Loading...

Nanotechnology as treatment for lung cancer

Essay 2016 11 Pages

Biology - Diseases, Health, Nutrition

Excerpt

Table of Contend

Introduction

Methods: Developing a Nanotechnology Drug Delivery System

Proposed Nanotechnology Drug Delivery System
Effective Delivery
Shrinkage of Tumor
Distribution of the Drug
Biocompatibility and Chemical Reactivity
Side Effects

References

Introduction

Studies relating to lung cancer treatment can save lives and make the lives of cancer patients more comfortable besides increasing the quality of life. According to Lardinois et al., (2003), there are three primary types of lung cancer; they include non-small cell, small cell, and carcinoid lung cancer. Statistically, non-small cell lung cancer, for example, Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma account for the highest occurrences of all lung cancers to a tune of 85% [1]. It has been established that both environmental and genetic factors do contribute to lung cancer significantly. Continued exposure to carcinogens, ionizing radiation, and viral illnesses are known to bring about mutations of the DNA in the tissue covering the bronchial epithelium, particularly in the lungs. In addition to that, genetic anomalies in tumour suppressor gene inactivation and overactivity of growth generate oncogenes [2].

Currently, nearly 15% of individuals suffering from cancer live beyond five after diagnosis [3]. This indicates that diagnosis and treatment could be immensely augmented. Conventional medications treatments are surgery, radiation therapy [3-4], chemotherapy. Surgery is the main medical course of action mostly in the initial phase of lung cancers [4]. From the recent past, other new treatment designs have emerged. This study seeks to explore Nanomedicine because of its rampant use in lung cancer treatment in recent times. Nanomedicine simply connotes drug delivery systems manufactured from polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes or micelles. Nanomedicine technology is designed to target particularly the lungs.

Lung cancer poses challenges to humanity in the social, economic and health fronts. Economically, lunch cancer is taking an economic toll in western regions of the world than any other regions. This is the region that is worst hit with a rapidly increasingly economic burden associated with lung cancer unlike other forms of cancer. In 2011, the approximated overall healthcare costs for cancer treatment were $88.7 billion [5]. Lung cancer accounts for 20% of all of all healthcare costs related to cancer; amounting to about $17.74 billion [6]. In the European Union (EU), things are even worse; lung cancer is guesstimated to add to the biggest economic cost of all forms of cancer. It has been found to constitute up to 15% of all healthcare costs associated with cancer; translating to about $21.4 billion [7]. Lung cancer has been denoted as a high-cost condition, not only on the global scale but also on the level the patient [8].

Anatomically, lungs can be described as a pair air-filled organs situated on either side of the ribcage, commonly referred to as the thorax. The trachea delivers air into the lungs via the bronchi. The bronchi then split into form a pair of bronchioles [9]. The bronchioles head up straight to the alveoli absorption of air takes place. During the same time, carbon dioxide then from the blood lands in the alveoli it is breathed out. The lungs are well adapted to their functionally of expanding and contracting; they are covered by a thin layer of pleura.

It has been documented over and over again lung cancer causes more deaths in the US and the entire world in general than prostate cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer altogether [11]. Since the mid-1980s, lung cancer has been reported as the common type of cancer globally with regards incidence. The incidence rates have been rising over the years as well as mortalities related to lung cancer [11]. It is approximated that there are 1,350,000 new cases of lung cancer globally on an annual basis, accounting for about 12.4% of all new cancer diagnoses [11]. Regrettably, mortalities associated with cancer are estimated to be about 1,180,000 annually among other cancers accounting for 17.6% of overall cancer deaths [11]. Lung cancer also grades highest for probable cancer mortalities annually at 85,600 (28% of all cancer mortalities) for men and 71,340 (26% of all cancer mortalities) among women [11]. Whereas survival developments have been made the other types of cancers, nothing much has been achieved for lung cancer patients as attested by low survival rates of five years [11].

This paper seeks to explore the development of proper drug delivery systems (DDS). In doing this, the researcher will look at a wide range of various other types of cancers and the various DDS’s used to create a better one on the basis of set criteria including type of nanocarrier, effective delivery, shrinkage of tumor, distribution of drug, biocompatibility/chemical reactivity and lastly possible side effects. Previously, DDS’s took into consideration variety drug delivery systems including inhalable magnetic nanoparticles, hyaluronic acid–ceramide nanoparticles, personalized polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer, and stimuli-responsive clustered nanoparticles [12]–[15]. In the present study, the tactic of the DDS will encompass a hybrid constitution of numerous nanocarriers types that will be at the minimum of dual layers.

Methods: Developing a Nanotechnology Drug Delivery System

Overview of Nanotechnology Drug Delivery System

Nanoparticles that are used as vehicles to vehicles deliver drugs in the body are < 100 nm mostly in all dimensions. For therapeutic purposes, medicines can either be incorporated into the matrix of the particle or conjoined to the surface of the particles [16]. Drug delivery systems do regulate the fate of a drug incoming into the biological body system. Nanosystems with varying configurations and biological characteristics have been comprehensively studied for drug and gene delivery uses.

An ideal approach for realizing proficient drug delivery would be to develop judiciously nanosystems based on the comprehension of their interactions with the body, particularly the receiving cell population, and the changes in such cells with respect to disease progression. These observations compounded with observations made with regards to the mechanisms and location of drug action, molecular mechanisms, and pathophysiology of cancer can bring a better understanding of nanotechnology use in drug delivery systems.

It is imperative to study the barriers that hinder effective drug delivery. Some of these factors include of therapeutic carries in the living cells. Diminished drug efficacy may result from the volatility of the drugs once inside delivered into the cell, low availability as a result of various targeting or chemical interactions with the delivering carrier, changes in genetic composition of cell-surface receptors, sudden variations in in signaling conduits as cancer progresses as well as drug disintegration. For example, elevated levels of DNA methylation as cancer progress are known to lead to failure of multiple anti-neoplastic agents such as doxorubicin and cisplatin [16-17].

[...]

Details

Pages
11
Year
2016
ISBN (eBook)
9783668260634
ISBN (Book)
9783668260641
File size
491 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v322067
Grade
Tags
cancer lung cancer drug delivery systems nanotechnology nanoparticles

Author

Share

Previous

Title: Nanotechnology as treatment for lung cancer