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An Analysis of the Usage and Effect of Presupposition and Entailment in Isaac Marion’s Novel "Warm Bodies"

Term Paper (Advanced seminar) 2015 10 Pages

English Language and Literature Studies - Literature

Excerpt

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Analysis of usage and effect of presupposition and entailment in Isaac Marion’s novel Warm Bodies
2.1 Introduction to the semantic theories used for the analysis
2.1.1 What is truth
2.1.2 What is Presupposition
2.1.3 What is entailment
2.2 Analysis of the novel Warm Bodies

3. Conclusion

Bibliography

1. Introduction

This paper is going to deal with the usage and effects of ‘presupposition’ and ‘entailment’ with regard to the emerge of these semantic theories in Isaac Marion’s novel Warm Bodies. For this purpose, the following will be subdivided into two main parts. The first one will be an introductory part in which every tool and term that is to be used will be spelled out.

The first chapter is going to deal with ‘truth values’ and ‘truth conditions’. The terms ‘truth condition’ and ‘truth value’, as well as the meaning of ‘priori’ and ‘posteriori’ truth are going to be pointed out in order to show the relations of the theory of ‘truth’ with the ones of ‘entailment’ and ‘presupposition’.

The second chapter is going to analyze ‘presuppositions’ and its main ideas. For this purpose, the chapter is going to begin with a proper definition of this theory. It is to be pointed out what ‘presuppositions’ are, how they are used and how the many possible ‘presuppositions’ can be distinguished from one another in general by their triggers. In order to do so, this is going to be followed by an explanatory part about ‘presupposition triggers’, including which these triggers are and how they are used, as well as some examples.

The third chapter is going to examine the semantic theory of ‘entailment’ and its main ideas. At first, it will be pointed out what ‘entailment’ means by using a truth-based definition by John I. Saeed. In order to explain how this semantic theory works, this paragraph will also include some examples, as well as a short excurse to ‘hyponymy’, since this is a regular source for entailment between sentences. Furthermore, the so called ‘truth table’ will be introduced in order to improve the accessibility of the theory by visualizing it.

The second part is going to be the analysis of some selected passages of Isaac Marion’s novel Warm Bodies in terms of the above named aspects, in which the usage and effect of presupposition and entailment in this context will be pointed out.

2. Analysis of usage and effect of presupposition and entailment in Isaac Marion’s novel Warm Bodies

In this section, one will learn about three semantic theories. The first one is the theory of ‘truth’, including an explanation of the terms ‘truth value’ and ‘truth condition’, as well as examples illustrating each. Secondly, the theory of ‘presupposition’ will be introduced, including a full explanation of what a ‘presupposition’ is, as well as a list consisting of every presupposition trigger. Furthermore, this section will include examples of how these triggers work. The third and last theoretical part in this chapter will be about ‘entailment’, including a truth-based definition of the meaning of this theory as well as suitable examples and, in this respect, a short excurse to hyponymy.

2.1 Introduction to the semantic theories used for the analysis

2.1.1 What is truth

Aristotle once said that “To say of what is that it is, or of what is not that it is not, is true.” This means that sentences always have a specific truth value which depends on the sentence being true or false in the actual world. Concerning this topic, Huang says that “the notion of truth value is associated with that of proposition, and the notion of truth condition is linked to that of sentence” (Huang 2007: 14). Furthermore is to say, “the truth or falsity of a proposition may vary from utterance occasion to utterance occasion” (Huang 2007: 14), which means that the proposition expressed by a sentence, for example The dog is in the living room, when it is uttered as a sentence, is true in a situation where the dog definitely is in the living room and false in another situation where the dog is not in the living room (Huang 2007: 14). This means that a proposition “is true if and only if it correspondents to some state of affair that obtains on that occasion, and it is false if and only if it does not (Huang 2007: 15). Moreover, a sentence which is outside of particular uses has truth conditions instead of a truth value. Huang defines truth conditions as “the conditions that the world must meet for the sentence to be true” (Huang 2007:15).

At this point, Alfred Tarski’s formula for a theory of truth is being introduced. It says that “S is only true if p”, given that “S is the name of a sentence in a language, and p is the set of conditions under which the sentence is true” (Huang 2007: 15). Now, this theory will be put in context: Sentence a) Only John voted for John.

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Details

Pages
10
Year
2015
ISBN (eBook)
9783668119512
ISBN (Book)
9783668119529
File size
621 KB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v313288
Institution / College
University of Würzburg – Universität
Grade
3,0
Tags
analysis usage effect presupposition entailment isaac marion’s novel warm bodies

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Title: An Analysis of the Usage and Effect of Presupposition and Entailment in Isaac Marion’s Novel "Warm Bodies"