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Intercultural Competence - The Key to Successful International Marketing

Intercultural Behavioral Training as an Approach to Market Development

Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation 2015 218 Pages

Business economics - Offline Marketing and Online Marketing

Excerpt

CONTENT

1. Introduction.. 10

1.1 Problem Statement 10

1.2 Purpose of Investigation. 12

1.3 Procedure of Investigation. 12

2. International Marketing.. 15

2.1 Definition of Terminology. 15

2.1.1 International Management 15

2.1.1.1 On the nature of international management 15

2.1.1.2 EPRG-Concept by Perlmutter 16

2.1.1.3 Typologies by Bartlett/Ghoshal 19

2.1.2 International Marketing. 21

2.1.2.1 On the Nature of international Marketing. 21

2.1.2.2 Intercultural Marketing. 22

2.1.2.3 Forms, Corporate Culture and Central inner Orientation in international Marketing. 23

2.2 The frame Conditions of international Marketing. 25

2.2.1 Economic Factors. 27

2.2.2 Political-Legal Factors. 27

2.2.3 Technological Factors. 28

2.2.4 Sociocultural Factors. 29

2.2.5 Globalization as a considerable Challenge to international Marketing. 29

2.2.5.1 On the Nature of Globalization. 29

2.2.5.2 The Global Marketing Hypothesis. 32

3. Culture as a Frame Factor of International Marketing 36

3.1 Definition of “Culture”. 36

3.2 Aspects in Culture. 38

3.3 Elements of Culture. 42

3.3.1 Communicative Elements. 42

3.3.1.1 Verbal Communication. 42

3.3.1.2 Nonverbal Communication. 48

3.3.2 Standards, Conventions, Values. 49

3.3.3 Psycho-cultural Influences. 50

3.3.3.1 Colors, Signs and Symbols. 50

3.3.3.2 Esthetic Perception, Habits. 53

3.3.4 Culture and Nationality. 55

3.4 A Selective Presentation of Cultural Theories. 56

3.4.1 Selection of Cultural Theories. 56

3.4.2 Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions. 56

3.4.3 Cultural Dimensions according to Hall 63

3.4.4 Cultural Dimensions according to Trompenaars and Kluckhohn/Strodtbeck. 66

3.4.5 Closing remarks regarding the cultural theories presented. 67

4. Objectives, Methodology and Methods. 69

4.1 Objectives. 69

4.2 Methodology. 70

4.3 Methods. 73

5. Cultural Influences on International Marketing 74

5.1 Analyzing the Point of Departure. 76

5.1.1 Culture-free and culture-bound products. 76

5.1.2 Sector's Localization Need. 77

5.2 Intercultural Market Segmentation. 79

5.2.1 Hypothetical Zones of Cultural Affinity. 80

5.2.2 Country Clusters based on objective Criteria. 81

5.2.3 Country Clusters based on subjective Criteria. 83

5.3 Intercultural Market- and Consumer Research. 84

5.3.1 Anomalies in intercultural Market- and Consumer Research. 84

5.3.2 Country-of-origin Effect 86

5.3.3 Buy-national Mentality. 87

5.3.4 Brand Myth of the Product 88

5.4 Intercultural Marketing-Mix. 89

5.4.1 Intercultural Product Policy. 95

5.4.2 Intercultural Pricing Policy. 98

5.4.3 Intercultural Distribution Policy. 99

5.4.4 Intercultural Communication Policy. 99

6. Factors of Intercultural Learning.. 102

6.1 Situations of Cultural Overlap. 102

6.2 Culture Shock. 104

6.3 Intercultural Learning. 105

6.4 Intercultural Trainings. 108

6.5 Intercultural Competence. 111

7. General and intercultural Communication.. 116

7.1 The Purpose of Communication in general 116

7.1.1 Levels of Communication. 117

7.1.2 Types of general Communication. 118

7.1.3 Successful general Communication. 120

7.2 The Purpose of intercultural Communication. 120

7.2.1 Features of intercultural Communication. 121

7.2.2 Sources of Error in intercultural Communication. 123

7.2.3 Successful intercultural Communication. 124

8. Pre-Research: Intercultural Communication Training 127

8.1 The Goal of intercultural Communication Training. 127

8.2 The Trainer in intercultural Communication Training. 130

9. Behavior and Attitudes. 134

9.1 Behavior. 134

9.2 Behavioral Development 135

9.3 Attitude. 138

9.4 Change of Attitude. 140

9.5 Behavior and Attitude in Comparison. 141

10. Data Collection and Analysis. 143

10.1 Interviewing Employees from different Companies. 143

10.1.1 Purpose of Investigation. 143

10.1.1.1 Consideration and Formulation of Research Questions. 143

10.1.1.2 Frame Conditions for Interviewing. 144

10.1.1.3 Developing and Building the Questionnaire. 145

10.1.1.4 Critical Evaluation of the Questionnaire and Method. 147

10.1.2. Evaluation and Presentation of Results. 148

10.1.2.1 Socio-demographic Aspects of the Group. 148

10.1.2.2 Choice of Time and Reason for Participation in intercultural Communication Training. 150

10.1.2.3 The Need for intercultural Communication Training. 152

10.1.2.4 Structure of the intercultural Communication Trainings taken. 154

10.1.2.5 Probands' Self-Assessment regarding behavioral Development 155

10.2 In-depth Interviews with Intercultural Trainers. 158

10.2.1 Purpose of Investigation. 158

10.2.2 Evaluation and Presentation of Results. 158

10.3 Partial Results. 163

10.3.1 Individual partial Results. 163

10.3.2 Summary of partial Results. 166

10.4 Evaluation and Suggestions for Implementation. 167

11. Summary and future Prospects. 170

11.1 ITMC-Method. 172

11.1.1 ITMC Objectives. 172

11.1.2 The four phases of knowledge transfer 173

Conclusion.. 179

BIBLIOGRAPHY.. 182

Monographs and Anthologies. 182

Essays from Anthologies. 187

Magazine and Newspaper Articles. 190

Internet Sources 193

ATTACHMENTS. 194

Resumé v slovenskom jazyku.. 207

FIGURES

Figure 1: EPRG-Profile by Perlmutter. 17

Figure 2: Capabilities and structures of companies with international business 19

Figure 3: A system of basic orientations in international Marketing. 23

Figure 4: Corporate Culture and basic international Orientation. 24

Figure 5: Frame Conditions for international Marketing. 26

Figure 6: Tendency for Consolidation in the Automotive Industry. 30

Figure 7: The driving Forces of Globalization in Enterprises. 31

Figure 8: Line of Argument supporting global Marketing Strategies. 32

Figure 9: Cases pros and cons global Marketing. 34

Figure 10: Marketing-mix Standardization within the industrial goods Sector 35

Figure 11: Descriptive and explicative cultural Aspects. 39

Figure 12: Examples for cultural Artifacts. 40

Figure 13: Primary pictographic associations of German and French probands related to the keyword „Caribbean“. 44

Figure 14: Cultural difference in language usage; percentage of all pictographic associations 44

Figure 15: Nonverbal Communication. 48

Figure 16: Color symbolism in international marketing. 51

Figure 17: Power Distance Points (PDP) in 74 countries and regions. 58

Figure 18: Insecurity Prevention Points (IPP) in 74 countries and regions. 59

Figure 19: Individualism Index Points (IIP) in 74 countries and regions. 61

Figure 20: Masculinity Index Points (MIP) in 74 countries and regions. 62

Figure 21: Long-term Orientation Points (ILO) in 39 countries and regions. 63

Figure 22: Messages and Context 64

Figure 23: Ways of saying „no“ in Japanese. 65

Figure 24: Deductive Versus Inductive Approach. 71

Figure 25: Recommended Procedures for Implementing Intercultural Marketing 74

Figure 26: Differentiated Standardization Strategy. 75

Figure 27: Dependency on Culture for different Product Categories. 76

Figure 28: Globalization and Localization Needs in selected Branches. 78

Figure 29: Globalization and Localization Needs for Unilever. 79

Figure 30: Hypothetical Zones of Cultural Affinity in Europe. 81

Figure 31: Segmentation of Consumer from 15 European Countries based on Language 82

Figure 32: Dendrogram; Culturally homogenous Country Clusters. 83

Figure 33: Cultural Profiles of the three leading trading Nations. 84

Figure 34: Individualization and Localization Demands. 88

Figure 35: Examples of culture-oriented Companies. 91

Figure 36: Degree of Standardization for various global Brands. 94

Figure 37: Standardized Trademarks and differentiated Brand Names for Dr. Oetker 95

Figure 38: Standardized Trademarks and differentiated Brand Names for Henkel 96

Figure 39: Standardized Trademarks and differentiated Brand Names for Langnese-Iglo (Unilever) 97

Figure 40: The Dynamics of cultural Overlap. 103

Figure 41: Step Model of intercultural Learning according to Hoopes (1981) 106

Figure 42: Criterion and Description of intercultural Trainings. 109

Figure 43: The Pressure-coping-Paradigm as an integrative frame Theory 114

Figure 44: The standard Communication Model 116

Figure 45: The Communication Square according to Friedemann Schulz von Thun 117

Figure 46: Communication Types. 119

Figure 47: Influences affecting the communicative situation according to Zöchbauer and Hoeckstra 122

Figure 48: Communication Maxims according to Grice. 124

Figure 49: The Johari-window.. 125

Figure 50: The Process of human Behavior, represented as a Sequence of Conditions 136

Figure 51: Three Component Model according to Rosenberg Hovland. 139

Figure 52: Distribution of Business Sectors for the concerned Group (Question 4) 149

Figure 53: On what Occasion was the Training taken? (Question 9) 151

Figure 54: A Comparison of Opinions regarding the Need for intercultural Communication Training (questions 8 and 18) 153

Figure 55: Comparing behavioral Development on a company-related Level (question 12) and a private Level (question 14) 156

Figure 56: Areas of Change (Question 19) 157

Figure 57: ITMC – Phase I. 174

Figure 58: ITMC – Phase II. 175

Figure 59: ITMC – Phase III. 177

Figure 60: ITMC – Phase IV.. 178

ABBREVIATIONS

cf. confer

ed. edition

e.g. exempli gratia

Fig. Figure

Ibid. ibidem

i.e. id est

ITMC “first letter of all 4 cycle subjects”

p. page

Publ. Publisher

rev. revised

US United States of America

Vol. volume

WW II Second World War

1. Introduction

1.1 Problem Statement

After the Second World War the international economy was characterized by a progressive increase. After showing symptoms of saturation, a shift from sales to a purchase market took place in the 60s and 70s.[1] Additionally, a growing dynamic in international competition became manifest in the early 80s. Its result, besides an increasing world trade, was also a greater interdependence of international economic activities.

The saturated domestic markets on the one hand, as well as growing international competition on the other have been identified as causes for this process.[2] It has, furthermore, benefited from political changes, e.g. in the former Eastern Bloc or the creation of economic areas and free-trade zones. Business ventures tried to profit from competitive edges that resulted from global marketing strategies. To persist in the global race it was not possible to maintain a company business policy limited only to the domestic market.[3]

The discussion of globalization presumed an equilibration of consumer needs as well as a “uniform consumer”. Several local markets consequently lost their importance within the process of internationalization.[4] In this context the globalization of marketing becomes topical, its central question being whether or not international advertising can be standardized.[5] Based on the convergence thesis it has often been tried to generate success in economizing costs through a total standardized marketing mix.

However, the peripheral factor of culture and its significant influence on consumer behavior is often underestimated.[6] When looking at how present „information overload“ is causing a loss of information in 97-99 % of German consumers, it becomes obvious without further analysis that disrespecting cultures within standardized communication can represent a risk.[7]

If and how far culture should be called a “strategic success factor”[8]is object of this dissertation. Thereby it will be examined what kind of acceptation culture has within international marketing and which recommended procedures result for business ventures. Especially endorsements for an inter alia culture-ignoring and standardized marketing as well as arguments for a culture-considering and differentiated marketing will be analyzed.

Today it has been more or less proven that product-political aptness presents only one part of intercultural understanding and that another – very serious part – is constituted by the human-being and his personal intercultural understanding. This is addressed in an in-depth empirical investigation about „Intercultural Behavior Training as an Approach to Market Development“.

The empirical investigation analyzes if and how the participants of such behavioral training will personally recognize their own behavior development. The differentiation between attitude and behavior is an important aspect in this because they present false synonyms that require a comparative definition. This will be conducted in chapter 10.

In the context of the survey, attitude is of no further importance, because it is behavior that constitutes the cognitive foundation of the probands. A further aspect is the type of training i.e. if it is an on-the-job or off-the-job training. To this purpose, types of training will be explained in chapter 6.3. The classification of the different trainings is an extensive topic. In chapter 6.4 intercultural trainings will be differentiated from each other to mark up the varying learning methods and learning objectives.

1.2 Purpose of Investigation

The objective of the investigation conducted as part of this dissertation is to find out whether or not it is possible to develop behavior be means of intercultural communication training and even achieve change within certain areas. Since this question cannot be answered from theoretical reflections alone, a group of test candidates was recruited that was large enough in size to legitimize an evaluation with regard to our central research question. The procedure turned out to be more difficult than expected, as a more detailed explanation in chapter 10 will show.

To connect theoretical insights and impressions gained from practice is another objective of the investigation. It shall be addressed to what extent there is a disparity between the two. In any case, it is important to mention that the results of this work have no universal validity, but rather show a snap-shot resulting from the collected impressions.

1.3 Procedure of Investigation

Regarding the investigation's scope it must be pointed out that the research at hand is mainly concerned with the influence of culture on consumer goods markets. Therefore, investment goods as well as the service sector will not be viewed in such detail but will only be the subjects of rudimentary descriptions. Furthermore, organizational aspects for the companies will not be dealt with.

In chapter 2, the terms 'International Management' and 'International Marketing' will be explained and compared. Thereafter, the frame conditions for international marketing will be presented and the term 'globalization' will be explored. First and foremost, the hypothesis proposed by the globalization model regarding the exclusion of a contemplation of cultural influences from international marketing will be addressed.

Subsequently, aspect levels of culture as well as single elements will be presented in chapter 3. Numerous practical examples in which companies are being confronted with cultural effects in international marketing will be used for this purpose. In the section to follow, theories of culture will be presented and assessed, with special focus on Hofstede's research.

Placing the hypothesis that the field of marketing is strongly connected to intercultural activities within this paper a research with a 180° view has been driven. The methodology methods are described in Chapter 4.

Chapter 5 is giving the results of the research and discussion trying to make culture and its significance in international marketing in a way measurable. Furthermore, individual marketing activities will be divided into phases and explained. Several practical examples will be shown that contain company strategies concerning the consideration of culture. Due to the otherwise extensive scope of the topic, the section on consumer behavior will be limited to a description of culture as a partial sociological model in buying behavior. Detailed descriptions of psychological models will be omitted. Chapter 10 presents the main part of the results of the empirical research with the questionnaires and the in-depth interviews of intercultural trainers.

In order to answer the research question, chapter 6 and 7 will address, among other things, the makeup of intercultural learning as well as the features of communication. These will be linked to intercultural communication respectively.

Chapter 8 is dealing with the pre-research of intercultural communication training by an insight of the goal and the necessary qualification of cross-cultural trainers. Following-up chapter 9 will be attempted to define the terms 'behavior' and 'attitude'. It is closing up the theoretical part of this paper.

The structure and makeup of the empirical investigation will be presented and an evaluation will be carried out in chapter 10. Also the investigation's outcome is shown and its partial results are linked to their particular contexts. Finally, the results are evaluated and suggestions are made according to empiricism and theory.

It is the goal of our investigation to find an answer to the question whether participants were able to detect a change in their own behavior after having taken part in such training as mentioned above, and also to find out what area was affected by the change when their answers were positive. The question whether they think that such change can only be brought about by means of training, or by life experience or a mixture of both, will also be addressed in the results of this research. To get an enlarged perspective the author has besides questioning intercultural training participants driven interviews with professional trainers for cross-cultural trainings.

Within this dissertation, the author will refrain from making terminological distinctions between male and female objects. All terms chosen should be considered to represent both genders. Only in certain exceptions will a separate indication be made.

In the final summary, the insights gained shall be recapitulated and critically assessed. In this context, a future outlook will be attempted based on the information at hand.

2. International Marketing

2.1 Definition of Terminology

An approved method for explaining management directives as well as employees' attitudes regarding how they deal with different cultures is presented in the form of the EPRG-formula by Perlmutter that shall henceforth be explicated.[9] However, it is first of all important to make a distinction between international management and international marketing, since authors of either academic discipline interpret the EPRG-formula differently.[10] International marketing will not be treated as an isolated topic due to the fact that it appears as a functional component of international management as a superordinate category.[11]

One point criticized by authors[12] is that the EPRG-formula as well as other management orientation methods are paralleled with organizational cultures and the matrix of internationalization strategies – Meffert, [13] for example, draws upon the latter to derive strategies for organizational orientation. For this reason, both points of view shall be presented independently of each other without a closer analysis of their divergence. Furthermore, other terminology shall be clarified and the interrelated aspects of international marketing explained.

2.1.1 International Management

2.1.1.1 On the nature of international management

There is still no consensus about the question how to define the term of international management. It is not clear if an international management exists in a company which exports only in countries next to the domestic market, or if it is necessary to reach a certain percentage of at least 25% of the total turnover with business units in other countries. However, there is a consensus that the concept of national leadership and management need to be changed to concepts of international management when the expansion of a company in international markets goes on.[14]

The term „management“ is used in both a functional and an institutional sense[15] The institutional perspective is used in context with carriers of managerial responsibilities, such as institutions, agencies, individual persons and groups that exercise managerial authority.[16] The functional perspective is divided according to its relevant processes: Planning, organization, control and leadership[17]

When the theater of business operations goes beyond national boundaries, one is concerned with international management[18]In summary, it is functionally concerned with planning, organization, leadership and control of all relevant departments on an international scale.[19] Fields in international management can include international marketing-management, international finance management, international human resource management, international production management as well as international research and development management.[20]

2.1.1.2 EPRG-Concept by Perlmutter

Management orientation methods and the EPRG-concept respectively are due to Perlmutter’s classification of international businesses in the 1960s.[21] Rather than evaluating the quantitative aspects of a business, he focuses on criteria of quality, such as values, experiences, know-how and mindset, especially regarding the management sector.[22] Originally he distinguished three kinds of orientation: Ethnocentric, polycentric and geocentric, later completing the EPRG-concept by adding a regiocentric orientation.[23] They emanate from idealized forms of international businesses and differ in the following ways:

Figure 1: EPRG-Profile by Perlmutter [24] [Figures and tables are omitted from this preview.]

Ethnocentric orientation assumes a supremacy of the holding company over the affiliated companies that is reflected in all strategies and directives. As a matter of principle, decisions and management techniques are devised by the holding company and conveyed to the affiliated companies. Key positions in affiliated companies are filled by managers from the company's country of origin. [25]

Polycentric orientation accepts different cultures and mindsets that are in effect in the affiliated companies' host countries. Executive positions in affiliated companies are therefore filled with representatives of the local country. They are most competent in dealing with local circumstances and are largely autonomous regarding their decision making. [26]

Regio-centric orientation is a more developed version of the polycentric concept that is due to the economy becoming increasingly regionalized. In contrast with the polycentric point of view, it is concerned with homogenous groups of countries rather than single countries. [27]

In geocentric orientation, the holding company and the affiliated companies form a global unity. The geocentrically oriented company develops a characteristic profile that is independent from the culture of either country within its operating range. Nationality is therefore unimportant when it comes to executive positions. All relevant departments are involved in the decision-making process, resulting in intensified communication. Facing global division of labor and a high degree of departmental specialization, this orientation also calls for an optimized allocation of resources and an international, rather than an isolated national, division of labor. [28]

Perlmutter’s typology that has here been presented has been influential for international management research to the effect that it is now often called its very foundation. [29] It has been mentioned before that the concept assumes an idealized form of international business and that it is based on conceptual thoughts. No enterprise existing in reality could be exclusively characterized by one kind of orientation. In practice, differentiation often takes place with regard to business sector, like in marketing, which is rather polycentrically oriented. Furthermore, the EPRG-concept may not be considered a static phenomenon. Over time, companies can assume different orientations without making their change in phases obvious.[30] However, it must be noted that Perlmutter considers geocentric orientation superior to the others.[31]

2.1.1.3 Typologies by Bartlett/Ghoshal

Another relevant typology is that by Bartlett/Ghoshal, [32] who modified and further developed the EPRG-Concept. In contrast to Perlmutter, they do not focus on such criteria as the mindset or orientation of an enterprise, but on its strategic policies.[33]

Figure 2: Capabilities and structures of companies with international business [34] [Figures and tables are omitted from this preview.]

Bartlett and Ghoshal analyzed companies from Europe, America and Japan with international business and put them to three categories: multinational, international and global companies. They figured out that European companies tend to be multinational, American companies tend to be international and Japanese companies tend to be global. The main differences between the three categories were the dependency of the local business units to the holding and the cultural adaption of the local business units.[35]

The holding company of an international enterprise is the decision-making authority and confers its strategies upon the affiliated companies in order to make use of a centralized know-how. Local adaptation is not relevant here.[36]

Multinational enterprises are characterized by their affiliated companies' portfolio of independent commitments. They are mostly autonomous with regard to their strategy, thus ensuring that they can efficiently operate in their local markets.[37]

Global enterprises try to achieve worldwide efficiency through centrally developed strategies. They procure cost advantages by implementing centralized directives and taking action on the international market.[38]

Although all companies of these three types reached a certain size, all of them have their own problems and weaknesses. That is why Bartlett and Ghoshal developed a fourth category: the transnational company. This category combined the advantages of the other three categories: responsiveness, know-how transfer, and efficiency. By assigning specialized roles to their affiliates, they try to ensure global efficiency, local adaptability and a worldwide aptitude to learning.[39]

Contrary to the EPRG-concept, these typologies by Bartlett/Ghoshal emphasize the strategic decisions arising from certain kinds of enterprise. While the international enterprise represents a strategy of internationalization, the multinational organization stands for localization; the global enterprise postulates globalization and the transnational enterprise combines the strategies of globalization and localization. The choice of a strategic profile determines an enterprise's organizational and mental requirements accordingly.[40]

2.1.2 International Marketing

2.1.2.1 On the Nature of international Marketing

In analogy to our explanation of international management, international marketing-management can be defined as „planning, organization, coordination and control of all corporate activities concerning actual and potential international sales markets and the world market respectively“[41]

The objective of international marketing-management is to coordinate country-specific marketing activities. It can be distinguished from international management by its focus on sales markets and market-related feedback specifically.[42] The following features make it different from national marketing-management:[43]

the company must span an operating range of at least two national markets

operations research must be considered very important provision of information must be difficult

decisions-making must take place in view of the overall context of the company

marketing decisions must come with a high complexity resulting from the high number of national markets involved[44]

Marketing in an international environment comes with difficulties that may surface during the implementation of marketing-tools. A high level of complexity regarding provision of information, risk assessment, coordination and decision making is also relevant here. [45]A particular interdependency can be observed between the fundamental inner orientation of an enterprise's management and the form of international marketing it pursues – an interrelation that shall be explored with regard to corporate culture.[46]

2.1.2.2 Intercultural Marketing

Intercultural marketing is based on strategies, concepts, methods and actions of an enterprise in order to be successful in a cross-cultural market. Intercultural marketing is important if at least two cultures are involved and confronted. Due to the increasing globalization, intercultural marketing becomes more and more important as the development leads to delimitation of different cultures in order to retain the own identity. Companies need to know the different cultural backgrounds of their target groups.

There are five main characteristics of successful intercultural marketing. First of all, it takes care of ethnical and cultural features of the target groups. Based on these features main strategies need to be developed, optimized and changed in order to address differences of each culture. Second, intercultural marketing has an impact on the strategies for the external and the internal marketing. That means it is important for the branding of products, people and the employer. Third, intercultural marketing comprehends the definition of a price strategy adapted to each market, the change of the distribution channels or the translation of product descriptions and advertisements for each cultural target group. This concerns for example colors, gestures and words. Fourth, intercultural marketing focuses on differentiation and diversity instead of standardization and uniformity. Last but not least intercultural marketing is not only used if the company expands to other markets. It can also be necessary if the core market is multicultural. An example is the Malaysian market. Companies in this country need to address three ethnic groups: Malays, Chinese and Indian customers.

Intercultural marketing concerns different areas. International companies with branches all over the world need to manage the diversity of marketing departments in different countries. Internal diversity, however, starts already within one marketing department with employees of different nationalities and cultures. External diversity makes a difference between several stakeholders like customers or business partners.[47]

2.1.2.3 Forms, Corporate Culture and Central inner Orientation in international Marketing

The form of international marketing is determined by the management's central inner orientation. In this connection, the forms of orientation previously presented in the EPRG-Concept by Heenan/Perlmutter are partly equated with Bartlett/Ghoshal's typological terms and a manifestation of international management is settled upon.[48] Some authors identify a periodical pattern of internationalization that they determine as an internationalization strategy dependent upon the advantages of differentiation and integration.[49] Various kinds of international marketing are derived therefrom and differ in the following ways:

Figure 3: A system of basic orientations in international Marketing [50] [Figures and tables are omitted from this preview.]

Figure 4: Corporate Culture and basic international Orientation [51] [Figures and tables are omitted from this preview.]

Ethnocentrically oriented enterprises are found to be located in the initial stage of internationalization and are therefore called international enterprises.[52] These associations focus on domestic market products and try putting them on foreign markets without further modification. The ethnocentric mindset therefore corresponds with the form designated as 'international marketing'.[53]

Enterprises that take action in a polycentric manner are associated with 'multinational marketing'. The enterprise's international activities are adjusted to match the demands of local national markets.[54]

The regiocentric approach is limited to areas that can be covered with a single marketing agenda. Examples are provided by Europe or by the triad union of Western Europe, North America and Japan.[55] However, groups can also be formed according to cultural similarities, as in the case of Anglo-Saxon or Arabic states.[56]

Geocentric orientation can be interpreted as a „synthesis of ethno- and polycentrism“.[57] Enterprises that operate geocentrically are called 'global'. Accepting the possibility of suboptimal results on a national level, this approach is aimed at reaching a competitive position on the international market by achieving economies of scale and economies of scope respectively.[58]In the form of global marketing this is achieved by standardization and by the subordination of affiliated companies worldwide.[59]

Several authors suggest that 'global marketing', along with the standardization that it involves, is the only option for businesses competing on the international market.[60] Global marketing hypotheses shall be illuminated at a later point.

It should be noted that throughout the further course of this paper, the term 'international marketing' will be used independently of an enterprise's developmental stage to encompass all the forms in which it occurs.

2.2 The frame Conditions of international Marketing

In contrast to national marketing, international marketing faces considerable problems in decision-making that result from an information deficit. While the frame conditions for national marketing are fairly well-known, or at least easily sought, they have yet to be identified in international surroundings.[61] Frame conditions are made up of the following components:

global frame conditions

sectoral and competitive factors

company-related factors

Figure 5: Frame Conditions for international Marketing [62]

Due to their large number it is not possible to analyze all of the frame conditions that influence marketing. Merely the global frame conditions, including culture, shall be presented here without further detail. Since globalization poses a significant challenge to international marketing, its discussion shall be elaborated on in the last section.

2.2.1 Economic Factor s

In order to determine the size and properties of different foreign markets, information regarding economic factors must be collected. Market size allows conclusions to be drawn regarding market potential and market volume. These are helpful in assessing potential products and their market opportunities.[63] Economic factors include:[64]

a) demographic development

b) GDP, GDP growth rate, total and per capita

c) per capita income, distribution of income

d) unemployment rate

e) interest rate development

f) inflation, price formation, buying power

g) fiscal policy, market access, foreign indebtedness[65]

The economic system plays a central role among the determining factors. Throughout the past several years there has been an observable trend towards free market economy.[66]

2.2.2 Political-Legal Factors

Political frame conditions determine a country's political situation and stability. Crucial factors include:[67]

political conflicts

political traditions

forms of government, role of the military

political tensions

economic systems

tariff-related and -unrelated restrictions

influence exerted by labor unions[68]

Since a nation's political environment can take distinctive forms, marketing requires adequate risk assessment.[69]

The judicial environment encompasses the legal system, legislation of home- and host countries as well as international business law.[70] The touching points it shares with marketing can be found during an enterprise's foundation, in jurisdiction, in trademark protection laws and the granting of licenses.[71]

2.2.3 Technological Factor s

Another highly influential factor in international marketing is presented by its technological environment. In this context one must point out the considerable development in information technology during the past few years which had led to additional means of communicating with customers, i.e. via internet, mobile phones and virtual market places. Along with this technological advance came a new set of competitive conditions relevant to marketing. Higher price transparency on the part of suppliers and customers as well as altered distribution through e-commerce provide an explanation for this.[72]

2.2.4 Sociocultural Factor s

The cultural factor plays a considerable role in how a consumer will react to marketing activities. The strongest influence is ascribed to language.[73] Cultural elements comprise verbal and non-verbal communication, a world view shaped by religion, social norms and values as well as psycho-cultural determinants.[74] A detailed investigation of culture as a frame condition will follow in chapter 3.

In connection with the debate on globalization, one often hears about „global consumers“[75][76] and „homogenized consumer behavior“,[77] two terms that challenge the assumption that culture is an influential factor in international marketing. Therefore, the debate on globalization will be considered in the next chapter and followed by an assessment of the case for cultural nonobservance.

2.2.5 Globalization as a considerable Challenge to international Marketing

2.2.5.1 On the Nature of Globalization

The term 'globalization' is understood in many different ways and it is being used in an inflationary manner.[78] The following quote conveys one of its many interpretations:

"Form of strategy applied by enterprises that are active across borders and try to achieve competitive advantages and build up economies of scale by exploiting locational advantages .[79]

It has been explained that globalization presents a form of internationalization that is particularly far-ranging.[80]In a market-related context it is understood as an evolved process in which markets that were previously considered independent are becoming increasingly similar and interconnected. The degree to which an enterprise is affected is determined by its line of business.[81]

In some lines of business, enterprises must join each other in the process of creating value in order to operate successfully on the market.[82]

An example is provided by the motor industry: Due to consolidation, the number of independent manufacturers has dropped to less than 20.

Figure 6: Tendency for Consolidation in the Automotive Industry [83] [Figures and tables are omitted from this preview.]

A detailed discussion about influences within the industry will follow in chapter 5. While line of business may be a deciding factor, there are other changes taking place within the previously presented frame conditions that are causing the enterprise to undergo globalization. The following factors are mentioned:[84]

a growing tendency towards deregulation

a growing tendency towards integration

opening up of formerly planned economies

technological progress

socio-economic and socio-cultural reasons

In addition to these frame conditions, there are other driving forces responsible for the globalization of enterprises. These shall be illustrated in the following diagram:

Figure 7: The driving Forces of Globalization in Enterprises [85] [Figures and tables are omitted from this preview.]

What can be observed is that most of the factors will leave an enterprise no other chance but to orientate itself globally. Based on the hypotheses proposed by the globalization model, the cultural and economic aspects shall be viewed in connection. Furthermore, arguments speaking against a consideration of culture in an international marketing context shall be assessed.

2.2.5.2 The Global Marketing Hypothesis

The discourse regarding standardization/differentiation of the 1960s acts as a point of departure for the global marketing hypothesis[86] and was continued by Levitt with his article „The Globalization of Markets“[87] in the 1980s. In this context, global marketing is understood as a kind of marketing strategy that involves a worldwide standardization underpinned by a specific company philosophy. For the benefit of global marketing strategies, this approach disregards country-specific and cultural differences.[88] The corresponding line of argument can be presented in the following way:

Figure 8: Line of Argument supporting global Marketing Strategies [89] [Figures and tables are omitted from this preview.]

The convergence hypothesis assumes that global markets are converging and that their convergence will result in a homogenization of demands. This can be traced back to the post World War II era, when industrial nations saw an economic boom and underwent similar development.[90]One can detect similarities regarding their income structures, levels of education, prestige- and status factors as well as their use of technology.[91] In this context, the term „global consumers“[92]is used as a description of condition. What should be noted additionally is that global consumers will make a conscious decision in favor of products from globally operating enterprises, preferably buying these.[93]

The following hypothesis is supported by the fact that a large number of assimilated countries can be dealt with simultaneously. This does not only concern marketing instruments, but also includes planning, informing and controlling processes.[94]

The centralization hypothesis continues this argumentation and recommends centralized decision making regarding the marketing of these products in order to facilitate global scale- and synergistic effects for price advantage. When price advantages are extended to customers, the homogenization of demands may speed up.[95]

Standardizing and simplifying activities thus leads to ignorance regarding different cultures. Within the theoretical framework at hand it is assumed that culture exerts no influence in this respect and that market demands are in fact homogenous.[96] The end of multinational concerns was once predicted through the same line of argument.[97] The advantages of standardization are not due to success maximization in individual countries. They are accounted for by 'economies of scale' and the way in which these exploit capacity- and special effects, as well as global brand utilization, pooled resources and know-how, i.e. 'economies of scope'.[98]

However, the assertions put forth by these theses are not generally agreed upon. Some authors describe a divergence in demands caused by globalization impeding factors. Following a differentiation hypothesis, they proclaim the necessity of local adaptation.[99] Culture is often mentioned as a factor impeding globalization.[100] It is argued that an individual strategy must be devised for every country and that success can only be achieved when country-specific factors, such as culture, are taken into account.[101] Both cases shall be clarified here in view of a global marketing context:

Figure 9: Cases pros and cons global Marketing [102] [Figures and tables are omitted from this preview.]

The conclusion that can be drawn here is that local and global forces are in opposition to each other. Standardization makes cost savings possible, but in return, local adaptation determines whether an enterprise will be successful in a particular country. 'Global enterprises' such as Coca Cola are often brought up in the attempt to document real-life cases of converging demands.[103] Coca Cola, however, denies these assertions.[104]

Regarding the standardization of marketing activities, two distinctions are made: There is marketing content (i.e. communication policies) on the one hand, and marketing processes (i.e. marketing information systems) on the other.[105] Investigations concerned with marketing contents have shown that the highest degree of standardization as well as the strongest price differentiation is found in product policies.[106] Figure 5 refers to the industrial goods sector. In the consumer goods sector opportunities for standardization are much less distinctive. As has been mentioned before, culture's degree of influence on the marketing instruments' ability to be standardized shall, with respect to different sectors, be investigated in chapter 4.

Figure 10: Marketing-mix Standardization within the industrial goods Sector [107] [Figures and tables are omitted from this preview.]

The discourse on standardization/differentiation shall not be investigated further at this point. However, one should make a note of the fact that standardization is connected with tremendous cost savings. Accordingly, through standardizing its communication policy in seven countries, Levi's managed to save a sum of four billion dollars. In the case of Coca Cola, the annual saving amounted to 15 billion dollars.[108]

In the next chapter the frame factor of culture shall be presented in detail. There will be a focus on the relationship between culture and marketing, substantiated by practical examples that illustrate the downside of standardized marketing. What shall be examined in particular is whether or not culture can set the boundaries for standardization and whether it should therefore be called a „substantial determinant of consumer behavior“.[109]

3. Culture as a Frame Factor of International Marketing

3.1 Definition of “Cultur e”

The term 'culture' is etymologically derived from the Latin 'cultura', which translates, in a more narrow sense, to 'soil maintenance'.[110] A popular metaphor says that culture is to humans what „water is to fish“.[111]A fish will only start noticing a difference once he is removed from his familiar environment. For the fish, this is a painful effect. When humans are required to adjust their habitual behavior to new surroundings, it may not be painful process, but nevertheless, a difficult one.[112] In the context of marketing, culture is described as „the prism through which humans regard products.“[113] The roots of culture are immanent in history, language and religion.[114]

'Culture' is a word that is frequently in use, yet there seems to be no clear definition of what it actually applies to. Even in academics its meaning can vary. It assumes the role of „garbage bin for behavioral sciences“[115] that can take up everything that would not fit in with other theories. A universally approved definition of culture does not exist.[116] There is a large variety of definitions that can be accounted for by the large variety of academic fields. In the 1950s it was already reported that there were over 164 definitions of culture.[117] These can be divided into descriptive, genetic, historic, normative, psychological, structural and incomplete.[118]

It is difficult to do justice to such a large number of existing definitions. The ones that shall be cited here are selected according to their relevancy for this paper: „Culture is the sum of general assumptions, values, norms, attitudes and convictions of a social unit expressed through a variety of behavioral patterns and artifacts that have evolved in answer to the diverse requirements that members of the social unit have had to meet.“[119] Culture becomes manifest in the utterances and behavioral patterns of individuals, groups and societies, i.e. through verbal and non-verbal language, rituals, symbols and rules.[120] Thus, culture encompasses socially conform patterns in feelings, thinking and acting.[121] Culture is acquired; it is not innate. At an early age, one absorbs the cultural elements of one's social surroundings. At the age of seven, a child has already acquired the greater part of his culture.[122]

Regarding its quality, culture can be compared with a finger print. There are noticeable differences between two specimens, yet these differences do not imply that one is more valuable than the other.[123] Culture and subculture share the same set of functions. Within different societies, congruent behavioral patterns of certain groups are analyzed on the basis of subculture. Culture and subculture are thus differentiated by being intersocial and intrasocial, respectively. Different ethnicities within a population can serve as an example for the latter phenomenon.[124]Consequently, three levels can be described: A macrolevel encompassing the larger cultural sphere, a mesolevel to describe subcultures and a microlevel, referring to the individual.[125]

It proves difficult to isolate an individual's cultural behavior from other influential factors. In the context of consumer behavior, culture is disclosed as another determinant linked with the social environment and seen as being strongly intertwined with mental determinants.[126] Within this theoretical construct, culture is assigned a key role.[127] Aspects of the term shall be presented hereafter and the most striking elements will be explained with the help of practical examples.

[...]


[1] Cf. Bruns, J. (2003): Internationales Marketing 3rd edition; in: Weis, H. C. (Ed.): Modernes Marketing für Studium und Praxis; Ludwigshafen 2003; p. 17. ISBN-10: 3470430837

[2] Cf. Emrich, Ch. (2009): Interkulturelles Marketing Management: Erfolgsstrategien, Konzepte, Analysen, Gabler; edition: 2nd, revised edition. ISBN-10: 383491794X

[3] Cf. Schrempp, J. E. (2002): Geleitwort; in: Krystek, U.; Zur, E. (Eds.): Handbuch Internationalisierung: Globalisierung – eine Herausforderung für die Unternehmensführung; 2nd edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York; p. V.

[4] Cf. Lindner, D. (2012): Interkulturelles Marketing: Grundlagen – Strategien – Chancen – Risiken; Düsseldorf 2012, ISBN-10: 3639447174; p. 11.

[5] Cf. Dmoch, T. (2003): Internationale Werbung. Standardisierung in Grenzen; in: Bolten, J.; Ehrhardt, C. (Eds.): Interkulturelle Kommunikation: Texte und Übungen zum interkulturellen Handeln; Sternenfels 2003; p. 279

[6] Cf. Keegan, G. J.; Schlegelmilch, B. B.; Stöttinger, B. (2002): Globales Marketing-Management: Eine europäische Perspektive; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2002; p. 119. ISBN-10: 3486250051

[7] Cf. Pepels, W. (1997): Einführung in die Kommunikationspolitik: Eine Werbelehre mit Beispielen und Kontrollfragen; in: Pietschmann, B. Pp Vahs, D. (Eds.): Praxisnahes Wirtschaftsstudium; Stuttgart 1997; ISBN-10: 3791011596, ISBN-10: 3791011596, p. 12.

[8] Cf. Emrich, Ch. (2009): Interkulturelles Marketing Management: Erfolgsstrategien, Konzepte, Analysen, Gabler; edition: 2nd, revised edition. ISBN-10: 383491794X

[9] Cf. Heenan, D. A.; Perlmutter, H. V. (1979): Multinational Organization Development, Mass. 1979; p. 15 ff. ISBN-10: 0201029537

[10] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 301.

[11] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2010): Internationales Marketing-Management; 4th edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2010; p. 6. ISBN-10: 3642126901

[12] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 300 f.

[13] Cf. Meffert, H. (2011): Marketing; Grundlagen marktorientierter Unternehmensführung; 11th Edition; rev. Ed. Gabler, ISBN-10: 3834927600; p. 1231 ff.

[14] Cf. Springer Gabler Verlag (editor), Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon, Keyword: Internationales Management, online: http://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/Archiv/1648/internationales-management-v6.html

[15] Cf. Dülfer, E. (2008): Internationales Management in unterschiedlichen Kulturbereichen; 7th edition; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2008; p. 1. ISBN-10: 3486579347

[16] Cf. Scherm, E.; Süß, S. (2001): Internationales Management: eine funktionale Perspektive; Vahlen, München 2001; ISBN-10: 380062589X; p. 13.

[17] Cf. Hermanns, A. (1995): Aufgaben des internationalen Marketing-Managements; in: Hermanns, A.; Wißmeier, U. K. (Eds.): Internationales Marketing-Management: Grundlagen, Strategien, Instrumente, Kontrolle und Organisation; München 1995; p. 25.

[18] Cf. Dülfer, E. (2008): Internationales Management in unterschiedlichen Kulturbereichen; 7th edition; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2008; p. 5. ISBN-10: 3486579347

[19] Cf. Hermanns, A. (1995): Aufgaben des internationalen Marketing-Managements; in: Hermanns, A.; Wißmeier, U. K. (Eds.): Internationales Marketing-Management: Grundlagen, Strategien, Instrumente, Kontrolle und Organisation; München 1995; p. 26.

[20] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2010): Internationales Marketing-Management; 4th edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2010; p. 6 f. ISBN-10: 3642126901

[21] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 279 ff.

[22] Cf. Scherm, E.; Süß, S. (2001): Internationales Management: eine funktionale Perspektive; Vahlen, München 2001; ISBN-10: 380062589X; p. 8 f.

[23] Cf. Heenan, D. A.; Perlmutter, H. V. (1979): Multinational Organization Development, Mass. 1979; p. 15 ff. ISBN-10: 0201029537

[24] Cf. Heenan, D. A.; Perlmutter, H. V. (1979): Multinational Organization Development, Mass. 1979; S. 18. ISBN-10: 0201029537

[25] Cf. Scherm, E.; Süß, S. (2001): Internationales Management: eine funktionale Perspektive; Vahlen, München 2001; ISBN-10: 380062589X; p. 8.

[26] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S . (2010): Internationales Management revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 279 ff.

[27] Cf. Scherm, E.; Süß, S. (2001): Internationales Management: eine funktionale Perspektive; Vahlen, München 2001; ISBN-10: 380062589X; p. 9.

[28] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 281.

[29] Cf. Welge, M. K.; Holtbrügge, D.(2010): Internationales Management; 5th edition; Schäffer-Poeschel, Landsberg/Lech 2010, ISBN-10: 3791028839; p. 54.

[30] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 283 ff.

[31] Cf. Scherm, E.; Süß, S. (2001): Internationales Management: eine funktionale Perspektive; Vahlen, München 2001; ISBN-10: 380062589X; p. 9.

[32] Cf. Bartlett, C.; Ghoshal, S. (1990): Internationale Unternehmensführung. Innovation, globale Effizienz, differenziertes Marketing; Frankfurt a. M., New York 1990; p. 29 ff. ISBN-10: 3593343282

[33] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 289 ff.

[34] Cf. Bartlett C., Ghoshal, S. (1989) Managing across Borders: The Transnational Solution, Hutchinson London

[35] Cf. Oesterle, M-J.; Wolf, J. (2005) Internationalisierung und Institution, Gabler Verlag, p.357

[36] Cf. Scherm, E.; Süß, S. (2001): Internationales Management: eine funktionale Perspektive; Vahlen, München 2001; ISBN-10: 380062589X; p. 10.

[37] Cf. Welge, M. K.; Holtbrügge, D. (2010): Internationales Management; 5th edition; Schäffer-Poeschel, Landsberg/Lech 2010, ISBN-10: 3791028839; p. 55.

[38] Cf. Scherm, E.; Süß, S. (2001): Internationales Management: eine funktionale Perspektive; Vahlen, München 2001; ISBN-10: 380062589X; p. 10.

[39] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 290 f.

[40] Cf. ibid.; p. 289 f.

[41] Cf. Hermanns, A. (1995): Aufgaben des internationalen Marketing-Managements; in: Hermanns, A.; Wißmeier, U. K. (Eds.): Internationales Marketing-Management: Grundlagen, Strategien, Instrumente, Kontrolle und Organisation; München 1995; p. 26.

[42] Cf. Backhaus, K.; Büschken, J.; Voeth, M. (2003): Internationales Marketing; 5th edition; Stuttgart 2003; p. 97. ISBN-10: 3791021621

[43] Cf. Wißmeier, U. K. (1998): Strategien im internationalen Marketing; Ein entscheidungsorientierter Ansatz; Gabler, Wiesbaden 1998, ISBN-10: 3409134689; S. 47 ff.

[44] Cf. Bruns, J. (2003): Internationales Marketing 3. Aufl.; in: Weis, H. C. (Hrsg.): Modernes Marketing für Studium und Praxis; Ludwigshafen 2003; S. 42. ISBN-10: 3470430837

[45] Cf. Pepels, W. (2004): Marketing: Lehr- und Handbuch; 4th edition; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2004, ISBN-10: 3486275380; p. 1075

[46] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2010): Internationales Marketing-Management; 4. Aufl.; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2010; S. 11. ISBN-10: 3642126901

[47] Cf.Springer Gabler Verlag: Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon, Stichwort: Intercultural Marketing, online: http://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/Archiv/974047194/intercultural-marketing-v1.html

[48] Cf. Meffert, H. (2011): Marketing; Grundlagen marktorientierter Unternehmensführung; 11th Edition; rev. Ed. Gabler, ISBN-10: 3834927600; p. 1233 ff.

[49] Cf. Backhaus, K.; Büschken, J.; Voeth, M. (2003): Internationales Marketing; 5th edition; Stuttgart 2003; p. 97. ISBN-10: 3791021621

[50] Cf. Meffert, H. (2011): Marketing; Grundlagen marktorientierter Unternehmensführung; 11th Edition; rev. Ed. Gabler, ISBN-10: 3834927600; p. 1232.

[51] Cf. ibid.; p. 1261.

[52] Cf. Keegan, G. J.; Schlegelmilch, B. B.; Stöttinger, B. (2002): Globales Marketing-Management: Eine europäische Perspektive; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2002; p. 20. ISBN-10: 3486250051

[53] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2010): Internationales Marketing-Management; 4th edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2010; p. 11. ISBN-10: 3642126901

[54] Cf. Keegan, G. J.; Schlegelmilch, B. B.; Stöttinger, B. (2002): Globales Marketing-Management: Eine europäische Perspektive; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2002; p. 23. ISBN-10: 3486250051

[55] Cf. ibid.

[56] Cf. Quack, H. (1995): Internationales Marketing: Entwicklung einer Konzeption mit Praxisbeispielen; Vahlen, 1st edition, München 1995, ISBN-10: 3800619849; p. 73.

[57] Cf. Keegan, G. J.; Schlegelmilch, B. B.; Stöttinger, B. (2002): Globales Marketing-Management: Eine europäische Perspektive; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2002; p. 24. ISBN-10: 3486250051

[58] Cf. Meffert, H. (1989): Globalisierungsstrategien und ihre Umsetzung im internationalen Wettbewerb; in: Die Betriebswirtschaft; 1989; p. 445 ff.

[59] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2010): Internationales Marketing-Management; 4th edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2010; p. 12. ISBN-10: 3642126901

[60] Cf. Levitt, T. (1983): The Globalization of Markets; in: Harvard Business Review; 3/1983; p. 92 ff.

[61] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2010): Internationales Marketing-Management; 4th edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2010; p. 14. ISBN-10: 3642126901

[62] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2009): Internationale Marketing-Politik; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2009; S. 22. ISBN-10: 3540633227

[63] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2010): Internationales Marketing-Management; 4th edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2010; p. 16. ISBN-10: 3642126901

[64] Cf. Czinkota; M. R.; Ronkainen, I. A. (2006): International Marketing; 8. Ed.. Fort Worth 2006; p. 92 ff. ISBN-10: 8131501612

[65] Cf. Bruns, J. (2003): Internationales Marketing 3. Aufl.; in: Weis, H. C. (Hrsg.): Modernes Marketing für Studium und Praxis; Ludwigshafen 2003; p. 77. ISBN-10: 3470430837

[66] Cf. Keegan, G. J.; Schlegelmilch, B. B.; Stöttinger, B. (2002): Globales Marketing-Management: Eine europäische Perspektive; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2002; p. 85. ISBN-10: 3486250051

[67] Cf. ibid.; p. 182 ff.

[68] Cf. Bruns, J. (2003): Internationales Marketing 3. Ed.; in: Weis, H. C. (Hrsg.): Modernes Marketing für Studium und Praxis; Ludwigshafen 2003; p. 42.

[69] Cf. Keegan, G. J.; Schlegelmilch, B. B.; Stöttinger, B. (2002): Globales Marketing-Management: Eine europäische Perspektive; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2002; p. 164. ISBN-10: 3486250051

[70] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2010): Internationales Marketing-Management; 4th edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2010; p. 26. ISBN-10: 3642126901

[71] Cf. Keegan, G. J.; Schlegelmilch, B. B.; Stöttinger, B. (2002): Globales Marketing-Management: Eine europäische Perspektive; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2002; p. 164. ISBN-10: 3486250051

[72] Cf. ibid.; p. 182 ff.

[73] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2010): Internationales Marketing-Management; 4th edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2010; p. 26. ISBN-10: 3642126901

[74] Cf. Lindner, D. (2012): Interkulturelles Marketing: Grundlagen – Strategien – Chancen – Risiken; Düsseldorf 2012, ISBN-10: 3639447174; p. 54 ff

[75] Cf. Dichter, E. (1962): The World Consumer; in: Harvard Business Review; 7/1962; p. 113-122; Levitt, T. (1983: The Globalization of Markets; in Harvard Business Review; 3/1983; p. 92-102;

[76] Cf. Ohmae, K. (2006): Die Macht der Triade; Die neue Form weltweiten Wettbewerbs; Verlag Moderne Industrie, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN-10: 3636013955; p. 13.

[77] Cf. Zentes, J.; Ferring, N. (1995): Internationales Handelsmarketing; in: Hermanns, A.; Wissmeier, U. K. (Eds.): Internationales Marrketing-Management: Grundlagen, Strategien, Instrumente, Kontrolle und Organisation; München 1995; p. 412.

[78] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 153 f.

[79] Cf. Gablers Wirtschaftslexikon. (2009). Paperback box in 8 volumes. 17th completely revised Edition. Gabler Verlag. Wiesbaden. 2009/2010. Vol. 3.p. 1383. Keyword: Globalisierung, ISBN-10: 3834901520

[80] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 166

[81] Cf. Bamberger, I.; Wrona, T. (1997): Globalisierungsbetroffenheit und Anpassungsstrategien von Klein- und Mittelunternehmen; Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung; in: Zeitschrift der Betriebswirtschaft; 7/1997; p. 714 ff.

[82] Cf. Müller-Merbach, H. (2002): Ökonomische Globalisierung, Weltethos und Menschheitsmoral; in: Krystek, U.; Zur, E. (Eds.): Handbuch Internationalisierung: Globalisierung – eine Herausforderung für die Unternehmensführung; 2nd edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2002; p. 743.

[83] Cf. Keegan, G. J.; Schlegelmilch, B. B.; Stöttinger, B. (2002): Globales Marketing-Management: Eine europäische Perspektive; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2002; p. 17. ISBN-10: 3486250051

[84] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 176.

[85] Cf. Scherm, E.; Süß, S. (2001): Internationales Management: eine funktionale Perspektive; Vahlen, München 2001; ISBN-10: 380062589X; p. 128.

[86] Cf. Buzzell, R. D. (1968): Can you Standardize Multinational Marketing?; in: Harvard Business Review; 11/1968; p. 102 ff.

[87] Cf. Levitt, T. (1983): The Globalization of Markets; in: Havard Business Review; 3/1983; p. 92 ff.

[88] Cf. Becker, J. (2012): Marketing-Konzeption: Grundlagen des ziel-strategischen und operativen Marketing-Managements; 10th Edition; München 2012, p. 329 ff. ISBN-10: 3800645270

[89] Cf. Meffert, H. (1986): Marketing im Spannungsfeld von weltweitem Wettbewerb und nationalen Bedürfnissen; in: Zeitschrift der Betriebswirtschaft; 8/1986; p. 695.

[90] Cf. Pepels, W. (2004): Marketing: Lehr- und Handbuch; 4th edition; München, Wien, Oldenbourg 2004, ISBN-10: 3486275380; p. 1151

[91] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 190.

[92] Cf. Yip, G. S. (2005): Total Global Strategy II; Managing for Worldwide Competitive Advantage; 2nd. Ed., Englewood Cliffs/NJ 2005, ISBN-10: 0130179175; p. 32f.

[93] Cf. Emrich, Ch. (2009): Interkulturelles Marketing Management: Erfolgsstrategien, Konzepte, Analysen, Gabler; Edition: 2nd, revised and supplemented edition. ISBN-10: 383491794X

[94] Cf. Scherm, E.; Süß, S. (2001): Internationales Management: eine funktionale Perspektive; Vahlen, München 2001; ISBN-10: 380062589X; p. 128.

[95] Cf. Becker, J. (2012): Marketing-Konzeption: Grundlagen des zielstrategischen und operativen Marketing-Managements; 10th Edition; München 2012, p. 330 ISBN-10: 3800645270

[96] Cf. Hermanns, A.; Wißmeier, U. K. (1995): Entwicklung, Bedeutung und theoretische Aspekte des internationalen Marketing-Managements; in: Hermanns, A.; Wißmeier, U. K. (Eds.): Internationales Marketing-Management: Grundlagen Strategien, Instrumente, Kontrolle und Organisation; München 1995; p. 18.

[97] Cf. Müller, S.; Kornmeier, M. (1995): Internationales Konsumgütermarketing; in: Hermanns A.; Wißmeier, U. K. (Eds.): Internationales Marketing-Management: Grundlagen Strategien, Instrumente, Kontrolle und Organisation; München 1995; p. 341.

[98] Cf. Scherm, E.; Süß, S. (2001): Internationales Management: eine funktionale Perspektive; Vahlen, München 2001; ISBN-10: 380062589X; p. 128.

[99] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713; p. 191.

[100] Cf. Emrich, Ch. (2009): Interkulturelles Marketing Management: Erfolgsstrategien, Konzepte, Analysen, Gabler; edition: 2nd, revised edition. ISBN-10: 383491794X

[101] Cf. Quack, H. (1995): Internationales Marketing: Entwicklung einer Konzeption mit Praxisbeispielen; Vahlen, 1st edition, München 1995, ISBN-10: 3800619849; p. 76.

[102] Cf. Trommsdorff, V. (2011): Konsumentenverhalten; 8th revised Edition; (Publ.): Kohlhammer Edition Marketing; Stuttgart 2011, ISBN-10: 3170218778; p. 215.

[103] Cf. Fill, C. (2001): Marketing-Kommunikation: Konzepte und Strategien; 2nd edition; München 2001; p. 640. ISBN-10: 3827370051

[104] Cf. o. V. (2000) ; Local Coke ; Ein Zeit-Gespräch mit Douglas Draft ; in : Die Zeit ; 17.08.2000 ; p. 19.

[105] Cf. Emrich, Ch. (2009): Interkulturelles Marketing Management: Erfolgsstrategien, Konzepte, Analysen, Gabler; edition: 2nd, revised edition. ISBN-10: 383491794X

[106] Cf. Berndt, R.; Fantapié Altobelli, C.; Sander, M. (2010): Internationales Marketing-Management; 4th edition; Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 2010; p. 26. ISBN-10: 3642126901

[107] Cf. Belz, C.; Müllner, M.; Senn, C. (1999): Die Implementierung globaler Marketingstrategien in Industriegüterunternehmen; Ergebnisse einer explorativen Untersuchung; in: Thexis Fachbericht für Marketing; St. Gallen 1/1999; p. 23.

[108] Cf. Riesenbeck, H. (1994): Globale Marken; wie Global sind sie wirklich?; in: Markenartikel; 7/1994; p. 329.

[109] Cf. Emrich, Ch. (2009): Interkulturelles Marketing Management: Erfolgsstrategien, Konzepte, Analysen, Gabler; 2nd ed., revised edition. ISBN-10: 383491794X

[110] Cf. Emrich, Ch. (2009): Interkulturelles Marketing Management: Erfolgsstrategien, Konzepte, Analysen, Gabler; edition: 2nd, revised edition. ISBN-10: 383491794X

[111] Cf. Blom, H.; Meier, H. (2004): Interkulturelles Management: interkulturelle Kommunikation, internationales Personalmanagement, Diversity-Ansätze im Unternehmen; in: Meier, H. (Ed.): Internationales Management; 2nd edition, Herne, Berlin 2004; p. 35. ISBN-10: 3482538123

[112] Cf. ibid.

[113] Cf. Solomon, M.; Bamossy, G.; Askegaard, S. (2001): Konsumentenverhalten: Der europäische Markt; Pearson Studium, München 2001, ISBN-10: 3827370043; p. 429.

[114] Cf. Pepels, W. (2001): Kommunikations-Management; Marketing-Kommunikation vom Briefing bis zur Realisation; 4th edition; Stuttgart 2001; ISBN-10: 3791019481, p. 817.

[115] Cf. Usunier, J.-C.; Walliser, B. (1993): Interkulturelles Marketing: mehr Erfolg im internationalen Geschäft; Gabler, Wiesbaden 1993, ISBN-10: 3409136738; p. 37.

[116] Cf. Maletzke, G. (1996): Interkulturelle Kommunikation: Zur Interaktion zwischen Menschen verschiedener Kulturen; Opladen 1996; ISBN-10: 3531128175,p. 15.

[117] Cf. Kroeber, A. L.; Kluckhohn, C. (1952): Culture; A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions; in: Anthropological Papers; Peabody Museum; 4/1952.

[118] Cf. Emrich, Ch. (2009): Interkulturelles Marketing Management: Erfolgsstrategien, Konzepte, Analysen, Gabler; edition: 2nd, revised edition. ISBN-10: 383491794X

[119] Cf. Kutschker, M.; Schmidt, S. (2010): Internationales Management; revised Edition; Oldenbourg 2010, ISBN-10: 348659713, p. 666.

[120] Cf. Blom, H.; Meier, H. (2004): Interkulturelles Management: interkulturelle Kommunikation, internationales Personalmanagement, Diversity-Ansätze im Unternehmen; in: Meier, H. (Ed.): Internationales Management; 2nd edition, Herne, Berlin 2004; p. 35. ISBN-10: 3482538123

[121] Cf. Kroeber-Riel, W.; Weinberg, P,. Gröppel-Klein, A.(2013): Konsumentenverhalten; 10th edition; München 2013, ISBN-10: 3800646188, p. 553.

[122] Cf. Lindner, D. (2010): Interkulturelles Marketing: Grundlagen – Strategien – Chancen – Risiken; Düsseldorf 2012, ISBN-10: 3639447174; p. 27

[123] Cf. Usunier, J.-C.; Walliser, B. (1993): Interkulturelles Marketing: mehr Erfolg im internationalen Geschäft; Gabler, Wiesbaden 1993, ISBN-10: 3409136738; p. 37.

[124] Cf. Kroeber-Riel, W.; Weinberg, P., Gröppel-Klein, A.(2013): Konsumentenverhalten; 10th edition; München 2013, ISBN-10: 3800646188; p 553.

[125] Cf. Emrich, Ch. (2009): Interkulturelles Marketing Management: Erfolgsstrategien, Konzepte, Analysen, Gabler; edition: 2nd, revised edition. ISBN-10: 383491794X

[126] Cf. Kroeber-Riel, W.; Weinberg, P,. Gröppel-Klein, A.(2013): Konsumentenverhalten; 10th edition; München 2013, ISBN-10: 3800646188; p. 552 ff.

[127] Cf. Backhaus, K.; Büschken, J.; Voeth, M. (2003): Internationales Marketing; 5th edition; Stuttgart 2003; p. 46. ISBN-10: 3791021621

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Title: Intercultural Competence - The Key to Successful International Marketing