Table of Contents:
1. Muslim Writing - A Survey
1a. Contemporary Muslim Writing
1b. Contemporary British Literature and the Role of Muslim Writing
1c. Postcolonial Writing and the Position of Muslim Writers
2. Hybrid Description and Hybrid Identity under the Focus of Islam and Islamic Fundamentalism
3. The Central Parameter for an Interpretation - the Hybrid
The intention of this essay is to give one important literary reflection of how female Muslim existence is presented in the contemporary English speaking novel. The choice to concentrate on a female Muslim author results from the fact that (female) Muslim writing at the moment represents one of the strongest and most influential movements of writers coming from an Islamic background. It is novelists like Bapsi Sidhwa, Qaisra Sharaz, Umera Ahmad, Kamila Shamsie, Sara Suleri or Monica Ali who have shown in their writings that most publications of female writers seem to present their characters in a more convincing and more multiple way than their male counterparts.
The structure of this essay is as follows. The beginning will consist of some sort of background information which will cover fields all of which will help to understand the background these writers (and their characters) come from. This literary analysis therefore starts with a (critical) reflection of Muslim writing. This will then be followed by an excursion on the concept of hybridity under an Islamic focus because female hyprid existence in the West is the central parameter chosen here.
This essay will be followed by a closer analysis of Fadia Faquir's novel My name is Salma (2007) in order to give an example of female Muslim existence in the West and in the East. It is exactly this span of two opposing worlds which finally brings about the main character's failure and death.
The end of this essay then will result in some sort of outlook where female Muslim writing might head to.
1. Muslim Writing – A Survey
1 aContemporary Muslim Writing
The radical development within the Muslim world during the last 30 years and the demographic, economic and (multi)cultural presence of Islam and Muslims in the West in general and Great Britain in particular were followed by a literary activity of novelists with a Muslim background. The incorporation of Islam and Islamic fundamentalism in contemporary English literature can be seen as an attempt to bring Islam out of existing economic and social enclaves, where disadvantage, exclusion and prejudices have prevailed for four to six decades. While doing this, Muslim writers reached three aims. They paved the way to discuss matters like xenophobia, racism, discrimination and integration policy anew, started an internal Islamic reflexion on topics, such as gender roles or the traditional role of women, and in general brought the Muslim world closer to Western readers.
It is exactly in this context where one major attempt of Muslim writing seems to take place. Muslim writers attempt to describe Muslim life in Great Britain (or in their homelands), where they challenge and contest the framing of Muslims as violent extremists. They stand up against Islamophobic stereotypes that associate Muslims with Sharia law, the practice of the veil or the burka, religious fundamentalism, terrorism or the notion of a global war on the West in the form of the J ihad. They thus show that the negative images of Islam in the West are justifications for Western economic and foreign policies of the past and the present. The majority of Muslim writers also made clear that Muslims who are trying to find a truth in life are potentially misdirected by a radicalising religious fundamentalism that seeks to convince former decadent young Muslims without a firm identity of their own that the solution to all their problems lies in religious extremism and a personal radicalization. Religious fundamentalism is hereby seen as an option that surpasses all barriers and boundaries, theologically, metaphysically, spiritually, morally and culturally. The final aim of this liberation process is then offered (e.g. by the Islamic State) as an individual and group salvation. Since 9/11 and 7/7/2005, the grip on Muslims has increased, and the ‘War on Terror,’ unleashed by the American government turned out to be an ideological construction that worsened the negative status quo of Muslims in the West. This development was also taken up and embedded into Muslim writing. This post-2001 climate pushed Muslim writers to integrate Islam more intensely into their works and helped them move into the center of a considerable political, media and academic focus while reflecting the role of Muslims as outsiders in the West.
This side effect opened the doors wide for a literary reflection of migrancy, exclusion, a modus of belonging, multiculturalism, state security, and paved the way for a linkage between Islam and social, cultural, moral and existential questions, such as belonging and identity matters. It is especially the last two aspects that seem to become the very center of actual and perceived problems.
The belonging and the identity of Muslims have become matters of central concern for the children of the second and third generations of immigrants, who are sometimes seen as children of the diaspora. They seem to be the victims of Muslim immigration, although they are permanent and active citizens in liberal democracies who/which fail, because they are torn between two worlds. The option to live in the West is contrasted with the attempt to maintain the strong spiritual, ideological and political ties within the Muslim community (ummah). This group of young Muslims has turned out to be the ideal group for a literary reflection of Muslims because any presentation and analysis throws light on the role of Muslims in the West and helps show the emotional situation they are in, both ideal elements for character development and plot.
Identity-making in general is closely attached to what is understood by culture and cultural background, in which religion (Islam) has taken a central position. Islamic authors try to regain Muslim identity. They do this while telling their version of the story. Their interpretation of Muslim existence is the method to develop their own identity, which results in a counter model to the West. They link religion with social, cultural and existential questions and use Islam to present their national, cultural and religious identity. They thus keep distance from the idea of a social mix and reveal hybridity and multiculturalism as supporters of existing power constellations. They hereby can be seen as being political in the sense of Eagleton (2004), who coined the phrase that ‘all criticism is in a sense political.’ To write about Muslim culture in general and Islam in particular as a western critic is often done by defining Muslims as other and different. In the past, this otherness was dealt with from the colonial point of view, which considered Muslim culture and Islam as inferior, decadent, backward-oriented, anti-female, aggressive or militant. The notion of a ‘clash of civilizations,’ which still divides Islam and the West, was a logical result of this.
Since 9/11 the idea of Islamic civilization and culture was newly and critically looked at from both sides. In the West, this event was seen as the end of a concept of a multicultural society. Muslim writers, however, embedded this event into their writings and attached it closely to their traditional focus, which can be seen in subject matters dealing with migration, integration, assimilation, racism, diapora life, acceptance or rejection. Their main aim was to throw light on the effects 9/11 had on Muslims and their community (see Cilano (2013); Tolan et al. (2012). It is without doubt that this date proved Muslim life and its description to be different and more difficult than its Western counterpart.
The choice to concentrate all this on a female author tries to present examples of novelistic characters for whom religion or its rediscovery is at the core of their being. Modern Muslim diaspora existence at present is located between the option of a transnational existence, some sort of self-construction or a return to Islam or Islamic fundamentalism. This basic decision shows that Muslim life in the West is torn between immigration and settlement policy, given political systems and the social, economic or cultural developments of the host nation. Muslim writers deploy the issues of Islam and Islamic fundamentalism as means to frame their analysis of the situation of Muslims, whether considered as a transnational global community, as national formations or as religious minorities within particular Western states.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Muslim writing here tries to balance these conditions and to present a description of modern Muslim existence. Its representatives hereby function as mediators between the polarizations of fixed and rigid positions, resulting in a decision between ‘them’ and ‘us.’ It is exactly here that their task is to bring the Muslim world closer to Western readers, without giving up their Muslim heritage and identity. In this context, they seem to use Kipling’s colonially marked concept of ‘The burden of representation’ from a Muslim position. The major aim of this attempt on the Muslim side is to show that Islamic representation in the West has become more difficult since Muslims have been in the focus of public and political attention since 9/11 and 7/7/2005.
In Western societies, Islam, fundamentalism and Muslim culture are often perceived through the lens of race and politics, where they are mostly considered as problems that have to be solved. Literature offers an interesting counterpoint to this common practice and provides an alternative that challenges these stereotyped views. The attempt to change this general approach to Islam is done by two types of novelists, writers with a Western and writers with a Muslim background. One yet has to admit that Muslim novelists are more authentic to the reader, simply because they dispose of a personal background a convincing if not decisive element for writing and reading.
The theme of Muslim writing itself has gained more and more importance in contemporary English writing. In early 2009, the Guardian published an article on Pakistani fiction in English to accompany reports on the political situation in the country. The article itself mentioned a number of writers who embedded Pakistan and Afghanistan in their novels and thus gained widespread attention and political approval in the wake of the political chaos in their country, especially after 9/11 and the ‘War on Terror’ declared by President George W. Bush and the USA. Among the novels mentioned were Mohammed Hanif’s debut novel, A Case of Exploding Mangoes (2008), Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist (2007), Kamila Shamsie’s Burnt Shadows (2009) and Nadeem Aslam’s The Wasted Vigil (2008).
In between the general importance and influence of these and other Muslim writers has generally been acknowledged and has been given a platform on its own in the form of prizes and awards such as the Muslim Writers Awards – the result of a joint venture between Penguin Books, Puffin Books and the Institute of English Studies. The latter was already founded in 2006 and follows the aim to introduce and support promising writers from within the Muslim community. One of the first of these authors was Tahmima Anam, whose novel A Golden Age (2007) was shortlisted for the Guardian First Book Award and the Costa First Novel Award. She was also the winner of the 2008 Commonwealth Writer’s Prize for Best First Book. Her novel The Good Muslim (2011) has also been welcomed with expectations by many critics. One of the first Muslim authors to win several awards was Nadeem Aslam. His novel Maps for Lost Lovers (2004) won the Kiriyama Prize and the Encore Award, was shortlisted for the IMPAC International Award and was nominated for the British Book Award.
The Man Booker Prize has shortlisted three Muslim writers since 2000. Among them are the British Asian Monica Ali in 2003, the Libyan Hisham Matar in 2006 and the Pakistani Mohsin Hamid in 2007. In 2011, the non-Muslim Lebanese novelist Amin Maalouf, whose work is engaged with Muslim history, culture and Islam, was shortlisted for the Man Booker International Prize. This shows that Muslim writing has gained great popularity and respect within contemporary British writing.
The situation in the North American context is not that positive, although Muslim writers have also found a platform in associations like the Islamic Writers Alliance, which supports faith-based writing and enables networking as can be seen with Canadian Muslim writers. Here it is again Mohsin Hamid and Khaled Hosseini who must be mentioned as frontrunners of Muslim literature in America, basically because they set their plots in Muslim countries and America alike, which seems to be a new phenomenon for American readers. Novels like The Kite Runner (2004), A Thousand Splendid Suns (2007) and The Mountain Echoed (2013) were all written by Khaled Hosseini and made clear to American society that Islam and the West were still in opposition, but they also brought Islam closer to the Americans, simply because Afghanistan, besides America, has been chosen as place of action. In this respect, the role of non-Muslim writers writing on Islam is especially interesting. Their number in England and America is pretty low, and most of them have chosen the detective novel as genre to work with Islam, Islamic fundamentalism or 9/11, simply because they are perfect tools to push the action. Thus, books like Divided Kingdom (2005) by Rupert Thomson or The Collaborateur of Bethlehem (2008) by Matt Beynon Rees or John Updike’s novel Terrorist (2006) must especially be seen in the light of 9/11 and Huntington’s notion of a ‘Clash of civilizations,’ while including Christianity and Judaism besides to Islam. The fact that a well-known writer like Updike picks up and discusses topics related to Islam shows that even American society is ready to discuss Islam. The situation of Muslim writers in Great Britain is, however, different and must be seen in the general context of postcolonial writing, which is still based on Rushdie’s concept of ‘The Empire writes back with a vengeance’ that disposes of a critical approach in relation to former colonies and Great Britain. Here, however, a new generation of Muslim writers, especially female ones like Zadie Smith, Monica Ali or Tahmima Anan, follow their own direction while concentrating on female characters. Taken together, they help discuss the diversity of political and religious perspectives and lay the foundation for central terms such as migration, Islam, fundamentalism or identity patterns. Migration is the term most writers employ, because they have experienced it as a positive, negative or even traumatic fact. Things are different with the believers, because Islam and fundamentalism are mostly used as identity patterns, and here they range from resistance identity to genuine identity making.
1 b. Contemporary British Literature and the Role of Muslim Writers
“Religion has become a problem both in theory and in practice.”
In the past literature has too long been looked at from a sociological, political, economical and only partly from a religious perspective. This neglection of the religious went along with two other important elements of society, culture and literature. This is astonishing if you take into account that literature in general is one major part of a literary analysis of migration, it is something that Chambers (1994) calls “the making of identities” (ibid.: 82). Bhabha (1994) picks up this idea and continues it with his central notion of the “Third Space” (ibid.: 39). This term stands for a fictitious place, some sort of contact level, where cultures, religions and concepts of life meet and have to get along. Religion as one expression of culture is taken up and can (with radical Islam) newly be defined. Migration and its effects have made clear that any construction of identity is nothing but a permanent process that includes hybrid forms as well as demarcation. Any literary expression and description of migration is an example, in the widest sense of the word, of this reflection, and it continues the question of the relativity and instability of individual and group identity. It hereby becomes obvious that the world of the 21st century has become unstable and fast running. Modern man, especially in global cities, lives in surroundings defined by religiously marked terms such as exile, diaspora or ghetto. Here difference and pluralism appear as two further terms to describe central parts of the concept of modern man. The literary presentation of the migrant experience marked by globalization and migrant processes is often connected with the religious and thus appears to be in contrast with a pluralistic world. Here the use of religion provides a clear opposite concept for a world that seems to be out of control (Kirchhofer/Stinshoff, 2010: 12). Religion in general and Islam in particular are seen as alternatives within the question of man’s identity. The incorporation of Islam and Islamic fundamentalism into contemporary British literature can thus be viewed as a continuation of the modern novel, since they appear as ideal platforms for a critical description of present migration processes. It is against this background that it becomes obvious that Muslim writers belong to a new type of authors whose background is not modern but yet already globalized. This is also seen by Eaglestone (2013), who describes their literary basis with the following words:
“As the process of globalization increased and changed the 21st century, so the novel and the ‘national imagination’ have changed to reflect this. Writers not only move globally themselves, publish internationally, and so on, but it is impossible to limit their work to a ‘national tradition' or their audience to one country.” (Ibid.: 67)
Muslim writers, therefore, are products of our globalized world, and it is (and will be) their (natural) task to talk about Islam and Islamic fundamentalism in their works. The fact that they have chosen the novel as the mode of expression shows that most of them understand its importance and background. The term ‘novel’ basically means new, and many Muslim writers renovated the novel, while re-using religion in the shape of Islam. They hereby added innovations in form, engaged in new ways of coping with past and present and threw a new light on the importance of modern man’s identity.
1 c. Postcolonial Writing and the Position of Muslim Writers
The English novel of the 20th and 21st centuries can basically be seen as a literary continuation of the 19th century. The reasons for this close connection can be found in structural elements and the great variety of topics connected with questions like class, gender or race. This development mainly took place in two movements, realism and naturalism, which emerged as the driving forces of British literature (Bradbury, 1973: 175).
The taking over of traditional stylistic and topical elements was also combined with factors that included completely new facets and trends into the novel as a literary genre. A cornerstone in the development of the present novel was the end of the Second World War. The monopoly of the classical English novel was broken, and writers with a migrant background more and more added to its development. The changes taking place in the decades after 1945 brought massive political, cultural and economical changes. It was, therefore, a question of time when a long-lost element of the classical novel, religion, found its way back into the novel. The renaissance of religion as well as philosophy meant a return to the roots of the novel. Watt (1976) clearly sees this, too: “In the novel, more than perhaps in any other literary genre the qualities of life can atone for defects of art.” (Ibid.: 343) The dissolution of the Empire, the migration movements to Great Britain, the failed integration of immigrants and their attempts to start a new life there paved the way for a type of authors who disposed of the migrant background. These writers offered a completely different approach to literature that was “new and engaging,” “experimental” and concentrated on a “new subject matter” (McLeod, 1961: 10).
Ethnic minorities suddenly took up the chance to express themselves in literature, and since the 1970s, a massive publication of their literary work set in. It was a mix of tradition and innovation, whose most important basis consisted in literature describing colonial and postcolonial experience that soon began to develop independently. These “visible minorities” (Seeber, 1999: 460) integrated non-British facets into the novel and described the West from a different perspective. Research work uses a term for this movement that seems to best describe this trend. The expression “The New Literatures in English” (Wagner, 2003: 230) differentiates between two groups of authors; one that consists of writers from the former colonies, the other disposes of an experience of several backgrounds due to their past migration. It was, above all, Thieme (1996), who stressed the political ambition of these writers with the term ‘postcolonial.’ For him, ‘postcolonial’ only partly refers to “all the culture affected by the imperial process from the moment colonization to the present day” (ibid.: 1). Thieme (1996), like Bhabha (1994), instead suggests a more general term that combines the mixture of two cultural levels in the form of hybridization portrayed by Salman Rushdie. Rushdie himself favours some sort of access to ethnic plurality, which Head (2002a) describes as follows:
“That is situated between a glib multiculturalism and a flat assimilation. He is defining the space of the hybridized culture of the postcolonial migrant, of crucial significance to all inhabitants of the new emerging culture.” (Ibid.: 161)
The final aim for Thieme (1996) and Head (2002a) is some transcultural literature, which is convinced that migrant literature cannot be put aside by national and regional literature because of the permanent dialogue taking place on both sides (Thieme, 1996: 4). In the course of this dialogue, it becomes obvious that migrant literature finally helps dissolve the cultural dependency resulting from the political and economical entanglement of the former colonies with Great Britain or the new industrial nations. Thus, a precise terminology for national or migrant literatures appears to be difficult. Kosok and Prießnitz (1977) have already pointed at this and other terms such as ‘englische Kolonialliteraturen,’ ‘Commonwealth Literature’ or ‘World Literature Written in English’ and ‘Literaturen in englischer Sprache.’ One of the most important terms of migrant writing since the early 1990s was coined by Homi K. Bhabha. Bhabha (1994) not only started the discussion on the terms hybrid and hybridity, he also explained them in detail. He combined the notion of hybridity with the expressions ‘mimicry’ and ‘ambivalence’.
 Contemporary Muslim writing in general can also be seen as a reaction to 9/11. The attacks on the Twin Towers did not come out of the blue, but Muslim writers started to give notice of a new kind of Islam. Rushdie was one of the first to encorporate this in his great theme of the relationship between East and West. He showed (above all, in Shalimar the Clown, 2005) that international and intercultural exchange has two sides. They are positive when both sides profit from it, and they are negative when violence, evil, greed, human frailty and radical (religious and economic) fundamentalism prevail (Eaglestone, 2013: 68).
 Before 9/11, the priority of immigrant writing in the West was focused on the politics of recognition. This relict from the colonial past has become vulnerable ever since. Strictly speaking, Muslim religious identity after 9/11 criticized this concept and made clear that Islam was still on the list of those major challenges, which the West thought to have left behind.
 The theoretical basis for Muslim writers can be seen in Foucault, Said and Spivak, who criticized the traditional image of the Orient during the time of colonialism. Their terms ‘marginalization,’ ‘oppression’ and ‘subjugation’ (Hiddlestone 2009: 76–77) became central elements among these writers. They were based on the supposition that there was a direct link between politics and textual representation (ibid., 83 et seq). This widely seen concept of postcolonialism is also stressed by Acheson/Ross (2005), who rigidly state that “postcolonialism is a critical and theoretical term with an application wider than literature, also being used in relation to the analysis of history, politics” (ibid.: 3).
 Apart from realism and naturalism, it is also postmodernism that had a strong influence on British literature. Lodge (1992) talks about the possibility of a “supermarket of styles” (ibid.: 209). Broich (1993) only sees some sort of ‘subdued postmodernism,’ an idea that is taken up by Zerweck (2007), who connects it with the possibility of contradictionary cultural phenomenona in the novel.
 For a closer look at the development of the contemporary British novel, see Schirmer/Esch, 1977: 345. Seeber (1999) also writes about the closeness of the present novel to the novel of the 19th century (ibid.: 309), whereas Firdous (1993) explicitly stresses a political concept of the novel, which for him is a “carrier of bourgeois ideology” (ibid.: 26) and of “imperial messages” (ibid.: 30–32).
 This new trend was, of course, closely connected with political developments taking place in England. It was especially the years of the Conservative Prime minister Margret Thatcher that brought about literary reactions from both British and migrant writers. For a closer analysis of the so-called ‘Thatcher effect,’ see Bradford, 2007: 29–47.
 Hybrid has a Greek and Latin background. Hybrida (Latin) means mixed and crossed. This mix of cultures and lifestyles, religions etc. already describes the tension in which these writers are. It also becomes clear that hybrid is in opposition to an Islamic concept of the world, because Islam does not know any mixed forms. The term was at first used in the field of science (biology) and only later gained an important role in linguistic and cultural modes of expression before it found access to the humanities. Ha (2005) on this term:“Kaum ein Begriff hat in jüngster Zeit in der intellektuell-akademischen Öffentlichkeit wie in der Tagespresse für so viel Furore gesorgt und hat dabei so viel Unklarheit hinterlassen. Besonders in der Form des scheinbar universell ‘andockbaren’ Adjektives ‘hybrid’ referiert er auf diversen Themenfeldern auf sehr unterschiedliche Formen der Hybridisierung, Vermischung und (Re-) Kombinierung.“ (Ibid.: 12)
 A more open terminology seems advisible because one definition cannot define all the possibilities involved in this multiple access to a description of migrant experience. Further terms that have to be mentioned in this context are ‘fictions of (in)betweeness’ (Egerer 1997), ‘immigrant fiction’ (Göbel 1998) ‘Black British literature’ (Korte 1998), ‘trans-culture literature’ (Novak 1998), ‘ethnische Minderheitenliteratur’ Kreutzer (1999) and ‘cultural nationalism,’ ‘Third Worldism,’ ‘writing back paradigm’ and ‘hybridity’ (Engler-Schulze (2005). The more open term ‘fiction of migration,’ coined by Sommer (2001), seems ideal in the sense of a precise and modern continuation of the concepts of a ‘writing back’ and ‘hybrididy’ (ibid.: 17).