customs of living (Novelino and Dressler, 2010).

The resin harvesting in the study area is shaped by the management schemes imposed by the CBFM agreement program of the DENR according to Ernesto Dagsalio, the NCIP-recognized tribal leader of the Batak in Kalawasan. The overexploitation of A. philippinensis trees is likely caused by three phased linear sequences that are initiated by socio-economic, demographic and legislative trends which cause either extreme needs, greed or scarcity in resources (Vermeer, 2016). Boyd et al., (2012) argued that formulations of effective environmental legislations are now linked to economic requisites rather than hard core environmentalism and it must have affect. These claims of Boyd et al. can be achieved by the interactions between environmental policy and the social elements of the environment (Sokolowski, 2013). In many cases, the argument became controversial on the grounds of implementation even if there are completed and/or existing legislations (Ruhl, 2010). Environmental conservation efforts at present time do not only deal with the so-called industrial revolution, technology advancements and/or resource failure but to seek the ability of change in the modern society over time (Radcliffe, 2002). A study in the role of indigenous Tagbanua and Molbog tribes in Palawan towards biodiversity conservation demonstrated the importance of indigenous beliefs and practices in promoting resource, land and environmental management (Docto and Galulo-Davis, 2010).

The significance of native tree nurseries and future resource management scenarios

Deforestation is a frequent practice in many parts of the globe thereby reducing the volume of forest that serves as carbon sinks further exacerbating climate change (Aguilar et al., undated.). Reforestation programs are now trending global concerns as major forestry and conservation initiatives, and to combat climate change. Such reforestation projects create better quality of air and water, greater biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability, enhance wildlife habitats, and increase timber-related economic benefits (Dalla Rosa, 2009). Reforestation projects can increase carbon sequestration to approximately 0.05 – 0.35 ton per hectare (Anon., undated) thereby alleviating consequences of climate change. Reforestation projects further addresses climate change adaptation by supporting natural resource-based livelihoods; reducing disaster risk; sustain, protect and restore ecosystem and biodiversity; thus; maintaining goods and services provided by the ecosystem (Buffle, et al., undated) for the current and future generations. Further, Lopez, et al., 2011 assert that forest tree plantations and agroforestry farms will increase the carbon sequestration and storage capacity of a certain ecosystem, support habitat, restore watersheds, improve soil quality of degraded lands, and enhance landscape figures. However, most nurseries (government and private) in the Philippines do not produce or provide a high quality and wide variety of species from smallholder forestry, tree farming and reforestation projects in the country (Gregorio, et al., 2010).

The framework of resource management requires decision-making and actions that are exemplified by grassroots stakeholders to higher forms of resource management authorities. The desired management outcomes would be involving actions to predict ecological and physical systems to respond environmental interventions and identifying available management options to formulate quality decisions. Adaptive management requires stated management objectives to guide decisions about what actions to take, and explicit assumptions about expected outcomes to compare against actual outcomes. In the Philippines, the extensive forest damage combined with rural poverty and inequity in access and distribution of resources has forced environmental management authorities and practitioners to develop new models of forest management reconsidering the role community, also known as community forestry (Gilmour and Fisher, 1991; Rebugio, 1997a). Community-based forest management (CBFM) became the direction of Philippine national government through legislations and policies giving the rights to legitimate and organized communities to manage community forestry in the Philippines including degraded grassland habitats and even primary vegetated areas (Sajise, 1985; Guiang, 2000). However, the complete rights to forestlands, resource use and land titles were not shared to independent individuals and communities but remained with the DENR authority in the Philippines (Guiang, undated; 2000).

The Conceptual Framework

Economic needs of people have been shaped by over-exploitation of resources elsewhere in the Philippines. This scenario has resulted to the decline of major natural resources that include Almaciga. Almaciga species conservation initiatives and recommendations necessitate the need of rehabilitation and reforestation combined with sustainable management of resin harvesting (Lacuna-Richman, 2004; 2006). Historically, indigenous methods of resource management have proven sustainable but due to resource use competition by non-indigenous migrants together with policy/ies imposed for conservation and sustainability of natural resources, indigenous customary practices have become skewed toward unsustainable resource management systems. These indigenous cultural communities (ICCs) had been spared ultimate power to manage their resources within their ancestral lands under the Indigenous Peoples Right Act (IPRA) law. However, capacity building in managing the ancestral lands of these ICCs is the lacking scenario while there are local policy/ies and/or ordinances that limits the traditional customs of these ICCs in their living subsistence (Novelino, undated; Novelino, 2007). For example, a local policy enforcing bans on slash-and-burn farming and shifting/swidden cultivation was further cause for the Batak tribe in the study area to harvest Almaciga resin and other NWFPs as alternatives in their living subsistence (Novelino, undated).

One among the purpose of this study is to explore strategies on community empowerment and capacity building, Almaciga resource rehabilitation and reforestation and economic development for the Batak tribe in the study area. We believe that this can be accomplished through interventions of sustainable resource management plan/s combined with traditional and/or site specific regulations on sustainable resource use and decent livelihood and trade. In doing so, the Batak tribe in the study area will be empowered to safeguard their natural resources, specifically towards sustainable Almaciga industry for the survival of current and future generations. A diagrammatic representation of this concept is shown in figure 1.

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Figure 1: The conceptual diagram

Definition of terms

Indigenous cultural communities (ICCs). Communities having historical territoriality existence in the pre-colonial/pre-invasion era and considering distinct society/ies from other sectors of societies or part of them. They are at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories and their ethnic identity as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal systems.

Batak tribe. This tribe is one of about 70 indigenous peoples of the Philippines and are said to be closely related to Aeta of Central Luzon, another negrito tribe. Batak have for centuries combined a hunting-gathering lifestyle with seeding food plants, a fallow slash-and-burn farming method and trading. It is believed that they may have had trading relations with Chinese merchants as early as 500 AD.

Ancestral Domain or ancestral lands. Lands, territories and resources of indigenous peoples, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The term differs from indigenous land right, aboriginal title of native title by indicating relationships to land based on ancestry, while domain indicates relationships beyond material lands and territories, including spiritual and cultural aspects that may not be acknowledged in land.

Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan (ADSDPP). A tool or instrument under the Indigenous People Rights Act (IPRA) for the empowerment of indigenous cultural communities (ICCs) and/or indigenous peoples (IPs) towards sustainable fulfillment of the general well-being of the ICCs/IPs.

Tradition. Are the beliefs or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.

Sustainability. Concept or a method of resource use that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.

Almaciga. A species of conifer tree native to the Philippines, Sulawesi and Halmahera, where it occurs in the upland rainforests at 450-2200 meters altitude, rarely as low as 250 meter altitude in northern Luzon, the Philippines.

Manila Copal. A copal from any of several trees of the genus Agathis usually from the Philippines or Indonesia that varies from soft to hard depending on whether it is gathered after intentional or accidental wounding of the trees and that is used chiefly in varnish.

Non-timber forest products (NTFP). Useful substances, materials and/or commodities derived from forests other than logs. They include game animals, fur-bearers, nuts, seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat and forage.

Livelihood. Means of securing the basic necessities (food, water, shelter and clothing) of life.

Sustainable Resource Management Plan. Refers to planning and controlling the use of natural resources for and by the Batak tribe towards its sustainability.

Sustainable Almaciga industry. Refers to the regulated Almaciga resource use that sustains the longevity of the Almaciga tree and the industry for the current and future generations of the Batak tribe in the study area.

Rehabilitation and reforestation of Almaciga. Refers to the process of rehabilitation and reforestation of Almaciga through production of seed-based Almaciga seedlings in the study area.

Regulated and sustainable resin harvesting. Regulations and/or policies that promote sustainable resin harvesting methods and resource use.

Community empowerment and capacity building. Refers to the conceptual approach to development in which addresses both the consequences that inhibit people, environment and economy for the community to enhance their ability that allow them achieve goals in a measurable, effective and sustainable result.

Economic development. This refers to the adoption of technology/ies transitions of basic commodity-based to industry-based economy towards general improvement of living standards

Chapter III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the location of the study, research design, data processing and analysis.

The study area

The study was conducted in the Batak tribe village in Sitio Kalakwasan, Bgy. Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City. The area is approximately 3 kilometers from the national highway and holds about 80% of ancestral lands.

This research both utilized descriptive and inferential research design. Standard survey questionnaire guide (Appendix I) were used in the interviews and focus group discussions to determine traditional customs of the Batak tribe on harvesting and management of NTFP particularly to Almaciga. Moreover, pre-existing NTFP management plans and local policy/ies were evaluated and discussed with the members of the tribes toward re-alignment to traditional customary management. Finally, management was planned for the existing Almaciga reforestation project in the area. The proposed management plan/s will presented to the Bgy. Council subject to development of local management and ordinance towards sustainable Almaciga resin harvesting in the future.

The Nursery guidelines require results from experimental nursery. This was utilizing inferences to determine propagation success (or failures). Secondary data from two Almaciga nurseries in the area was used in this study (Appendix II). The data includes mortality and growth rate performances of seedlings in different treatments and the corresponding environmental factors affecting propagation and survival of the seeds and seedlings. All data acquired in the nursery propagation and management was secondary from the existing project in the area.

Secondary Data Collected from the propagation and nursery project

The general objective of the experiments is to provide a standard protocol on propagation and nursery management of Almaciga in the study area. Specifically, it aims to:

1. Test various methods of cones, seeds and seedlings collection;
2. Identification, management and mitigation of pests and diseases of seedlings in the nursery;
3. Monitoring growth and survival of seedlings in the nursery;
4. Creation of propagation and nursery monitoring guidelines; and;
5. Germinate seedlings that are used to reforest/rehabilitate the declining population of Almaciga in the forest of Cleopatra’s Needle.

There are five major activities initiated in the nursery. All of these activities were conducted between July and October, 2015.

Establishment and monitoring of nursery

Two nurseries were constructed at the edge of the forest at ≈100 meters above sea level (masl) and the other at higher elevation (≈200) where Almaciga trees are known to naturally occur. This is for the purpose of experimental comparisons as well as to ensure that the environment is appropriate for Almaciga propagation and growth.

Mother trees were surveyed and identified for the presence of cones and seeds (Fig. 2a and b). Initially, three methods were experimented and initiated for cone collection. First, trapping of cones and/or seeds from the pre-identified mother tree will be deployed and monitored for a one-month period (Fig. 2c). A net trap covering 400m2 total size area surrounding a mother tree were laid and monitored in the Almaciga area of Bgy. Tanabag. Secondly, several small wildlings encountered were immediately collected and likewise transplanted in the nursery. Lastly, groups of local Batak tree climbers were employed for cone collection.

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Figure 2. Cone collection expedition. a: one of the mother trees surveyed; b: cones of the mother trees; c: net traps around the mother tree to capture falling cones and/or seeds.

Collected cones and seeds were treated with fungicide and insecticide prior to being sown in experimental seedbeds (Fig.3). This is to ensure that seeds are already protected against pests prior to germination in the seedbeds.

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Figure 3. Seed collection and processing. a: the researcher and field assistants during cones and seeds collection; b: new seedlings growing in experimental seed bed.

Three types of seed bedding treatments were experimented following a standard split - split plot design (Fig. 4). Treatment 1 was covered with tarpaulin to protect it from possible overwatering and/or over-exposition to sunlight during extremities of rainy and/or drought weathers. Treatment 2 was covered with fine nets which blocked direct rain and/or sunlight allowing equal distribution of water and/or sunlight in the seed beds. Treatment 3 is the control treatment which had no roofing cover. Seedlings in the nursery will be monitored regularly on a bi-weekly basis parallel to monitoring of cone/seed traps and data gathering.

Information on the presence of pests, diseases, and growth and survival parameters were carried out. Environmental factors such as humidity, temperature, sunlight, nutrients, water requirements and pH in both soil and external environments are likewise noted and tested for correspondence to seed propagation.

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Figure 4. The hypothetical experimental seed bed plan in a split-split plot design. a: elevation; b: Moisture, humidity, nutrients and other related environmental parameters; c: disease and pest treatments

The number of seeds sown and seedlings germinated in experimental seedbeds were recorded. Mortality was monitored after the seedlings were transplanted in seed pots. Heights and leaf sizes are likewise measured for growth.

Development of management plans and review of policy/ies

The management plans will be subsequently developed for both the future Almaciga reforestation project and sustainable resin harvesting in the study area for the members of the Batak tribe. This was done by seeking pre-existing management plans for NTFP or community-based forest management agreements (CBFMA) in the area. Recent CBFMA management plan/s recorded in the Community Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO) were tracked in this study. In order to enhance the pre-existing management plan/s (if there is any) and integrate to the ADSDPP of the IPRA law, the customs of the tribe will likewise be determined. This will be done through a process of interviews and focus-group discussions with the members of the tribe.

Statistical Treatments

Descriptive statistics such as mean, counts and frequency were applied for the data referring to the volumes of harvests on Almaciga. Data is subject for inference to determine trend of change on harvest over time. In such way, members of the tribe can identify factors that affect harvest changes and will develop mitigations that can be based in their traditional methods, local mitigating policy/ies and/or both. Inferences are likewise subject to use for the nursery experiment. This includes standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the experimental seed beds, correspondence analysis to determine environmental factors that influence the propagation and survival of the seedlings among others.

Chapter IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the results and discussion of analysis and interpretation of the data on the basis of current Almaciga rehabilitation and guidelines, existing indigenous practices and local policy/ies and laws interventions on Almaciga industry.

There are no tribal and/or any reforestation initiatives being implemented for Almaciga in the study area until 2015 when a project on Almaciga propagation, nursery and reforestation is being implemented by the Centre for Sustainability Philippines Incorporated – a local non-government organization – in the study area. The project aimed to save the species and provide standard propagation, nursery and reforestation manual for the Batak and the entire province of Palawan. Secondary data on the experimental nursery was used in this study to create scientific guidelines and recommendations on Almaciga propagation, nursery and management.

Guidelines on Almaciga propagation, nursery and management

It is critical for any nursery establishments to identify suitable site/s. The percentages of propagation performances of the seedlings generated from the two nurseries in two different elevation gradients showed no significant difference. Based on these experimental results, Almaciga is not sensitive to elevation gradients as long as it meets environmental standards the species requires. Water requirement, soil type and canopy cover appears to be the most critical factor in its propagation. Depending on the soil type and composition, too much and/or too little water greatly affect the rate of propagation. Similarly, the seedlings are sensitive to dehydration when exposed in direct sunlight. Sandy soil requires extensive watering of at least thrice per week while clay soils can be watered once a week with adequate amount of water (500ML per 2.26 cubic centimeter of soil volume in potting bag). It is recommended that nursery will be placed in areas of at least 50% canopy cover. Fertilizers are likewise beneficial in the growth of the seedlings in the nursery when properly utilized.

Six cone/seed collection expeditions were initiated yielding nearly 12,000 viable seeds. These seeds were sown and propagated in experimental seedbeds in the nurseries. A total of 6,397 seedlings were germinated from the experiment and are now growing in seed pots. We likewise collected 83 wildlings which are growing successfully in seed pots in Lipso and Binduyan nurseries. Net traps on the other hand did not collect any cones or seeds within one month of monitoring.

Seeds would be ideal to collect from cones in the trees. In this experiment, seeds from dropped cones collected performed poor viability. This is because the cones and/or seed probably infected by various pests prior to extraction of the seeds for propagation preparation. Seeds collected from cones freshly harvested from the trees revealed high yields of propagation. On average, 37% (median = 27.1%) germination rate was recorded in the whole experiment with 92% to be the highest rate when properly nursed and managed in the seed beds (Fig. 5).

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Figure 5. Box plot showing the percentage germination of the seeds propagated in experimental seed beds in the three nurseries

Results of experimental seed beds are shown in Figure 6. Propagation natality for Treatment 3, the control treatment, greatly corresponded towards trajectories of soil moisture and temperature. Treatments 1 and 2 did not correspond to any environmental parameters tested but only for Nitrogen and pH. Humidity and light did not correspond to any of the experimental treatments. This implies that seeds cannot tolerate too much and/or too little water and this greatly affects its success at propagation. Similarly, we observed that after heavy rains, the soil clumps and hardens which is problematic as it prevents sprouting seedlings from coming out. Additionally, ants, rodents, insect larvae and fungi are the most common pests observed in the nursery (Fig. 7). Taxonomic identification of these pests is still in process.

Comparison of seedling propagation performances of the experimental seedbeds from the two nurseries showed significant difference (F(2,57) = 3.135; p = 0.05) in favor of the lower elevation (Pulang Bato) nursery site. In terms of the mortality rate of the seedlings, an average of 2.72% per month in three months was recorded. Mortality is negatively correlated with the age of the seedling (r = -0.5; p = 0.12) ranging from 10.72% in the first month to nearly zero mortality in three months duration (Fig. 8).

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Figure 6. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showing environmental factors that correspond to the number of propagated seeds in the experimental seedbeds. T = treatments. Environmental parameters: N, P, K = soil nutrients; pH; soil moisture, humidity; light; and temperature.

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Figure 7. Common molds and faunal consumer of Almaciga seeds and seedlings in the nursery. Left to right from top to bottom: Beetle, molds, earwig, fire ant, damaged seedling, rodents (S. juvencus and M. panglima caught in camera trap in the nurseries).

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Figure 8. Linear correlation of the percentage mortality with the age of the seedlings.

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Indigenous knowledge, practices and future management plans of the Batak tribe on Almaciga Tree in Sitio Kalakwasan, Barangay Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan

This reports the result of household interviews and focus group discussions conducted in Sitio Kalakwasan in relation to knowledge of this IPs to the biology and ecology of Almaciga as well as towards future sustainability management of the species. The objective of the activity is to assess the local knowledge of the tribes in the area in relation to Almaciga biology, ecology, resin collection methods and importance of the species in their lives and the environment. Specifically, the activity seeks to validate the current demographic profile of the community, evaluate local knowledge on biology and ecology of the species as well as tapping methods the respondents use in resin collection. Furthermore, management plans for both the on-going nursery project to rehabilitate the declining population of the species in the area and sustainable management in resin harvesting are likewise tackled during the discussions.

Socio-demographic Profiles of the respondents

A total of 24 respondents were interviewed in which 15 are males and nine are females and majority of them are Batak (n=21). Most of them have lived in the area since birth or at least an average of 32 years. However, they only stayed in their houses or at least established their houses roughly in five years duration up till present time with an average of eight family members in each household. All of the respondents are married in majority by means of traditional tribal marriage (n=21) while few are by legal marriage - two through Christian marriage and one through level of the legal (Mayor) marriage. All of the respondents are involved with Almaciga resin collection for their livelihood. In combination to Almaciga resin collection, some of them also collect rattan (n=15), honey (n=40, are involved in fallow farming (n=4), charcoal-making (n=2), tribal handicrafts (n=1) and tribal dance shows for visiting tourists (n=1). Despite involvement in the above-mentioned livelihood activities, the income of the respondents still falls below poverty line (<Php. 5000/mo.). On average, they only earn Php. 4300.00 per month from all of the four sources of their livelihood with Php. 500 to be the lowest recorded (n=7).

Knowledge of the respondents towards biology and ecology of Almaciga

All the respondent are familiar with the Almaciga and it is said to be a source of their livelihood (n=20). Some other uses are to start fires, for rituals and medicinal purposes (µ=11.5). Several respondents are aware that the Almaciga serves as wildlife habitat (µ=12) and protection for erosion and related environmental disasters (µ=4). They are also aware that population of the species in their area is declining and estimated to have had few hundreds of trees remaining.

Indigenous practices on Almaciga resin collection and trade-related issues and concerns

The traditional way of Almaciga resin collection by the Batak relies on the resins generated from natural wound/s occur in the trees and their branches. These resins are naturally fallen from the trees by strong winds and the tribes will collect them for their traditional uses as well as for the market industry in which already exists as small scale industry. In 1970s, logging companies have entered in their area and harvested vast numbers of Almaciga trees for timber industry. It is likewise during this time that Almaciga tapping method had been introduced in the area and the influx of non-indigenous peoples had entered the area for resin collection. Due to scarcity of the Almaciga resources that was vanished during this logging time, competition for the resin of the remaining population in the area had been practiced since then until the present time. There are still traditional beliefs that are practiced by the Batak in relation to tapping method. The tribe believed that tapping in the bark area of the trees under the direct sunlight, the side of the tree having the most big branches and leaves, can produce more resins. Like many Indigenous peoples in the province, the Batak tribe is likewise offering rituals for good harvest. The ritual is the tribe’s signal to proper time of resource exploitation in their ancestral lands for they believed that their rituals and offering provides them greater harvests.

However, due to competency in the resin collection, the tapping method became unsustainable in which threatened the remaining population of the species in the area.

At present, deep tapping with frequent re-chipping is ideally the method/s used by the respondents in collecting Almaciga resin (n=21). For the respondents alone, more than 3000 kgs. of resin are collected weekly with an average of 141 kg per person per week (n=22). This provides them an average of Php. 2117.00 per week of each resin collector and/or constituting approximately 98% of their monthly income (Tab. 1). These respondents are harvesting Almaciga resins for over decades (µ=21 years). For the respondents, regulation on entry of non-IP harvesters, unsustainable harvesting methods and planting trees would be the ideal way to conserve and/or rehabilitate the declining population of the species in their area.

Table 1. Summary statistics on Almaciga resin-related livelihood information of the Batak tribe in Sitio Kalakwasan, Bgy. Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City.

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Like many other systems of trade in the Philippines, the Almaciga trading system in the study area experiences a commonly unfair economic system. Middlemen always take advantage of the small producers where their goods are valued to the most minimal price. It is these middlemen who set prices of the products based on the vulnerability of these small producers (e.g. their literacy and poor confidence). The Batak in the study area had free access to Almaciga resin which normally takes place anytime since there is no seasonal cycle. The middlemen give advance credits to these tribe collectors which they will use to buy subsidies for their family and resin collection activities. The collectors are oblique to pay in turn the resins for their cash advance/s in a price set by the middlemen because they value the process as in debt of gratitude. Another similar method employed is the appointment of a leading person in a group of collectors. This leading person is the middleman working closely with the direct buyer. This leading person is the one who gives cash advances to the other members of the group to be used as subsidy during the resin collection period. The leader then gets a percentage in every kilogram of resin from the member collectors.

Current NTFP and Almaciga related policy/ies and laws

The FGD participated by the council and members of the tribe resulted in the development of management plans in both the nurseries, future plantations and regulations towards sustainable Almaciga resin collection by and in the community (fig. 9). It was agreed in the FGD that there are two major areas that can be planted with the new seedlings from the nurseries. The forests areas locally known as “Kalabayog” (right northwest ridge) until “Ibawon” (left northwest ridge) of the forests towards Cleopatra’s Needle peak will be the proposed areas to plant by the seedlings produced in “Pulang Bato” nursery. These areas are once abundant with Almaciga but were eliminated by logging. The other areas to be planted will be from “Lipso” nursery towards the peak of Cleopatra’s Needle. The latter areas are the currently recognized locations of the remaining population stand of the species in the area. The proposed and target time of planting falls from April to May, approaching the rainy season this year. This is to ensure that seedlings have enough water supplies once they are transplanted back in the wild. The monitoring system can be done by grouping and alternately initiating the plantation monitoring schemes if it is feasible. Alternatively, it was discussed that everyone in the community would dedicate themselves to put responsibility in taking care of the plants since this is their tenure that benefits them and their future generations.

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Figure 9. Interviews (left) and focus group discussion (right) with student volunteers and Batak in Sitio Kalakwasan, Bgy. Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City.

The policy intervention regarding these plantation areas identified by the tribe is likewise problematic. Almaciga, as being a conifer species, is naturally grown in high altitude elevations which are categorized as core zones in Palawan. As general rule under Palawan Council for Sustainable Development ECAN zoning, the core zones are no touch zones that even reforestation projects are not allowed. The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) law on the other hand, gives ultimate responsibility to indigenous people in preserving their ancestral lands and allows them to restore degraded part/s of it whenever needed. This and such situation can create confusion whether which policy would be followed and implemented.

The group also recognized several problems in relation to Almaciga harvesting. Over tapping of trees from undisciplined harvesters in both sectors of the IP and non-IP groups are developed in seek for added supplementary resin collections. However, the over-tapping activity caused the resin products in worst quality, decreases resin volumes and declining market price.

The major problem here is that the non-IP resin collectors are not aware of and neither have trainings towards sustainable Almaciga resin collection. Furthermore, the new generations of resin harvesters from the tribe do not obey the old tribal customary rules anymore and it is likewise due to the competency of resin collections with the non-IPs for livelihood subsistence.

At present, concessions are only granted to Indigenous peoples in Palawan (PCSD Res. No. 04-233) where most concession permits have not been renewed. It is a policy favoring IPs who is living with natural resources since time immemorial. However, no one from the Batak tribe in the study area have enough finances to work with the whole permitting process. The trader then maneuvers the finances in the name of an IP collaborator to work for the permitting process. In this process, the power to control the price is still in the hands of the traders.

Additionally, the CBFM had provided rules and regulations towards sustainable harvesting of non-wood forest products specifically with honey, rattans and Almaciga resin. In the discussions, the provided rules and regulations suggest that rotational harvesting times - which normally last for three months – shifting with these three major products would be ideal. The problem raised with this issue is that the products are cannot be perennially harvested except for Almaciga while rattan can only be harvested when there is/are potential buyers which is typically infrequent. It was agreed during these discussions that the Tribal council will draft Tribal resolution/ordinance that address the above-mentioned problems with emphasis to regulation of entries of non-IP harvesters as well as IPs and/or members of the tribe that practiced unsustainable resin harvesting. This resolution/ordinance will be submitted to higher local government councils to further augment its supremacy and implementation in the area. This Tribal resolution/ordinance will likewise be presented and harmonized in a larger project “Saving the Almaciga Tree” in the area funded by Fauna and Flora International and Philippine Tropical Forest Conservation Fund. Finally, the on-going proposed declaration of the area as a “Critical Habitat” (PCSD Res. 13-481, 2013) will further ensure the protection and conservation of the Almaciga and other threatened species in the area.

Relying on CBFM management is not a must while confusions to conflicts of environmental policy/ies and/or law/s should properly evaluate to provide clarity on which policy would be implemented and to ensure the sustainability of NTFP especially in the case of Almaciga. The tribal people in the study area are not even aware that their CBFMA with the DENR is inactive while concessioners are using it to obtain permits in which they use to purchase resin and related NTFP products in the area. Furthermore, these concessioners hold several non-IPs who are using unsustainable methods of resource exploitations while the tribal people cannot oppose because they hold permits to collect by the government authority/ies. The objectives of community based forest management in the Philippines are to devolved centralization of resource management by empowering people, reducing poverty and forest protection. But the constraints behind failure of most CBFMAs are the political interest and motives over timber managements (Pulhin and Dressler, 2009; Pulhin, et al., 2007) in which the grassroots communities are over tapped by the power of the higher authorities who are manipulating the economic aspect generated from resources in CBFMA areas.

Chapter V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations for the guidelines on propagation and management of Almaciga

Summary

The study was conducted in Batak tribal village in Sitio Kalawasan, Bgy. Tanabag, Puerto Princesa after approval of thesis proposal in February, 2016. Secondary data from an Almaciga nursery project in the area were acquired and likewise used as basis on developing propagation guidelines. Additionally, key informant interviews, household interviews and focus-group discussions were initiated to obtain IP knowledge on Almaciga biology and ecology combined with development of management initiatives.

Almaciga propagation does not seem to be too technical to accomplish. Our knowledge gained in the whole process of the propagation and nursery activities which was taken place in July to October, 2016 was a great achievement breaking the record and produced more than 5000 current seed-based seedlings in the Philippines. These seedlings are proposed to be planted in the ancestral lands of the Batak tribe in the study area in May, 2016 thereby ensuring the livelihood of future generations when properly cared for. The dedications of the Batak tribal people in monitoring of their future Almaciga is a great first step to ensure the survival of the plantation.

CBFM management is not a must while conflicts on environmental policy/ies and/or law/s should be evaluated to properly ensure the sustainability of NTFP especially in the case of Almaciga. The tribal people in the study area are not even aware that their CBFMA with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) is inactive while concessioners are using the CBFM title to obtain permits in which they use to purchase resin and related NTFP products in the area. Furthermore, these concessioners hold several non-IPs who are using unsustainable methods of resource exploitations while the tribal people cannot oppose because they hold permits to collect in which are issued by the government authority/ies. The development of tribal resolutions and ordinances which are currently taking place after all the discussions made with the Tribal People in the study area is likewise a significant step. This will provide enhanced authority to the tribe in regulating intensity of Almaciga resin harvesters in both sectors of IPs and non-IPs practicing unsustainable tapping methods.

Conclusion

The results imply that propagation of Almaciga is not sensitive to elevation gradients and can be propagated from ≈1 to ≈200 meter above sea level. The only factor which made a significant difference in the numbers of natality/mortality between sites is more likely due to overwatering, fungi and pests. The critical age of seedling which needs ultimate care is from seed bedding up to four months of age in the seed pots prior to transplanting in the natural environment. The lack of knowledge and skills in monitoring and initiating appropriate measures to mitigate the threatening effects of catastrophic events occurring in the nurseries is likewise a problem. This is also because the project is the first of its kind for any Almaciga nursery in Palawan and the entire Philippines.

Options to conserve Almaciga include replacement of dead or badly damaged trees in the forest by either planting seedlings or allowing growth of naturally-generated young trees prior to extracting resins (Lacuna-Richman, 2004; 2006). As such, this research is intended to provide seed-propagated seedlings to reforest the degrading population of the species in the forest of Cleopatra’s Needle, in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan. The 5,000 seedlings propagated are expected to be planted in the area by 2016 and thus, ensuring the future livelihood of the Batak population in the study area. The knowledge and experience gained in the whole process of the project together with the nursery manual subsequently developed can be used by the Batak tribe in the creation of community-based Almaciga nursery projects.

The result of FGDs activity revealed that the Batak tribe of Kalawasan is aware of the declining population of Almaciga in their area. This is due to overexploitation of the species in harvesting resin. Beside familiarity of the species to the respondents however, they have very limited knowledge regarding its biology and ecology. The social responsibility that will be imposed by the members of the tribe in monitoring of their future Almaciga plantation represents a great contribution to its survival. The management strategy/ies for the future Almaciga reforestation project together with the tribal resolution/ordinance to be developed in regulating intensity of harvesters (both IPs and non-IPs) would be a great action in the conservation of the species when properly implemented.

The Almaciga resin trading process however, is still manipulated by the middlemen and buyers whom had the ultimate power to control both the production and prices. People seek to collect more resins in order to pay credits and debt of gratitude to the middlemen and sustain their own subsidies. This causes the resin collectors to practice unsustainable harvesting method in their attempts to collect more resins.

Proper management plans is ideal when there is/are integration of traditional customs and transparency of environmental policy/ies and/or law/s in order to harmonize sustainability of Almaciga species and industry and generally of natural resources well-being in the study area.

Recommendations

Further research on the species is highly recommended. For propagation purpose, it is a necessity to conduct studies on its reproductive phenology in order to determine exact season for cone and/or seed collection while a study on the effect of (over) tapping on the viability of seeds is likewise recommended.

Reforestation projects such as the Almaciga nursery in the study area will need external support from government and other concerned agencies. Such projects are recommended to be adopted by the National Greening Program of the DENR for additional technical and financial support as well as to ensure authenticity and compatibility of species to be used in habitat rehabilitation programs of the government.

Policy/ies regarding harvesting as well as reforestation of the species is a necessity to conserve and maintain harvesting sustainability. Almaciga species are naturally grown in high altitude areas in which are categorized as core zones under the ECAN category by the PCSD while IPRA states that indigenous people have the right to rehabilitate degraded resources that are traditionally used for their livelihood. The trading system and tricks are likewise critical and needs to be validated while policies on the rights of Indigenous people to natural resource use would be given legitimacy. Such policy conflicts should be properly addressed and reviewed in order to enhance their transparency/ies in implementation and development of proper resource management system.

Considering the long bureaucratic procedure in developing local ordinance/s in the Philippine government, the Tribal resolution/ordinance is the first step. Such ordinance should be adopted in an immediate action by the higher forms of local government in the area in order to harmonize conservation and sustainability of the species.

Finally, information and education campaigns is recommended for the Batak tribe and other members of the community who are involve in the Almaciga industry to raise awareness on the status, biology and ecology of the species that can promote species rehabilitation and conservation.

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Docto, R.M. and L.F. Galulo-Davis. 2010. The role of indigenous beliefs and practices in biodiversity conservation. Terminal report. Commision on Higher Education (CHED). CHED’s Higher Education Development Fund. University of the Philippines – Los Baños, Zonal Research Center. Palawan State University, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan. 45pp.

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APPENDICES

Appendix I. Survey questionnaire guide use during KIIs, HIIs and FGDs.

This research questionnaire will be use to assess local practices on Almaciga management. It aimed to explore management strategies to be exercise on monitoring and management of future Almaciga reforestation project as well as sustainable options on resin harvesting that can be develop into a local resolution and/or tribal ordinance to be applied for the Batak tribe and in the study area.

Part of the research questions is concerned with the issues of and options on reforestation monitoring and management schemes and the other part will be subject to options of sustainability and management of resin harvesting.

PERSONAL INFORMATION

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LOCAL KNOWLEDGE ON ALMACIGA AND ITS USES

Do you know Almaciga?

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1. What characteristics does Almaciga differ to any other plants in your area?

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2. What are the uses of this plant/tree for the tribal people?

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3. Do you observe other organisms (e.g. birds, wild boars etc.) use the plant/tree by means of food, forage, refuge etc.?

4. Do you harvest Almaciga resin?

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5. What is the volume of your harvest in kilogram per week/month?

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6. Do you observe harvest volume increase/decline?

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7. What is/are the reason/s of this cause/s (follow up for question no. 6)?

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8. What is/are your recommendations to address the problem (if the answer is decreasing volume of harvest)?

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I. Almaciga reforestation project

9. Did you experienced or seen anybody planted Almaciga recently?

10. How did they propagate and managed to grow the seedlings?

11. If you were to do the same thing, what kind of management would you exercise to grow your Almaciga?

12. Is that allowed or being part of your traditional customs? (Follow up question for number 7).

13. If not traditional customs, would you be able to apply your method to your communal Almaciga reforestation project?

14. Do you wish your tribal members to do the same to your communal Almaciga reforestation project?

15. How would you enforce your tribal members to implement your way of managing your communal reforestation area?

Note: If the method is traditional, it would be likely done by all members of the tribe and would likewise be included in their ADSDPP.

II. Sustainable resin harvesting

16. Are the number of trees living in your area increasing or decreasing?

17. What is/are the reason/s of this cause/s (pertaining to question no. 17)?

18. What is/are your recommendations to address the problem (if the answer is decreasing volume of harvest)?

19. How would you enforce your tribal members to implement your way of addressing the problem on Almaciga resin harvest?

20. Do you have indigenous/existing methods/techniques on sustainable Almaciga resin harvesting?

21. When and where were these sustainable harvesting methods started?

22. Does these sustainable methods still practiced at present time? (If the answer is not anymore, proceed to question #23).

23. What is/are the reason that people do not practice these sustainable methods nowadays?

24. What is your way to convince your tribal people reinstate sustainable harvesting methods?

25. Would you want to include your idea/s to the overall well-being of your ancestral domain sustainable development and protection plan (ADSDPP)?

Appendix II. Environmental parameters tested for canonical correspondence analysis in relation to seeds germinated in 3X3 treatment split-split plot design.

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Note: NPK values are set at ranks with 5 to be highest and 1 the lowest values.

Details

Pages
65
Year
2016
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Language
English
Catalog Number
v337613
Grade
1.50 (Excellent)
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developing almaciga agathis warb batak sitio kalakwasan tanabag puerto princesa city palawan philippines

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Title: Developing guidelines on propagation and management of Almaciga (Agathis philippinensis Warb.) for the Batak indigenous cultural community in Sitio Kalakwasan, Bgy. Tanabag, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines