Overview of Basics and Types of Fermentation

by Dr Manoj Parakhia (Author) R.S. Tomar (Author) B.A. Golakiya (Author)

Abstract 2015 22 Pages

Biology - Micro- and Molecular Biology



1. General concept of industrial microbiology
1.1 Concept of Fermentation
1.2 The range of Fermentation Processes
1.3 The Component part of a Fermentation process.

2. The Medium for the industrial fermentation
2.1 Component of Media
2.2 Ideal Characteristics of Antifoam Agent
2.3 Fed Batch techniques

1. General concept of industrial microbiology

- Introduction

- Industrial Microbiology deals with all type of Microbiology which has an economic impact.

- Industrial Microbiology concern with…

(1) Isolation & Identification of Microbes from natural environment such as soil & water.
(2) Optimizing the cultural conditions required for obtaining rapid & Massive growth of these organism in laboratory & in frequenter.

- Thus the fermentation industry is a part of industrial Microbiology.

1.1 Concept of Fermentation

- The term “Fermentation” is derived from Latin Verb “Fervere” means to boil.
- Originally fermentation referred to the bubbling, observed when sugar or starchy material caveat into alcoholic beverages.
- Here the bubbling is observed due to the production of Co2 gas.
- Later on the term “fermentation” was applied to the process in which alcohol was formed from sugar.
- Later on Pasteur described fermentation as those anaerobic process through which microorganism obtained energy for growth in the absence of oxygen.
- But, today Fermentation is broadly use for both, aerobic & anaerobic metabolic activity of microorganism in which specific chemical changes are brought in an organic substrate.
- According to industrial Microbiology, the word fermentation includes almost any process Mediated by or involving Microbes in which a product of economic value produce.
- The biochemical meaning of termination is the generation of energy by the catabolism of organic compounds.

1.2 The range of Fermentation Processes

- This answer include following points.

(A) Introduction.

(B) Microbial biomass

(C) Microbial enzyme.

(D) Microbial Metabolites

(E) Recombinant Products

(F) Transformation Processes

A) Introduction:

- There are five Major group of commercially important fermentation.
- Microbial biomass
- Microbial Enzymes
- Microbial Metabolites
- Recombinant Product
- Transformation Process.

(B) Microbial biomass

- Commercial production of Microbial biomass may be divided into two major processes.

(A) The Production of yeast to be used in baking industry.

(B) Production of microbial cells to be sued as food for human & animal (SCP)

- The production of Banker’s yeast is started before 1900s.
- Yeast was produced as human food in care many during First World War.
- The Production of microbial biomass as food of animal was established in the 1970. These process based on Hydrocarbon feed stocks.
- Later on ICI Plo & Rank Hovis McBougal established a process for the production of fungal biomass for human food.

(C) Microbial Enzymes

- Enzyme commercially produced form plant, animals & Microbial origin.
- However Microbial enzyme is produced in large quantities by establishment of fermentation techniques.
- It easier to improve the productivity of microbial system as compared to plants & animals.
- With the help of R-DNA tech, it is possible produced animal origin enzyme by the Microorganism.

Table 1.1 Summarize the use of microbial enzyme.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

- Enzyme production is controlled by microbes, therefore in order to improved productivity we have to modify this control.
- Induction of enzyme synthesis is carried cut by adding inducer in medium.
- While repression control of enzyme is removed by mutation or recombination. Tech.
- Also the number of gene that encode for the enzyme can be increased by R-DNA technology.
- Aspects of strains improvement are also included for improvement of enzyme synthesis.

(D) Microbial Metabolites.

- The growth of microbial culture is divided into four stages.

(A) Lag Phase

(B) Log Phase

(C) Stationary Phase

(D) Decline Phase

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

FIg.1.1 Growth phases of Bacteria

The behavior of a culture may also be described according to the product, which they product, which they produced during the various stage of growth.

(A) Primary Metabolites

- The product, which produced during log phase are essential for the cell growth like N. Acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates etc.
- These products are referred as “Primary Metabolites” & the phase of growth in which these products are produced is called “Trophophase”.
- This Trophophase is equivalence to log phase.
- Many primary metabolites have great economic important & produced by fermentation.

Table 1.2 Metabolites produced by bacteria.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

- Microbiologist Modified the Microbes in such a way that they can produce high amount of primary metabolites.

(B) Secondary Metabolites

- During stationary phase some Microbes produce a compound which is not produced during trophophase & which have no function in the cell metabolism.
- This compound is reoffered as “Secondary Metabolites” & the phase in which they are synthesized called “idiophase”.
- Secondary metabolites produced at slow growth rate of culture.
- They are generally produced from intermediates & products of primary metabolism.
- Secondary metabolites generally produced by filamentous bacteria, fungi & sporulating bacteria.
- Many secondary metabolites have antibacterial & antimicrobial activities, other is specific enzymes inhibitors, some are growth promoters & many have Pharmacological properties.
- Thus, the product of secondary metabolism formed the basis of number of fermentation industry.

(C) Recombinant Products.

- R-DNA tech is now a day used for the production of fermentation products.
- The genes of higher organism incorporated in Microbial cell in such a way that they can able to produce the product of this gene.
- Following Microbes are asked e-Coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, filamentous fungi.
- Product produced by R-DNA tech. include – Interferon’s, insulin, factor VIII & IX, epidermal growth factor, calf thymosin & bovine stomatostatin.
- Following factor is imp for such products.
(1) Secretion of product by microbial host.
(2) Minimization of degradation of products
(3) Control of the onset of synthesis during fermentation.
(4) Maximization the operation of the foreign gene.

(D) Transformation Process

- Microbial cell may use to covert one compound into structurally related other compound which have more financial value.
- Microbes can behave as catalyst & carry out specific change in compound.
- Microbial processes are more specific & carry out at normal temperate & pressure then purely chemical method.
- Following reduction carried out by microbes.
- Dehydration - decarburization
- Oxidation - Amination
- Hydroxylation - Deamination
- Dehydrogenation - isomerisation.
- The most studies Microbial transformation is production of vinegar from ethanol.
- They also used to produce antibiotics, prostaglandins, steroids.
- But only disadvantage of this process is that, they required high amount of biasness.
- To solve this problem, immobilized cell & immobilized enzyme. Can be used, which carry reaction on inert support & used for many times.



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Junagadh Agricultural University – Junagadh Agricultural University
overview basics types fermentation



Title: Overview of Basics and Types of Fermentation