Approach to the problem:
Finding, Hypothesis, and Results:
Limitation and direction for future research:
This study aimed to specify the factors affecting consumer’s perception towards Bangladesh Television. Identified factors were : entertainment, technology, information and program form secondary data analysis (Appendix). The industry expert helped to clarify and understand other factors as well. Primary data were obtained through survey questionnaire. Paired T test has been carried out to find out the accuracy of the hypothesis. Regression model has been used to find out if the independent variables have significant relationship with the dependent variable. From data analysis, 20-factors were found influencing the dependent variable, and the data was from the questionnaire which was completed by different people of different ages, gender, occupation, location. Frequencies, crosstabs, paired t-test, regression analysis and correlation were used for data analysis. This analysis showed that 20 of the independent variables influences the dependent variable. From the regression analysis, it has been found that the va lue of R square is 0.934 . That mea ns independent variables have 93 % impact over the dependent variable. In other words, the depend ent variable can be influenced 93 % by the independent variables. Adjusted R square is .934 which is close to R square. The test was significant (Sig was 0.00 in ANOVA table).
Keywords: Perception, Paired T Test, Regression, Primary data, Hypothesis, Cross tabulation
In 80-90s TV was used to be the main entertainment source. Mostly for news, drama, sports. But now in the age of globalization the entertainment media has increased significantly in the form of magazines digital media which are also popular in Bangladesh. Regarding Bangladeshi channels which are mostly viewers oriented but BTV has not modified yet in terms viewer preferences.
So Bangladesh Television is losing viewers because of:
- Access of availability of other media
- Technologically not advanced
- Lack of customization
- Govt. biased
- Lack of promotion
Access of availability of other media: now a day’s people have the access to so many Medias and every media is covering international and national information differently. As in Internet we have the accessibility of Facebook, Whatsapp, Viber, YouTube which are covering important information as well as they have become a source of entertainment. In print media we have newspapers, magazines (news, fashion, sports) etc and lastly now a days we have numerous numbers of satellite channels. So people are having so many types of media for their requirements as every media has a specific target audience. , But Bangladesh Television BTV has not yet set their programs in comparison to the other medias. According to Zia (2007), satellite television viewership is no more restricted to the upper-middle class only; with the availability of low-priced television and cable connection, it has become a common household facility for thelower class as well. Due to easy access to satellite channels, low cost and a huge interest of television viewership for entertainment purposes have created the rapid growth of satellite television all over the world (Zia, 2007).
For Bangladesh, the significant cultural shift occurs due to the impact of regional channels of Satellite TV; particularly the Indian channels like Zee TV, MTV, Star Plus, Sony TV serials are influencing the cultural sphere of Bangladesh. Through watching these channels family ties and family values are getting threatened; specifically materials that favor divorce as a means to solve family problems or programming that includes obscenity, nudity, arousal of sexual instincts, or premarital sexual relations are completely destroying the cultural beliefs and values of Bangladesh (Page and Crawely, 2001).
This research paper seeks to identify the factors that influence the consumer perception towards Bangladesh television. There are some factors which encourage undertaking this research paper. The factors are Branding, viewers Satisfaction, program content, staffs, and technological advancement.
Technologically not advanced: People now watch 3D movies, HD videos, other satellite channels have upgraded them tremendously in terms of resolution, color contrast but BTV still having the equipment’s which have been used in the 90’s. So there is a big difference between the viewers need and what they are seeing. Technological advancement is the one which is playing a major role for this change. The introduction of satellite television is one of the dimensions of this technological advancement which has a definite effect on the social and cultural area (Shamsher and Abdullah, 2012).
Lack of customization As BTV is covering the whole nation, their programs are not customized rather they telecast randomly. While the others channels have arranged their program according to the demographic, psychographic, lifestyle and some other factors. That’s why BTV is losing its viewers day by day because they are not customizing their products according to the peoples demand. Viewers have access to a variety of channels from local to foreign, which provide them an opportunity to watch all types of programs. These media sources expose viewers to new information about the outside world and other ways of life, which may affect attitudes and behaviors (Gentzkow and Shapiro, 2004;Olken, 2006) as well the overall culture (Zahid, 2007).
Government biased: Most of the BTV programs are taking side of the Government parties. In fact their news and programs also represents the government in some way. That issue might dissatisfy some group of people and other than that as a National Television of the country people expect it to be neutral. One of the significant aspects of the TV news coverage was that they prioritized the protocol values rather than news values by giving importance on the certain Members of the Parliament and Ministers (Haider: 2007).
Lack of promotion: Being a national television BTV is not bothered about the promotion of the channels. But there should be some promotional activities of their Hit programs for which people may watch BTV because there are so many channels now a days and it’s not easy to remember the program schedules. So BTV can promote their hit programs like ITTADI, Mati O Manus through billboard, print media, Social media etc.
Entertainment refers to the ability to arouse aesthetic enjoyment(Oh and Xu 2003). Entertainment is an important predictor of the value of programs so is crucial to the effectiveness of advertisement(Aaker et al, 1992; Ducoffe, 1996; Rosenberg 1960; Teo et al, 2003).Thus in our context of analysis, we may expect that entertainment of a television channel is correlated with consumers attitude.
Information can be defined as the ability to inform consumers of product alternatives so that purchases yielding the greatest possible satisfaction can be made (Ducoffe, 1996,p22; Waldt et al, 2009) and the ability to successfully give related information(Oh & Xu, 2003). In the context of this study, information can be viewed as the ability of channels to deliver the contents of programs to satisfy the consumers.
Amusing, comical, droll describe that which causes mirth. That which is amusing is quietly humorous or funny in a gentle, good humored way: the baby’s attempt to talk were amusing. That which is comical causes laughter by being incongruous, witty or ludicrous: his huge shoes made the clown look comical. Droll adds to comical the idea of strange or peculiar, and sometimes that of sly or waggish humor: the droll antics of a kitten; a droll imitation (Yu Yao Chang and Shoumava Bandapadhyay, The impacts of American humor on Taiwanese consumers, International Business & Economics Research Journal- January/February 2014, V- 13, Number 1)
Management decision problem:
How to improve the viewership of BTV.
Marketing decision problem, (Broad):
To determine the consumer perception towards BTV.
1) To identify the factors that influence viewers perception?
2) To identify demographic and psychographic profile of viewers?
3) How people evaluate BTV in terms of choice criteria?
4) How people evaluate BTV programs in comparison to other channels program?
5) Which channels viewed when seeing for specific categories?
6) To identify the weakness of the competitors.
Approach to the problem:
This paper attempts to study the factors affecting consumer attitudes towards Bangladesh Television. According to what mentioned above and based on previous of literature and related studies, we suggests the following model:
Exploratory Research: Factors influencing consumer perception towards BTV were identified through secondary data analysis containing relevant journals.
Secondary Data Analysis: I ndependent variables were identified like amusement, enjoyable, sports, drama, picture quality, sound quality, coverage, political views, business, religion, education, news, program content, viewer’s interactivity, number of commercial breaks from different international journals.
Survey of expert: Mr. A.H.M Zulfiqur Rahman, Head of Photography & Videography who is currently working at Bangladesh Television has been contacted. He suggested us to include some variables such as health and family planning programs, environment and disaster related programs, law and order related programs in the graphical model.
Qualitative Research: Given the exploratory nature of some aspects of the object, we have identified factors like entertainment, technology, information, program and attitude towards BTV from relevant international journals..
This study has undertaken a survey to quantify the factors affecting consumer perception towards BTV..
i) Data Analysis:
Primary data were obtained through survey by using a structured questionnaire.
ii) Description of our questionnaire:
A questionnaire form was used as a tool for gathering data. The questionnaire form was prepared with the reference of two international journals. In the first part of questionnaire are questions about demographic and psychographic profile of consumers with multiple choice questions about their free time, how much time they put in watching television, their favorite type of program and so on.
iii) Scaling and Sampling technique: In the survey questionnaire, Likert Scale has been used. Sampling technique is the choice of a subset of the people from among a population to estimate characteristics of the entire population. Students and some random office personnel were surveyed who fell in appropriate criteria.
Survey was undertaken at Dhaka city the sample size was 200.
The data of all the independent variables were tested first using Cronbach’s alpha reliability test to assess reliability.
Descriptive frequencies has been used to find out the frequencies of demographic variables. We have also used Crosstabs to find out the relationship of the demographic variables with the dependent variable.
We have also used Paired T test to find out the accuracy of the hypothesis. We have also used Regression model to find out if the independent variables have significant relationship with the dependent variable. We have also done Correlation to find the relationship between the independent variables.
Finding, Hypothesis, and Results:
In the analysis of the data gathered from the questionnaire, SPSS17.0 statistical software for windows war used. Cronbach’s alpha test was implemented for the reliability test of the scale.
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In the reliability test, when the significance level is more than .7 then it’s reliable and if it is less than .7 then we take the data as not reliable.
From the table no 2 we get the significance level of Staff is .754. So it is reliable.
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Among the 200 respondents 68.0% male respondents and 32.0% were female (Table:05 ).We have surveyed respondents from different age group (Table:6).. Among them 24% were from age less than 25 years. 56% were from age between 26-35 years, 20% were from age between 36-45 years. We have surveyed respondents from different educational qualification (Table: 7).14% were from school level , 36% were from graduate level, 50 % were from post graduate level and. Our respondents were from different occupation (Table:8).24% were student, 46 % were private employee, 16% were business man and others were 14%. They were also different in average monthly income (Table:9).32% people had monthly income below 15000, 18% people had income 15000-25000, 36% people had income 25000-35000 and 4% had the income of 35000-40000 and 10% more than 45000. Number of family members also varied of our respondents (Table:11).30.5% were from the family members 1-3,56.5% were from the family members 5-6,13% were from the family members above 6 members.
According to the decision rule: accept null hypothesis (H0) if the significant level of the variable is greater than (0.05) significant level, and reject (H0) if the significant level is equal or less than (0.05) (Sekaran, 2004)