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Smart Factory and Industry 4.0. The Current State of Application Technologies

Developing a Technology Roadmap

Master's Thesis 2015 173 Pages

Business economics - Supply, Production, Logistics

Excerpt

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Abstract ... 8
Zusammenfassung ... 9
List of Figures ... 11
List of Tables ... 12
List of Definitions ... 13
List of Abbreviations ... 14
Prologue ... 15

1. Introduction ... 16
1.1. Problem Definition ... 16
1.2. Research Objectives ... 17
1.3. Research Questions ... 18
1.4. Research Method ... 18
1.4.1. Forecasting ...18
1.4.2. Selection of Method ... 19
1.4.3. Technology Roadmap ... 21
1.5. Thesis Design ... 23

2. Theoretical Principles ... 26
2.1. Technological Systematization ... 26
2.1.1. Technology ... 26
2.1.2. Classification of Technologies ... 29
2.1.3. Technological Paradigm ... 31
2.2. Production and Logistics ... 33
2.2.1. Logistics ... 33
2.2.2. Production Logistics ... 34
2.2.3. Main Function ... 36

3. Smart Factory ... 38
3.1. Internet of Things ... 38
3.1.1. The New Internet ... 38
3.1.2. Technical Core - Smart Object ... 39
3.1.3. New Technological Paradigm ... 42
3.2. Internet of Services ... 43
3.2.1. Internet of Things Complement ... 43
3.2.2. Cloud Services ... 45
3.2.3. Internet of Things and Services ... 45
3.2.4. Related Notions ... 45
3.3. Further “Internets” in Literature ... 46
3.3.1. Internet of Data ... 46
3.3.2. Future Internet ... 46
3.3.3. Internet of Everything ... 46
3.4. Smart World ... 47
3.4.1. Smart City ... 47
3.4.2. Smart Energy/ Smart Grid ... 48
3.4.3. Smart Mobility ... 48
3.4.4. Smart Home ... 48
3.4.5. Smart Health ... 49
3.4.6. Smart Manufacturing/ Smart Factory ... 49
3.5. Industry 4.0. ... 50
3.5.1. 4th Industrial Revolution ... 51
3.5.2. Digitization ... 51
3.5.3. Industry 4.0 Potential ... 52
3.5.4. Technology Paradigms in the Industry 4.0. ... 52
3.5.5. Industry 4.0 Definition. 54
3.6. Cyber-Physical Systems. ... 55
3.6.1. Technical Development ... 55
3.6.2. Embedded Systems ... 56
3.6.3. Cyber-Physical System Definition ... 57
3.7. Definition of Smart Factory ... 60
3.7.1. Distinction of Smart Factory ... 60
3.7.2. Technological Capabilities ... 61

4. Human-Machine Interaction in the Smart Factory ... 66
4.1. Development of the Human-Machine Interaction ... 66
4.1.1. Change of the Human Factor ... 66
4.1.2. Technology-Centered vs. Human-Centered ... 68
4.1.3. Smart Factory as a Sociotechnical System ... 69
4.1.4. Human Capabilities and Limits ... 70
4.1.5. New Work Organization ... 71
4.2. Kinds of Human-Machine Interaction ... 72
4.2.1. Interaction Variants ... 73
4.2.2. Multimodal Interaction. 74
4.2.3. Vision of Human-Machine Interaction ... 76
4.2.4. Human-Machine Cooperation and Collaboration ... 77
4.2.5. Development of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) ... 78
4.2.6. Human-Machine Interaction Requirements ... 79
4.3. Further Conceptual Distinction ... 80
4.3.1. Informational and Physical Interaction ... 81
4.3.2. Information Processing and Information Transfer ... 81
4.3.3. Information Recognition and Presentation ... 82
4.3.4. Application Technologies ... 83
4.4. New Technologies of Human-Machine Interaction ... 83
4.4.1. Data Preparation ... 83
4.4.2. Virtual Reality ... 84
4.4.3. Augmented Reality ... 85
4.4.4. Wearable Technologies ... 85
4.4.5. Mobile Device ... 87
4.4.6. Smart Glasses ... 87
4.4.7. Smart Watch ... 88
4.4.8. Human Awareness ... 88
4.4.9. Speech Recognition ... 89
4.4.10. Gesture Recognition ... 89
4.4.11. Gaze Recognition ... 90
4.4.12. Black Box – Data Processing ... 91
4.5. Conclusion ... 92

5. Empirical Social Research ... 94
5.1. Conceptual Review ... 94
5.2. Expert Survey ... 94
5.3. Survey Design ... 95
5.3.1. First Part ... 95
5.3.2. Second Part ... 96
5.3.3. Third Part ... 96
5.3.4. 4th Question ... 6
5.3.5. Choice of Experts ... 97
5.3.6. Choice of Software-Tool ... 97
5.3.7. Restrictions of Empirical Study ... 97
5.4. Statistical Methods for Study Analysis ... 98
5.4.1. Descriptive Statistics ... 98
5.4.2. Inductive Statistics ... 99
5.5. Study Analysis ... 99
5.5.1. General Analysis ... 99
5.5.2. First Part ... 100
5.5.3. Second Part ... 103
5.5.4. Third Part ... 103
5.5.5. Fourth Part ... 105
5.6. Summary and Conclusion ... 106
5.7. Critics of Survey ... 108

6. Technological Readiness, Technology Roadmap and Recommendations ... 110
6.1. Technological Readiness ... 110
6.2. Technology Roadmap ... 114
6.3. Recommendations ... 115
6.3.1. Application Technologies for Smart Factory ... 115
6.3.2. Importance for Production Logistics ... 116
6.3.3. Technological Solution ... 117
6.3.4. Technological Capabilities ... 119
6.3.5. Social Challenges ... 120

7. Summary and Outlook ... 122
7.1. Summary ... 122
7.2. Outlook ... 125
List of Sources ... 126

Appendices ... 141

The following work has been written as the final thesis for the Dual Master Program in Industrial Engineering and Management with specialization in Supply Chain Management between Technische Universität Berlin/Germany and the Tongji University Shanghai/China.

Knowledge is an unending adventure at the edge of uncertainty.
Jacob Bronowski

Abstract

When is the Smart Factory ready? This question arises when dealing with the topics Industry 4.0., Internet of Things and Smart Factory. An approach is developed here to answer at least part of this question. A systematization of numerous concepts and terms with similar uses is required. The Smart Factory, based on the technological Cyber-Physical Systems, is an element in a network of several Smart Factories, where the vision of Industry 4.0 is finally realized through industry-wide interconnection. The Smart Factory and its Cyber-Physical Systems possess new technological capabilities including a capability of comprehensive intuitive and multimodal Human-Machine Interaction. This new form of interaction is particularly emphasized in the Smart Factory. After the failure of the CIM-concept the design of the future factory is tending towards a human-centered solution. The initial question is applied to this aspect of the Smart Factory here. Furthermore, production logistics, which complete fundamental tasks in manufacturing, are taken into account.

The technological readiness of a selection of application technologies realizing the new form of interaction is examined. The application technologies considered comprise three wearable technologies, those being the Mobile Device, Smart Glasses and the Smart Watch as well as three recognition technologies: Speech Recognition, Gesture Recognition and Gaze Recognition. An expert survey is carried out in order to answer the following expedient questions: estimates as to the future relevance of the selected application technologies, the required technological capabilities, up-to-date technological challenges, and respective solution approaches, as well as a final estimate of the point of technological readiness. The results are summarized and visualized in a Technology Roadmap.

Keywords: Smart Factory, Industry 4.0, application technology, Mobile Device, Smart Glasses, Smart Watch, Speech Recognition, Gesture Recognition, Gaze Recognition, technological readiness, Technology Roadmap

Zusammenfassung

Wann existiert die Smart Factory? Diese Frage stellt sich in der Verbindung mit den Themen Industrie 4.0., dem Internet der Dinge und der Smart Factory. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ansatz entwickelt, um zumindest einen Teil dieser Frage zu beantworten. Dazu erfolgt die erforderliche Systematisierung der zahlreichen Konzepte und Begriffe mit teilweise ähnlicher Bedeutung und variierender Anwendungen. Die Smart Factory, die auf die Implementierung sogenannter Cyber-Physikalischen Systeme basiert, ist ein Element in einem Netzwerk von mehreren intelligenten Fabriken (Smart Factory). Durch dieses branchenübergreifende Netzwerk wird die Vision der Industrie 4.0 schließlich realisiert. Die Smart Factory und seine Cyber-Physikalischen Systeme besitzen neue technologische Fähigkeiten, wobei eine die umfassende intuitive und multimodale Mensch-Maschine Interaktion ist. Diese neue Form der Interaktion ist vor allem in der Smart Factory essentiell. Nach dem Scheitern des CIM-Konzepts wird sich das Design der zukünftigen Fabrik zu einer Mensch-zentrierten Lösung entwickeln. Auf diesen wichtigen Aspekt der Smart Factory ist die initiale Fragestellung gerichtet. Darüber hinaus wird die Produktionslogistik, die grundlegende Aufgaben in der Produktion übernimmt, berücksichtigt.

In der Arbeit wird eine Auswahl von Anwendungstechnologien, welche diese neue Form der Interaktion realisieren, untersucht. Die berücksichtigten Anwendungstechnologien bestehen aus dem Mobile Bediengerät und zwei Wearable Technologien, der Intelligenten Brille und der Smart Watch sowie drei Erkennungstechnologien: der Spracherkennung, der Gestenerkennung und der Blickerkennung. Um möglichst aktuelle Informationen zu generieren, wird eine Expertenbefragung durchgeführt. Hierbei beurteilen ausgewählte Experten die zukünftige Relevanz für die Produktionslogistik, die erforderlichen technologischen Fähigkeiten, aktuelle technologische Herausforderungen und entsprechende Lösungsansätze sowie den Zeitpunkt der technologischen Readiness. Die Ergebnisse werden in einer Technology Roadmap zusammengefasst und visualisiert.

Schlüsselwörter: Smart Factory, Industrie 4.0, Anwendungstechnologien, mobiles Bediengerät, Intelligente Brille, Smart Watch, Spracherkennung, Gestenerkennung, Blickerkennung, technologische Readiness, Technologie Roadmap

Prologue

The quote “If there is no struggle, there is no progress” is ascribed to Frederick Douglas, which might be extended by another, following quote from George Bernhard Shaw: “Progress is impossible without change, and those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.” Even if the two men quoted had partially contradicting personalities, the combination of the two messages has an astonishing topicality when looking at our society, as well as in view of our economy.

Society has changed rapidly in recent years, caused by the landslide victory of the Internet. The behavior of the individual has changed, since the “iPhonization” and permanent Internet access has led to a vanishing of geographical and temporal distances. The initial “smartization” of the mobile phone spreads into more and more technological objects and accelerates this modification. Further societal changes in the future, such as the expected aging of the German society, along with a parallel ongoing growth of the world population will increasingly affect the economical part of society. Another inevitable consequence is the constantly increasing shortage of all resources. Globalization and urbanization are expected to continue, going hand in hand with changing lifestyles and with that changing consumption behavior. The development of the last decades will go on and the demand for highly individualized products will rise further. This growing complexity needs an answer before it becomes a struggle.

The current value creation system with its management and organization is however not prepared for these rising challenges, which are actually manifold. Experts claim a change of production factors in industry, especially essential for the German economy, in order to harmonize supply and demand sustainably. The promising information and communication technology, which has partially already entered several societal areas, therefore became the central approach for a solution. This so-called digitization of the industry is a global trend, with several labels. In Germany, Industry 4.0 is the dominant label, becoming increasingly popular all over the world in the last couple of years. The advancement of industry to an Industry 4.0 is the central topic in industry and politics and worthy of a closer look.

1. Introduction

The introduction provides a brief description of how the research problem was defined and which target evolved out of the controversy. Furthermore, the explicit research questions and appropriate research method are formulated and a summary of the thesis outline is given.

1.1. Problem Definition

Industry 4.0, Smart Factory, Intelligent Manufacturing and Human-Machine-Collaboration are just some items from a long list of more and more frequently appearing catchwords. These terms have become indispensable in the research- and news industry. A large number of populist and scientific publications use these terms.[1] The generic term in Germany for the digitization movement is Industry 4.0, the use of which was clearly seen at the world’s most important industry fair Hannover Messe 2015. At this fair the message that the Industry 4.0 has arrived in the present was sent.[2] In fact, a multitude of ready to use technological systems, island solutions, software and robotics were shown by exhibitioners, giving the visitor a feeling of being in the middle of the Industry 4.0 vision.

A review of the literature and research projects partly confirmed the impression given at the fair. Technologies for Industry 4.0 already exist to a large extend within the highly developed automation technologies used in manufacturing facilities. However, to meet the technical requirements of Industry 4.0, the different parts from automation technology, electronics, IT, and engineering have to be combined and interlinked. Connectivity is the main characteristic of Industry 4.0, where the separate technologies are just a small piece of the vision. [3] Of course, as is apparent in the appropriate literature, obstacles still exist on the way to Industry 4.0 and the Smart Factory. Thus, the Industry 4.0 - euphoria on one side is opposed by the critics on the other side, who point at big technological and societal challenges. Within this controversy the question of “when” arises for the author. When is Industry 4.0 reality?

1.2. Research Objectives

During the first orientation within the present topic it became apparent that by information means currently available the question of “when” for the vision Industry 4.0 cannot be answered. The first simple question of "when does Industry 4.0 exist" did not take into account the huge complexity behind the seemingly plain term. The deep intertwining of Industry 4.0 with societal aspects makes an isolated consideration almost impossible. However, the relatively small framework of this paper, due to time, capacity, and extent, requires a strict definition of an appropriate scope of consideration. In order to pursue this very interesting question the scope has had to be adapted and downsized. As the industry can be considered as a socio-technical system, the Industry 4.0 will be as well. In the Industry 4.0, humans also interact with technology, which in turn demands organization of the interaction of all participants.[4]

Because of the technical background of the author, the "when" question will only be treated on view of the technological aspect of Industry 4.0. More particularly, as the Industry 4.0 needs a technological upgrade, technologies with new capabilities, which help to realize the Industry 4.0, are under investigation. The readiness of the technologies, that is to say the technological readiness for usage in the industry, is subject of investigation. The universal application of technologies in the Industry-4.0-Factory however requires additional narrowing of the field of investigation. Therefore, the abovementioned characteristic of the Industry 4.0 as a socio-technical system is reviewed again, since the Human-Machine Interaction here is of great importance.[5] This is turned into another specification of the subject of investigation, which is now determined according to the readiness of the technologies of the Human-Machine Interaction in the Smart Factory. The notional change of Industry 4.0 to Smart Factory is another adaption, or rather point of precision. The application of the often synonymously used Smart Factory seems more reasonable to the author according to the aspects of internationality and catchiness. As a matter of course, the explicit reason for changing these terms will be shown over the course of the work. The determination of a smaller framework should allow for the answering of the initial “when”-question within this framework. Furthermore, actual technological challenges, if they exist, and technological solution approaches shall be identified in order to give a more substantial result. The author hopes to provide a contribution to the larger question, to the very active and broad research in this field and the to overall vision of Industry 4.0.

1.3. Research Questions

The above-described target of this thesis leads to the following primary research question:
When will the technologies of the Human-Machine Interaction in the Smart Factory be technologically ready? (Initial Research Question (IR) – Chapter 6)

To answer the initial research question, the following clear but essential secondary research questions (RQ) have to be answered first. On the one hand they are needed to comprehensibly determine the subject of investigation and on the other hand they help to achieve the above-described objectives.

1. What is the Smart Factory? (1.RQ - Chapter 3)
2. What is the meaning of Human-Machine Interactions in the Smart Factory? (2.RQ - Chapter 4)
3. Which technologies will be used in future for Human-Machine Interaction? (3.RQ- Chapter 5)
4. What are the current technological challenges and their solution approaches? (4.RQ - Chapter 5)

1.4. Research Method

To answer the aforementioned research question and reach the research target an appropriate research method has to be selected.

1.4.1. Forecasting

A research methodology is a technique that is used to answer an open question. The results have to be intersubjectively comprehensible.[6] The future oriented research question demands a research method which helps to forecast technological developments and consider technological interdependencies and challenges. The future-studies or foresights [7] offer a wide field of methods, instruments and tools. The European Commission defines foresight as “[...] a systematic, participatory, future intelligence gathering and medium-to-long-term vision-building process aimed at present-day decisions and mobilizing joint actions”.[8] Within the foresight there exists no standard method, but instead a wide field of several methods from different scientific disciplines. The common methodical core is represented by the consideration of complex holistic correlations and the combination of explorative and normative elements.[9] A choice of foresight methods by Gordon mentions e.g.: [10]

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The selection of a method largely depends on the research design, problem definition and the research question. Considering these factors the appropri ate research method can be derived.

1.4.2. Selection of Method

The literature provides a systematization of foresight methods according to temporal aspects, purpose and data source. [11] The first distinction has two major analytical variants from a temporal perspective: retrospective and prospective. Retrospective foresights describe the development of a technology backward from the present. In contrast, the prospective technology roadmap shows the development forward from the present. [12] Within this elaboration the prospective, forward-oriented approach is chosen, since the elaboration target is the foresight of future technology developments. This determination leads to another possibility of distinction, which can be made regardless of whether the foresight tries to explore possible or desirable futures. [13] The explorative approach targets the identification of possible futures. The latter analyzes a wanted future and the normative approach identifies needed paths to reach this future. [14] Because of the relatively widely defined research question which lacks specific assumptions, as well the characteristics of the field of investigation, an explorative research design has been selected here.

A fundamental distinction of research methods is the classification into quantitative or qualitative. While quantitative research methods mainly focus on the verification of hypotheses, qualitative methods rather prioritize the revealing of interdependencies. [15] Furthermore, the qualitative methods contribute to the generation of scientific knowledge and are suitable for relatively unexplored areas, such as the relatively young and highly controversial theme Smart Factory. [16] The boundaries in the scheme can be delimited if quantitative methods are specified via data-based- and qualitative methods are specified by expert-based methods. [17] Generally, the data-based methods demand a sufficient number and quality of information over a period of the past three to five times longer than the period to be forecast. Furthermore, this approach uses several mathematical methods to analyze the database.[18] The expert-based method constitutes an essential basis for the foresight, since this is typically not provided by sufficient data. [19] This coincides with the Smart Factory, the subject of elaboration. Further, limiting the subject of analysis to the technological development, with its dynamic and complex characteristics, complicates the establishment of a base of information. As shown in figure 1 the selected expert forecasting offers various methods for information generation. These methods include single statements (genius forecasts), expert workshops, as well as written and oral expert surveys. Within this work, the expert survey is the essential foundation for collecting data and optimally answering the research question. [20]

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Figure 1: Choice of forecasting methods (Source: own representation based on Steinmüller (2008))

1.4.3. Technology Roadmap

The expected complex results demand an appropriate presentation, which can be realized by a powerful instrument of foresight, the popular roadmap. The term roadmap for graphical illustration emerged in recent years, but a uniform definition or standard meaning does not yet exist. [21] Nonetheless, the term roadmap itself quickly provides an idea, since the invoked image of a street map gives a rough understanding of what it is about. [22] A street map allows the derivation of several types of information, for instance:[23]

which places exit in a given area
the distance to these places from a reference point
which places are close and which are far from each other
are there direct connections or only circuitous routes between the various locations
the resiliency of the streets between the locations (highway, country road)
which particular difficulties (ferry, railway crossing) have to be overcome in order to get to a location
which interfaces with other transport modes exist (airports, stations, ports) and
what characteristics (rivers, altitude, vegetation) are in the landscape

Analogous to the extensive range of information of the street map, the roadmap can host several types of information depending on complexity and depth. The principal functions of roadmaps are representation, communication, planning, and coordination. Technology roadmaps typically provide a time-directed representation of relationships between technologies and products. [24] A technology roadmap can show how technological performance and dissemination evolve, how and when single technologies build on one another or substitute each other, which technologies must be available, and which technological challenges have to be overcome.[25]

In practice, a technology roadmap is often synonymously used for business, innovation or product roadmaps, [26] but within this differentiation "technology roadmap" only refers to technologies and can be considered as part of a more universal roadmap such as the aforementioned. In order to answer the research questions the roadmap is chosen to generate a structured and comprehensible representation of the analyses. As mentioned above, the field of investigation must be narrowed. This requires a clear definition and distinction of terms and concept. The picture of the field of investigation has to be painted clearly as do the definitions, distinctions and selection of technologies needed to answer the research question, and all of this has to be accomplished in a comprehensible fashion. This essential preparatory work will be realized by way of a scientific literature review. In order to guarantee comprehensive review the work is based on a snowball method. This method is derived from a research method, which is called snowball sampling. “Snowball” in this case, refers to the process of data accumulation, in which the researcher starts to collect data from only a few members of the target population and then continues with other individuals that have been recommended by the first members and so on. [27] This kind of literature review offers a research stream as a comprehensive and objective approach to relevant literature.[28] For the relatively new and unexplored field of Industry 4.0 investigated here, only a few fundamental works in literature exist. At the beginning of the review the authors, register and foot notes of the basic literature are used to identify context-related, continuing and advanced literature. Using this procedure allows the processing of a structured and extensive literature review, which is absolutely required to specify the subject of consideration and provide a valid theoretical basis.

1.5. Thesis Design

The thesis design aims at answering the research questions to achieve the thesis objectives, which are extensively described in this chapter.

Chapter 2 determines the theoretical principles essential for this thesis. The principles represent the theoretical background needed for the scientific elaboration of the topic and to answer the research questions. It clarifies the author's understanding of the central term technology and possible approaches to various classifications and refers to the conceptual particularity in the German language. Furthermore, the meaning and the conceptual differentiation of production logistics are outlined.

Chapter 3 answers the first secondary research questions. The section explains the overall concept of Internet of Things and Services and related concepts. The concepts of Industry 4.0 and Smart Factory are placed in this overall context. The Cyber-Physical Systems as the technological core and its new capabilities are also explained.

In Chapter 4 the Human-Machine Interaction is comprehensively elaborated. Its development, the meaning of humans as a production factor and surrounding principles are elaborated. This chapter answers the second and gives a basis to answering the third secondary research question by listing new technologies of the Human-Machine Interaction.

In Chapter 5 the results of the literature review of chapter 4 are used to answer the third and fourth secondary as well as the initial research question. The development and design of the survey is described in this chapter and statistical methods for the analysis of acquired data presented and the analysis of the results executed. The findings will be the foundation for the subsequent chapter.

In Chapter 6 the results of the expert survey about the technological readiness are consolidated and visualized in an appropriate technology roadmap. Furthermore, recommendations for production logistics and technological solutions are given by the author. Additionally, the closely related social aspects of the technology usage are briefly described.

Finally, in Chapter 7, a summary of the present work will be provided and the author gives an outlook on future developments.

The thesis has a consecutive design, which means that every chapter builds upon and narrows and complements the preceding one. To answer the research questions and achieve the thesis objectives, the author proceeds from general to particular (Figure 2 & 3).

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Figure 2: Consecutive design of the thesis (Source: own representation)

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Figure 3: Thesis design (Source: own representation)

2. Theoretical Principles

The following chapter provides the theoretical foundation for a comprehensible understanding of the thesis. This chapter explains the central term technology and paradigm, the classification of technologies. Furthermore, the production logistic as a key element of the industry is described.

2.1. Technological Systematization

This section explains the terminology technology and it’s particularity in the German language, emphasizes the meaning of technological paradigms and shows different forms of technology classification.

2.1.1. Technology

Technology has a historically varying meaning and usage and is treated controversially up to this day. In German, a distinction exists between Technik and Technologie,[29] two terms which are often mixed up. Because of the importance of the term and it origination and elaboration a more detailed differentiation of the two terms undertaken. Technologie and Technik, as expected, have their origin in the Greek term technikos, which can be translated with craftsmanship or skillful procedure. However, the development of the German language, which is characterized by high precision, led to diverging definitions of these two terms.[30] After centuries of changing meanings of Technologie, Beckmann designated the term as the knowledge about causal relations, which can be used to resolve technological challenges and determined the understanding of Technologie as the knowledge of Technik.[31] The term increased in specific usage, with even Karl Marx referring to it in his philosophical treatise: Technologie reveals the active behavior of man towards nature, the production process of man's life and with that his social living conditions and resulting spiritual thoughts.[32]

Despite Marx’s interpretation of the term, the usage increasingly relates to the science of technological production processes.[33] In compliance with Bullinger, Technologie describes the knowledge about scientific-technical relations for technical problem solving. Formally, Technologie can be treated as application-oriented, but is generally accepted in statements about scientific-technical target-means relations. In other words, Technologien are rules on the provision of means by which a particular effect can be achieved. Furthermore, Kröll gives three essential descriptions of the term characterizing Technologie as:[34]

The knowledge of scientific-technical correlations, provided it is applied to solutions of technical problems, which are connected to economic, organizational, social, and political aspects,
Attainments and skills to solve technical problems, or
Resources, which serve the practical implementation of scientific knowledge.

Thus, the term Technologie includes technological knowledge, attainments, skills and all possibilities for process and product developments. Based on this the resulting output is constituted as Technik.[35] This term covers the concrete application of one or several instances of Technologie. Describing the realized Technik as an applied component of aTechnologie was done by Brockhoff as well.[36] Kröll describes Technik as:[37]

The materialized result of a problem-solving process including production and usage, or
The materialized form (e.g. realized products, equipment, materials, transformation processes and procedures).

The distinction of both terms can be derived from a systematic approach, distinguishing the knowledge base (input), the solution approach (process) and the actual problem solution (output).

Figure 4: Traditional distinction of Technologie and Technik (Source: own representation based on Schuh et al. (2011))
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This distinction triggers several controversies, since Technik is deeply dependent on Technologie and just embodies its application. Binder and Kantowsky accordingly altered the strict concept of separating Technik and Technologie to an integrative concept. Here, Technologie embraces knowledge and capabilities to solve technical challenges as well as procedures for the practical realization of scientific insights. As a result Technik becomes a subsystem of Technologie (Figure 5), but keeps its differentiation as a materialization of Technologie.[38]

Figure 5: Changing concept for Technologie and Technik (Source: own representation based on Schuh et al. (2011))
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This conceptual separation is unique to the German science language and is not put into practice in the English-speaking science, and since this thesis is addressed to an international audience this distinction just has an informational value. However, the abovementioned change from the traditional to the integrative concept makes the German understanding of Technologie come closer to the English-American understanding of technology. Here, the term technology is unmistakeably similarly defined as the above-shown German understanding.

Definition 1: Technology[39]
Dosi’s physical devices embody the achievements in the development of technology in a defined problem-solving activity. The other theoretical part of technology consists of particular expertise, experience of past attempts and past technical solutions including the achievements of the state-of-the-art.[40] Furthermore, Dosi‘s understanding of technology includes the perspective of a limited set of possible technological alternatives and fictitious future developments. With that the term technology in a way includes the technical change.[41]

2.1.2. Classification of Technologies

Next to the multitude of definitions of the term of technology, several technology classification approaches exists. Here, however, it must be taken into account that a classification of technologies is very difficult. A systematic categorization is based on different criteria Figure 6.[42] One possible classification criteria is that of interdependencies. This considers the relationship between technologies, which can be distinguished into single and system technologies. Typically, complex products consist of not only one single technology, but rather a bundle of technologies or a system technology.

Figure 6: Criteria for classification of technologies (Source: own representation based on Gerpott (1999))
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Single technologies are a detached or separated technology. Besides the other possibilities of distinction, separated technologies can be combined into hybrid technologies. These new system technologies can lead to new application fields and technology fusion.[43]For instance, the combination of mechanics with electronics and the integration of sensor technologies into existing systems open up entirely new possibilities.

Technologies are constantly subject to change, which can be taken into consideration using life-cycle models. Even if each form characterizes a different stage of technological maturity, which seem to be related to the investigated readiness in this work, another criterium is chosen. The formulated research question uses the general term technology, which is, as shown above, extremely wide and therefore needs specification. As one of the thesis objectives is to identify actual technological challenges and solution approaches, the criterium interdependencies is the obvious choice. The considered technologies applied to the Human-Machine Interaction have the task of transferring information between the two parties.[44] These technologies are combined or fused technologies and hence dependent on single technologies and other subordinated technology combinations.[45] Technological challenges of a subordinated single technology diminish the functionality of the superordinate technology or even prevent the technological realization.

These technologies have a specific function for the user, in other words their application has the task to solve end-user problems.[46] As mentioned above, this task is the transferring of information. Inspired by application software, which in information technology has the job to support or process specific functions, the terminology “application” is taken and used in combination with technology. Thus, application technology, similarly to the application software (e.g. mobile phone application), is a user-oriented, function-fulfilling technology, which is a combination of several single technologies and has a certain complexity.[47] Application technology can be realized via different single technologies, since it is determined by its function. There is more than one technological combination for implementing an application technology, depending on the maker’s way of thinking.

2.1.3. Technological Paradigm

The abovementioned constant change of technologies seems in contrast to the frequent inability of companies to tap the potential of new technologies. Companies especially often encounter severe difficulties if their success depends on products based on generally accepted scientific thought patterns or functional principles. They are then suddenly faced with emerging products, manufactured via deviating or completely different thought patterns.[48] The idea of thought pattern, or framework of thinking, was described by Thomas Kuhn for the first time, who used the term paradigm. He defined scientific paradigm according to two differing meanings:[49]

The sociological meaning defines the term as the entire constellation of opinions, values, methods, and so on, which are shared among members of a certain community.
The philosophical meaning describes the term as one element of the given constellation, which encompasses concrete solutions used as models or examples to replace existing scientific solutions.

The aspect of technology needed in this elaboration is given by the term “Technological Paradigm”. The highly relevant paper by Giovanni Dosi gives a definition of the Technological Paradigm used in this thesis.

Definition 2: Technological Paradigm[50]
A substantially similar, but more comprehensible definition is given by Hemmelskamp, who describes the technological paradigm as a knowledge base within which a multitude of possibilities of development and enhancement of products and processes exist. The different possibilities lead to specific applications or problem solving approaches.[51] Thus, the paradigm forms a framework within which the technological change normally takes place. However, sometimes a technological change is more fundamental and breaks open the old patterns of thinking. This change to a new technological paradigm is based on fundamental innovations.[52] A new technological paradigm arises when a selection of the extensive knowledge base and prior experience is made to solve a specific problem. The new approach leads to game-changing new product innovations or radical process innovations. A certain number of authors use the term disruptive innovations instead of technological paradigm.[53] Examples of technological paradigms are:[54]

Printing Press
Electric Vehicle
Internet of Things
Virtual Reality

2.2. Production and Logistics

This section explains the terms logistics and production logistics and shows differences and their close interweavement.

2.2.1. Logistics

The concept of logistics is complex. The term, descending from military usage in the 18th century, has changed considerably within the scientific discourse. The then logistician was responsible for the troop’s board and lodging and later the provision of military equipment.[55] The understanding of logistics developed since the 1960’s in several phases towards the present state.[56] A view on the historical development cannot be reasonably made within this thesis.[57] At the end of the last millennium, logistics was generally understood as a pure service provision. It was reduced to the classical triad storage, handling and transport. In recent years, logistics established itself as a discipline relevant for society and science. Logistics is to be assigned greater influence even for central aspects such as demographic change, climate change, sustainability and resource efficiency.[58] In the current parlance, logistic is understood as an interdisciplinary subject with a cross-divisional function[59] and has varying definitions. According to Göpfert two groups of authors exist, which can be differentiated by the following understanding of principles:[60]

Logistics refers to executing tasks, which include spatio-temporal activities of goods transfer, such as transportation, handling and storage. Planning, management and implementation of a flow of goods is the focus.
Logistics is a management task. Single activities are not the focus of research. Management is rather involves taking a flow-oriented point of view, integrating logistical responsibilities into diverse corporate functions.

The author follows the second, management-oriented or process-oriented understanding of Straube from the logistics department of the Technical University Berlin. This understanding is characterized by its flow orientation.

Definition 3: Logistics[61]
This management-oriented perspective puts logistics at the front, when it comes to meeting customer expectations and market expansion and reaching demanded economic results.[62]

2.2.2. Production Logistics[63]

The importance of production logistic as a subsystem of logistic and its meaning increases parallel with the increasing importance and the changing challenges of logistics. The change from large quantities and small number of variants to innovative and individual products with high quality and short delivery times affects the production logistic as well.[64]

The definition of production logistics, as indicated by the term, initially requires in addition to the term logistics, the elaboration of the term production. Industrial production refers to all technical processes, that create an output with material and immaterial inputs.[65] The production logistics include all activities needed for preparing and carrying out production. That means structuring of the production as well as planning, steering, and controlling of all activities, concerning the information and material flow from goods receipt of goods to issue or shipping of goods.[66] Thus production logistics, which is as abovementioned a subsystem of logistics, can be placed between other subsystems, all of which influence an optimal flow.[67] Bauer ranges production logistics between procurement logistics and distribution logistics.[68]

The preceding procurement logistics manage the availability of all goods needed for manufacturing that are not produced by the company. This includes supply of non-material manufacturing input and all necessary activities as well.[69] The subsequent production logistics manage the flow of the delivered raw materials, semi-finished, components, finished products and tools to the respective manufacturing stations and warehouses.[70] After that the distribution logistics takes over the flow to distribution warehouses and the customer.[71]

[This is a Reading Probe. Graphics and Tables are not displayed.]
Figure 7: Differentiation of production logistics (Source: own representation based on Kummer (1999))

As briefly alluded to, the main issue of production logistics is the internal provision, but a horizontal cut does not meet the complex processes and connections. Especially, the informational connection to customer and supplier makes a clear separation of the informational level very difficult and questionable.[72] Because of this informational intertwining between the subsystems and the multitude of different processes and usage variants, the definition is kept generally in line with the process-oriented logistic understanding.[73]

Definition 4: Production Logistics[74]
The intertwining of production logistic and production and all their interdependencies, especially during the process of production, makes a clear distinction very difficult and a separate treatment almost impossible.[75]

2.2.3. Main Function

For further clarification and elaboration of the conceptual differentiation and as well as definition of the terms the function of production logistics is taken into consideration. The general function of logistics is to do it “right”. The 6-Rs-of-Logistics describes the main tasks, which includes the supply with the right product, the right quality and right quantity at the right time, right place and right costs.[76] According to this 6 “R” rule, all logistics processes, which comprise the core activities transportation, handling, storage, commissioning, and packaging, have to be executed.[77] As theses activities assumably involve more less manpower, they are briefly described below.[78]

Transportation deals with overcoming of distances between goods. These distances can be within a manufacturing facility or between different workplaces and storage facilities, which necessitates appropriate transportation.[79] Handling comprises the loading and unloading of transportation means and storage facilities and the acquisition of information on the goods and their sorting. This process is also the interface between different transportation systems.[80] Storage means retention of the goods. Storage is an active disruption of the material flow and creates buffer stocks. The way storage and goods withdrawal is handled depends on the warehouse strategy. Commissioning is the compiling of certain quantities of articles for an order of a production facility.[81] Packaging serves as protection for the predescribed activities.[82]

However, all these processes cannot be accomplished without planning and control processes. And that, in fact, is seen as a competence of production logistics, which deals with the planning, control and monitoring of the whole production logistics and all its activities and processes.[83] This responsibility in particular will be increasingly challenging, considering the future changes for the world, its societies and industries.

[...]


[1] Springer Link research (01.08.2015) resulted in over 23.000 chapters and over 10.000 articles, not considering other databases.

[2] Cf. Hannover Messe 2015 (2015)

[3] Cf. Wolff (2013), p.7

[4] Cf. Anderl (2014), p.4

[5] A more profound derivation of all these decisions is shown over the course of the work.

[6] Cf. Kern (1996), p. 1645 f.

[7] There is no distinction between future studies and foresight in this work, see Miles (2008), p.24ff

[8] Cf. High Level Expert Group (2002), p.17

[9] Cf. Steinmüller (2008), p.90f

[10] Cf. Porter, A.L.; Ashton, W.B. (2008), p. 162 ff; Steinmüller (2008), p. 90ff

[11] Cf. Steinmüller (2008), p.90ff

[12] Cf. Kostoff, R.N.; Schaller, R.R. (2001), p. 137f

[13] See further literature Willyard, C.H.; McClees, C. (1997); Phaal et al. (2004), Phaal et al. (2001)

[14] Cf. Steinmüller (2008), p.88ff

[15] Cf. Brüsemeister, 2008), p.19

[16] Cf. Bortz, J.; Döring, N. (2006), p.53ff

[17] Cf. Steinmüller (2008), p.93

[18] Cf. Steinmüller (2008), p.94f

[19] Cf. Steinmüller (2008), p.94f

[20] Profound description see Chapter 5

[21] Cf. Lee, S.; Park, Y. (2005), p.569 and Geschka et al (2008), p.166

[22] Cf. Geschka et al. (2008), p. 166

[23] Cf. Möhrle, M.G.; Isenmann, R. (2008a), p. 2

[24] Cf. Rinne (2004), p.68

[25] Cf. Geschka et al. (2008), p. 167

[26] Cf. Lee, S.; Park, Y. (2005), p. 569

[27] Cf. Babbie (2011), p.200ff

[28] Cf. Lecy, J.D.; Beatty, K. (2012), p.2f

[29] Cf. Zahn (1995), p.4f

[30] Cf. Gresse (2010), p.22ff

[31] Cf. Beckmann (1777), p.12

[32] Cf. Marx (1867), p.393

[33] Cf. Brandkamp (2000), p.18

[34] Cf. Kröll (2007), p.23f

[35] Cf. Bullinger (1994), p.32ff

[36] Cf. Brockhoff (1994), p.15ff

[37] Cf. Kröll (2007), p.24

[38] Cf. Schuh et al. (2011b), p.33ff

[39] Cf. Dosi (1982), p.151f

[40] Cf. Teece (2008), p. 507ff

[41] Cf. Dosi (1982), p.152ff

[42] Cf. Gerpott (1999), p.26

[43] Cf. Schuh et al. (2011b), p.36ff

[44] See Chapter 4

[45] Cf. Schuh et al. (2011b), p.36ff

[46] Cf. Holwerda (2011)

[47] Cf. Engesser (1993)

[48] Cf. Gerpott (1999), p.2

[49] Cf. Kuhn (1981), p. 186f

[50] Cf. Dosi (1982), p.152

[51] Cf. Hemmelskamp (1999), p. 63ff

[52] Ibid.

[53] Cf. Walsh (2004) p.161ff

[54] Cf. Raiwani (2013), p. 1

[55] Cf. Rehm (1999), p.16f

[56] Cf. Baumgarten (2004), p.2ff

[57] Further literature see Baumgarten (2004), Göpfert (2006), Wildemann (2008)

[58] Cf. ten Hompel et al. (2014), p.3

[59] Cf. Günther, H.-O., Tempelmeier, H. (2004), p. 9

[60] Cf. Göpfert (2006), p.43ff

[61] Cf. Straube (2004), p.31

[62] Cf. Tentrop (2011), p.32

[63] Cf Tentrop (2011), p.42
The term can be partially described by the English terms “Operation Management” and “Manufacturing Logistics”

[64] Cf. Pawellek (2004), p.415

[65] Cf. Günther, H.-O.; Tempelmeier, H. (2004), p.6

[66] Cf. Heiserich (2002), p.12f and Zäpfel (2001), p.V

[67] Cf. Nyhius, P; Pachow-Fraunhofer, J. (2004), p.300 ff

[68] Cf. Bauer J. (2007), p. T1f

[69] Cf. Schuh (2011a), p.11ff

[70] Cf. Pfohl (2010), p.17

[71] Ibid.

[72] Cf. Tentrop (2011), p.55

[73] Cf. Zäpfel (2001), Adam (2001)

[74] Cf. Tentrop (2011), p.56

[75] Cf. Günther, H.-O.; Tempelmeier, H. (2004), p. 9

[76] Cf. Wannenwetsch (2009), p.29ff

[77] Cf. Delfmann et al. (2011), p.3f

[78] Cf. Botthof, A.; Alfons E.A. (2015), p.3ff

[79] Cf. Pfohl (2010), p.149f

[80] Cf. Arnold et al. (2008), p.7

[81] Cf. Arnold et al. (2008), p.7

[82] Cf. Pfohl (2010), p.134ff

[83] Cf. Arnold et al. (2008), p.181

Details

Pages
173
Year
2015
ISBN (eBook)
9783668271043
ISBN (Book)
9783946458968
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5.4 MB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v317791
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Technical University of Berlin – Fakultät 7
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1,3
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Title: Smart Factory and Industry 4.0. The Current State of Application Technologies