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Ukrainian Crisis Political Images. How Ukraine views Russia and the European Union

Bachelor Thesis 2014 55 Pages

Communications - Media and Politics, Politic Communications

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Abstract

Table of Contents

0. Introduction

1. Theory
1.1 Method and DATA
1.2 Data

2. Context

3. Analysis
3.1 Russia
3.1.1 Colorado bugs
3.1.2 Of Bears and Russia
3.1.3 Putler
3.1.4 Other Portrayals of Russia
3.2 Picturing of Self
3.3 EU

4. Conclusion

Bibliography

Data

Abstract

Ukrainian Crisis Political Images: How Ukraine views Russia and the European Union. November 21st 2013 marked the beginning of a conflict between Ukraine and Russia. The conflict started when former Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych failed to sign the Association Agreement with the European Union. The economy and living standards began to deteriorate prior to November and Ukrainians believed that closer ties with the European Union would improve the situation. Students came out to protest and when the police reacted violently, others came out to join the protesters until the maximum number of protesters reached 800,000. Ukrainians have always been torn between Europe and Russia, and this conflict has created a bigger gap between the people on the opposing sides. To understand the conflict it is important to understand how Ukrainians feel about Russia and the European Union. The research question is: How do Ukrainians view Russia and the European Union and what does their opinion suggest about the nature of their relationship? I will analyze the images and political cartoons found on social media, primarily Facebook because it is the most popular, to understand how Ukrainians view themselves and countries who they consider their enemies and allies. By understanding how Ukraine views the Other helps the viewer to understand how Ukraine views the Self. Gathering a large amount of images allows me to compare them with each other and analyze the opinions that they portray. The findings of my analysis of the images lead to several conclusive statements about the way that Ukraine sees Russia, the European Union and finally themselves. The images show a lot of anti-Russian propaganda, which is significant because there is a connection with the sacrificing oneself for one’s nation. Through this analysis I conclude that Ukraine views Russia as an agressor and invader who is slefish and isn’t fair; and Ukraine views the European Union as a place with an ideal economy and policies; it also views Russia as an enemy to both Ukraine and the European Union. Finally along with how Ukraine sees the two countries, the images show that Ukraine sees themselves as brave, determined to be free and selfishly patriotic.

1. Introduction

Since November 21st 2013 Ukraine has been in a conflict with Russia concerning the Russian-speaking population living in Ukraine. The root of the conflict is the relationship that Ukraine has with Russia and whether they want to strengthen that relationship or gain closer ties with the European Union. The day the conflict broke out was the day that the former Ukrainian president, Viktor Yanukovych, failed to keep his promise to Ukraine to sign the Association Agreement with the European Union. Many who followed the development of the conflict in Ukraine have expressed that what Ukraine was fighting for were European ideals such as rule of law and certain economic standards. Vladimir Putin stated that he needed to protect the Russian speaking population in Ukraine who according to him were being oppressed by nationalist Ukrainians. Although since the occupation in Crimea there have been reports of Russian soldiers on eastern Ukrainian territory. However these claims have been denied by Putin who says that they are pro-Russian Ukrainians. There have been many clashes since between pro-Russians also known as separatists because their goal is to separate Ukraine to make certain regions independent or part of Russia and those who want to keep Ukraine united, often referred to as Ukrainian nationalists or rebels. The conflict is ultimately about the difference between two value systems. The pro-Russians agree with Putin’s policies and want to be part of the Eurasian Economic Union which is a Russian-led customs union in the making and some still believe in Soviet ideals. Their opposition wants to keep Ukraine united and are leaning towards the West and they seek closer ties with the EU. Due to the length and the intensity of the crisis there have been plenty of opinion summaries add geopolitical analyses of the situation. According to Eurasia Review the situation in Ukraine reflected Russia’s influence over Europe and the Middle East. Eurasia Review refers to Russia’s actions in Crimea and eastern Ukraine as “abrogation of Ukraine’s sovereignty[1] ”. The Center for Geopolitical Analyses reports on the importance of Slavyansk, the conflict in the region supposedly has “major strategic effect on the power struggle between Moscow and Kiev[2] ”. There is a lot of political analysis about the clashes and the strategies involved, but what isn’t clear from these official studies are the ‘feelings’ of the people involved and their opinion about the situation. With the developments of social media such as Twitter and Facebook, they have been playing important roles in political conflicts, such as in the Arab Spring revolutions.

Therefore analyzing the content of these communication platforms can reveal insight into the opinions of Ukrainians towards the current situation. The objective of my thesis is to look into what Ukrainians share on social networks about the relationship between Ukraine and Russia. I will focus particularly on images and political cartoons in particular to explore the question, how do Ukrainians view Russia and the European Union and what does their opinion suggest about the nature of their relationship?

2. Theory

In my analysis of the way Ukraine views Russia I will be using social constructivism. According to Emanuel Adler, all constructivists believe in two concepts which are “the social construction of knowledge and the construction of social reality[3].” A ‘common ground’ for social constructivists is “the view that the material world does not come classified” meaning that “the objects of our knowledge are not independent of our interpretations and our language[4].” Part of the social constructivism belief “depicts the social world as inter-subjectively and collectively meaningful structures and processes[5].” According to Alexander Wendt, this means that shared knowledge gives material resources “meaning for human action[6].”

The two implications of the statements made above are that “the social world is made of intersubjective understandings, subjective knowledge and material objects” and that “social facts… are facts only by human agreement[7] ”. This means that people create the social identities in our societies and the others in our society then conform to the norms that have been collectively created for everyone to believe and follow. They exist only because people are conscious of them and because they have language to communicate them among each other. This manifestation of social issues into reality is the reason that people refer to those in their community as Self and to those outside it as Others. This is why constructivists “are not interested in how things are but in how they became what they are[8].”

An important concept that must be understood in social constructivists approach to collective identity is the concept of imagined communities. Many researchers and philosophers, including Hugh Seton-Watson, have concluded that “No ‘scientific definition’ of the nation can be devised; yet the phenomenon has existed and exists.[9] ” Everyone is one some level aware that there are different nationalities that different people belong to. It can be concluded that “nation-ness, as well as nationalism are cultural artifacts of a particular kind.[10]

According to the theory, a nation “is an imagined political community[11] ”. The reason why it is considered imagined, is because even in a small nation, the members of the community will never know all of the other members – “meet them, or even hear from them” but despite this fact, “in the minds of each lives the image of their communion.[12] ” This is because imagined communities and the concepts of Self and Other are nothing more than imagined, we are part of them because we imagine and believe that we are. Nations are said to be limited, sovereign and communities. The reason for them being limited is because no one would ever want or could imagine everyone in the world united as a part of one nation. The idea of sovereignty in the imagined community was developed during the Enlightenment and the Revolution when people stopped believing in god or monarchs ruling a nation. It is considered a community because a nation “is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship.[13] ” The idea of a nation is very complex and it is not something that is set in stone. A nation is as alive as the members living within it, “and once imagined” a nation can be “modeled, adapted and transformed.[14]

The aspect of imagined communities that is extremely fascinating is how “many millions of people [are] willing to die for such limited imaginings.[15] ” Dying for one’s nation is considered to be “fundamentally pure[16] ”. This is because “nations inspire love and often profoundly self-sacrificing love.[17] ” When people feel a part of an imagined community, “the idea of the ultimate sacrifice comes only with the idea of purity, through fatality.[18] ” So a mere imagining that one human being is connected to others, even though they have no control over it, they feel so strongly about this connection that they are ready to sacrifice themselves for it. This power that imagination can have over people is important to understand in an analysis of political cartoons and their meaning within a community.

According to many researches, language is vital when researching imagined communities. Every nation has a language that is used by members of the nation to communicate with each other in. The importance of language is that it is “rooted beyond almost anything else in contemporary societies[19] ”; from the very beginning people in groups would find ways to communicate because that is what kept them together and alive. Language is also the thing that connects those of a nation who are alive with their dead ancestors. Just as people in a nation feel connected to all the other people in the nation even though they will never meet or see them – language is also something that connects them and members of the nation know that if they do meet someone they don’t know in the nation, they will be able to communicate with them through that language. The importance of language is a necessary prerequisite to common imagination that is present in a nation. It is the very means through which the inter-subjective understandings are created and shared, because language gives us the ability to retain abstract meanings which is vital to imagining ourselves as part of a community.

Every nation has a national anthem that we sing during holidays or on special occasions, and the importance of an anthem is that “no matter how banal the words and mediocre the tunes, there is in this singing an experience of simultaneity.[20] ” Just by knowing that other people are singing the same song makes the people feel connected which strengthens the feeling of nationalism.

Along with a focus on language, there is a “focus on how identities and policies are articulated[21].” Part of the imagined community theory is the origin of racism within a community. It is clear that “racism and anti-Semitism derives from nationalism” and part of how it works is that “it erases nation-ness by reducing the adversary to his biological physiognomy.[22] ” It is common for people to unite against those who look different because they may or may not appear to pose a threat to one’s society. If we interpret the Other as a threat, we will construct them as threatening. However there are many cases when the enemy or the Other doesn’t look any different from those who fear or are fighting against them – this is where propaganda plays an important role, especially that in which the Other is dehumanized and portrayed as an insect or an animal, something that is lesser than a human being[23]. The images that depict people in this way are images that injure because of the message they deliver.

Identity is said to be interlinked with foreign policy, and when there is an identity or a Self then there is also an Other[24]. One of the most important things to understand about racism is that it “manifests not from national boundaries, but within them … they justify not so much foreign wars as domestic repression and domination.[25]

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1:Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten[26]

The diagram above, Figure 1, is a good example of the relationship between Self and Other. The diagram shows the differences between a man and a woman. The concept of a man doesn’t exist without the concept of a woman because their characteristics are so different; they are opposites just like Self and Other. Without a personal identity or a collective or national identity, one won’t distinguish themselves from others, so without a Self there is no Other. Just like without a man there wouldn’t be a woman.

It is the differentiation from someone that creates a clear way for us to define ourselves. In my analysis I want to show how Ukrainian differentiates itself from Russia with actions such as dehumanization which is part of the process of defining the Other. This in turn works like a mirror reflection of the Self. This is because identities are always dependent on the Other, which Russia is to Ukraine. I want to find out how this can be confirmed in the analysis of the cartoons found on social media.

Although language is given a lot of emphasis in the theories of nationalism and is used as an instrument of imagined community, it cannot be overlooked that images are also powerful tools of communication. Images have always played important roles in society. We are constantly surrounded by posters, pictures, cartoons – all of which convey a message to the viewers[27] [28]. It is common to see images that injure on the television and on billboards, and images also take part in the conduction of social reality including the construction of the Self and the ‘Other’. This is because like language, images are used to communicate and images such as political cartoons show a portrayal of what a community sees both ‘Self’ and ‘Other’ to be.

The power of “images that injure can cause harm in both direct and indirect ways.[29] ” This doesn’t just relate to political images, but ads where women’s bodies are skewed “to unattainable proportions” which sends an unrealistic ideal of perfection to the public which “causes viewers pain and cheats them as well.[30] ” Media allows painful images if the context is right, and only if the images portray information that is necessary for viewers to know to be able to govern themselves.

Images have different purposes, and I want to examine the power that images hold and the propaganda that they can spread. Propaganda is often used in political and editorial cartoons to explain a political situation or a politician’s standpoint. The message that an image depicts depends on the context that the artist creates within the image as well as the viewpoint of the reader who is interpreting the image. If the context isn’t clear or if the person viewing it isn’t well informed, the meaning of the image is different than originally intended. “The effectiveness of the cartoon is limited by readers’ knowledge of the issue and context surrounding it.[31] ” This is significant because an image must do two different things at the same time, so in order to be effective, an editorial cartoon must “both reflect and mold the opinions of their readers.[32] ” This is important to my analysis and to social constructivist research because if cartoons reflect an opinion, then we can analyze those reflections of the social reality that the cartoons are constructing.

Political images often include a portrayal of the nation’s enemies or the ‘Other’. During times of war or conflict, it is common for the enemy to be dehumanized through images. “Images of the enemy as bestial, animalistic, or otherwise less than human proliferate in editorial cartoons.[33]

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten[34]

Figure 2 shows the original picture – Michael Ramirez dehumanizes Iran for The Columbus Dispatch 4th September 2007.

Exposing the enemy as less than human makes it easier for a community to unify against them. It makes people look past their enemies’ humanity, pain and death to literally see them as a parasite that must be exterminated. The reason that the image of the Other being less than human is powerful is because it makes people see the other as “things that require managing, cleansing, or elimination.[35] ” Images bearing this propaganda show the enemy as an animal, insect or bacteria but it also groups the whole of the ‘Other’ as one entity. “Hiding a nation’s citizens behind a metaphor that obscures both their humanity and their individuality is also a key function of insect metaphors.[36] ” Once a nation sees another as, for example, one single herd of animals, they could be more open to using violence against them. Images can take the viewer even further, making “it become a civil or moral duty to inhibit its pernicious spread.[37] ” Cartoons often “verbally and visually conflate(e) ‘nation’ with ‘home’[38] ” and “the word ‘home’ calls up all that is closest and dearest to us, and it makes the threat appear not only political but also deeply personal.[39] ” This is an extremely significant because it drives people to believing that they need protection and this pushes them to making decisions that that might not have otherwise in order to ensure their safety even if it requires dying for their country. This outlines the purity of dying for the country as well as purifying the nation from the enemy.

2.1 Method and DATA

In this study I will be looking for the inter-subjectively shared understandings of Self and the Other – where Ukraine is Self and Russia is Other. I am going to look at what the cartoons have in common. I will be focusing on visual representation of Ukraine and Russia and the stereotypes associated with the two including animalistic depictions because that is ultimately the language of cartoons.

As mentioned in Daniela Chalaniova’s in Turn the Other Greek 2013, cartoons refer to Others by utilizing stereotypes and asymmetric social roles[40]. In her paper she differentiates Greeks as Others from Europe and supports this with an analysis of cartoons that contrast the two. The contrasts such as rich/poor or authority/subordinate are opposing pairs just like Figure 1, Lene Hansen’s model between men and women. While her example is between Europe and Greece, the same can be said for Ukraine and Russia, although the actors change, the principle is always the same.

I will be seeking out the contrasts between the characteristics associated with Ukraine and those associated with Russia. They contrast the opposites similarly to the differences between the characteristics of men and women. These contrasts include: armed/unarmed; fat/thin; Nazi/peaceful. These opposite characteristics are used in cartoons to show differences in the Ukraine and Russia as wholes. All the small differences show fractions of the bigger picture as well as looking at the dehumanizing practices.

2.2 Data

I selected my cartoons by searching on Facebook, the largest social network platform, for images that depicted Russia as Ukraine’s enemy. The images are from the time period between November 2013 and May 14th 2014. My mother, Tetiana Kagui has been very actively posting on Facebook since the very beginning. Kagui has joined many facebook groups such as Euromaidanpr as well as several political groups and she shares these images. Because of her social media activity she is followed by many who re-share her images and this is her way of taking a stand and participating in the protests. This is why many of the images that I have gathered come from her Facebook page.

When looking through the images I saw several major themes which I categorized and I pursued finding more images belonging to those categories – such as bears, insects and Hitler/fascism. The images were shared by supporters of Euromaidan so they contain an obvious pro-Ukrainian and anti-Russian bias. I have gathered a total of 48 cartoons falling under the categories mentioned above and these categories coincide with images from political situations in other countries such as Turkey. The language used in social media is significant because unlike in formal news agencies, social media uses crude language that has no limitation. On Facebook people can post a news article or a political cartoon and as an example from one of the images that I analyze, social media allows posts that call certain politicians ‘dickhead’s or worse. This reveals more about people’s true opinions than newspapers or magazines that have to stay objective and write in a civil matter.

3. Context

The crisis in Ukraine began on November 21st when the former president Viktor Yanukovych and his government failed to sign the Association Agreement that would bring Ukraine closer to the EU. He had been promising Ukrainians to sign this agreement for a year and a half, and it was him who had managed to convince them that joining would improve the economy and their living standards. Yanukovych also didn’t pass the bill to free Yulia Tymoshenko and announced that he would seek closer ties with Russia. Small protests began right away and build up to 100,000 people by the end of November – police raided the protest which gave them attention on a global scale. By early December the number of protesters went up to 800,000[41] and some of the protesters occupied the Kiev city hall. On December 17th, Putin bought 15 billion dollars of Ukrainian debt and reduced gas prices to a third[42].

The parliament passed restrictive laws against protesting on January 16th – 23rd and within a few days the first deaths of the protests are reported. The parliament annuls the strict anti-protest laws as the Prime Minister, Mykola Azarov resigns on January 28th/29th. On February 14th – 16th all of the 234 protesters that had been arrested since December, were released in return for demonstrators leaving the occupied Kiev city hall and other public buildings. On February 18th, 18 people die and hundreds are wounded in clashes. Two days later, at least 88 people are reported dead in the span of 48 hours, and more are suspected to be dead, missing and injured. On February 22nd Yanukovych disappeared and protesters took control of presidential administration buildings. The parliament voted to strip Yanukovych of power and set up new elections for the 25th of May. Yanukovych appeared on TV to claim that he is still the president and Tymoshenko was freed from jail. In the next few days Arseniy Yatsenyuk was made prime minister, the Berkut police are disbanded and an arrest warrant issued for Yanukovych.

On February 27th/28th armed pro-Russian men take control of governmental buildings in Simferopol, Crimea’s capital. On March 1st, Vladimir Putin’s request to use force in Ukraine is approved by the Russian parliament in order to protect Russian interests. Pro-Russian protests happen in Kharkiv and other cities. Despite warnings from the United States, on March 6th the parliament in Crimea votes to join Russia. A referendum is set for March 16th, the results of which are announced to be 97%[43] for joining Russia. On March 18th Putin signs to make Crimea part of the Russian Federation, despite many key countries rejecting the results of the referendum. Many sanctions are made against Russia and NATO suspends all civilian and military cooperation with Russia on April 1st.

On April 10th Putin threatens to cut off gas supplies to Ukraine if the debts aren’t paid, and he additionally warns that “this could affect gas deliveries to Europe[44].” Pro-Russian protesters occupy official buildings in eastern Ukraine. The acting president in Ukraine, Olexander Turchynov had announced on April 15th to start an anti-terrorist operation against the pro-Russian separatists. Three pro-Russians were shot on April 20th near Sloviansk and Putin blames Ukrainian nationalists. Two men including one politician are found in Donetsk after being tortured to death which causes Turchynov to re-launch military operations against the militants.

Language had played an important role in the recent unrest in Ukraine. On July 4th 2012, the Ukrainian parliament had voted to give the Russian language an official status in Ukraine. Russian language had been dominant in many Ukrainian regions for a long time and many have fought hard to strengthen its presence among Ukrainians. 1,000 protesters clashed with the police because they disagreed with the passing of this law[45].

In October of the same year Yanukovych had announced that the 2013 budget would include a program for developing the Ukrainian language because of the importance of the Ukrainian language to Ukrainian nationals[46]. On February 23rd 2014, after Yanukovych had been ousted as president, the new parliament’s first decision was to revoke Russian as a national language[47]. This decision was made because the protesting Ukrainians had wanted to create closer ties with the European Union and wanted to distance the country from Russia. However many Ukrainians consider Russian their mother tongue and it has no connection to their affiliation with Russia.

4. Analysis

4.1 Russia

Propaganda-bearing images that dehumanize the ‘Other’ are found all over Ukraine in the city as well as online, all over social media. Some of the more common images that are shared depict Russia or specifically Putin as a Colorado bug or a savage bear.

4.1.1 Colorado bugs

Colorado bugs have a historical significance in Ukraine and the Soviet Union. In 1942, there was a report noting “the arrival in England from the USA of a B-24 Liberator aircraft with a cargo of 15,000 Colorado potato beetles[48].” The purpose was to use the beetles in biological warfare – they were supposed to weaken Eastern Germany by devastating their fields and thus their economies. One Colorado beetle can consume around 40 cm2 of potato leaves per day while it is still a larva and almost 50 as an adult. A female beetle can lay between 300-800 eggs in her lifetime. Finally, Colorado beetles are able to “develop a resistant to virtually every chemical that has ever been used against it[49].” In the 1950s, the Colorado beetles were destroying East German fields. The Germans blamed the biological attack on the Americans and so they started a propaganda campaign. “Leaflets, posters, stories in the press – depicting the potato beetles as tiny American soldiers in army boots or helmets,” which encouraged children to go out and collect the beetles in their free time, “they were called Amikafer – Yankee beetles[50].” With their resistance and large-scale reproduction, the beetles spread through East Germany and through the USSR quickly, and they remain a problem in Ukraine until today.

The current situation in Ukraine brought out Colorado beetle propaganda once more. The pro-Russian forces in Ukraine have been identifying themselves with an orange-and-black ribbon. This ribbon belongs to St. George; it is “a potent symbol of Russian imperial might and Soviet-era bravery and glory[51].” It also bears resemblance to the Colorado beetle, which is why the following images have been created.

Image 1: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][52]

These images were spread over social media in attempt to unite Ukrainians against the ‘Other’ and as a way to dehumanize pro-Russians, Russians and/or Putin. As mentioned previously, dehumanizing the enemies of a community is way to allow for them use force and violence to get rid of them.

The first image shows an exterminator standing over Ukraine with a Ukrainian flag logo on his suit and tank. He is facing Colorado beetles that are places in Russia, right by the Ukrainian border, and one over Crimea. The text in the image, “We will stop the parasite” refers to the beetle’s as parasite and the Ukrainian is clearly an exterminator. Such images allow Ukrainian citizens to believe that they have the right and even duty to rid Ukraine of Russians and can be the source of violence.

Image 2: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][53]

The second image is very simple, showing the beetles with a Russian flag, clearly showing that they associate themselves with Russia or are themselves Russian. This image is an imitation on the motive of ‘Raising the Flag’ at Iwo Jima which symbolizes “our territory”. Originally it represented coming to the defense of an unimportant island in the Pacific. The original image came from the US and the meaning of this image has a similar context which is why it is being used by Ukrainians. The original image can be seen beneath.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten[54]

This further allows Ukrainians to use violence against the pro-Russians who bear the orange-and-black ribbon and also Russians, who are through such images, seen as beetles and parasites that must be exterminated. It also means that Russians are claiming Ukraine as ‘their’ territory, just like the Americans did with the Iwo Jima Island. Plus the original image invites the context of a full-fledged war during World War II in the Pacific. This is very similar to the image portraying Iran as cockroaches. As previously mentioned, part of being an imagined community is the idea of being prepared to die for your country, and such images emphasize the danger of the enemy which in turn gives Ukrainians a reason to die for their country – which makes these images so powerful.

Image 3: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][55]

The third image is similar to the first image of the exterminator standing over Ukraine, because it shows Ukrainians, this time in form of a broom decorated with Ukrainian flag colors and with the Ukrainian trident, getting rid of Colorado bugs. The broom is blue-and-yellow with the Ukrainian trident on it. There is a Russian-looking man standing next to them holding St. Georges ribbons with a black eye. The words on the image say, “Cleanliness - guarantee of health” in Russian, Crimea is mostly Russian speaking. There are many small bugs which shows them as one group, which rids them of individuality and groups them all as one – not just a pest but an entire plague that should be discriminated. The man in the picture is dressed as a typical working-class Russian but is otherwise indistinguishable and looks like any other man. The ribbons that he is holding associate him with the beetles. He looks violent and has a black eye which implies that he was hit but is still up. This image encourages further violence and portrays the enemy as all the same, dirty and determined to fight against Ukraine.

Image 4:[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][56]

The fourth image portrays Putin’s face on a Colorado beetle’s body. Behind the beetle is Crimea with a Ukrainian flag over it. The bottom of the image reads, “The Colorado dickhead has crawled onto our resort.” It shows him as armed and in front of Crimea, which he was trying to make and keep Russian and he did annex it. This image has the Soviet symbol of the hammer and the sickle on the beetles’ body so it associated Putin directly with Communism and shows him armed – with a gun that reassembles an AK-47 in both hands. The text refers to Putin as a ‘dickhead’ which is the name that Ukrainians have collectively started calling him in the past few weeks. They refer to him as a Colorado dickhead, not a Russian dickhead which detaches Putin from Russia and pin-points him solely as Ukraine’s enemy. This image shows that Ukraine is up against a dangerous, sub-human invader. In the image, Putin’s face is smiling and looking in the direction of Russia. This makes him seem more violent because he is happy holding guns over Crimea and Ukraine. Also in addition to holding weapons over it, if you look closely at the peninsula, then you will notice that the outlines are not straight or even curvy lines but they look as though bites have been taken out – implying that Putin sunk his teeth in and ate Crimea out of Ukraine.

Image 5: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][57]

The image above shows a tree branch with leaves of a guelder-tree. There are four colorado bugs siting on the leaves, two are mating and one is laying eggs. The text on the image says “Maybe we should konfidorm them”, and konfidorm is a poison used to kill them. The guelder-tree kown as kalyna in Ukrainian is a native tree to Ukraine and it is very meaningful and commonly embroidered because it symbolizes rebirth[58]. This image shows the Colorado bugs invading Ukraine and trying to reproduce and take over. The text shows that Ukrainians are ready to use force to get rid of the colorado beetles who represent the separaists who are invading and trying to take over Ukraine.

4.1.2 Of Bears and Russia

Another very common image found on social media compares Russia to bears. Bears are commonly found in Russia, but the reason that Russians are compared to bears is because bears are large, aggressive and carnevourously predatory. Chalaniova writes about the meaning of the bear symbolism to Russia[59]. The Russian bear is a carnivorous predator and this image constructs the idea of Russia being a big and strong country with power ambitions, which has the potential to scare others off from its position at the top of the foodchain. The five images below show propaganda images found on social media where Russia is depicted as a bear, and in some of the images, Ukraine is the bear’s victim.

Image 6: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][60]

The first of the bear images, image 6, depicts a brown menacing bear that is looking right at the viewer and has it’s right paw forward as if it is taking a step forward or about to attack the viewer. It is an image of power and the flag behind the bear represents what Russia stands for and it’s power. The top stripe shows a marching army of armed men, showing the military power of Russia. The middle or blue tripe shows saints gathered together, Russians are very religious and this shows their faith and that God is behind them. The bottom red stripe shows buildings that show the fundamental structure – what Russians refer to as home and what they are willing to fight for and protect.

Image 7: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][61]

The second bear image, image 7, shows a big black bear with a bone that says ‘Crimea’ on it in the bears mouth. The picture is labelled ‘the cold warrior’. It is shows as chewing it calmly while a charicature of Obama is shown throwing snowballs at the bears bottom. The pile of snowballs next to him says sanctions. This image shows that Ukraine sees Russians as predators who are attacking them, but it also shows their view of America and the sanctions. According to this image, the sanctions are useless against the bear who isn’t reacting to the snowballs. Obama however is depicted as human while Russia is a bear which shows that the author of the image and Ukrainians relate to Americans more than they do to the Russians who they dehumanize. Although the bear is a symbol of power, very different from a bug that is squishable or exterminable, a bear image shows the viewer that the enemy is a wild animal and that they should fear it.

Image 8: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][62]

Image 8 shows Ukraine as a tree and Crimea the beehive that Russia is trying to eat. The bear is portrayed as vicious with sharp claws and it’s mouth almost looks like it’s smiling. Ukraine is shown green and because it is portrayed as a tree, the implication is that it is alive and growing. The bear is almost as big as the depiction of Ukraine and it has honey all over it’s face and paws with an empty beehive on the ground by its side that says Georgia on it. The bear is about to swipe at Crimea which is in his reach and the tiny bees are buzzing around it. They don’t seem to be attacking the bear and even if they tried, they woujldn’t stand a chance because of the bears’ size. This shows Russia as aggressive and greedy, not having enough of Georgia and wanting Crimea too.

Image 9: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][63]

The ninth image shows a bear standing on land grabbing a fish out of the sea. The fish that says Crimea on it has a scared expression on it’s face and it’s looking in the direction of the viewer. The large light brown bear with it’s sharp claws and big teeth looks once again, like it’s smiling, and is telling the fish, “I’m saving you from drowning”. Putin has spoken a lot about how his presence in Ukraine is to protect the Russian-speaking population although there are Russians who are saying they don’t need protection and are fine the way they are. This depicts Russia as vicious and a liar.

Image 10: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][64]

The tenth picture shows an overgrown fat bear lying across a road. On one side of the bear is a blue welome sign with the stars from an EU flag. On the other side is a man on a bike with a Ukrainian flag on the back, honking his horn at the bear to get to the EU. The bear is sleeping and is wearing a typical Russian hat.Even though it is sleeping it has a menacing-looking face, sharp teeth and claws. This shows that Russia is much larger than Ukraine and attempts to stop Ukraine from getting into the EU. The Ukrainian is shown as a human being while Russia is an animal. Because the bear is sleeping it implies that it feels like it can stop Ukraine from reaching it’s goals without much effort.

4.1.3 Putler

The comparison of Putin and Hitler in propaganda has been around in the social media a lot recently, with the nickname ‘Putler’. The way Putin occupied and then took Crimea while the West watched is compared to how Hitler took Sudetenland in 1938. Because of the Holocaust and the terrible crimes that Hitler had commited, comparing others to him is just as dehumanizing as comparing them to animals or vermin.

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The eleventh image that shows Putin with Hitler’s signature gelled-back hair and mustache. In the image Putin is wearing a suit with St. George’s ribbon. The background of the image is orange, like one of the main colors of the ribon. This shows that Putin, like the pro-Russians who bear the ribbon is supporting the return of the USSR and being compared to Hitler implies that he is fascist.

Image 12:[Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][66]

The twelfth image has many factors, it’s main purpose is to convince people to boycott Russian products. The very top says in Ukrainian, “Ignore products and services of the country of occupiers”. Right underneath is a Russian flag with the Russian emblem. Right undderneath the emblem, is a circle with Putin’s face with Hitler’s hair and mustache. At the very bottom of the flag, the red stripe turns into a barcode and the two from numbers of the barcode, 4 and 6, are circled. Right under that there is text that says “number of the animal” and finally under that it says refering to the number, “it belogns to the occupants, boycott.” While this image is aimed at spreading a boycott it also shows Putin as a fascist and the text dehumanizes him because of the animal comment.

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Image 13 that consists of the difference between Nazis in Sudetenland in 1938 and Russians in Ukraine show the obvious connection between Nazis and Russians. The similarity isn’t just in what the opressors did to the opressed, but there is historical significance in how the major powers around them had behaved. The left image has a Nazi flag and is labelled 1938, the border sign that the tank has run over says Sudentenland, and the man in the tank is saying “this annexation is only to protect the German population in this country.” The image on the right labelled 2014 has a Russian flag, and the sign says Ukraine, the man is saying “this annexation is only to protect the Russian-speaking population in this country.” Czechoslovakia thought it was safe because of the countries it was allied with, but because they feared what Hitler was capable of, the greater powers agreed to give Hitler what he wanted – Sudetenland. Ukraine had given up all of its nuclear weapons in 1994 when it signed an agreement. This agreement with the U.S., UK and Russia assured Ukaine that it would remain sovereign, and in return for this assurance they gave up the nuclear weapons that it wouldn’t need to protect itself[68]. Another similarity is the reason for which the opressors entered the countries. Hitler said he wanted to protect the German populaton living in the Czech Republic and Putin said he wanted to protect the Russian-speaking population in Ukraine. It is unclear wether the German population in the Czech Republic nor the Russian-speaking population in Ukraine expressed the need for rescue, but the opressors made that their mission and used it as their excuse to invade.

4.1.4 Other Portrayals of Russia

While the images that portray Putin or Russia as Colorado beetles, bears and Hitler are the most common, there are other important images that dehumanize Russia or portray the Other as different from Self that are meant to warn Ukrainians against the danger of their enemy.

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The fourteenth image depicts socialism, capitalism and putinism. In Socialism there are two men, a blue and a red, the blue man is holding money and the ref is holding a gun to the blue man’s head. Capitalism is shown as a red man with money holding a gun to the blue man’s head. The last part, putinism is shown by a blue man with a red man with money holding a gun to his head, next to him another red man who has more money holds a gun to the other red man’s head, and there is a third man with the most money holding the gun to the second richest red man’s head. This shows that Ukrainians believe that corruption Putin’s Russia is more corrupt than socialist and capitalism systems, however none of the systems are portrayed positively.

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The fifteenth image shows a red cicle around a face that is half Putin and half Stalin and text that asks Putin to leave Ukraine alone. Stalin was the Soviet leader that had forced the famine onto Ukraine in 1932 – 1933. Comparing Putin to Stalin implies that Ukrainians see Putin as a murderer of Ukrainians or that they blieve that Putin will also harm Ukraine, like Stalin did.

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Image 16 shows Putin’s hand coming out of a USSR grave, that has the Soviet hammer and sickle symbol on top of the tombstone. His hand is grabbing the ankle of a boy running past with a Ukrainian flag. From Putin’s recent speeches and actions, many believe that he is trying to restore the Soviet Union[72]. This image reaffirms this belief and shows that Putin is trying to drag Ukraine into the union. The boy in the picture is young and is shocked to see the hand grabbing his ankle. This might imply that Putin is using the youth to achieve his goals.

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Image 17 shows Putin as a large octopus sitting on Russia with a Russian flag in one tentacle and lots of former European countries surrounded by his other tentacles. He is shown looking at Ukraine because he wants it to be his. There are also 9 tentacles in the picture when an octopus should normally have only 8, which only emphasises the greed of Putin.

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This image portrays three pigs, one is running around picking flowers in the sun holding a Ukrainian flag. It is clean while the other two are sitting in a mud pit with flies buzzing around it. They are holding a Russian flag and calling the Ukrainian pig a ‘traitor’. The text in the mud puddle says ‘Customs Union’. This implies that Ukrainians see the Customs Union negatively as unbeneficial and they are happier the way they are right now. Dirt also implies inpurity or dishonesty and the fact that the Rusians are portrayed dirty shows that Ukrainians see them as untrustful.

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The image above shows Putin as the princess in the fairytale Princess and the Pea. The pea is portrayed as a large round ball with the Ukrainian flag colors on it. The fairytale portrays the princess as spoiled, which is why she needs so many matrasses. However she still can’t sleep because there is a little pea creating a bump and keeping her awake at night. This rendition of ‘Putin and the Pea’ sends the message that Putin is spoiled and this is why he wants to take over Ukrainian territory. This image also shows Ukraine as causing him problems and keeping him awake.

4.2 Picturing of Self

While the portrayal of the Other is important in the theory of imagined community, the way that a community sees and depict themselves is equally as important. The following images show Ukrainians portraying themselves as loyal friends, Cossack warriors, beautiful and brave women, selfless soldiers, a free nation and fearless children. Several of the following images and many images portraying Ukraine that are seen on social media portray women. Women have always had a special role in Ukrainian society and have been taking an active part in conflicts since their participation in the Ukrainian Insurgent Army where they fought alongside the men.

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This image is made up of two parts, the top part shows Ukraine, Russia and Belarus embracing and smiling with Russia in the middle. The picture below shows them m from behind, and Russia is holding a dagger in its left hand and a gun in its right. The text says “the whole essence of a friendship with Russia”. This implies that Russia is untrustworthy and a fake friend that will stab others in their back. It shows Ukraine as friendly holding hands with Belarus behind Russia’s back and embracing their ‘brother’. It also shows as Ukraine being the opposite of Russia; where Russia is untrustworthy and dangerous, Ukraine is friendly and loyal. Because of the conflicts between Russia and Ukraine in the past, it also shows that Ukraine is forgiving and gives second chances which makes Russia seem that much worse for betraying a country so trusting.

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The 20th image shows interaction between a Russian and a Ukrainian. The Russian is portrayed as a strange ugly pink creature with a large nose, ears and horns on it’s head. The shirt it is wearing has the St. Georges ribbon colors and is holding a Russian flag. The Ukrainian is portrayed as a tanned strong Cosack wearing Ukrainian colors – a yellow shirt and blue pants. He has a knife in his belt but he is saying “Suitcase, trainstation, Russia” to the creature. The text at the bottom says, “separitism needs to be immediately punished by loss of citizenship and not allowing seperatists to participate in presidential elections”. The ‘suitcase, trainstation, Russia’ is an online joke about how to deal with Ukrainians or Russians who want Ukrainian cities or regions to be part of Russia, pack their suitcase for them, buy them a ticket and send them to Russia. This image shows that Ukrainians view themselves as strong human beings while Russia is portrayed as a scary creature. The Ukrainian who is armed isn’t using his weapon against his oppressor, but is instead speaking to him. This shows that Ukrainians see themselves as strong and fair refraining from violence.

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This image shows a comparison between Russia and Ukraine and makes a good example for how Ukrainians portray themselves versus how they portray Russia. The image on the left of Russia shows a Russian doll wearing traditional Russian clothes with pointy bared teeth and an angry expression. Behind her is a smiling ‘misha’ or typical Russian toy bear with a machine gun, a typical toy associated with the USSR. There are also toy soldiers pointing their guns towards the Ukrainian girl with Russian flags in the back ground. The Ukrainian girl is drawn as a person, she is also wearing a typical Ukrainian costume and there are easter eggs on the ground and she is holding Ukrainian easter bread. The background shows a Ukrainian flag. The text in the image says, “Russia, mother, take a hike, Ukraine, mother, hold on”, the Ukrainian girl is also refered to as being native. The word ‘mother’ is used differentlyfor each side, the Russian doll is called mother in a harsh way while the Ukrainian girl is being called mother in a much sweeter way, using the cute word for mother. This picture not only dehumanizes Russia while portraying Ukraine as human, but it shows Ukraine as beautiful, peaceful and loved.

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Image 22 shows the difference in fighting strategy between Russia and Ukraine. Under the Russian flag is a Russian soldier with a red stripe on his helmet that only reveals his eyes. He is holding a machine guy pointed at the Ukrainian soldier and has another weapon on his back. He also has a baby tied to his back with C4 explosives tied to the child that looks terrified. The soldier has a Russian flag on his uniform and is hiding behind a woman wearing a red dress and a black headscarf. She is portrayed as fat with a red nose, red cheeks and she is looking at the gun with a scared expression. Under the Ukrainian flag there is a Ukrainian soldier with agun, bulletproof vest and helmet with the Ukrainian trident. He has a Ukrainian flag on his uniform and is standing in front of a kneeling woman in a yellow dress and yellow headdress. She looks scared and is holding a sleeping child protectively. The text says, “Just let someone from the military shoot at our people, who we will stand behind. Not in front of, but behind. Let them try to shoot women and children. I will watch those, who will take such an order in Ukraine. Vladimir Putin.” This image shows that Ukrainians portray themselves as fearless and selfless, the soldier is protecting the mother, the mother is protecting her child. They are also portrayed as more open and better looking that the Russians, the Russian woman is fat, the Ukrainian is thin, there is a difference in the way their faces are portrayed too.

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This image shows a Ukrainian with two guns. He is shown in blue and yellow and is completely surrounded by gray unclear figures pitning their guns at him. There is a Ukrainian flag with the Ukrainian trident on it. The text in the image says “I don’t care how many or how strong they are, I won’t give up without a fight.” This image portrays Ukrainians as fearless. It also shows the enemy as a single group or a single unit. The Ukrainian is shown in the middle with emphasized color and is shown as strong and able to defend Ukraine no matter the fear. This ties back to dying for ones country. This image shows that one Ukrainian can make a difference and is willing to fight to get freedom. There is no question that in the situation pictures above, they stand no chance but they are willing to die. This is a very important aspect of the theory of imagined communities.

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The 24th image shows a wall with spaces for four statues. The wall is labelled “Sovok” which is the word used to call those who have a Soviet mentality and believe in their ideals and like statues of Stalin and Lenin. The statues on the wall going from left to right have flags from Kazakhstan, Belarus and Russia. The statue under Kazakhstan is completely part of the wall, only the outline of a person is visible. The statue under Belarus is partially broken out of the wall, it’s right knee is bent and it’s head and shoulders are leaning forwards out of the wall. The statue under the Russian flag is quite detached from the wall and is bent forward with it’s arm outstretched. The reason that Russia looks like this is because the Ukrainian statue left a hole in the wall and is running away looking free with a large Ukrainian flag as a cape behind it. This image shows that Ukraine is different from the other post-Soviet countries and Russia is trying to restore the order and get Ukraine back into place.Ukraine is shown as free and patriotic.

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Image 25 shows a little blonge girl looking up at a soldier who is pointing a gun at her. He is wearing a berkut badge and his face isn’t visible to the viewer. There are bulletholes all around the girl with blood dripping down the wall. There is blood on the girls dress and there is a dead boy and a dead adult on the ground at her feet, they look like her implying that it is her family. She is holding a paintbrush with yellow paint dripping from it, behind her on the wall, “Slava Ukrajini” is written, meaning glory to Ukraine. This girl’s family was shot because of her patriotism and she looks up at the man in fear but holds on to the paintbrush. This shows once again the bravery of Ukrainians and that the people are willing to die for their country.

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Image 26 has a background of a Ukrainian flag with the silouettes of a Ukrainian cossack fighting a bear. The cossack is holding a weapon that has a Ukrainian trident on the end that he is about to attack a bear with. The bear has it’s mouth open and sharp teeth are sticking out. There is text written over the cossack that says “Protesct your country”. This photo shows the cossack as a strong and honorable protector of Ukraine while the bear who represents Russia is a wild animal. The bear is small and is looking up at the cossack who is about to kill him. As well as showing the bravery and nobility of Ukrainians, this image also sends the message that it is a Ukrainain’s job to protect Ukraine. The text is a command to Ukrainians.

4.3 EU

The European Union is not portrayed as often as Russia in political cartoons. The EU is portrayed as the opposite of Russia and the same as Ukraine. Sometimes the EU is portrayed as someone who Ukraine should look up to, and other times they are portrayed as being weaker than Russia. The most common images that involve the EU have EU flags combined with the Ukrainian flag or a map of Ukraine.

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Image 27 shows a map of Ukraine with lines outlining the regions and dots in all the major cities. Kiev is marked with a star. The map has the circle of 12 yellow starts over it, like a flag of the EU. Ukraine and everything around it is blue – the colors of both the EU and Ukraine. There is a lot of text over the image saying: “I love Ukraine! Against separatists!”; “I respect my mother tongue! I am against Putin’s policies! I am against the shovel!”; “I am for European laws!”; “I am for a European country! I am against the occupation of Ukrainian territory!” The largest text says, “I march as a Bandera supporter!” and finally, “European Ukraine”. All the text shows support for the European Union and against Putin and separatists. With the EU’s stars drawn over the map of Ukraine, it also shows that Ukraine and the EU are portrayed as one and are the same.

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Image 28 shows a father with two children, a boy and a girl. They are walking through a yellow field. The sky is an EU flag which causes the effect of creating the Ukrainian flag using the EU flag. The text on the image says, “I want my children to live in a developed European Ukraine.” This image shows that Ukraine sees the EU as the same as Ukraine but also better, something that Ukraine should aspire to become. It also shows the man as a concerned father who believes that the EU is the best option for his young children. It shows that Ukrainian ideals are similar to EU ideals and that they should be united.

Image 29: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][86]

The image above shows a bear smirking with its paw on a pipe. The pipe is connected to a blue surface which represents the EU. There are 12 stars in the image acting chaotically. Some are happy, sad, confused, angry, hiding, disappointed and shy. The stars represent the European Union being un-unified and being controlled by the bear that represents Russia. This image portrays the EU as weak against Russia, and it also shows Russia as a large mean bear. While Russia is depicted as an animal, the EU is depicted having human emotions despite being manipulated by Russia. This image is originally from the 2007 oil crisis when Russia shut off Ukraine’s gas which affected the entire EU. However gas is being spoken about a lot in the current crisis because of past events, so this image has also been shared a lot on Facebook again.

Image 30: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][87]

Image 30 shows a couple sleeping in bed. The one to the left is an overweight woman sleeping on a pillow that says ‘E.U.’ while on the right side, a skinny Putin is looking at the woman and frowning on a pillow that says ‘Russia’. The blanket over them says Europe with an outline section that reads Ukraine. The blanket is completely covering the woman, with Europe completely covering her body, and Putin is half uncovered and is trying to pull the blanket, specifically the section that reads Ukraine. On Putin’s bedside table is a picture frame of someone who looks like an angry Stalin. This image shows the EU as peaceful and prosperous while Russia is angry and trying to get Ukraine. However there is also an aspect of ignorance associated with the EU since she is sleeping peacefully while Putin is trying to steal her blanket. Since the blanket represents all of Europe, pulling at Ukraine would also pull Europe closer to Russia. It could also lead to Russia pulling other countries over to it side and away from the EU.

Image 31: [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten][88]

This image shows a map of Europe with Ukraine in the center. A woman and a bear are playing tug-of-war. The woman on the left is wearing a blue and yellow dress with starts on it. She’s wearing pearls, nice shoes, bracelet and a headband and has an ‘EU’ briefcase. On the right is a big brown bear with long claws, standing with one foot over Crimea and its right foot in the air. This obviously represents the EU and Russia fighting over Ukraine and the bear representing Russia is standing in Crimea. The EU is portrayed as a human being and a woman while Russia is portrayed once again as an animal. Also despite the bear being larger than the woman and standing on Ukrainian territory, putting its weight into winning the tug-of-war, the EU and Russia are still equally matched. This represents the power of the EU that goes beyond physical strength that could represent military strength. The well-dressed diplomatic woman has just as much strength as the angry wild bear.

5. Conclusion

Political cartoons and images depicting political interactions and relationships between countries have always been around to communicate messages to the public. They gain special attention with the spread of social media – they are shared quickly and their message is understood immediately. During the ongoing crisis in Ukraine, the images that emerged and were shared through social media have been a great source of information. These images are more effective than words at showing how Ukrainians view the situation that they are in and the way they view the other actors in the conflict. The images are also a great portrayal of how Ukraine sees Self and how they see Other. From the colletion of images that I analyzed regarding Ukraine and it’s relations with Russia and the European Union, there are several conclusions to make. These conclusion are: Ukraine views Russia as an agressor and invader who is selfish and isn’t fair; and Ukraine views the European Union as a place with an ideal economy and policies; it also views Russia as an enemy to both Ukraine and the European Union. Finally along with how Ukraine sees the two powers, the images show that Ukrainians see themselves as brave, determined to be free and selflessly patriotic.

Ukraine views Russia as a selfish and unfair aggressor because of the way it is portrayed in the images found on Facebook. Many images show Russia as a bear; large, wild, aggressive and inhumane. In message in the images where Russia is portrayed as a Colorado beetle is that Russia is invasive, literally power-hungry and their presence spreads like a disease and this urges Ukrainians to exterminate them. Russia is dehumanized in these images and the differences between Russi and Ukraine are emphasied. In contrast to Russians being Nazis, subhuman and aggressive, Ukrainians are seen as peaceful, human and brave. The comparison between Putin and Hitler or Russians and Nazis is another commonly spread image and it shows that Ukrainians view them as an agressor. Constructivists are interested in how things came to be instead of simply how they are – and through this visual discourse Russia became a clear enemy to Ukraine.

The analyzed images show that Ukrainians who support Euromaidan and who want Ukraine to remain united view the EU as having an ideal economy and policies that allow those who are members to prosper and live happily. It is important to note that Ukrainians are divided and these images are only associated with a certain group that is strongly against the separatists and supports EU ideals. With Ukraine’s economic problems and deterioration of living standards that are commonly associated with their relationship with Russia, this image is really important to Ukrianians. The protests had started because of the failure of singing the Association Agreeement after being promised that closer ties with the EU would improve the Ukrainian economy. So the images depicting the EU show that Ukraine sees being part of the EU as an ideal lifestyle.

In combination with idealizing the EU in political images, Ukrainians also spread images showing conflicts between the EU and Russia. This is important because of the saying ‘an enemy of my enemy is my friend’. Because of the conflict between Ukraine and Russia and Ukraine’s idealization of the EU, it is important for Ukrainians to see the EU fighting against the same enemy. In the images portraying the struggle between Russia and the EU, Russia is portrayed as not human and aggressive. The images portray different distributions of power, in some of the images the EU has the upper hand while in others Russia is overpowering the EU; finally some images show their power as balanced equally. However all of the images show the EU as Russia’s enemy.

All the images that show the what Ukraine sees as the Other also reveal a lot about how they see themselves. It is very common to find images where Ukraine compares itself to Russia by highlighting their differences. The contrasts portray Ukraine as: peaceful; with feminine women; strong masculine cossack men; faithful friends; and brave overal whether they are men, women or children. In many images Ukraine shows themselves as good-looking human beings while showing Russia as animals, insects or objects. The images where the Other is dehumanized are dangerous because they convince the Self that in order to protect themselves, they must ‘tame’, ‘exterminate’ or ‘cage’ their enemy because seeing them as less that human allows for the use of violence. Distinguishing the difference between the Other and Self stems from the theory about imagined communities, where language and images play an important role in creating a shared national identity between people that share a culture.

The theory of imagined community and the role of language and images to communicate messages between individuals within a community are important in the analysis of political cartoons and images that are found in social media. During times of conflict like the current situation in Ukraine such images are shared by individuals as a form of communicating opinions. The true opinions of individuals can be revealed by analyzing these images.

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Data

Shared by Tetiana Kagui on Facebook, on April 13th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=636341529772481&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1397646857.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-frc3%2Ft1.0-9%2F10152472_636341529772481_146250069257077430_n.jpg&size=480%2C358 [April 20th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on April 6th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=632445480162086&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1397646859.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-frc3%2Ft1.0-9%2F10157272_632445480162086_666909356_n.jpg&size=582%2C768 [April 20th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on March 19th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=623899081016726&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1400445116.&type=3&theater [April 20th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on May 6th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=244705649056040&set=a.236254559901149.1073741829.235980666595205&type=1&theater [May 10th 2014]

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1442036779381092&set=a.1410013722583398.1073741828.100007243502034&type=1 [May 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on April 13th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=636474323092535&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1400475994.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-a-fra.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-ash3%2Ft1.0-9%2F10177338_636474323092535_777346805339121385_n.jpg&size=275%2C183 [April 30th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on April 16th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=638253172914650&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1 [April 30th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on April 16th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=638252892914678&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1 [April 30th 2014]

Shared by Anders Ostlund on Facebook, on April 16th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=589811791110522&set=pb.100002451181900.-2207520000.1397645378.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-ash4%2Ft1.0-9%2F1482767_589811791110522_203252099_n.jpg&size=568%2C366 [April 30th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on April 16th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=653169584756342&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1400476503.&type=3&theater [April 30th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on March 1st 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=614365838636717&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1397647069.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-frc1%2Ft1.0-9%2F1966921_614365838636717_1741941354_n.jpg&size=292%2C400 [March 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on March 7th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=617624918310809&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1397647005.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-a-fra.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-frc3%2Ft1.0-9%2F1958223_617624918310809_785567510_n.jpg&size=427%2C604 [March 15th 2014]

Shared by Anders Ostlund on Facebook, on March 5th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=589103234514711&set=pb.100002451181900.-2207520000.1397645378.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-a-fra.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-ash3%2Ft1.0-9%2F1507019_589103234514711_983090065_n.jpg&size=598%2C276 [March 15th 2014]

Shared by Anders Ostlund on Facebook, on April 16th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=609733602451674&set=a.259777350780636.60794.100002451181900&type=1&relevant_count=1 [April 30th 2014]

Shared by Emilia Mikkelson Facebook, on April 15th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1465991756965199&set=p.1465991756965199&type=1 [April 30th 2014]

Shared by Anders Ostlund Facebook, on March 1st 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=587081954716839&set=pb.100002451181900.-2207520000.1397645416.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-a-fra.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-prn2%2Ft1.0-9%2F1796671_587081954716839_861539958_n.jpg&size=590%2C406 [March 15th 2014]

Shared by Dmitry Chekalnik Facebook, on April 14th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=899627260063528&set=a.365582946801298.106674.365125280180398&type=1&relevant_count=1 [April 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on January 30th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=598322936907674&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398708206.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-prn2%2Ft1.0-9%2F1507132_598322936907674_62625202_n.jpg&size=640%2C450 [April 15th 2014]

Shared by Olga Borovok, on May 12th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1449176595328252&set=gm.1447022355545260&type=1 [May 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on April 18th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=639181806155120&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398707145.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-b-lhr.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-frc3%2Ft1.0-9%2F10294329_639181806155120_8800031788241484825_n.jpg&size=488%2C604 [April 30th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on April 15th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=637880012951966&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398707178.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-frc1%2Ft1.0-9%2F1797375_637880012951966_4222280625845980127_n.jpg&size=640%2C480 [April 30th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on March 29th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=627739583966009&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398707236.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-a-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-frc1%2Ft1.0-9%2F1970832_627739583966009_1093693395_n.jpg&size=543%2C480 [May 10th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on March 13th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=621039844635983&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398707280.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-a-lhr.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-ash3%2Fv%2Ft1.0-9%2F1898124_621039844635983_966233805_n.jpg%3Foh%3D135cef993cc2fd6e1d6f5a80df8e8f80%26oe%3D53BD7D60&size=556%2C480 [March 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on March 11th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=619936058079695&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398707318.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-b-lhr.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-frc1%2Ft1.0-9%2F10013649_619936058079695_1701943955_n.jpg&size=598%2C337 [March 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on February 22nd 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=610629862343648&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398708044.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-b-lhr.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-prn2%2Ft1.0-9%2F1609652_610629862343648_1751106341_n.jpg&size=598%2C256 [April 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on February 19th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=609268979146403&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398708046.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-prn2%2Ft1.0-9%2F1932326_609268979146403_1374111420_n.jpg&size=343%2C480 [April 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on April 30th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=645335638873070&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1 [May 10th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on May 1st 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=753796044652351&set=a.491854064179885.115397.100000658885910&type=1&ref=nf [May 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on April 29th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=644899472250020&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1&ref=nf [May 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on May 14th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=652567118149922&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1&theater [May 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on May 14th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=652567218149912&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1&theater [May 15th 2014]

Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on May 14th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=652567358149898&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1&relevant_count=1 [May 15th 2014]

[...]


[1] Richard Kraemer and Maia Otarashvili, “Geopolitical Implications of the Ukraine Crisis – Analysis,” Eurasia Review, May 1, 2014, http://www.eurasiareview.com/01052014-geopolitical-implications-ukraine-crisis-analysis/.

[2] Igor Sutyagin, Michael Clarke, Jonathan Eyal, “Ukraine Crisis: The Strategic Importance of Slavyansk,” Center of Geopolitical Analysis, April 5, 2014, http://icmu.nyc.gr/Ukraine-Crisis%3A-The-Strategic-Importance-of-Slavyansk.

[3] Adler 2008: 127-128

[4] Herrmann, Richard (2002) ‘Linking Theory to Evidence in International Relations’ in Carlsnaes, Risse, and Simmons (eds.) Handbook of International Relations, London, SAGE: 2008, 128

[5] Emanuel Adler (eds.) Handbook of International Relations, London, SAGE: 2008, 100

[6] Carlsnaes, Risse, and Simmons, 2008, 100

[7] Carlsnaes, Risse, and Simmons, 2008, 100

[8] Carlsnaes, Risse, and Simmons, 2008, 101

[9] Seton-Watson in Anderson 1981: 3

[10] Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (New York: Courier Companies Inc, 1991), 4

[11] Anderson, 1991, 6

[12] Anderson, 1991, 6

[13] Anderson, 1991, 7

[14] Anderson, 1991, 141

[15] Anderson, 1991, 7

[16] Anderson, 1991, 144

[17] Anderson, 1991, 141

[18] Anderson, 1991, 145

[19] Anderson, 1991, 145

[20] Anderson, 1991, 145

[21] Lene Hansen: Security as Practice (New York: Routledge, 2006), 20

[22] Anderson, 1991, 148

[23] Erin Steuter and Deborah Wills, “Drawing Dehumanization: Exterminating the Enemy in Editorial Cartoons: Images that Injure Pictorial Stereotypes in the Media, Susan Dente Ross and Paul Martin Lester, 322 – 336. (California: ABC-CLIO, 2011)

[24] Hansen, 2006, 19

[25] Anderson, 1991, 150

[26] Hansen, 2006, 18

[27] Stocchetti, Matteo and Johanna Sumiala-Seppänen (2007): Images and Communities. The Visual Construction of the Social. Helsinki: Gaudeamus – Helsinki University Press

[28] Howells, Richard and Robert W. Matson (2009): ‘Introduction’, to Howells, Richard and Robert W. Matson (eds.) Using Visual Evidence, New York: Open University Press, McGraw Hill: 1-7

[29] Steuter and Wills, 2011, 14

[30] Steuter and Wills, 2011, 14

[31] Steuter and Wills, 2011, 325

[32] Steuter and Wills, 2011, 325

[33] Steuter and Wills, 2011, 328

[34] Michael Ramirez, The Columbus Dispatch 4th September 2007.

[35] Steuter and Wills, 2011, 44

[36] Steuter and Wills, 2011, 331

[37] Steuter and Wills, 2011, 44

[38] Steuter and Wills, 2011, 332

[39] Steuter and Wills, 2011, 332

[40] Daniela Chalaniova: Turn the Other Greek 2013, pages 18 – 23

[41] BBC, “Ukrainian Crisis Timeline.” BBC, May 8th, 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26248275. [April 30th 2014]

Due to how current the events are and how quickly they are occurring, most of my sources are news articles and images from social media. There is a very limited number of academic paper written on the subject as of May 19th 2014.

[42] BBC, “Ukrainian Crisis Timeline.” BBC, May 8th, 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26248275. [April 30th 2014]

[43] Huffington Post, “Crimea Referendum: Final Results Show 97 Percent Of Voters In Crimea Support Joining Russia.” Huffington Post, March 17th, 2014. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/17/crimea-referendum-final-results_n_4977250.html. [April 30th 2014]

[44] BBC, “Ukrainian Crisis Timeline.” BBC, May 8th, 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26248275. [April 30th 2014]

[45] Dern Stern, “Ukrainians Polarised Over Language Law.” BBC, July 5th, 2012. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-18725849.

[46] Kyiv Post, “Yanukovych: National Budget for 2013 to Foresee Funding for Development of Ukrainian Language.” Kyiv Post, October 17th, 2012. http://www.kyivpost.com/content/ukraine/yanukovych-national-budget-for-2013-to-foresee-funding-for-development-of-ukrainian-language-314519.html. [April 30th 2014]

[47] MTI, “Scrapping Language Law Could Question New Ukrainian Admin’s Democratic Commitment, Says Foreign Ministry.” Politics hu, February 25th, 2014. http://www.politics.hu/20140225/scrapping-language-law-could-question-new-ukrainian-admins-democratic-commitment-says-foreign-ministry/. [April 30th 2014]

[48] Benjamin C Garrett, “The Colorado Potato Beetle Goes to War.” Historican Note no 2 (September 1996), 2, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/spru/hsp/documents/CWCB33-Garrett.pdf Sussex.

[49] Tennant P and Benkeblia N (eds) Potato II. Fruit, Vegetable and Cereal Science and Biotechnology 3 (Special issue 1): 10-19. http://www.potatobeetle.org/overview.html

[50] Lucy Burns, “The Great Cold War Potato Beetle Battle.” BBC, September 3rd, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-23929124. [April 30th 2014]

[51] Anna Kordunsky, “An Orange-Black Ribbon Holds a Clue to Eastern Ukraine’s Chaos.” The Christian Science Monitor, April 16th, 2014. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2014/0416/An-orange-black-ribbon-holds-a-clue-to-eastern-Ukraine-s-chaos.

[52] Shared by Tetiana Kagui on Facebook, on April 13th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=636341529772481&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1397646857.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-frc3%2Ft1.0-9%2F10152472_636341529772481_146250069257077430_n.jpg&size=480%2C358 [April 20th 2014]

[53] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on April 6th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=632445480162086&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1397646859.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-frc3%2Ft1.0-9%2F10157272_632445480162086_666909356_n.jpg&size=582%2C768 [April 20th 2014]

[54] Rosenthal, Joe. February 23rd 1945. Iwo Jima Flag Raising. Photograph. Mount Suribachi.

[55] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on March 19th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=623899081016726&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1400445116.&type=3&theater [April 20th 2014]

[56] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on May 6th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=244705649056040&set=a.236254559901149.1073741829.235980666595205&type=1&theater [May 10th 2014]

[57] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on May 12th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1442036779381092&set=a.1410013722583398.1073741828.100007243502034&type=1 [May 15th 2014]

[58]

[59] Chalaniova in 2011, 23 – 24

[60] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on April 13th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=636474323092535&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1400475994.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-a-fra.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-ash3%2Ft1.0-9%2F10177338_636474323092535_777346805339121385_n.jpg&size=275%2C183 [April 30th 2014]

[61] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on April 16th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=638253172914650&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1 [April 30th 2014]

[62] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on April 16th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=638252892914678&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1 [April 30th 2014]

[63] Shared by Anders Ostlund on Facebook, on April 16th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=589811791110522&set=pb.100002451181900.-2207520000.1397645378.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-ash4%2Ft1.0-9%2F1482767_589811791110522_203252099_n.jpg&size=568%2C366 [April 30th 2014]

[64] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on April 16th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=653169584756342&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1400476503.&type=3&theater [April 30th 2014]

[65] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on March 1st 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=614365838636717&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1397647069.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-frc1%2Ft1.0-9%2F1966921_614365838636717_1741941354_n.jpg&size=292%2C400 [March 15th 2014]

[66] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui on Facebook, on March 7th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=617624918310809&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1397647005.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-a-fra.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-frc3%2Ft1.0-9%2F1958223_617624918310809_785567510_n.jpg&size=427%2C604 [March 15th 2014]

[67] Shared by Anders Ostlund on Facebook, on March 5th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=589103234514711&set=pb.100002451181900.-2207520000.1397645378.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-a-fra.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-ash3%2Ft1.0-9%2F1507019_589103234514711_983090065_n.jpg&size=598%2C276 [March 15th 2014]

[68] NPR, “The Role Of 1994 Nuclear Agreement In Ukraine’s Current State.” NPR, March 9th, 2014. http://www.npr.org/2014/03/09/288298641/the-role-of-1994-nuclear-agreement-in-ukraines-current-state.

[69] Shared by Anders Ostlund on Facebook, on April 16th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=609733602451674&set=a.259777350780636.60794.100002451181900&type=1&relevant_count=1 [April 30th 2014]

[70] Shared by Emilia Mikkelson Facebook, on April 15th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1465991756965199&set=p.1465991756965199&type=1 [April 30th 2014]

[71] Shared by Anders Ostlund Facebook, on March 1st 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=587081954716839&set=pb.100002451181900.-2207520000.1397645416.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-a-fra.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-prn2%2Ft1.0-9%2F1796671_587081954716839_861539958_n.jpg&size=590%2C406 [March 15th 2014]

[72] Sam Frizell, “Ukraine PM: Putin Wants To Rebuild Soviet Union.” TIME, April 19th, 2014. http://time.com/69161/ukraine-yatsenyuk-putin-soviet-union/.

[73] Shared by Dmitry Chekalnik Facebook, on April 14th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=899627260063528&set=a.365582946801298.106674.365125280180398&type=1&relevant_count=1 [April 15th 2014]

[74] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on January 30th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=598322936907674&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398708206.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-prn2%2Ft1.0-9%2F1507132_598322936907674_62625202_n.jpg&size=640%2C450 [April 15th 2014]

[75] Shared by Olga Borovok, on May 12th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1449176595328252&set=gm.1447022355545260&type=1 [May 15th 2014]

[76] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on April 18th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=639181806155120&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398707145.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-b-lhr.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-frc3%2Ft1.0-9%2F10294329_639181806155120_8800031788241484825_n.jpg&size=488%2C604 [April 30th 2014]

[77] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on April 15th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=637880012951966&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398707178.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-frc1%2Ft1.0-9%2F1797375_637880012951966_4222280625845980127_n.jpg&size=640%2C480 [April 30th 2014]

[78] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on March 29th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=627739583966009&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398707236.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-a-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-frc1%2Ft1.0-9%2F1970832_627739583966009_1093693395_n.jpg&size=543%2C480 [May 10th 2014]

[79] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on March 13th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=621039844635983&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398707280.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-a-lhr.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-ash3%2Fv%2Ft1.0-9%2F1898124_621039844635983_966233805_n.jpg%3Foh%3D135cef993cc2fd6e1d6f5a80df8e8f80%26oe%3D53BD7D60&size=556%2C480 [March 15th 2014]

[80] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on March 11th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=619936058079695&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398707318.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-b-lhr.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-frc1%2Ft1.0-9%2F10013649_619936058079695_1701943955_n.jpg&size=598%2C337 [March 15th 2014]

[81] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on February 22nd 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=610629862343648&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398708044.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Fscontent-b-lhr.xx.fbcdn.net%2Fhphotos-prn2%2Ft1.0-9%2F1609652_610629862343648_1751106341_n.jpg&size=598%2C256 [April 15th 2014]

[82] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on February 19th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=609268979146403&set=pb.100001899191368.-2207520000.1398708046.&type=3&src=https%3A%2F%2Ffbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net%2Fhphotos-ak-prn2%2Ft1.0-9%2F1932326_609268979146403_1374111420_n.jpg&size=343%2C480 [April 15th 2014]

[83] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on April 30th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=645335638873070&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1 [May 10th 2014]

[84] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on May 1st 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=753796044652351&set=a.491854064179885.115397.100000658885910&type=1&ref=nf [May 15th 2014]

[85] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on April 29th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=644899472250020&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1&ref=nf [May 15th 2014]

[86] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on May 14th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=652567118149922&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1&theater [May 15th 2014]

[87] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on May 14th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=652567218149912&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1&theater [May 15th 2014]

[88] Shared by Tetiana Grydiakina Kagui, on May 14th 2014, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=652567358149898&set=a.102820123124627.4794.100001899191368&type=1&relevant_count=1 [May 15th 2014]

Details

Pages
55
Year
2014
ISBN (Book)
9783668082397
File size
3.7 MB
Language
English
Catalog Number
v309575
Institution / College
Anglo American University – International Relations
Grade
B
Tags
ukrainian crisis political images ukraine russia european union

Author

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Title: Ukrainian Crisis Political Images. How Ukraine views Russia and the European Union