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The Performances of Sustainable Environmental Development Projects (Mangrove Plantation) in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan-Philippines

Master's Thesis 2011 111 Pages

Politics - Methods, Research

Excerpt

Table of Contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the research
1.2. Research Objectives
1.3. Research questions
1.4. Significance of the study

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1. Value of natural resources
2.2. Importance of Mangrove
2.2.1. Economic value
2.2.2. Environmental value
2.2.3. Social Value
2.3. Decline of the world mangroves
2.4. Mangroves in the Philippines
2.5. Mangrove lost in Puerto Princessa
2.6. Managing mangroves
2.6.1. Sustainable silviculture
2.7. Mangrove Restoration and Afforestation

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Qualitative Research
3.2. Quantitative research
3.3. Data Gathering Mechanism
3.3.1. Desk research
3.3.2. Interviews
3.3.3. Case Studies
3.3.4. Observation
3.3.5. Photographs

CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH DESTINATION - CITY OF PUERTO PRINCESA
4.1. Geographical Location
4.2. Puerto Princesa City
4.3. Population
4.4. Education level
4.5. Economic activities
4.5.1. Crop Production
4.5.2. Poultry and Livestock Production
4.5.3. Fisheries
4.5.4. Tourism
4.5.5. Trade Commerce and Industry
4.5.6. Construction Industry
4.5.7. Furniture and Cottage Industries
4.5.8. Food Processing/ Bakeshops/ Purified Water
4.5.9. Metal craft/ boat industry
4.5.10. Cooperatives
4.5.11. Forestry
4.6. State of Local governance
4.7. Sate of the Mangroves in Puerto Princesa City

CHAPTER V: LOVE AFFAIR WITH NATURE - MANGROVE PLANTATION PROJECT
5.1. Program Introduction
5.2. Program Objectives
5.3. Program History
5.4. Findings of the project
5.5. Other outcomes of the program
5.6. Reasons behind the success of the project
5.6.1. Conceptualization – Refocusing to the City’s vision
5.6.2. Consultation Meeting and Accountability Designation
5.6.3. Information Dissemination Campaign
5.6.4. Nursery Establishment
5.6.5. Identification of Project Site
5.6.6. Massive Mangrove Tree Planting
5.7. Legal aspects on sustainability
CHAPTER VI: SUPPORTING PROJECTS
6.1. Pista Y Ang Kagueban (Feast of the Forest)
6.1.1. Survival rate
6.1.2. Findings of the project
6.2. “Iwahig Firefly Watch” at Iwahig mangrove forest
6.3. Sabang Mangrove Paddleboat Tour

CHAPTER VII: FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
7.1. Questionnaire analysis on sustainable mangrove plantation and management projects
7.1.1. Community Participation
7.1.2. Outputs/ accomplishments based on targets
7.1.3. Incentives and Strategies
7.1.4. Management process
7.1.5. Project organization
7.1.6. Project Capability
7.2. Findings of interviews among local community
7.2.1 Section A
7.2.2. Section B
7.3. Secondary information about the mangrove and forest cover in Palawan and P.P.C
7.4. Mangrove cover and fisheries in Puerto Princesa
7.5. Mangrove cover in Palawan based on PCSD publications

CHAPTER VIII: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1. Conclusions

APPPENDICES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to extend my sincerest gratitude to my supervisor, Professor Yamamoto Susumu, for his continuous support and excellent guidance. Without his support, I would not have been able to complete this thesis. I will always be sincerely grateful for all his kindness and understanding. Also I would like to convey my thankful thoughts for Professor Sanga-Ngoi Kazadi for being my supervisor of ENVOL program and all the support he provided for this research. I would also like to extend my sincerest gratitude to all APU professors who have helped me throughout the course of my study, both in the graduate and undergraduate school since 2005. I thank Professor Fellizar for kindly sparing his valuable time to discuss my research and his family for the support given to me during my fieldwork in the Philippines.

I thank Professor Cooper for his advice during the first field visit in 2010. I thank Professor Tsukada for his advices and continuing support and Professor Eades for his kind support and understanding throughout my studies. I also would like to thank Professor Manopimoke for her kind support and understanding and Professors Arii and Kobayashi for great advices during ENVOL classes and research activities. I thank Professor Mani and Professor Nair for their continued support.

I thank the supportive and helpful staff from the academic and research offices, Ms. Emiko, Ms. Shuto, Mr. Nakahara, Ms. Morishige and Ms. Ai. I also thank the staff of the student office who have given support in my student life, particularly Ms. Nonaka, Ms. Goto and all other staff members whose name I have not mentioned.

Most importantly, I thank Darshi Gamage, my wife for her patience, understanding, and her continuing support and care. I thank her for being beside me all the way, throughout the good and bad times. I am also grateful to her family for their continuing support and understanding.

I am indeed thankful to my Father and Mother who has backed all my achievements. I thank my brothers for their great support. I am always grateful for my family members who have been very supportive to me. I also thank Mr. Kumara, Ms. Chamani, Mr. Seth, Ms. Ikuko for the valuable comments and all the members of ENVOL laboratory and Geoscience laboratory. I am thankful to those Sri Lankans in Beppu, Japan who have given their support troughout the last 6 years. I am certainly indebted to thank Ms. Buddhini for supporting me in many ways.

I would like to thank the staff of the University of the Philippines, Los Banos and a special thanks to Dr. Palis, the staff of library and hostel. Also I thank Mr. Alwin and his family for allowing me to stay in their house in Manila and for all the guidance.

Mayor Edward Hagedorn has provided me tremendous support to conduct this study and accepted me in the mass wedding ceremony, follow-up dinner and it was an honor for me to plant mangrove trees together with such a world renowned environmentalist. The most of the success is due to the support given by Mr. Rogelio and his staff at City Environment Office in Puerto Princesa. Every staff member has helped me in various ways and I thank them for their warm support.

I really would like to thank the faculty of Palawan State University in the Philippines. Without their support I am unable to conduct this study and dig all the necessary information. President Dr. Salva, Vice President Dr. Ganapin and Dr. Gelito, Dean College of science has helped me in various ways during this study.

I thank Dr. Patrick who was with me during the whole study in Puerto Princesa in both visits in 2010 and 2011. His support of providing technical assistance, equipment, photography, hospitality and transport facilities have helped me in many ways. I thank Dr. Ramon for helping me in finding the necessary contacts and also for the warm hospitality. Also I would like to thank the other faculty members at Palawan State University, Mr. Dennis, Mr. Manalo, Mr. Hermengildo and the library staff for their insightful information provided. Also I thank Western Philippines University Lecturer Ms. Lyca and her colleagues for providing me valuable information.

I got anonymous support from the staff at PCSD especially finding secondary data and also providing and sharing qualitative information through their experiences. I especially thank Mr. Pontillas, Mr. Alex, Ms. Glenda for the support together with other staff members. The senior staff members and all the other staff members of City Agriculture, City Planning and City Information offices have provided me various information regarding Puerto Princesa and mangrove plantation projects. Especially I thank Ms. Jovinee, Ms. Melissa and Mr. Alroben for providing important qualitative information.

I also thank the staff of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), especially Mr. Corndo and Ms. Priscilla. I thank the staff of Mangrove Paddle boat tour project and the staff of Iwahig Firefly watch project. Also I thank the staff members at the hostel of Palawan State University who has looked after me in every ways during both visits. Special thank goes to Mr. Erick and Mr. Andrew for their continuous support. Also I thank the tour guides, travel companies of Puerto Princesa, tricycle and jeepney drivers who took me from place to place safely. Also I thank the local citizens and media personalities who have helped in taking photographs. I really would like to thank every citizen of Puerto Princesa for their warm hospitality and kind support throughout my study. Also I specially thank them for maintaining the Puerto Princesa as one of the best eco cities in the world.

I have to thank my friends, who have made my life in Japan very enjoyable. I especially would like to thank Mr. Watanabe for providing financial assistance for my studies and all the support and assistance provided. I thank, Ms. Tahara, Ms. Chikako, Ms. Satomi, Ms. Suin, Mr. Gotsu, Mr. Bono and others whose name I have not mentioned, for their kindness and support. I thank my seminar class members for being such great classmates to me. Also I would like to thank the staff members at McDonald’s Tokiwa and Mochigahama branch, Bread house Tokiwa Tsurumi branch, the staff and kids at Inukai Nursery School for working together and sharing information about Japanese society. Also I thank my host family, Mr. and Mrs. Tanaka for their unwavering caring since 2005 to date. Also I would like to extend my thanks to Dr. Maho, Dr. Hirakawa and staff of Beppu eki Mae Clinic for their caring advice and support.

List of Figures

Figure 2.1: Distribution of mangroves in various regions

Figure 2.2: Estimated declines in mangrove area by region since 1980 to

Figure 2.3: Percentage Change in Area of mangrove since 1980 to

Figure 2.4: Annual Change in Area of mangrove since 1980 to

Figure 2.5: Mangrove resource decline in the Philippines

Figure 2.6: Ten steps scheme of mangrove restoration pathways

Figure 3.1: Desk research conducted at the research destination

Figure 3.2: Focus one to one interviews among scholars, city officials and tour guides

Figure 3.3: Informal Interviews and focus group discussions

Figure 3.4: Case study by participation

Figure 3.5: Observing rubber nursery

Figure 3.6: Research Methodology Framework

Figure 4.1: Map of Asia

Figure 4.2: Map of Palawan

Figure 4.3:Political Boundary Map - City of Puerto Princesa

Figure 4.4: Age sex population pyramid: City of Puerto Princesa

Figure 4.5: Highest Educational Attainment of Persons 5 Years Old and Over City of Puerto Princesa in

Figure 4.6: Organizational Chart - City Government of Puerto Princesa

Figure 5.1: No. of planted Seedlings and Propagules since 2003 to

Figure 5.2: Area map of Love Affair with Nature sites from 2003 to

Figure 5.3: Survival rate of planted Mangroves since 2003 to

Figure 5.4: Mass Wedding ceremony on February 14,

Figure 5.5: Hording used to communicate the importance of mangroves

Figure 5.6: Mangrove nursery near the planting area (San Jose)

Figure 5.7: Massive Mangrove planting project with Mayor’s Participation

Figure 6.1: Total planted area from 1993 to

Figure 6.2: Number of Seedlings planted from 1993 to

Figure 6.3: Survival rate of Irawan Watershed

Figure 6.4: Survival rate of Magarawak

Figure 6.5: Welcome banner at the entrance of the boat tour

Figure 6.6: Safety jackets to wear before getting to the boat

Figure 6.7: Poster presentation about Mangroves

Figure 6.8: Interview with a Boatman (Tour Guide)

Figure 6.9: Welcome banner at the entrance

Figure 6.10: Partner organizations initiated Sabang Mangrove Paddle Boat Tour

Figure 6.11: The tour guides (boatmen) at an interview

Figure 6.12: Team of researchers from APU at Paddleboat tour

Figure 6.13: Author planting a mangrove during the first visit to the site

Figure 6.14: Worm ‘ Tamilo’ in the middle of a fallen mangrove branch

Figure 7.1: Number of projects involved so far

Figure 7.2: Mode of information about this project

Figure 7.3: Reasons for involving in mangrove plantation projects

Figure 7.4: Reasons why it is important to grow mangrove trees

Figure 7.5: Other environmental projects participated

Figure 7.6: Summary of the answers for the questionnaire for local community

Figure 7.7: Importance of Planting Mangrove

Figure 7.8: Importance of community involvement in mangrove plantation is,

Figure 7.9: The protection of planted mangrove forest is

Figure 7.10: Taking legal actions against loggers on mangrove forest is,

Figure 7.11: Managing the stability of the planting projects in the long term is,

Figure 7.12: Implementing same projects in other islands and countries are,

Figure 7.13: Payment for the local community for protecting mangrove forest is,

Figure 7.14: Forest Cover in Palawan

Figure 7.15: Forest Cover in Puerto Princesa City

Figure 7.16: Mangroves in Palawan

Figure 7.17: Mangrove cover in Puerto Princesa

Figure 7.18: Land and Sea Cover Map, City of Puerto Princesa

Figure 8.1: The Framework of Performances

Figure 8.2: View of Manila city when the flight takes off

Figure 8.3: View of Puerto Princesa before the flight landing

Figure 8.4: A close view when the flight is about to land at the Puerto Princesa Airport

Figure 8.5: Observation of plastic bags on the planting site

Figure 8.6: Disturbing sea grass due to walking and planting

Figure 8.7: Planted mangroves without removing plastic bag

List of Tables

Table 1.1: Time Plan

Table 2.1: Mangrove distribution in terms of regions

Table 2.2: Countries with the largest mangrove area

Table 2.3: Studies on Economic Value of Mangrove

Table 2.4: Studies on Ecological Value of Mangroves

Table 2.5: Functions of Mangrove Ecosystem

Table 2.6: Studies on Social values of Mangroves

Table 2.7: Estimated declines in mangrove area by region since 1980 to

Table 2.8: Estimated Mangrove lost in 1950s to 1990s

Table 2.9: Location and Size of Mangrove Forest Converted into Fishponds

Table 2.10:Objectives of Mangrove restoration

Table 4.1: Historical Growth of Population - City of Puerto Princesa

Table 4.2: Major Crops Production City of Puerto Princesa

Table 4 .3: List of True and Associate Mangrove Species Identified and Recorded

Table 5.1: Mangrove Area Enriched / Rehabilitated as “Love Affair with Nature”

Table 6.1: Estimated total number of seedlings planted in Annual PYAK Celebrations

Table 6 2: Survival rate of Irawan Watershed

Table 6.3: Survival rate of Magarawak Reforestation Project

Table 7.1: Number of projects involved so far

Table 7.2: Mode of information about this project

Table 7.3: Reasons for involving in mangrove plantation projects

Table 7.4: Reasons why it is important to grow mangrove trees

Table 7.5: Other environmental projects participated

Table 7.6: Summary of the answers for the questionnaire for local community

Table 7.7: Comparative Data on Land Cover by Category, Palawan.

ABSTRACT

Undoubtedly, the mangroves and associated wildlife show signs of degradation in every region of the world. The historical data proves that in 10 regions there is a continuous mangrove lost since 1980 to 2005. The research destination, the Philippines has lost its mangrove cover severely. The country had 500,000 hectares of mangrove cover in 1920 that has been reduced to 117,000 by year 1995. The heavy loss of mangrove forest in the world is due largely to human activities. Increased population and harvesting for residential area use, conversion to fish ponds, shrimp farming, extracting timber fire wood and charcoal, converting to commercial areas and for leisure resorts are the common reasons behind heavy loss of mangroves around the world.

The government involvement, necessary law enforcement, political will, proper leadership, community involvement, alternative livelihoods, education campaign, involvement of all local and national organization and willingness of local communities are needed to change this trend of degradation of mangroves around the world. There is an example in the City of Puerto Princesa in Palawan, Philippines that combined all the ingredients to a continuously performing sustainable environmental development project. This mangrove plantation project is known as “Love Affair with Nature” and was implemented and continued by the true efforts of Mayor Edward Hagedorn. This project is being held annually since 2003 and 58.5 hectares has been enriched/ rehabilitated in areas of Barangays San Jose and San Manuel of Puerto Princesa. This has provided nursery grounds for fish, prawns, crabs and supported matters which are valuable sources of food for crustaceans and fishes. This project is very attractive with its mass wedding ceremony and celebrations. Averagely, about 150 couples get marry with the support of the local mayor under one condition of planting a mangrove tree together.

The performances rely upon the integrated environmental projects conducted in the Puerto Princesa city. The planting mangrove project on every Valentine’s Day is not a standalone program. There are varieties of other community based mangrove and tree planting projects conducted regularly. Also there are various ecofriendly projects continuing in the area and most of these projects have increased economic, social and environmental value to its stakeholders. Every citizen of the Puerto Princesa is a part of the pride of being environmentally sound citizens.

In this study, the author has proven that Puerto Princesa City in Palawan has gained its forest cover and mangrove forest during the past two decades. The qualitative findings among interviewing local community at various stages have proven that every citizen in Puerto Princesa is aware of the importance of mangroves and they believe that the mangrove forest in Puerto Princesa is growing. The available national statistics also prove that in Puero Princesa City and in the whole Palawan Province, both mangrove and forest cover is increasing. A unique methodology was used in this study and photography was used to document many of the qualitative findings. Also, the author has originally developed a framework of success for “Love Affair with Nature” Mangrove Plantation project and which can be adopted in various parts of the Philippines.

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

The island, of Palawan is blessed with a variety of natural beauty and resources. The mayor of the city, Edward Hagedorn mentioned: “Environmental security is the highest form of national security”. Further he has mentioned that the mother earth is the larger home of everyone and like we don't mess our own house and that we should keep the earth clean and protect it. The government adopted the community-based approach on the premise that sustainability of managing forest resources necessitates building around communities living within the forestlands and its surroundings. Also there are continuous mangroves plantations projects implemented by the government with the support of the local community. The government of Puerto Princesa City has launched following programs as community-based approach (City Information 2010):

- Integrated Social Forestry Program (ISFP);
- Community Forestry Program (CFP);
- Forest Land Management Program (FLMP); and
- Coastal Environment Program (CEP).

The mangrove plantation project called “Love Affair with Nature” is an annual project which takes place every Valentine’s Day (February 14) since 2003. For the research purpose, the author has participated as a researcher on this project during planning, on-site and follow-up activities during February 2011. Also, the author has conducted participatory research on other two sites: ‘Iwahig’ and ‘Sabang’ area of Puerto Princesa City.

1.1. Background of the research

Currently there is a variety of environmental projects going on in Palawan, Philippines such as mangrove forestation projects. Many of these projects are done with the community involvement. In February 2010, the author and a team of researchers visited Puerto Princesa to witness the impacts of the local government launched project called “Love affair with nature- mangrove plantation project”. This program requests the community to involve in planting mangrove and share the love between environment and people during Valentines’ day. According to Dr. Palis, in Palawan there are varieties of mangrove forestation projects going on but the mangrove management program only focus on planting trees.

Based on the research of Dr. Palis and the author’s investigations on sights and initial discussions with local community, the author secured a strong feeling that these projects are not economically viable and there are no direct economic benefits for the local community. Therefore, the stability, continuation and regular involvement will not be sustainable in the long term. Therefore, this study focuses on developing an integrated sustainable development framework and applies it to mangrove plantation projects in Palawan. This model is in line with the triple bottom line approach (Society, Environment, Economy) of development. There are various studies about mangroves done in Thailand related to deforestation, environmental issues, social issues and very few economic impacts. Therefore there is a huge potential to develop Palawan by conducting a proper study to ensure the performances of the plantation projects and increasing the benefits to the community.

1.2. Research Objectives

The island of Palawan in the Philippines is engaged with a variety of environmental sustainable development projects and they are trying to maximize the involvement of local community. This study aims to investigate the performances of mangrove plantation projects and how they have managed the continuity so far. Also this study aims to discover how to increase the benefits to the local community and how to ensure the stability of the environmental projects. Also, to develop an integrated development model (Framework) to keep the balance between economic, social and environmental sustainability of the Environmental projects of Palawan Philippines is another objective.

1.3. Research questions

- How they (local government and related organizations) have managed the performances and continuity so far?
- What are the direct and indirect benefits to these projects to the local community?
- How to increase the community involvement in these projects?
- What incentives will motivate the local community to maintain the stability of these projects?
- How to ensure the environmental security of these projects?
- What are the resources and management capabilities these projects are lacking of?

The research methodologies to find the answers to above questions are mentioned in detail in chapter three on research methodology.

Table 1.1: Time Plan

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1.4. Significance of the study

The results of this study have produced a framework to ensure the sustainability of mangroves plantation and management with the involvement of local communities. The model is an integrated development model to keep the balance between economic, social and environmental sustainability of the environmental projects of Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. This has included people’s organizations, nonprofit organizations, and local government officials at every stage of the projects.

Sustainable management and proper economic incentives can use project areas used for a variety of livelihood activities. This thesis is an outcome of a detailed research conducted in Puerto Princesa, Palawan by digging necessary information during field visits to produce the most suitable model for Palawan, Philippines, which can be adopted in many other areas. This framework will be a supportive guideline for policy makers, researches and organizations such as the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development, for ensuring sustainable environmental development.

“These projects are expected to restore the natural system for sustainable resource utilization, protect the coastal areas against ecological and natural disasters, enhance community awareness on the economic, ecological and social importance of mangrove forests, and increase people participation in planting and managing mangrove resources” (PCSD 2010). In the future, the outcomes of this study can be used in other parts of the Philippines with some adaptations and even in Sri Lanka. Also this study will be a foundation for further research and development and can be developed to a doctoral research work in the future. The four case studies used in this study are good examples of continuing environmental projects which brings positive outcomes in terms of economic, environmental and social aspects.

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

“Mangroves are trees or large shrubs, including ferns and a palm, which normally grow in or adjacent to the intertidal zone and which have developed special adaptation in order to survive in this environment” (World Atlas of Mangroves 2010). Malena 1998 mentioned “Mangroves are a community of intertidal plants including all species of trees, shrubs, vines and herbs found on coast, swamps, or border of rivers”. The term ‘mangrove’ can be used for both the ecosystem and the plant families that have developed specialized adaptations to live in tidal environment (Tomlinson, 1986). The mangroves can be found in some northern latitudes as high as 32 degrees, even though it is quite unique within 25 degrees North and South of the Equator (Maltby 1986). Mangroves cover an area of between 190,000 and 240,000 square kilometers (km2) globally and it counts for one quarter of the world’s tropical and sub-tropical coastlines (Kelleher 1995).

The world Atlas of mangrove 2010 suggests that the total area of remaining mangrove in the third millennium is only 150,000 square kilometers. The calculations are done based on the available national statistics. Mangroves are considered as a rare global habitat. They currently make up less than 1 percent of tropical forests worldwide, and less than 0.4 percent of the global total forest estate (39,520,000 square kilometers) (FAO 2006). According to globally available data, around 117 countries and territories have mangrove resources within their borders (WCMC 1994). The world atlas of mangrove is suggesting that it is difficult to gather accurate data on original mangrove cover, however the total number should be greater than 200,000 square kilometers.

Table 2.1: Mangrove distribution in terms of regions

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Source: Created based on World Atlas of Mangroves and FAO 2007 data.

FAO 2005 suggests that 18.8 million hectares of mangrove were existed in 1980 and 15.2 million hectares of mangroves are estimated to exist worldwide as of 2005. The south East Asia is the largest region (Table 2.1) that consist of mangrove and which counts for 31 percent (Figure 2.1) of the total world mangrove area. The most expanded mangrove area is found in Asia, and then followed by West and Central Africa and North and Central America. The following figure shows more graphical explanation of the mangrove distribution in different regions.

Figure 2.1: Distribution of mangroves in various regions

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Source: Author based on World Atlas of Mangroves and FAO 2007 data.

Table 2.2: Countries with the largest mangrove area

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Source: World Atlas of Mangroves

These 12 countries account for 68 percent of the world’s mangrove cover. The balance 32 percent is spread among more than 100 countries in few quantities. In terms of single country Indonesia has the largest area of mangrove forest as shown on table 2.2. Nigeria, Australia, Mexico and Malaysia are the next four countries with largest areas of mangrove forest estimated at around 1 to 2 million hectares (WRI 1996). Even though Philippines is a tropical island country, doesn’t list in the top 12 due to mass destruction in the past.

2.1. Value of natural resources

White and Trinidad (1998) divided the total economic value of natural resources into two categories, use value and nonuse value. They defined use values as one that measures the consumptive value (direct use values) of tangible natural resources as well as non-consumptive (indirect use values) ecological and recreational uses of natural resources. When considering about the mangrove forest, the direct use value is timber, fuel wood and charcoal extracted from mangroves. The indirect use value can be the breeding ground for fisheries, coastal protection and ecotourism activities. Use value can be classified as direct use value ("goods") and indirect use value ("services"). The former can be outputs or services that can be consumed directly while the latter can be functional benefits enjoyed directly. The non-use value can be further divided in to three categories as shown on figure 2.2 (option, bequest and existence or preservation values). The option value refers to the future direct and indirect use of the natural resource. This also can be the ecological values of mangrove. The bequest value is, to how much the present generation values the use and non-use values of the resource for their offspring. The third classification is the value from knowledge of continued existence of preservation. The non-use values are intangible and various studies are done in various parts of the world. But the values given to these services of mangroves are varied and the gaps are huge. Several studies are introduced under the topic, value of mangrove. Since non-use values are intangible, this posits difficulties to measure the true (or total economic) value of a natural resource. (Cheryl et al 2005) Before considering deeply on the value of mangroves it is important to consider the theories that values natural resources.

Figure 2.2: Total Economic Value of Natural Resources

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Source: Cheryl et al. based on White and Trinidad (1998)

2.2. Importance of Mangrove

By considering various literatures, the importance of mangrove can be divided in to three parts. The economic, environmental and social values are the three different types. There are various studies conducted in different parts of the world. The monetary value given to mangroves varies based on the valuing methodologies used, area researched, background of the researchers and local differences. The following part will explain the various values of mangrove based on previous studies. The values are given in U.S. Dollars converted in 2007 equivalent values. The value is calculated on US$ per year per hectare.

2.2.1. Economic value

In most parts of the world, mangroves are being used for timber, charcoal, tannins and resins for dying and leather making, furniture, bridges, poles for fish cages and traps, medicines, alcohol, boats and many other products (Kathiresan & Bingham 2001). Commercial practices such as converting to residential land, commercial land and fishponds are being increasing in developing nations due to strong pressure from increasing population, wealth and living standards of people living in coastal areas (Daniel 2002). Several studies that value the economic value of mangrove is shown in table 2.3.

Table 2.3: Studies on Economic Value of Mangrove

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Source: Modified based on World Atlas of Mangroves 2010

“Mangroves are highly productive natural ecosystems, and provide nutrients and shelter to many commercially important aquatic organisms” (Mitsch and Gosselink 1993; Mooney et al. 1995; WCMC 1994; WRI 1996). According to Kapetsky (1985), the average earnings of fish and shellfish in mangrove surrounded areas is about 90 kilograms per hectare, and this amount can be increased up to 225 kilograms per hectare (FAO, 1994). The studies conducted to investigate the links between mangrove forests and the fishery sector suggested that for each hectare of mangrove forest cleared, nearby coastal fisheries decreased about 480 kilograms per year (MacKinnon, 1986). Studies on the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia have clearly shown a positive correlation between mangrove area and offshore shrimp and fish catches (Primavera 1997).

2.2.2. Environmental value

The ecological value of mangrove has increased after the 2004 Tsunami. “Concern about the declining “storm protection” service of mangroves reached new significance with the December 26, 2004 Asian Tsunami that caused widespread devastation and loss of life in Thailand and other Indian Ocean countries” (Barbier 2003). Mangroves are not only serving as marine guard and providing coastal security, it is also increasing the biodiversity. Please see table 2.4 for various studies on ecological value of mangroves.

Table 2.4: Studies on Ecological Value of Mangroves

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Source: Modified based on World Atlas of Mangroves 2010

“Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems” (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2003, p.53). This statement can be further elaborate by “Ecosystem services are the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life….in addition to the production of goods, ecosystem system services are the actual life-support functions, such as cleansing, recycling, and renewal, and they confer many intangible aesthetic and cultural benefits as well” (Daily 1997, p. 3). The functions of mangrove ecosystem are shown on table 2.5.

Table 2.5: Functions of Mangrove Ecosystem

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Source: Barbier 2007 adapted from Heal et al. (2005, Table 3-3) and De Groot et al. (2002).

2.2.3. Social Value

Around the world from Australia to Florida, middens (waste heaps) piled high with shellfish harvested from the mangroves tell a story of close connections between the earlier societies and their coastal mangroves (World Atlas of Mangroves 2010). There are many social activities surrounded by mangroves and the mass wedding ceremony in Palawan, Philippines is an example of modern time. Newly wedded couples plant a mangrove tree together on Valentine’s Day to show their love towards the environment.

Table 2.6: Studies on Social values of Mangroves

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Source: Modified based on World Atlas of Mangroves 2010

Environmental economists recognized a variety of values produced by mangroves (Table 2.6). Most widely used are use or material values. This is subdivided into two types. Direct use values such as mangrove fisheries, timber, honey, medicine, recreation and bio filtration. Indirect use values are coastal protection, support to offshore fisheries, carbon sequestration and protection of ecosystems.

2.3. Decline of the world mangroves

There are two main types of sources which causes heavy destruction of mangroves. Increasing population pressure in coastal areas and over-harvesting of timber and other wood products are one type of destruction of mangrove forests. Second type is, in recent years a more significant cause appears to be the demand for land by key primary sector economic development activities, such as mining, conversion to salt ponds, shrimp ponds, agricultural and aquaculture expansion (Barbier 2003). Shrimp farming has increased by over 400 percent in tropical countries since 1989 and its share of world shrimp production increased from 5 percent in 1982 to over 30 percent by 1996 (Anderson and Fong 1997). Naylor et al. 2000 said that farmed fish and shellfish in the coastal zone have more than doubled in the past 15 years and there is a huge increase in global demand. Region wise historical decline of mangrove forest is shown on table 2.7.

Table 2.7: Estimated declines in mangrove area by region since 1980 to 2005

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Source: FAO 200 7

Figure 2.3: Estimated declines in mangrove area by region since 1980 to 2005

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Source: Author based on FAO 2007 data

The above figure clearly shows that during 1980 to 2005, there is dramatic lost in mangrove forest in every region except for Australia (Figure 2.3). South East Asia, North and Central America, Pacific Ocean and East Asia show the highest decrease and it’s more than 20 percent in 25 years (Figure 2.4). But when analyzing the global trend in terms of decline comparatively there is a slight reduction. In 1980s the annual global loss is 1.04 percent and in 1990s it is 0.72 percent and further dropped to 0.66 percent during five year period in 2000s. However, Duke et al. (2007) estimates it is 1 to 2 percent and Valiela et al. (2001) estimates it at 2.07 percent per year. These estimates are significantly higher than the FAO 2007 estimates.

Figure 2.4: Percentage Change in Area of mangrove since 1980 to 2005

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Source: Author based on FAO 2007 data

Over different time periods factors influencing the structure and function of mangrove forests changes in relation to global, regional and local scales (Duke et al. 1998). Rates of mangrove loss are three to four times higher than overall global forest loss, which was estimated at 0.22 percent per year in the 1990s, dropping to 0.18 percent per year in the five years to 2005 (FAO 2006).

Figure 2.5: Annual Change in Area of mangrove since 1980 to 2005

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Source: Author based on FAO 2007 data

The countries in the three regions of East Asia, South East Asia and Pacific Ocean have the highest annual rate of decline of more than 1 percent (Figure 2.5). Even though the Mangroves forests still face major threats, the rate of loss has recently been decreasing. From a record of 187,000 hectares lost annually in the 1980s (–1.04 percent per year) has reduced to 102,000 hectares annually (–0.66 percent per year) during the 2000–2005 period (FAO 2005). By analyzing the trend, the positive note is that mangrove area changes in 2000–2005, shows a reduction of the annual rate of loss in all regions.

The Philippines have lost its mangrove cover by 70 percent from 1920 to 1990 (WRI 1996). India is also among the highly mangrove destructed nations with 50 percent during 1963 to 1977 and Malaysia counts for loss of 17 percent of its mangrove area during 1965 to1985 (WRI 1996). “Many of the other countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa have lost between 30 and 70 percent of their mangrove area in the last 30 to 40 years” (Spalding et al. 1997; WRI 1996). During the period of 1975 to 1993 the mangroves forest in Thailand was heavily destroyed, from 312,700 hectares to 168,683 hectares (Sathirathai and Barbier 2001). The urbanization has caused the mass destruction of mangroves in Singapore over the past century (Spalding et al. 1997). Mastaller has gathered data on several countries that have heavily lost its mangrove forest during the period of 1900’s. Mastaller produced the table 2.8 in 1996.

Table 2.8: Estimated Mangrove lost in 1950s to 1990s

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Source: Mastaller 1996

“The world mangrove experts are of the opinion that the long-term survival of mangroves is at great risk due to fragmentation of the habitats and that the services offered by the mangroves may likely be totally lost within 100 years” (Duke et al., 2007). Some other estimates show that global loss rates annually at 1 million hectare, and in some regions facing a danger of complete loss (Kathiresan and Bingham 2001). Global mangrove cover has been declining at an alarming rate, and it has lost about 35 percent of the total area in the past decades, therefore the coastal mangrove systems are now considered as one of the “most threatened” ecosystems and much threatened than coral reefs and tropical forests (Valiela et al., 2001).

During the past 30 to 40 years Asia, Latin America and Africa have lost between 30 and 70 percent of their mangrove area (Spalding et al. 1997; WRI 1996). When considering the country level, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea and Panama has recorded largest losses of mangroves during the 1980’s which counts for 1 million hectares and this is the land area of Jamaica (FAO 2005).

2.4. Mangroves in the Philippines

The Philippine mangrove forest area was estimated to be around 450,000 hectares in 1920 and due to conversion to fishponds and saltbeds, cutting of trees for firewood and other domestic uses, and reclamation for industrial or other development purposes, this area has reduced to less than 150,000 hectares. That is distributed among 22 percent in Palawan, 32 percent in Mindanao, and 23 percent in Eaastern Visayas and Bohol (DENR 2011 interview). Also Cheryl et al 2005 mentioned that the Mangrove in the philippines was 500,000 hectares at the early 1900s and reduced to 117,700 hectares by 1993 spread in 18,000 kilometer long shoreline. There is a record of mangrove depletion at a rate of about 3,700 hectares per year, during 1980 to 1991 specially due to conversion to fishponds (Cheryl et al 2005).

Figure 2.6: Mangrove resource decline in the Philippines

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Source: Modified based on DENR Statistics 1998

Mangroves in the Philippines are substantially changing over the last 100 years (Figure 2.6). Huge quantities of mangroves were lost and remaining areas were degraded to some extent. According to Primavera 2000, 99.8 percent of mangroves in Manila bay by 1951 are gone by the year 1994. Further, in Visayan Islands, the losses are dramatic and it counts for 95 percent of mangroves lost during 1951 to 1994. Between 1968 and 1983 almost half of the total national mangrove area has been decreased and it counts for 237,000 hectares of mangrove (Fernandez, 1978). According to the Research and Development Extension Framework 2007–2010, mangroves have degraded continuously and about 25 percent of the original mangrove areas have been converted into fishponds with an average rate of 5,000 ha/year in the nineteen seventies and early eighties.

Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund 2001 mentions that the largest contiguous stand of mangrove in the Philippines can be found in Siargao Island off the north east coast counts for 4,000 hectares. The southern island of Mindanao has two thirds of the remaining mangroves of the country (Primavera 2000). World Atlas of Mangroves 2010 describes that Palawan has extensive amount of mangrove remaining in Ulugan bay and Malampaya sound.

2.5. Mangrove lost in Puerto Princessa

The major activities which threaten the mangrove forests of Palawan includes: Conversion into fishponds and agricultural areas and harvest of mangrove timber for coal fuel. Based on the 1986 aerial photographs of NAMRIA, mangrove forest cover was estimated to be about 5,917 hectares in Puerto Princesa. The ECAN Zoning Project, using 2004 SPOT5 imageries, measured the area of remaining mangrove cover in Puerto Princesa City to be 5,737 hectares. The decrease of 180 hectares over a period of 18 years or about 10 hectares per year is attributed to the rampant cutting of trees for fuel, wood, charcoal making and housing materials. Clearing of mangroves for fishpond development substantially contributed to the receding forest cover. In June 2000, the DENR-CENRO reported that 185 hectares of mangrove forests were converted into fishponds and beach resorts. Table 2.9 shows the location and size of mangrove forest converted into fishponds in Puerto Princesa City.

Table 2.9: Location and Size of Mangrove Forest Converted into Fishponds

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Source: CLUP 2001-2010, City of Puerto Princesa

2.6. Managing mangroves

The Atlas of Mangroves 2010 shows that the first and oldest known legal document that offered partial protection to mangroves was a decree in the year 1760 from King Jose I of Portugal. It is referred that his concerns about ensuring a sustained supply of mangrove bark for the tanning industry in part of Brazil was the prime purpose. The decree also highlighted that mangroves could not be cut for daily chores unless their bark was utilized for its tannings, ensuring that timber or firewood was taken from other less valuable species.

2.6.1. Sustainable silviculture

Intensive management of mangroves is undertaken in a number of large forests in Asia. The best known examples are from the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India and Matang in Malaysia. In the former, there is evidence of forest management dating back to 1759, with scientific planning established in the late 19th century (Chowdhury and Ahmed, 1994; Saenger, 2003), while Matang has been sustainably managed since 1902 (Chan, 1996).

Further the Atlas of Mangroves 2010 confirms that these types of forests are managed on a commercial basis, with well-established structures of plantations even though they utilize natural regeneration. Thinning is undertaken after several years to produce a first crop, followed by a final clearing. Such cycles may be 30 years or more in length and therefore require a large forested area as well as stable long-term policy and planning in order to be successful. When managed in an integrated manner with mangrove-associated fisheries, the total economic value of such forestry can be very great indeed.

2.7. Mangrove Restoration and Afforestation

In many places around the world, mangroves have now been actively planted, or have been encouraged to grow through community based environmental activities. Generally, the term restoration is used where mangroves are returned to areas in which they previously existed. The term afforestation is used on plantation of mangroves, where there is no evidence of prior existence.

Early projects of mangrove plantation were generally undertaken in order to provide a source of timber and fuel wood (Walton et al., 2006), with Nypa planted in some areas for its sugar and alcohol and as a source of roofing materials. Other early plantation in the Philippines was undertaken to provide protection from typhoons (Primavera and Esteban, 2008). Since the 1980s, a broader array of goals has been cited for mangrove plantation. These include protection of inland resources and human life during storm surges; erosion reduction; biodiversity conservation; fisheries enhancement; as a form of mitigation for mangrove removal in other areas, typically led by coastal developers (Field, 1996; Walton et al, 2006); for aesthetic appeal in the Middle East (Saenger, 2003); and even as a source of livestock fodder (Sato et al, 2005).

According to The Palawan Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD), “these projects are expected to restore the natural system for sustainable resource utilization, protect the coastal areas against ecological and natural disasters. Enhancing the community awareness on the economic, ecological and social importance of mangrove forests, and increase people participation in managing mangrove resources is involved with these projects”. According to Dr. Palis Lamented (2005), in Palawan there are varity of mangrove forestation projects going on but the mangrove management program only focus on planting trees. In some areas the degraded areas are being regenerated and continued monitoring, assessment must be in place to understand the recovery process and regeneration (Van Speybroeck, 1992).

But in other parts of the world, multiple benefits are cited: around landfill areas in Rio de Janeiro, plantations have improved visual aesthetics, reduced pollution, and helped control insect and rodent pests (the mangroves provide a home or roosting ground for avian predators of the rodents) (Lacerda, 2003). Typically, even in areas where mangroves are planted for a single purpose, the associated benefits are widely and rapidly appreciated. Afforestation of mangroves in new areas has also been widespread. In the Marshall Islands and French Polynesia it seems likely that mangroves were transported to the islands by initial colonizers many centuries ago; but transplantation has continued in other regions, from Hawaii to the Middle East (world Atlas of Mangroves, 2010).

“Mangroves can grow and thrive if hydrological and geomorphological conditions are optimal, and there is some evidence that replanted forests can approach the biomass, stand structure and productivity of undisturbed forests within 20-25 years” (McKee & Faulkner 2000). Aron in 2000 has analyzed selected projects of 15 countries and prepared a list of objectives of mangrove restoration of those selected projects as shown on table 2.10. The objectives are not common in every case. Majority of countries focuses on establishing forest products and coastal area protection. Also increasing fisheries is another common goal among many countries.

Table 2.10:Objectives of Mangrove restoration

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Source: Modified based on Aron M Elison 2000

2.7.1. Restoration of mangrove forest

The importance of mangrove forests is that they may restore themselves without any external efforts. This has now leaded to realization and should first look at the potential existence of stresses such as blocked tidal inundation that may prevent secondary succession from occurring in restoration planning. Plan on removing that stress before attempting restoration, has clearly proven by Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984; Cintron-Molero, 1992. The next important step in the process is to identify whether natural seedling recruitment is occurring once the stress has been removed (Hamilton 1984).

Below is a ‘10 Steps’ process which emphasizes on the mangrove restoration task. This concept was initiated by Lewis and Marshall (1997), with their six critical steps, which they deemed necessary to achieve ecological mangrove restoration. “The general approach is to emphasize careful examination of factors hindering natural regeneration restoration opportunities while avoiding emphasizing planting of mangroves” (Turner and Lewis, 1997).

Despite its contribution of previous authors, they have ignored the human dimension as an important consideration in the mangrove restoration projects, which Bosire 2010 added a very vital contribution in the overall process. This process was later developed further by including the human perspective as well and leads to a process of 10 steps as shown in figure 2.7.

Figure 2.7: Ten steps scheme of mangrove restoration pathways

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Source: Author based on Bosire 2010 (modified after Stevenson et al., 1999; Bosire et al., 2006).

The 10 step process is as follows: Step 1: Understand both autoecology and community ecology of mangrove species. Step 2: Understand appropriate hydrologic regimes. Step 3: Assess factors hampering succession. Step 4: Survey subsistence users, traditions, perceptions, needs and alternatives (sustainable utilization) Step 5: Select appropriate restoration sites based on steps 1 - 4. Step 6: Restore hydrology and remove any barrier to natural regeneration. Step 7: Select appropriate species, populations and individuals for planting. Step 8: Mangrove planting. Step 9: Assessment of success and functionality: monitor and assess potential for sustainable utilization, monitor and assess vegetation development and floristic succession, monitor and assess fanatic recruitment, monitor and assess environmental factors and processes. Step 10: Give recommendations for improved site management.

The ability of self-restoration in mangrove requires little of human efforts, provided that the natural system is uninterrupted by human activities. When natural regeneration fails and the process requires human efforts, an understanding of the auto-ecology and community ecology of the targeted mangrove species is necessary. In other words, understanding its reproductive patterns, propagule dispersal, seedling establishment, zonation and hydrology are done in the first two stages.

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this study, both qualitative and quantitative approaches are used and the following part explains the reasons to choose both approach and the techniques used under each approach.

3.1. Qualitative Research

The mostly used approach in this work is qualitative research. Qualitative research is very useful when gathering a significant amount of details and especially when explaining about a social and environmental event. “Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts” (Denzin et al 2005). This is because qualitative research studies people and events in their own context (Weiss, 1998, p. 252). Numbers cannot explain and visualize the whole story. This description oriented and narrative data that describes the experiences and perceptions of people (Patton, 2002, pp. 4-5) and it is the essence of qualitative research.

The flexible nature of qualitative research allows for exploration using ordinary language that is accessible to any audience, an important part of action research, as well as non-traditional mediums of expression including photography and video (Lincoln & Denzin 2003, p. 4). For the explanation of the mangrove plantation project and evaluation of the social impact and the awareness among local community, qualitative approaches are used. Qualitative data can be validated and is authentic because it is rooted in the fairness of open discussion (Weiss, 1998, p. 262), particularly when it is coupled with observation and participation methods.

"All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding" - Donald Campbell

3.2. Quantitative research

In this study, most of the data that is gathered stands as qualitative. But to prove most of the explanation, a quantitative approach is also used. “The aim is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed and Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail” (James Neil 2007). The data on the socio economic profile of the Puerto Princesa city, land cover data, mangrove plantation area and number of plants, world mangrove destruction are mentioned in quantitatively to argue and support the points mentioned in qualitative explanations.

"There's no such thing as qualitative data. Everything is either 1 or 0" - Fred Kerlinger

3.3. Data Gathering Mechanism

In this section, the specific techniques that were used to gather data for this work will be explained. Reasons and justification for methodology is explained in this chapter and data gathering techniques such as desk research, interviews, case studies, observation, photography, focus groups, and surveys are explained in detail.

3.3.1. Desk research

“Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, where data is collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments” (Crouch; Sunny Crouch, Matthew Housden 2003). Even though it is not mentioned in detail, references to secondary sources such as books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, and annual reports of local governments and organizations have been made throughout the work to support explanation especially in the Chapter 2 consisting of literature review. Most of the quantitative data is gathered through this method . Desk research based on published reports by the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD) was used in both qualitative and quantitative data gathering (Figure 3.1). Online news publications, articles and books written about sustainable environmental development projects are the other sources of secondary information.

Figure 3.1: Desk research conducted at the research destination

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Source: Dimithri and government offices in Puerto Princesa 2011

3.3.2. Interviews

Interview is one of the key methods of this study especially in terms of gathering people’s opinion on various environmental projects. Rapley in 2007 defines “Interviews are social encounters where speakers collaborate in producing retrospective and/or prospective accounts of their past and/or future actions, experiences, feelings, and thoughts” (p. 16). In this study, formal and informal interviewing was also used as appropriate to the situation. Informal unstructured interviews do not use a strict question guide and are often done in a conversational setting (Weiss, 1998, p. 258). The important point of informal interviews is to listen to the speaker as they tell their story in their own words (Weiss, 1998, p. 259). Open-ended questions can be used in a formal or informal interview setting to allow the interviewee to tell their story in their own words (Weiss, 1998, pp. 166). The other form of formal interview is survey interviewing, which typically supplies the same closed questions to many interviewees (Weiss, 1998, p. 166). There were closed questions where the respondent could choose from a scale. The respondents are local community members who are involved in the mangrove plantation projects and those who have never joined these projects. A questionnaire has been used with open-ended and close-ended questions among local community. Interviews were also conducted as focus groups where appropriate. Much detailed questionnaire with open-ended questions was used in interviews among government officials to get deeper into qualitative analysis of the issue. Interviews among staff of Palawan Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD), the faculty of the Palawan State University (PSU) and community leaders were also conducted in the same manner. These were conducted mostly on one to one basis as shown in figure 3.2 and gathered more of qualitative data and group interviews conducted in few occasions as shown in figure 3.3.

Figure3.2: Focus one to one interviews among scholars, city officials and tour guides

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Source: Dr. Fellizar, Erick and government offices in Puerto Princesa 2011

Figure 3.3: Informal Interviews and focus group discussions

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Source: Local citizens of Puerto Princesa 2011

3.3.3. Case Studies

“A case study can be defined as “an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context” (Yin, 2003, p. 13). Case studies can be valid and reliable as a methodology (Flyvbjerg, 2007, p. 391; Yin, 2003, pp. 36-39). Like with other research techniques, the validity and reliability of a case study depends on the quality of the research design and its rigorous implementation. The selection of cases can be done randomly or purposefully. The selection of the case “Love Affair with Nature” was done purposely after visiting the site in 2010 on the purpose of field visit. It should be noted that case studies are not generalizable (Flyvbjerg, 2007, p. 391), but rather are designed to generate specific knowledge about a specific place and time. This means that case studies are best for generating hypotheses (Flyvbjerg, 2007, p. 391) and context rich data for intellectual exploration. Case studies demonstrate causal arguments about how general social forces take shape and produce results in a specific setting (Ragin, 2000, p. 122). It is a holistic way to approach research considering the interrelationships between people, institutions, and events (Weiss, 1998, p. 261). The main case study chosen in this study is “Love Affair with Nature” mangrove plantation project shown in figure 3.4. The cases of the “Firefly watching in Iwahig mangrove forest and river”, “Sabang mangrove paddleboat tour” and “Feast of the Forest” – massive tree planting projects are evaluated to support the findings and conclusion.

Figure 3.4: Case study by participation

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Source: Dr. Patric 2011

3.3.4. Observation

Observation is a common technique in research that is easily employed and unfortunately heavily biased (Kumar, 1987, p. 22), but still a very useful method to build a detailed narrative. This method is linked with participation, informal interviews, discussions, and photography methods. Direct observation is when the researcher is simply describing the things she/he witnesses and is useful because it allows the researcher to study the phenomena in their natural setting and may reveal things that informants are unable or unwilling to describe (Kumar, 1987, p. 21). Various types of observation were used in this work including direct observation and participant observation. Participant observation is observation by a researcher who takes part in the activities and events she/he is describing (Weiss, 1998, p. 257). As a part of this technique, the author has participated in planning, actual event, post events and evaluation events of the “Love Affair with Nature 2011” – mangrove plantation project. Figure 3.5 shows authors observation visit to a rubber nursery in Puerto Princesa with a team of researchers in 2010.

Figure 3.5: Observing rubber nursery

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Source: Kumara 2010

3.3.5. Photographs

The use of photography helps to tell the story of a certain group of people or place or event (Bleiker & Kay 2007; Harper 2001; Lykes 2006). Although not widespread as of yet, the use of photography as a tool for evaluation (Rietbergen-McCracken & Narayan, 1998, p. 212) is used in the modern research especially for qualitative data gathering in community based projects. Photography is an alternative form of data gathering that parallels the concepts of localization and participatory methodologies (see Bleiker & Kay, 2007, p. 152). Documentary photography, whether taken by researchers or internal participants, are a sort of visual ethnography (Harper, 2001, p. 15). In this work, original photographs were taken by the author to document the project with the support of PSU staff members.

3.3.6. Surveys

Survey questioning is a type of formal interview. For this work, a large survey was not necessary and therefore an informal survey method was chosen and implemented in the “Love Affair with Nature” case. An informal survey focuses on only a few variables, uses a small sample size and non-probability sampling, and permits more flexibility to the interviewers (Kumar, 1987, pp. 2-3). Although it is small in size and limited in focus, informal surveys do generate data that can be statistically analyzed (Kumar, 1987, pp. 2-3). Data from informal surveys with open-ended questions can be statistically analyzed as long as they are appropriately coded and then categorized (Weiss, 1998, p.168). “Incorporating qualitative, open-ended questions into an informal survey enables respondents to a) tell their story in their own words; b) encourages freedom and spontaneity in answering; c) allows respondents to use their own language and concepts, and to qualify and elaborate when they feel it necessary; and d) opens the opportunity for unanticipated findings” (Kumar, 1990, p. 11). This is the reason why the author has used the method of survey to gather data without harming the original idea of the respondent.

3.3.7. Focus Groups

Focus groups are when a number of people are brought together and questions are raised for them to discuss (Weiss, 1998, p. 260). When the group is larger and more inclusive it is then known as a community interview and involves holding a public meeting with a more detailed itinerary and question guide (Kumar, 1987, p. 17). Focus groups allow group dynamics and conversations to be observed (Weiss, 1998, p. 260) and provide a platform for community interaction and communications. The interviews among the staff of City Environment Office (City ENRO) and also in the faculty of Natural Sciences at the Palawan State University (PSU) were conducted in the form of focus group.

Figure 3.6 shows the mixed methodology approach used in this study in the form of a chart.

Figure 3.6: Research Methodology Framework

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Source: Author 2010

CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH DESTINATION - CITY OF PUERTO PRINCESA

4.1. Geographical Location

Figure 4.1: Map of Asia

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Source: City Government Planning section of Puerto Princesa

The map of the Philippines is indicated in red color in figure 4.1 and the island of Palawan is circled. An enlarged version of Palawan can be found in green color and in the middle part of the island, area colored in red shows the exact location of Puerto Princesa City (P.P.C.) in figure 4.2.

Figure 4.2: Map of Palawan

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Source: City Government Planning section of Puerto Princesa

The P.P.C is the research area and the following map (Figure 4.3) shows the political boundaries. Also the barangays (village) San Jose and San Manuel where Love Affair with nature takes place are indicated in the same map.

Figure 4.3:Political Boundary Map - City of Puerto Princesa

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Source: City Government Planning section of Puerto Princesa

4.2. Puerto Princesa City

Puerto Princesa is the capital city of Palawan, an island province known for its lush rainforest and tropical beauty. Its western side is a coastline of the South China Sea while to the east lays the Sulu Sea. The city has become a natural destination for eco-tourists, nature lovers, vacationists and researchers. It abounds in diverse resources and natural scenic spots, which attracts both local and international tourists to come to Puerto Princesa with a bonus of goodwill. The honor that the city won in 1996 as the “Hall of Fame” awardee for being the “Cleanest and Greenest City in the Philippines” together with a number of other awards in the area of environmental protection, sustainable agriculture, rural health delivery services, peace and order and functional literacy have supplemented the natural attraction of the city and made it a more popular destination point (City Information 2011).

Puerto Princesa is considered as the second largest city in the country in terms of land area, the city sprawls across 253,982 hectares of land, which constitutes about 17 percent of the total landmass of the province stretched over 106 kilometers long with its narrowest breadth of 8.5 kilometers at Barangay Bahile. The city is composed of 66 barangays of which 35 are urban and 31 are rural. With a forest cover of 159,203 hectares, or 63 percent of its total area estimate, it is considered to be the biggest in any city in the Philippines (National Statistics Office, City of Puerto Princesa 2007). Puerto Princesa is also referred to as the country’s “Princess City in the Last Frontier.”

The City of Puerto Princesa is the main gateway to the rest of Palawan. Given its ecologically-focused brand name as a Park-like city, it strives to win and keep the honor of becoming the “Premier Tourist Destination” in the Philippines. Apart from that and in relation to Palawan, Puerto Princesa will continue to serve as the center of trade and commerce, communication, education and public administration in the province. In the regional aspect, the city’s airport and seaport are among the important transport links in the region. It is among the active players in the regional development.

[...]

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Pages
111
Year
2011
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9783668047679
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9783668047686
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Language
English
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Title: The Performances of Sustainable Environmental Development Projects (Mangrove Plantation) in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan-Philippines