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Evaluating Government of India (GOI) Programmes

by Shreyasi Arun Kumbhar (Contributions by) Jaipal Hansda (Contributions by) Rajendra Parmar (Contributions by) Roopesh Kaushik (Editor)

Anthology 2016 112 Pages

Sociology - Individual, Groups, Society

Excerpt

Table of Contents

PART I ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN GOVERNMENT OF INDIA FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMMES
1 Introduction
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.3 Hypothesis of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
2 Review Of Literature
3 Theoretical /Conceptual/Operational Framework
4 Methodology (Research Design)
4.1 Sources of Data
4.2 Methods of Data Collection
4.3 Methods of Analysis
4.3.1 Tools used in the study
4.4 Area or Coverage of Study
5 Results And Discussions
5.1 Summarization of Data collected and it’s Statistical Analysis
5.2 Case Studies And Focus Group Discussion
5.3 Comparison between both the areas surveyed
5.4 Summarization of data collected
6 Conclusion And Recommendations
6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Scope and limitations of the Study
6.3 Recommendations
References

PART II Role of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Grantee Act (MGNREGA) in Rural Development: A Study of Chaibasa & Jhikpani Blocks in West Singhbhum district of Jharkhand1
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
1.2. Problem Statement
1.3 Rational
1.4 Objectives
1.5 Literature Review
1.6 Methodology
2. Results & Discussion
2.1 Results
2.2 Basic feature of sample
2.3 Types of Source Used
2.4 Technique used in Data collection
2.5 Drawbacks in the process of data analysis
3 Comparative Study Of Chaibasa Block And Jhikpani
3.1 Compare area
3.2 Implementation and development (education and transportation)
4 Summary And Conclusion
4.1 Findings
4.2 Conclusion

PART III Impact Assessment of Integrated Watershed Management Program: A Case Study Of Barlai Village Of Neemach District In Madhya Pradesh
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Hypotheses of the Study
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.6.1 Scope
2.1 Review of Literature
3.1 Theoretical/Conceptual/Operational Framework
4.1 Methodology
4.2 Research Design
4.2.1 Descriptive research
4.2.2 Explanatory research
4.3 Sources of Data
4.4 Method of Data Collection
4.4.1 Questionnaire
4.4.2 Interview
4.4.3 Secondary Data
4.4.4 Observations
4.4.5 Analytical Procedures/Methods of Analysis
5.1 Results and Discussions
5.2 Ecology
5.3 Soil Restoration Capacity
5.4 Soil’s water holding capacity
5.5 Availability of water
5.6 Production of crops
5.6.1.1 Pre project production
5.6.1.2 Post-project situation of wheat production
5.6.2 Soybean production
5.6.3 Vegetable production
5.7 Migration
5.8 Increase in income
Asset holding capacity
5.9
5.11 Analysis of the results
5.11.1 Agriculture
5.11.2 Water and women
5.11.3 Migration
5.11.4 Production of various crops
5.11.5 Asset holding capacity
5.11.6 Ecology and Environment
5.11.7 Management
5.11.8 Other Institutions
5.12 Conclusion
6 Summary & Recommendations
6.1 Summary
6.2 Recommendations
6.2.1 Women Participations
6.2.2 Democratic and decentralized distribution system
6.2.3 Sustainability and maintenance
6.2.4 Economic viability
6.2.5 Equity
6.2.6 Forestation
6.2.7 Availability of drinking water
6.2.8 Convergence of Different Schemes
6.2.9 Recommendations

Preface

This book originated from the Research Report prepared by undergraduate students under my supervision of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Tuljapur in March 2016. Their research work is action-oriented and is an intensive work based on primary data collection from the villages of Phulabani Municipality, Jamjhiri Gram Panchayat, Kandhamal district in the state of Orissa and Chaibasa and Jhikpani in West Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, India and Barlai village of Neemach district in M.P, India.

The objective of this book is to study various Government of India (GOI) Schemes and to examine the ground realities with regard to the implementation of Government of India Schemes, in the area of the study. This book is a collection of three case studies viz. (i) Issues and Challenges in Government of India Food Security Programmes (ii) Role of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Grantee Act (MGNREGA) in Rural Development (iii) Impact Assessment of Integrated Watershed Management Program: A case study of Barlai village of Neemach district in Madhya Pradesh which had been conducted to evaluate th Government of India (GOI) Scheme in the area of the study.

We would like to thank to Prof. S. Parsuraman & Prof Abul Shaban for their constant motivation and support. We would further extend our sincere thanks to Vasundhara a non-profit organization situated in Phulbani District, Mr. Y. Giri Rao the executive director of Vasundhara located in Bhubneshwar , Mrs. Sanghamitra Dubey, Mr. Sushant, Mr.Santosh and other members of Vasundhara, Village Panchayat of Barlai and the people of Barlai, Deelip Rathore and the Officials of Integrated Watershed Management Project ( IWMP-III) Manasa.

Roopesh Kaushik

Contributors

Shreyasi Arun Kumbhar is a final year Bachelor in Social Sciences (BASS) student Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS),Tuljapur.

Jaipal Hansda is a final year Bachelor in Social Sciences (BASS) student Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS),Tuljapur.

Rajendra Parmar is a final year Bachelor in Social Sciences (BASS) student Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS),Tuljapur.

Roopesh Kaushik is working at the post of Assistant Professor (Social Innovation & Entrepreneurship) in Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Tuljapur. He is the programme coordinator of Integrated M.Phil programme and the member of Admission committee & Hostel co-warden in TISS, Tuljapur. He had also served as the programme coordinator of MA Social Innovation & Entrepreneurship and was also the member of M.Phil. Advisory Committee, in Tata Institute of Social Science. He had received his doctoral degree in institutional/ environmental (water resource management) economics from IIT Kanpur.

PART I ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN GOVERNMENT OF INDIA FOOD SECURITY PROGRAMMES

Ms. Shreyasi Arun Kumbhar1

Dr. Roopesh Kaushik2

1. Introduction

When food is available, easily and at a reasonable price, to all the citizens of a country, then we can say that a country has ‘Food Security’ (grade Stack.com, n.d.) Food security can also be described as people leaving freely without the fear of hunger or starvation at any point of time in their entire life. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) states that food security emerges when all People at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life(Food and Agriculture Organisation of United States, 2016). Food security is not just a basic need but it is associated with three main pillars which are food availability, food access and food affordability. Which means that enough food is available for all the citizens in a country also they should be able to access the food easily and without any kind of barrier and last but most importantly all the citizens should be able to buy food at and affordable price with an acceptable quality and quantity.

The National Development Council (NDC) in its 53rd meeting held on 29th May, 2007 adopted a resolution to establish a Food Security Mission comprising rice, wheat and pulses to increase the yearly output of rice by 10 million tons, wheat by 8 million tons and pulses by 2 million tons by the remainder of the Eleventh Plan (2011-12).Consequently, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, 'National Food Security Mission' (NFSM), was founded in October 2007.This was a successful mission which was further extended in the 12th five year plan with fresh targets of increasing the production in a larger amount. Their targets were mainly increasing production of rice, wheat, pulses and coarse cereals through area expansion and productivity enhancement in a sustainable manner in the identified districts of the country also increasing the fertility and individual farm productivity and also raising the farm level economy. Many strategies were put forward to accomplish these aims. A basic structure was set up in which it was stated that NFSM would work on National level, State level and District level. There were many initiatives being taken for the further process. In the later period the National Food Security Bill was introduced into India’s parliament on December 22, 2011, promoted as presidential ordinance on July 5, 2013, and enacted into law on September 12, 2013. Though food grain production is increasing highly in India, which means that sufficient food is available for feeding every person there is no security of food for every mouth that feeds. This criteria of securing food will never be valid until the produced food reaches in an appropriate quantity and quality to every hunger prone household. As mentioned earlier affordability is also a major concern in securing food. The households below poverty line as well as above poverty line spend a lot of percentage on consumption purpose.

Even providing food is not going to end the problem insecurity of food until nutritious food with enough calories is provided. Because it was seen that even after government started food security programmes such as providing ration cards, BPL (Below Poverty Line) and APL (Above Poverty Line) cards, the issues on low quality food still remained reducing the security level again. The provided food if is of low quality cannot provide any kind of nutrition or calories. Thus providing good quality food filled with nutrition and calories has also been a challenge. As this is ultimately going to lead towards chronic malnourishment. Thus if the definition of food security is considered India is not fulfilling any of this category and still expects to become and hunger free India which dosent seem to possible in next uncounted years.

Hunger has remained the No.1 cause of deaths in the world. There has been a vast growth in India’s Gross Domestic Product by 4.5 times and increase in per capita consumption by 3 times as well as increase in production of grains by 2 times. Inspite of sufficient growth in every field India is unable to secure and provide food to the 1/3rd among world’s 820 million chronically hungry people living in India (Bhook.com, 2009). According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of United States (FAO) undernourishment means that a person is not able to acquire enough food to meet the daily minimum dietry requirements, over a period of one year. It defines hunger as being synonymous with chronic undernourishment (Food and Agriculture Organisation of United States, 2016). Around 194.6 million people are undernourished in India according to the latest FAO estimates in the ‘The State of Food Security in the World, 2015’ report.

This has mainly affected women and children as 51% of women between age 15 to 59 years are anemic and 44% of children under 5 are underweight. Over 25 lakhs of Indians die every year due to hunger. According to the 2014 Global Hunger Index around 2 billion people were suffering from hidden hunger which is also called micronutrient deficiency yet the numbers of them have decreased from the developing countries (Wikipedia, The free encyclopedia., n.d.). Although, India has seen to be improved in 2014 Global Hunger Index by reaching to the 55th position from 63rd position in 2013 among the other upcoming countries. This has mainly happened due to the huge reduction of percentage of underweight children. Even then the situation has not changed yet as India still is a land of 7000 Indians dyeing everyday of hunger plus chronically malnourished and underdeveloped children under five.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

The National Food Security Act proposed the PDS system with the note that 25kg per household will reduce the hunger problems in India leaving aside all other factors such as nutrition and keeping the poor without any nutritious and adequate food. It expects them to survive on those BPL rations of 25kgs rice for a month with 5 to 6 or more family members and lots of labor. There lies a gap between the limitations provided for every family where they are allotted with either APL or BPL card. The BPL card provides upto 25kgs of rice and 4 litres of kerosene in my area of study while the AAY card holders get 10kgs extra rice that is 35kgs of rice per month and the APL card holders get only 4 litres of kerosene. The households with requirement of BPL card are given APL cards while the families which should get AAY cards are given BPL cards. Corruption and politics decides who is poor and who is not. This corruption is in hands of the authority and so the poor has no chances of getting any justice as money is allowed to speak more than a poor’s problems. The cases like single mothers or single women or physically unfit people are not given any special support and are instead just cut off. Even after the filled PDS shops and godowns with grains people do not get sufficient food to eat which shows the gap in access of food to the poor. The main problem lies in the distribution system as it is clear that India produces sufficient food to feed every person then how does it happen that rich persons per day expenditure on food is what a poor spends in a week on food; with the fact that more labor work is done by the poor and not the rich. A person who needs more calories and nutritious food to work as a daily wage labour for a whole day dosen’t even get half of it and still works harder than the one eating fats, calories, nutrition etc sitting on chair and guiding the same labor. The fact is accepted that the one sitting on chair is educated and the labor is labor because he is uneducated due to lack of financial support or many other reasons but is still a human being and has the rights to have an equal share of at least calories and nutrition as fats is still far to be seen in a poor’s plate in India. There lies a gap, if a person is not provided with sufficient amount, acceptable quality then he or she won’t be capable of even working as a labor. There lies no connection between the card holders and the authority members.

1.2 Objectives of the Study

-To review various studies related to GOI Food Security Program.
-To examine the impact or success of GOI Food Security Program in general and specifically in the area of my study.
- To establish or explore various spillovers of GOI Food Security Program in different villages.
-To compare the performance of various GOI Food Security Program in the villages of my study.
-To identify limitations in GOI Food Security Program.
-To suggest suitable measures for mitigating flaws in the existing GOI Food Security Program.

1.3 Hypothesis of the Study

H1: GOI FSP has failed to create any significant impact in terms of accessibility of food grains

H0: No significant difference has been observed in the performance of GOI FSP in both villages.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The limitations identified will give a fresh insight to policy makers so that they can revise their policy accordingly. The current study is adding information to the exsisting body of knowledge or literature. The need to improve the processing of GOI FSP as household are least benefited with the schemes provided to them can be taken into consedration through the study. The Millennium Development Goals emphasizes to reduce poverty measures in per capita income and calorie conception(Millenium Development Goals, n.d.). Therefore there exist need to look into the number of people who are not able to access the minimum required calorie. Motivation came from the initiative on the part of GOI to mitigate poverty and secure food of the poor besides from the existing literature it had been identified that the scheme is not successful and one needs to diagnose the limitation in it.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

In the proposed study I am going to explore various issues and challenges faced under Government of India Food Security Programms. I have made an attempt to critically examine the existing studies which are mentioned underneath.

The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”(World Health Organisation, 2016). Food security has been considered as a main element for development and reducing poverty problems. Food Security also means that the people who produce our food are able to live a decent healthy life with required nutritional values for each person (Food First , n.d.). There are many issues and challenges that are faced today and from past few years related to food security.

Multiple studies have been conducted in order to identify the success and limitations of the Government of India's Food Security programs. The primary policy objective of the Department of Food & Public Distribution is to ensure food security for the country through timely and efficient procurement and distribution of food grains (Department Of Food And Public Distribution, Government Of India , n.d.).

The study by Ashish Bose entitled "Hunger Free India" states that a country cannot call itself civilized if millions of people go hungry and food grains in the government go downs(Bose, 2004). Gajender Singh and T.S. Bhogal(January to June 2008) in their paper "Food Security: Key Issues and Strategies of Kerala" examine the gaps between food supply and food requirement is better indicator of food security than the usually adopted supply-demand gap (BHOGAL, 2008). The concept of food requirement differs from that of food demand in the sensation that food demand mainly depends on the buying ability of the people and also the taste, price of substitutes, consumer preference etc.(BHOGAL, 2008). The nutrient requirement is unaffected by all these factors and depends primarily on the energy (calorie) need of individuals and is constant for a particular age group.The age group wise requirement for grains and pulses were also calculated in this subject area. The study attempts to estimate the population by different age groups with the help of population projections at state level which are based on sample registration system by technical group using 1996 as the base year; the requirement of food grains on the basis of age groups has been added and the total food grains requirement is brought up; the projected food grains requirement is based on least cost balanced diet recommended by Nutrition Advisory Committee of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for people in the Indian context; the food grains requirement were estimated at retail level plus tentative allowance of 10 percent made for kitchen and other wastage.

But VS Vyas (Dec. 9-15, 2000) in his study “Ensuring Food security: The State, Market and Civil Society” where he believes that food security becomes a reality only at household level indicates that calorie based definition of food security is not an acceptable indicator as those having calorie intake above certain level are being defined as non-poor and rest as poor and that calorie vary depending upon the external environment and nature of person (Vyas, 2000). Another point he mentions regarding calorie intake is that calorie adequacy cannot be equated to a healthy and active life. Even if adequate calories are available to every person in household there is no certainty that available calories will meet the requirements of protein energy and micro-nutrients(Vyas, 2000).The indicator Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) is the percentage of children whose weight for age facts below reference value has also been declined in use(Vyas, 2000).As mentioned in this paper Asia has the highest malnutrition level in percentage terms and also absolute terms, Vyas suggests that without assurance of nutritional adequacy food security has very little meaning [United Nations 2000]. Average dietary energy supply in calories derived from national food balance sheets and population data indicates that in the early 1990’s, although enough food was available globally, nearly 840 million people in the developing world had inadequate access to food which substantially progressed in some years(Vyas, 2000).Even though the global availability may have increased to 2,900 calories per capita per day by 2010, large number of people in developing rural areas may stay to face acute problems of food insecurity (Vyas, 2000).

A short paper published by Economic and Political Weekly (EPW) “Food Security Endangered” studies about the structural changes in the global grain markets that are threatening India’s Food security (Food Security Endangered, 2008). The rise in price was said to be both due from demand and supply side of factors. There was a usage of high amount of grains for producing bio-fuel such as ethanol which was the main reason for the increase in the prices. Bio- fuel is seen as the viable substitute for fossil fuels (Food Security Endangered, 2008). But this has been beneficial for particular developed countries and won’t be benefiting to developing countries according to my study. As India already is so poverty stricken to even manage with food grains for consuming purpose and at the same time if these grains are being used for generating bio-fuels will cause an imbalance in the food security management. The second factor mentioned in this article is that on the demand side is the ongoing shift in dietary patterns towards livestock and high value agricultural products (Food Security Endangered, 2008). On the supply side world production of cereals has remained stagnant whereas the population has been increasing (Food Security Endangered, 2008). This paper also says that the permanent change in global grains price will pose food security problems in India. Which is true as the poor won’t be able to buy basic food required to sustain their life. According to this article some analyst feel that high prices of grain will encourage investment in farming and raising productivity, which in long run will moderate the rise in production. But the article lacks in considering the small farmers who won’t be able to invest high amounts in raising productivity and thus the rich farmers may take off all the profit leaving the poor ones jobless and under poverty line.

V.M. Rao and R.S. Deshpandein their study about “Food Security in drought-prone areas: A study of Karnataka” argue that hi-tech agriculture are good sources of growth but are having a bad effect on the food security(V.M. Rao, 2002 ).The in adequacies of the present food security system are being pointed out. Some characteristics of present food security system mentioned by them are viz., (i) The system is inherently costly as it is based on surpluses of two superior cereals rice and wheat (ii) The system is too far centralized, hierarchical and bureaucratic to achieve cost effectiveness (iii) The performance of system is poor. A food security system should have dependable provisions to ensure the poor have the capacity to pay for food grains but due to separate operation of employment programs and PDS it’s not working (V.M. Rao, 2002 ). According to Rao there was no increase in the production of staple food consumed by the poor in the appendage of green revolution, to which he has given an alternative that the system should be based on the local staples consumed by the poor. Which is an agreeable point for my study as the poor if start cultivating there local staples they will have more profit and also the trade can be done within the particular area as the other people will also consume there staple food in cheap prices leaving no one hungry at least in that area. V.M. Rao and R.S.Deshpande further says that aid should be supplied by the local representative bodies including the poor representatives.They also indicate that there should be physical handling of food textures and at disaster times the government tiers should handle the crisis together. The two basic flaws mentioned by V.M. Rao and R.S. Deshpande in the present food security system are (I) the problems of relatively better off farmers receive far more attention in policy making due to which the deprivations are suffered by poor. According to my study this happens because of less reach of poor farmers to the upcoming schemes due to lack of resources. (ii) While areas like drought- prone areas urgently need investment and infrastructure the emphasis in policies remains on temporary ad hoc relief. This survey of the present food security organization is often revolving around improving it by focusing on PDS on the wretched, by barring the more well-off and reducing leaks and corruption (V.M. Rao, 2002 ).

As mentioned earlier VS Vyas stated that calorie intake differs according to the external environment people can’t be defined as poor or non-poor on its basis. According to him the main grounds for absence of national society is the unbalanced position of the respective part of state, markets and the civil company. Vyas describes the role of state in ensuring availability of food at household and more importantly the poor household. The state interventions can be direct or indirect. According to him if free trade happens to be in the case of food grains, it will be available in a reasonable price for the poor and will help the inherently food-insecure population. Vyas talks about the dilemma of poor producers and poor consumers and gives it a solution that by raising productivity and thereby improving the producer’s income terms of trade and afford food at a reasonable price. The next area according to Vyas that the state needs to look upon is public distribution of food grains. But there are critics which say that the public distribution of food grains imposes heavy burden on the exchequer and doesn’t benefit much. They also say that the same amount can be utilized for generating employment. Next he talks about the role of market where he says that time, place and forming utilities to the products and services is the major role of market. If this forms are brought into use for food grains market everyone will benefit but the reverse is happening. If the prices in the off season is more than the storage cost or transport cost the market can be considered inefficient. The role of civil society has been described at the village level community in the context of India. Vyas tells that a society can act as an agency in implementing various development programs. It can respond to policies at local level and perform a watch-dogs function. Influencing consumption in the healthy and productive life is the aspect. Lastly in this article he says that it is important to recognize the role of each institution and work complementary to each other. While developing my methodology I am going to use the indicators which have been mentioned by Ashish Bose (2004) in order to construct my composite index, viz. (I) Per capita consumption of food grains from PDS (ii) Percentage of population below poverty line (iii) Percentage of illiterates (iv) Percentage of total population living in ketch house and semi-puce house (v) Percentage of SC population to the total population (vi)Percentage of slum population to urban population (vii) Percentage of households with access to toilet facilities (viii) Percentage of population not having access to safe drinking water (ix) Number of persons per hospital and dispensary bed (x) infant mortality rate and also some more of such indicators.

Bose (2004) has mentioned some components of food security such as availability of home production and imports when and where possible, access of purchasing power and livelihood, opportunities and absorption which is a function of safe drinking water, environmental, hygiene, primary health care and education. Late APJ Abdul Kalama had made a 40 minutes presentation on his concept PURA (Providing urban facilities in rural areas) which included “Physical, electronic, knowledge and thereby leading to economic connectivity to enhance the prosperity of clusters of villages in the rural areas"(Bose, 2004).It depends on the politicians and government to get it into reality (Bose, 2004).

Bryan L. McDonald (2010) states his view that food security dose not just relate to lack of food but there are also other factors that contribute to this viz. impacts of climate change, water security, population growth, energy shortages, trade speculation, diversion of food crops to bio-fuel products, outbreak of plant and animal disease (McDonald, 2010).

Further he discusses about the core challenges to the food security in which he first talks about ensuring nutrition. There was a lot of improvement in the food production and global health in the twenties but yet malnutrition was still a problem. According to him malnutrition dose not just consist of chronic hunger but also the micronutrient deficiency and also the overweight or obesity depending upon the severity of condition. Collectively, this set of problems is often consulted to as triple burden of malnutrition. Many data’s have been collected related to this. Thus he wants to state that ensuring a proper nutrition is necessary while looking through the food security point as under nutrition and over nutrition both can cause equal problems. Secondly he discusses about managing global environmental change. As agriculture is mainly related to environmental conditions it is necessary to keep in account the maintenance of the environment. Food production activates have an unintentional effect on the environment. The increase in soil erosion, loss of soil nutrients, reducing water quality are some of the effects on the local level but there are also problems at global level such as toxic dead zone rivers and oceans, desertification and change in global climate. There was a growth in agriculture in twenties but it also had a diverse effect due to extensive use of herbicides and pesticides. This may cause hurdles in the development of agricultural process in future as won’t be enough productive lands and quality water or suitable climate. To reduce these issues various steps such as maintaining sustainability to boost the fertility of soil, less use of chemical pesticides, proper irrigation facilities can be practiced. He has also discussed about optimizing food safety. Optimizing food safety is ensuring that the food supply being made remains safe from human, natural or accidental contamination. There are multiple ways through which the food can be contaminated viz, viruses, fungi, micro able threats, extensive chemical use etc. Despite of national and international efforts there is no improvement in the treats of food borne illness. For example a 2010 US Government Accountability Office review found out that while 60 percent of fresh fruits and vegetables and 80 percent of seafood’s come from outside US borders, the FDA is able to physically inspect only 1 percent of imported food (GAO 2010). Food security also involves confronting social, economic, political, and ethical about how food is grown produced and consumed. Solutions for improving food security must consider human as well as environmental strategies.

In order to improve food security it is important at every level to provide adequate nutritional food supply, increasing the production taking in consideration the poor producers as well as maintain the quality of food supply at the same time. Effective planning is necessary at governmental as well as national level for the improvement in food security programs.

3. THEORETICAL /CONCEPTUAL/OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK

Despite an increase in the global food availability, the numbers related to poverty, undernourishment, hunger and food security have been high. This chapter will look at theories related to public failure which includes 1980’s neo-liberal approach in which market was driven by paradigm is connected to the problem of Food security. Also, the poverty related theory and the structuralist approach will be tried and connected to the study.

Institution plays a role in economic development of the society. But institution as a government is seen to be a failure. Now there is a need to take assistance of new paradigm as a neoliberal approach. According to the neo-liberal approach government will not be able to handle the crisis alone. It should provide more scope to the private sectors or non-profit organizations. If the private institutions support the Public Distribution System then there can be some hopes of improving the conditions of poor and ensuring their food security to an extent.

There is a need to create a structure which can help in recognizing whether the scheme is helping all the sections of the society in an equal manner. Such as a chart to indicate the findings can help in a clear manner. This will help in identifying the proper outcomes of schemes and hence will help in pin-pointing the exact problems related to the scheme. These minute ways to tackle problems in scheme are not being noticed by the government as their objectives are specifically in a border context and thus to get the alternative framework there is a need to take support of the neo-liberal approach.

Figure 1.1: Impact n Variables

illustration not visible in this excerpt

4. METHODOLOG (Research Design)

In this chapter we have taken mixed design which takes quantitatibe and qualitative methodology. The real challenges were to quantify the qualitative methodology i.e. respondents opinion. An attempt has been made to quantify the respondents opinion in a manner in which the results can be derived based on the respondents opinion. The entire chapter consists of 4.1 which deals with sources of data, 4.2 which deals with approaches which I have used for data collection section. 4.3 discuss about nature of data/ variable its codding based on 4.5 or 5.5 liquor type scale along with dichotomies variables i.e. the variables which takes the presence or absence of an attribute.

4.1 Sources of Data:

The sources of data used in this study are primary and secondary type of data. Various secondary data such as literatures related to food security are included in this study in order to give a overall idea about the past studies and their views about food security. Also primary data from the field of study is collected to understand the ground level impact of the schemes provided under food security programs. Random sampling is being used to conduct this study.

4.2 Methods of Data Collection

In this study we have used quantitative as well as qualitative methods. The qualitative methods include structural interviews, informal interviews, case studies and focus group discussions. Whereas the quantitative methods include frequency and percentage of the variables and graphs to understand the variance in the variables and t-statistics to compare the 2 areas of study.

4.3 Methods of Analysis

The variance in each variable is coded with a specific number.

a) The variables Age, Income, Expenditure and family members are not given any code as they vary extensively.
b) The codes for variable Sex are 1 for Male and the code 0 for Female.
c) The codes for Business are 1 for the households with business and 0 for households with No Business.
d) The codes for the variable Current Occupation are Daily wage labor with code 1, Others (farmers or contractors or any other occupation than daily wage labor) with code 2 and Jobless with code 0.
e) The codes for variable Houses are 1 for Semi-pucca houses and 2 for Pucca houses.
f) The codes for variable GOI Food Security Programme Beneficiaries are 3 for the households benefited with the programme and 2 for the ones who are Not Benefited with the Scheme.
g) The codes for variable Frequency of Being Benefited from the GOI Food Security Programme are Frequency of Being Benefited for More than 20 days with 4, more than 10 days with 3, more than 5 days with 2 and more than 3 days with 1.
h) The codes for variable Food Grains are 1 for Rice, 2 for Wheat, 3 for Kerosene and 5 for the households not benefited with the scheme.
i) The codes for variable Quality of Food are 3 for Good quality, 2 for Average Quality, 1 for Bad Quality and 5 for households not benefited with the scheme.
j) The codes for variable Quantity of Food are 4 for High quantity, 3 for Average quantity, 2 for less quantity, 1 for very less quantity, 0 for sufficient quantity and 5 for the households not benefited with the scheme.
k) The codes for the variable Impact on Health are 4 for Drastic Improvement, 3 for Improvement, 2 for Same as Before/No Change and 1 for Decline.
l) The codes for variable Timely Availability of Ration are 1 for Yes and) for No.
m) The codes for variable Occupation Before Project are 0 for Labor, 1 for Forest Dwellers or Farmers and 2 for Others (business, contractors or other jobs).
n) The codes for Occupation After Project are 0 for Labor, 1 for Forest Dwellers or Farmers and 2 for Others (business, contractors or other jobs).
o) The codes for tracing the Performance of Food Security Programme are 4 for Very Good Performance, 3 for Good Performance, 2 for Average Performance and 1 for Bad Performance.
p) The codes for tracing the Limitations of Food Security Programme are 1 for Yes and 0 for No.
q) The codes for tracing the Intensity of Flaws are 4 for Very High, 3 for High, 2 for Less, 1 for Very Less and 0 for No Flaws.
r) The codes for variable households Benefited with Forest Rights Act are 1 for the Beneficiaries and 0 for Non-Beneficiaries.

4.3.1 Tools used in the study:

T-statistics is used as a tool of study in this topic.

4.4 Area or Coverage of Study

The area of my study is the Phulabani Municipality and Jamjhiri Gram Panchayat, Kandhamal district in the state of Orrissa.Orissa lies along the eastern seacoast of India with the waters of the Bay of Bengal swirling along its eastern and southeastern boundaries. With an area of about 1,55,707 square kilometers, the state offers diverse habitats from lush green and mountainous terrain to coastal plains and rolling river valleys, crises-crossed by the Brahmani, the Mahanadi and the Bansadhara rivers (new kerala , n.d.).

Orissa is located between 17o 49'N to 22o 34'N latitude and from 81o 29'E to 87o 29'E longitude on the eastern coast of India. Orissa has a total of 30 districts’. The pattern of food of Orissa is seen to be similar to the neighboring states due to almost same geographical conditions. The staple food of Orissa is rice though a large number of vegetables are also grown their. Most of the population in Orissa practice vegetarianism due to their deep religious nature though many of the people also enjoy the sea-food delicacies. Odisha contributes 21 members of Lok Sabha and 10 members of Rajya Sabha.

The district of our area of study is Khandhmal district which constitutes 8, 021 km2 with the altitude of 300 to 1100 meter. The administrative headquarters of kandhamal district is Phulbani. According to the 2011 census the population of Kandamal district is 731,952(Wikipedia, n.d.). The sex ratio of Kandhmal district is 1037 females for every 1000 males with the literacy rate of 65.12 %. Phulbani is located 211kms away from the capital city Bhubneshwar.

The entire population of Phulabani Municipality as per 2011 census is 37,371 from which the number of registered applicants is 31,392 while the excess beneficiaries registered is 22818; the number of ineligible beneficiaries deleted at CDC is 8457. Jamjhiri GP has 22 villages under it from which some had been selected.

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1 Summarization of Data collected and it’s Statistical Analysis:

Chapter 5 is dedicated for results and discussions of the study. Various variables are used in order to get a good result of the study.

a) Age

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1. Table 1. Variable: Age

According to the table 1 the highest group of respondents can been seen in the age group 51 to 60 and lowest can be seen from 81 to 90. The second highest group of respondents are from the age group 41 to 50 followed by the group 31 to 40. The fourth group with 16 respondents is from the age group 61 to 70 which is followed by 10 respondents from age group 21 to 30 and 71 to 80. The variable age was taken in context with the head of family. The figure no.1 below helps in understanding the variance in age. The light blue part indicates 9.7% of people from age group 21 to 30, similarly brown color for 18.4% of 31 to 40, grey for 24.2% of age 41 to 50, yellow color for 28.1% of age 51 to 60, dark blue for 15.5% of age 61 to 70, green for 2.9% of 71 to 80 and darkest blue for 1% of age group 81 to 90.

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Figure 1. Variable: Age

b)Sex

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Table 2. Variable: Sex

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Figure 2. Variable: Sex

According to the Table no. 2 it can be seen that the number of female respondents is just 14 and the number of male respondents is 89. The percentage of female respondents which is 13.6% which is very less than that of male respondents which is 86.4 %. The purple square in the Figure 1 represents females and the green square represents male. This variable is used because the head of family has more information regarding the household and also to understand the rate of women headed families. This shows that most of the households are headed by male members. Although women are the ones who handle the household and has more information about the ration provided still they lack being the head of the family.

c) Income (per month)

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Table 3. Variable: Income

As seen in table no.3 a high number of households (48) lie under income with rupees 3100 to 6000 per month which is again followed by the lowest income of rupees 0 to 3000. The households with income between 6100 to 9000 are 7 in number. Whereas 2 families have monthly of rupees 9100 to 12000 and 4 families have income between 121000 to 15000. Out of 103 households only 1 household has income between 15100 to 17000. Although many household with income between 0 to 6000 also have the least income of 300 per month.The figure no.2 shows the ranges of income that lie between every group of income to show a clearer picture. The light blue color indicates 39.8% of households with income between 0 to 3000, similarly brown color for 46.6% of 3100 to 6000 income, grey for 6.7% of people with 6100 to 9000 income, yellow for 1.9% with income of 9100 to 12000, dark blue for 3.8% with income of 12100 to 15000 and green color for 1% of people with income 15100 to 17000.

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Figure 3. Variable: Income

d) Expenditure (per month)

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Table 4. Variable Expenditure

According to table no.4 maximum households (52) spend between 0 to 3000 per month. Whereas only 2 households, are able to spend up to 121000 to 15100 every month. Among the 103 households 35 of them able to spend around 3100 to 6000 every month and 10 households are able to spend between 6100 to 9000. The number of households with expenditure between 9100 to 12000 are 4. This data totally depends on every households income. As they are able to spend only the amount they earn and rest of the expenses are carried out with loans from people or banks. The more detailed picture of expenditure can be seen in the figure no.4 below.The light blue color indicates 50.4% of families with expenditure between 0 to 3000 whereas brown color for households with expenditure between 3100 to 6000 which is 33.9% out of 100%. The grey color shows the 9.7% of hoesholds with expenditure between 6100 to 9000 while the yellow color indicates the 3.8% of families with 9100 to 12000 expenditure and the dark blue color for 1.9% of families with expenditure between 12100 to 15000.

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Figure 4. Variable: Expenditure

e) Family Members

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Table 5. Variable: Family Members

The table no.5 shows the frequency of family members in each household. The higher the number of family members in each family, the less days will the ration be sufficient. The highest frequency of family members in each household is 26 which has 5 members per family which is followed by 20 families with 4 members per family. The frequency is 16 is same for the families with 3 or 6 members. There are 14 families with family members ranging from 7 to 8 and 6 families with 2 family members each. Whereas there is 1 family each with 0,1,9,10 and 11 members. most of the ranges of members are seen between 3 to 6 members per family. The families with 4 family members which include 20 families is a good sign of family planning thus leading to equal or average parts of ration to each member. Yet there are 59 other families with more then 5 family members causing insecurity in every aspect such as food, education, income, expenditure. As seen above the 84.4 percent of families have less than 6000 income per month it becomes difficult for them to sustain with higher number of family members. The following graph helps in understanding the percentage with different colors which are coded with the number of family members and can be related to the table no.5 for percentage of each.

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Figure 5. Variable: Family Members

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Table 6. Variable: Business

The above table no.6 indicates the number of households with a business and without a business. The codes for households with business is 1 and the code for households without any business is 0. Here in the above table it can be seen that about 42 families among 103 families have their own business (small scale e.g. tailoring, shops, etc) and 61 families do not have any business for earning. About 59.2 percent of families are without any business (they are specifically daily wage labors) and about 40.8 percent from the overall 100 percent have their business (or side business along with the job of a daily wage labor). The figure below which has a navy blue square with code 00 which indicates the non-business families and the green square with code 1.00 indicates the business oriented families. These figures help in understanding whether the families are able to indulge in other livelihood activites to secure their living and food.

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Figure 6. Variable: Business

g) Current Occupation

Table 7. Variable: Current Occupation

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The variable current occupation is classified into three sections which are people who work as labors, people who carry out other occupation such as any business or contractors etc and people who are jobless or have no job for earning. The 3 sections are coded with different codes .i.e. jobless with the code 0, labor with the code 1 and others with the code 2. The highest frequency can be seen in the labor section which shows that the majority heads of households work as daily wage labors whereas 19 heads of households have some kind of earning way other than daily wage labor. The people with no job at all are with frequency 5. The figure below explains the percentage of every section in which the navy blue square with code 00 shows the percentage of jobless people which is 4.9, the green square with code 1.00 indicates the percentage of labors which is 76.7 and the off white square indicates the people with other jobs then labor which is 18.4 percent.

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Figure 7. Variable: Current Occupation

h) Houses

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Table 8. Variable: Houses

The table no.8 with variable houses is divided into two parts namely Semi-puccaa houses with code 1 and pucca houses with code 2. The frequency of number of households with semi-pucca houses is 98 whereas the households with pucca houses have the frequency 5. These 5 pucca households are mostly constructed by the scheme IAY (Indra Awas Yojana). The figure no.6 below shows the percentage of households with pucca and semi-pucca houses. The navy blue part and square with code 1.00 indicates the 95.1 percent of households with semi-pucca houses out of the 100.0 and the green part in the figure and the green square with code 2.00 indicates the 4.9 percent of households with pucca houses.

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Figure 8. Variable: Houses

i) Beneficiaries of GOI Food Security Program

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Table 9. Variable: Beneficiaries of GOI FSP

The table no.9 specifies the beneficiaries of GOI Food Security Programm. The households not benefited with the program are coded with number 2 and the households benefited with the program are coded with number 3. Among the 103 households surveyed around 92 of them were benefited with the scheme which makes 89.3 percent and 11 of them are not benefited which makes 10.6 percent out of the total 100 percent. The percentage is shown in the following figure : The dark blue square with code 2.00 indicates percentage of non-beneficiaries and the green square indicates the beneficiaries.

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Figure 9. Variable: Beneficiaries of GOI FSP

j) Frequency of being benefited from GOI FSP (Government of India Food Security Program)

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Table 10. Variable: Frequency of being benefited from GOI FSP

The table no. 10 shows the frequency of housheolds benefited with the progamme. Here the households in which the ration goes for more than 20 days is coded with the frequency 4, whereas more than 10 is coded with 3, more than 5 days is coded with 2 and more than 3 days is coded with 1 and the households who are not benefited with the programme are coded with 5. So the maximum frequency can be seen 45 which is code with 3 which means that maximum housholds ration goes only for more than 10 days per month (14.7%) yet it is followed by frequency 35 which is coded with 4 meaning that 35 hosuholds are able to sustain for more than 20 days(34.0%) with the ration provided per month. There are 16 households who’s ration goes only for more than 5 days (16.5%) which is nowhere near sufficient. There are also 5 families who’s ration goes only for more than 3 days (4.9%) per month. Two of the housholds are not benefitited with GOI FSP. The figure no. 10 describes the percentage of frequency of being benefited

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Figure 10. Variable: Frequency of being benefited from GOI FSP

k) Scheme duration (yearly)

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Table 11. Variable: Scheme duration

In order to know the from how many years are the surveyed houeholds benefitied from the programme, the variable scheme duration is been taken. As it can be seen that maximum hosueholds are benefiting with the scheme from past 11 to 20 years which is followed by 1 to 10 years with frequency 43 households. Around 8 families are benifited from past 20 to 30 years whereas only 3 families are gening the benefit of this programme from past 41 to 50 years. None of the families come between 31 to 40 years of benefite. This shows that the scheme is functioning in those areas minimum from 50 years of duration. This also indicates that there might be a lot of differences in then provisions of scheme during the past 50 years and in the current provisions. The information given by the respondants who clamied that they are benefiting from past 50 years said that earlier they use to get sugar as well but from past few years that has been stopped and only rice and kerosene is being provided. The graph below helps to know the percentage of all the sections in table no.11. The light blue color indicates the second highest 41.7% of households with scheme duration from 0 to 10 years followed by brown color indicating highest of 45.6% households gainingbenefite from 11 to 20 years. Whereas grey color indicates7.7% of households benefiting from 21 to 30 years, similarly yellow with 0% indicating no scheme benefiters between 31 to 40 years and dark blue color deals with 2.9% of households benefiting from past 41 to 50 years.

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Figure 11. Variable: Scheme Duration (years)

l) Food grains in ration provided by the GOI FSP (rice & wheat)

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Table 12. Food grains (rice and wheat)

The table no. 12 shows the frequency of families’ receiving rice in their ration. The food grains are coded with 1 as a code for rice, 2 as a code for wheat, 0 as a code for families who neither receive rice nor wheat and the families who are not benefited with the scheme are coded as 5. The frequency of households receiving rice is around 98 which makes 95.1 percent among the 100.0 and the families receiving wheat is just 2 which makes 1.9 percent of all. There are 2 families which do not receive rice or wheat either and one family who is not benefited with the scheme. The figure no. 12 below explains the percentage of households benefited with rice and wheat in their ration provided by the government. The light blue color stands for the highest 95.1% of households who receive rice in their ration every month whereas brown color indicates the 1.9% of families receiving wheat in their ration, grey color indicates households with 1.9% who neither receive rice nor wheat and the yellow color indicates the 1.0% of families who are not benefited with the scheme.

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Figure 12. Variable: Food Grains (rice and wheat)

The table above represents the number of families receiving kerosene very month in their ration provided by GOI FSP. The one’s who receive it are coded with number 1 and those who don’t are coded with number 0. Among the 103 families surveyed 90 of them receive 4 liters of kerosene every month which makes 87.8 percent out of the total. There are 12 such families which do not receive kerosene in their ration which makes 12.6 of the overall 103 families and 1 of them is not benefited by the scheme itself.

m) Kerosene in the ration provided by GOI FSP

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Table 13. Variable: Kerosene

The figure below shows that 87.4% of families receive kerosene in their ration which is indicated with light blue color whereas the brown color indicates the 12.6% of families which do not receive kerosene in their ration every month whereas the grey color indicates 1.0% of families who are not benefited with the scheme.

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Figure 13. Variable: Kerosene

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Table 14. Variable: Quality

The above table no. 14 with the variable quality of food provided by GOI FSP was taken in order to get the responses of the quality of the rice and wheat that is provided to the people. There are codes provided for each response in which 1 is the code for bad quality, 2 is the code for average quality, 3 is the code for good quality and 1 as well as 0 are coded for the families who are not benefited or do not receive rice or wheat instead of being benefited from the scheme. Among which maximum households rated the quality of rice as bad and 34 out of them rated it as average. Only 25 of them said the quality of rice or wheat was good. Two of the households didn’t even receive any rice or wheat and one of them wasn’t benefited with the scheme. Only 24.3 percent out of the 100 percent claimed that the rice provided was of good quality but 39.0 percent said that it was of bad quality. Whereas 33.0 percent found the rice of average quality. This shows that mostly the food provide by GOI FSP is of bad quality. The percentages are shown in the figure below. The navy blue color with code 00 indicates the families who do not receive rice or wheat, green with code 1.00 for bad quality, off white with code 2.00 for average quality, purple with code 3.00 for good quality and yellow with code 5.00 for non-beneficiaries.

[...]


1 Bachelor in Social Sciences (BAS), Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS),Tuljapur

1 Bachelor in Social Sciences (BAS), Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS),Tuljapur

2 Assistant Professor, Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS),Tuljapur

Details

Pages
112
Year
2016
ISBN (eBook)
9783668257016
ISBN (Book)
9783668257023
File size
2.1 MB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v324155
Grade
Tags
Government of India Food Security Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Grantee Act Integrated Watershed Management Program Barlai village

Authors

  • Shreyasi Arun Kumbhar (Contributions by)

  • Jaipal Hansda (Contributions by)

  • Rajendra Parmar (Contributions by)

  • Roopesh Kaushik (Editor)

    1 title published

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Title: Evaluating Government of India (GOI) Programmes