TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of tables
List of figures
List of abbrevations/acronyms
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose and Significance of the Study
1.4 Objectives of the study.
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.6 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITRATURE
2.1. History and Definition of Instructional Media Technology
2.2. Instructional Technology Importance in Classroom Teaching
2.3. Factors Affecting Instructional Media Technology Integration in Classroom Teaching
2.3.1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic barriers to instructional media integration in classroom teaching
2.3.2. Positive actions for integrating instructional media in classroom teaching
2.3.4. The situation in Ethiopia: integrating instructional media in classroom teaching
2.4. Instructional Leaders Role in Media Technology Integration in Classroom Teaching
2.4.1. Instructional leadership and its role to integrate media technology into classroom teaching
2.4.2. Supervisors and their role in integrating instructional technology in classroom
2.4.3. Instructional leader’s attitude and perception towards instructional media technology
18.104.22.168. Instructional leaders Attitude towards instructional media
22.214.171.124. Instructional leaders Perception
126.96.36.199. Other factors affecting principals facilitate or inhibit ICT integration
188.8.131.52. Solutions for changing perception that inhibit ICT integration
2.5. Changing instructional media perception and utilization
2.5.1. Changing Trends and perception
2.5.2. Summary of Barriers and Enablers of technology integration in classroom teaching
2.6. Theories and Model of Factors Affecting Perceptions
2.6.1. What is Perception?
2.6.2. Theories of Perception
2.6.3. Attributes of Perception
184.108.40.206. Definition and Principles of Attributes of perception
220.127.116.11. Theories of Attributes of perceptions
18.104.22.168. Perceptual errors
2.6.4. Factors Influencing Perception
22.214.171.124. The perceiver, object or target and the context as factors influencing perception
126.96.36.199. Power and group thinking as a factor influencing perception
2.7. Research conceptual framework
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Method and Design
3.2. Study Area
3.3. Participants of the Study
3.4. Sampling Procedure and Sample Size
3.6. Instrumentation and Measures
3.7. Data Collection procedures
3.8. Validity and Reliability
3.9. Ethical Consideration
3.10. Data Analysis Method
CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1. Demographics Results and Discussion
4.2. Quantitative Results and Discussion
4.3. Qualitative Results and Discussion
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUTION & RECOMMENDATIONS
Appendix 1: Media Perception Evaluation Scale (MPES)
Appendix 2: Focus Group Discussion Questions
Appendix 3: The 8 model one variables (created from categorized question items)
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:- BECTA (2007) and BECTA (2004b) summary of barriers and enablers of ICT integration in classroom teaching
Table 2:- Jo Shan Fu. ( 2013) summarized barriers and strategies ICT use for teachers
Table 3: Demographic data
Table 4: Comparison of training on media and experience
Table 5: One variable Chi square test on the perception level of instructional leaders about the two roles of media
Table 6: Chi square test on the perception level of instructional leaders about the two roles of media by training on media
Table 7: Mean comparison of items that show significant difference between trained and untrained instructional leaders
Table 8: Chi square test on the perception level of instructional leaders about the two roles of media by experience in teaching
Table 9: Mean comparison of items that show significant difference between instructional leaders with low and high experience in teaching
Table 10: Chi square test on the perception level of instructional leaders about the two roles of media by experience in instructional leadership
Table 11: Mean comparison of items that show significant difference between high and low in instructional leadership
Table 12: Inter correlations among eight Model one constructs of reasons of perceptions of instructional leaders toward utilization of instructional media in classroom teaching
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Factors Influencing Perception (Robbins, Millett & Waters-Marsh, (2004) p.142 and Rao, (2008)
Figure 2: Model one conceptual framework: reasons for instructional leader’s perception towards media utilization classroom (source: researcher)
Figure 3: Model two conceptual framework: factors influencing instructional leader’s perception of media utilization in classroom teaching. (Source: from Robbins, Millett & Waters-Marsh, (2004) p.142 and Rao, (2008) modified by the researcher)
Figure 4: Amhara Regional State (the study area) (Wikimedia Commons (2012), BoFED)
Figure 5: The findings of model one; reasons for instructional leader’s perception towards media utilization in classroom teaching. Where; * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level and ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). (source: researcher)
Figure 6: results of factors influencing instructional leaders perception towards media utilization in classroom teaching
LIST OF ABBREVATIONS/ ACRONYMS
illustration not visible in this excerpt
This study explores factors that affect instructional leaders ’ perception of the role of media in classroom teaching in Amhara region of Ethiopia. To achieve the objective a one sample survey method using questioner and focus group discussion was employed. The participants are 168 instructional leaders (108 principals & 60 supervisors) with different training, teaching and school leadership experience selected by convenience sampling. The two roles of media that are selected are media used as supplement and substitute for the teacher in classroom teaching. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analyze the data gathered. The research answered seven research questions. The findings reviled that there were significant differences in perceptions of instructional leaders. Media training that they do have in the past contributed to some extent but neither experience in teaching nor in leadership has significant contribution for perception. The reasons behind for instructional leaders ’ perception are mainly their belief that media has no or less impact on student motivation but traditional roles of teachers has some impact. The identified factors that affect perception are negative beliefs, irresponsibility, ignorance, lack of willingness and knowhow. The study discusses the findings and makes some recommendations.
Most people are comfortable to practice what they used to do in the past. When we exposed to something new or a system demands us to incorporate any new method mostly at first we resist. One of the reasons for this resistance could be due to perception problem. Perception problem when it comes to education process it may have adverse effect on student’s achievement. Education is a dynamic process that is always in change with updated curriculum contents, incorporating new teaching-learning methods, and instructional media technologies. The present day is technology-rich environment, where school leaders are faced with difficulties on how to support the integration of technology into meaningful learning activities and how to evaluate the use of technology with their schools (Waxman, Boriack, Lee, and MacNeil, 2013 citing Yu & Durrington , 2006). Because as Markova (2014) citing Earl (2002) said the introduction of technology is transforming the learning process, and that is resulting in the introduction of completely new definitions for what a learning management environment.
The traditional approach of education is teacher-centered where teacher stand in front to lecture and dictate the lesson where as students are more passive participants in learning process. As Ambelu and Gebregzihabher (2011) stated students listen to the information, participate in limited discussion, take notes, and retrieve or recall the information for evaluation purpose (p.374). This traditional approach to instruction, as Sousa (1998) conclusion referring brain researches, will not enough to raise student achievement levels to today’s public satisfaction. The present day world demands new teaching and learning approach to enrich the learning environment. Markova (2014), citing Kopcha (2012) also said there is a growing perception within society as a whole that technology should be integrated into all levels of education. In this regards, educational media technologies concentrate on creating the optimum teaching and learning environment through the use of technology (Newbery, 1999). According to Barbour (1989), many technological solutions are available today, but their success still depends on classroom teachers and how they used the technologies to solve real classroom problem. In this regard Shank (2000), suggested that technology is already fundamentally changing education, regardless of educators’ readiness for change. For instance as Markova (2014), stated that the utilization of the resource of internet and the power of computing capabilities, educational technologies have the potential of fundamentally changing every aspect of the educational process.
Comparing the utilization of technologies in classroom it is obvious that developed countries are well ahead of developing counties. Confirming this point Light (2009), states that in industrialized countries understanding of how technology fits to classroom to change teaching- learning performance is a critical issue but little is known about educational technology utilization in classrooms of the developing countries (p.2). In particular as Dede (1995) and Stove (1998) indicated new learning models, such as problem-based learning and constructivism, are aided by the use of technology. But incorporation of media technology for education demands proper equipment and knowhow of utilizing them. Apple Corporation (2002), verified this idea in that with proper equipment, time for professional development and correct instructional methodology, technology can improve student’s learning. Otherwise besides lack of skill, bias and perception problem as Entwistle (1998), described that matching and mismatching learning styles to instructional materials can have significant effects on learner’s learning performance. In addition to this a simple inclusion of media technology doesn’t create the desired positive results. Education is a complex process that requires interaction between external environment (material and social) and internal brain activities as Gwendolyn (1989), coating Vygotsky (1960/1981) indicated instruction stimulates diverse internal developmental process when a person interacts with another. Regarding the strong effect of media in students learning Marshall (2002), states that the ability of media to engage the learner, activates emotional states, initiate interest in a topic, and allow for absorption and processing of information shares a direct relationship to the potential that learning will occur.
Markova (2014) (citing Albright & Nworie, 2008; Jugovich & Reeves, 2006) mentioned the two main objectives of integration of educational technology in schools are: “one to facilitate the implementation of the new instructional strategies and the second is to improve the learning process as well as learning outcomes far better than the traditional instructional approaches”. Over the past years as Ambelu & Gebregziabher (2011) citing Greitzer (2002), many scholars advocated more flexible, student-centered teaching methods inspired by the concept of discovery learning and active or autonomous learning (p.175). Many practical experiences shows that student-centered teaching can be well facilitated using media technology because it engages and motivates them to accomplish the tasks by themselves. However Tadess (2001), says despite their importance to the effective teaching learning process different studies revealed that the role of instructional materials was underestimated and misused in most of the instruction process.
In many occasions introductions of new ideas or innovations that are expected to solve a certain problem begin from the one individual. In this regards Hank (2003), said in order for technology to be successfully integrated in the schools, someone must lead the effort. Instructional leaders in the present day as Markova (2014), stressed have important function of overseeing the academic technology, and managing the education technology resources into which their institutions are heavily invested. Worekenehe (2012) citing MOE (2007) indicated that head-teachers …. are expected to take responsibility for problems and weaknesses that arise in schools, and they play leading roles in implementing effective practices and decisions. School instructional leaders (i.e., principals and supervisors) are expected to help teachers design effective learning environments that use technology not for its own sake, but to enhance student learning. Because Markova (2014) referring other research documents (De Blois, 2006; Krauth, 1998; and Bates, 2000) concluded that a critical factor that affects the technology adoption process is leadership.
Previous studies employed different methods and frameworks to assess the perception of instructional leaders towards educational media technology integration. Taiwo (2009), citing other researchers mentioned the methods like Likert-scale questionnaire and case study. In his study Taiwo (2009) citing Romiszowski (1990), mentioned the two roles of media in instruction. The first is media are used as instructional aid; which means media having supplementary role. The second is media used as instructional system; which means media as a substitute. Based on his scope Taiwo (2009), argued that teachers preference for the use of media as instructional aids (i.e., supplementary role) than media as instructional system (i.e., substitute role) instructional leaders preference not mentioned in his work. Obviously most of the time instructional leaders do have previous teaching experience. Their training, perception and preference of the role of media while they were teacher have some influence in their present actions. Therefore to evaluate the perception status of instructional leaders it is possible to use the same research tools that are used for teachers.
Many researchers mentioned several factors that affect instructional leaders’ perception regarding media technology integration in classroom teaching. For instance Waxman, Boriack, Lee, and MacNeil, (2013), stated that many school leaders are novice technology users and have little experience or training in the knowledge and skills required to be effective technology leaders. In addition to this instructional leaders must first have positive perception in the use of media technology in classroom teaching before they can help teachers use technology as a tool for learning. It is obvious that there are problems of shortage and access for media technology materials, power problem, lack of technical know-how, and so on. At this point however, given all the materials are easily available Haank (2003) citing Kearsly & Lynch (1994), indicated that administrators’ perceptions about educational media technology are influenced by their beliefs and attitudes.
Focusing on factors affecting instructional leaders’ perception several researchers documents (Waxman et al., 2013; Gabriella (2011); Ether, 1999; Holloway, 1996; Susan, 1997; Shan Fu, 2013; Handal, 2004; Duhaney, 2000; Ponticell, 2003; and Enguday, 2003) mentioned many of them; where according to Ether (1999), can be categorized in to internal ( i.e., intrinsic) and external (i.e., extrinsic) factors:
Internal (i.e., Intrinsic) - attitude, belief, resistance, knowledge, perception, motivation, intention, self-confidence, phobia, and reluctance. External (i.e., Extrinsic) - access, time, support, resource, training, practice, skill, culture of school climate, teaching load, monitoring and supervision, reward and recognition.
Other researchers Robbins, Millett, and Waters-Marsh, (2004) and Rao (2008), in the field of perception study categorized the factors in to three groups i.e., factors in the perceiver (i.e., attitudes, motives, interests, experience, and expectations), in situation (i.e., time, work settings, and social settings) and in the target (i.e., novelty, motion, sounds, size, background, proximity and similarity).
Using different methods and frameworks knowing the status of perception of instructional leaders towards utilization of media in classroom teaching as well as reasons and factors affecting the integration are the two important steps. But finding solutions for the problems identified in the first and second steps is the third most important step that gives inspiration to take practical actions.
1.2. Problem Statement
In Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, where the study is conducted, despite the presence of media technology equipments in schools and organizational structure with qualified human resource from regional bureau and zone education departments (i.e., ICT core process) to woreda education offices and school level ICT case workers (i.e., ICT technician for high/preparatory schools and focal teacher for primary schools) and four media centers (with radio stations) staffs giving technical and supervisory support the utilization of media technology for classroom teaching is not satisfactory. The researcher upon his over 20 years of experience in managing Gondar Education Media Center and giving monitoring and supervision support for schools witnessed the low level of education media technologies utilization in primary and secondary schools. In those schools which have good electric facilities, radio sets with dry cells, functional plasma television systems, computers, generators, school pedagogical centers and with alternative media materials like CD recorded educational television program and radio programs recorded in memory stick and/or flash instructional media technology utilization is low. Why is that? And what will be the solution? These are the key questions that should be answered. There must be some reasons for the inefficient implementations of media technology for teaching and learning the researcher inspired to do the present research to find out it and give possible answers.
Therefore; the intention of this research is to compare the perception status towards educational media technology utilization for classroom teaching of trained and well experienced instructional leaders with that of untrained and less experienced once then identify factors affecting perception and seek possible measures to solve the occurrence of such defaults. The first part compares the perception status of instructional leaders towards educational media technology utilization for the two roles of media (i.e., media as supplement and media as substitute) between those who has got media training and those do not have the training, between those having short and long experience in teaching, and between those having short and long experience in instructional leadership. And the second part of the research intention is to identify perception factors under perceivers; situation and target categories then seek possible measures to solve the occurrence of such defaults so that instructional media technologies are properly utilized in classroom teaching to improve students’ achievement.
1.3. Purpose and Significance
Looking low level utilization of instructional media technologies like radio and plasma television program from field visits and monitoring meetings reports Amhara Region Education Bureau in year 2013 arranged 4 day training workshop for selected 168 instructional leaders to improve their support to teachers in the use of media technology in classroom teaching. During this training workshop as the first activity participants are asked to fill questionnaire to measure their perception towards teacher’s instructional media utilization in classroom teaching and in the following days focus group discussions are conducted to collect data about factor influencing their perceptions as well as positive measures to solve the problems.
The purpose of this study is to determine the level and difference as well as factors affecting instructional leaders (i.e., school principals and supervisors) perception towards use of media technology in classroom teaching and recommends solutions. Specifically to see the existence of perception difference between those instructional leaders in relation to training, experience, perception on the role of instructional media as a supplement or substitute. In addition to these to find out factors that influence perception of instructional leaders towards utilization of instructional media materials in classroom teaching then give possible remedies for successful integration.
This study has significant contribution for all level instructional leaders, supervisors and principals perception improvement to satisfy the leadership ability to support teachers utilize instructional media technology in classroom teaching. This study also contributes by giving clue for decision makers in education sector, educational media materials development specialists, education media produces as well as curriculum specialists by giving answers for problems regarding the use of instructional media technology for classroom instruction by teachers. The study identifies core factors that influenced instructional leader’s perception. It gives light to use the possible ideas found out from the findings as a part of solution to change instructional leader’s perception towards media utilization in classroom teaching.
The study stimulates researchers to further investigate the possible gaps of short trainings and professional development opportunities to build school principals and supervisors in integrating instructional media technology for student’s achievement. Another contribution of this study is for institutions involved in the training of aspiring instructional leaders in that they could use the findings to better prepare educators for leadership positions in school administration.
1.4. Objectives of the study
The main objective of this research is to answer the question of what are the reasons as well as factors influencing perception of instructional leaders to play their leadership role as far as utilization of media technology in classroom teaching.
The following questions were drawn from the literature and used to give guide the study:
1) Dose the level of perception of instructional leaders for the two roles of media (i.e., media as supplement and media as substitute) differ significantly?
2) Are there differences between the perceptions of instructional leaders that are trained and untrained about instructional media technology?
3) Are there differences between perceptions of instructional leaders who have less than or equal to three years and more than three years of teaching experience?
4) Are there differences between perceptions of instructional leaders who have less than or equal to three years and more than three years of leadership experience?
5) What are the reasons for instructional leader’s perception towards media utilization in classroom teaching?
6) What are factors that influence perception of instructional leaders towards use of media technology in classroom teaching?
7) What are solutions to change the occurrence of defaults so that media technology properly utilized in classroom teaching?
- This study attempted to control both internal and external variables.
- It is assumed that there is a need to measure the level of perception of instructional leaders to building integration or inclusion of technology into the classroom teaching.
- Respondents may have tended to think they have a lower or higher level of perception than they actually possessed, therefore, self-reporting could affect the outcome of the study.
- The focus group discussion participants are the same people who answered the questionnaire. But since they all are the training participants it is assumed that they identified the actual existing factors influencing perception.
1.6. Scope and Limitations of the study
This research is confined in analyzing instructional leaders perception regarding communication media technology in classroom instruction and giving recommendations identified from the findings of the study. The participants of the study are among the total over 9,743 distributed all over the region those 168 instructional leaders (i.e., supervisors and principals) who participated in the 4 day training workshop conducted in the year 2013 at Enjibara town selected from Amhara Region Schools and Education Department offices at Woreda and Zone level. Hence, it was too difficult for the researcher to access all schools found in the region to get all instructional leaders because of logistic and time constraint. The researcher takes the advantage of getting all the necessary information from workshop participants (i.e., convenience sampling) who are represented from all 11 zones and 90 % of woredas of Amhara region. Hence, care must be taken to generalize the results of the research which is one of the drawbacks of using the available informant’s data collection method. But since the participant’s characteristics match those of the total population and participation in this research as well as in the workshop was voluntary so that it can be assumed that the participants had full interest in providing honest information’s.
Participants are asked to self-report their perceptions regarding media technology utilization in classroom teaching using 31 item Likert-scale questionnaire. And in focus group discussion (FGD) they identified possible factors influencing perception of instructional media technology used by the teachers in classroom teaching. This is another limitation of the study where reliance on respondents’ self-reported attitudinal data. However, anonymity of the respondent guaranteed to encourage honest and open responses. Even in focus group discussion voice recording is not used only a written group reports are utilized. Furthermore, the study is subject to those weaknesses inherent in one group one test design.
1.7. Definition of Terms
Information Communication Technology (ICT):- refers to both “old” media such as radio and television, as well as “new” media such as computers, mobile phone, etc (Fidler, 1997).
Instructional leadership:- is leading and supervision, it is an act of administration, curriculum work, instruction, human relations, management and the leadership role with various dimensions like helping, evaluation, procuring and delivery of resource, coordinating, advising and assisting teachers as well as students; and receiving community feedbacks about the school programs(Wiles & Bondi,1997; Degree Directory,2011; and Okumbe ,2007).
Instructional Technology:- Instruction using technological materials like computers, audiovisual equipments, and mass media to aid in teaching all subjects concerned with creating the optimum teaching and learning environment through the use of technology. The term instructional technology is interchangeable with educational technology (Dugger, 1999; Newberry, 1999).
Leadership:- it is a relationship between a leader and the followers and a leader is a person who has the capacity to implement change and helps others to develop their capacity as well through the process of the change (Markova, 2014).
Perception of media as substitute:- media alone are used for instruction to improve overall productivity. Hence the teacher need not be physically present in classroom (Taiwo, 2009).
Perception of media as supplement: - media are used to enrich existing instruction. Hence, the teacher must be physically present in the classroom (Taiwo, 2009).
Perception:- is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli, through which we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival (Cherry, 2013).
Principals: - A School administrator who is seen as a chief administrator at the school level and/or as the official leader of a school in charge of daily operations of the school and instructional leadership (including supervision of teachers and other staffs like librarians, secretaries, custodians, finance and purchasers) and community relations and around the schools should have to have much diplomacy, sensitivity, and humanity (Starratt, nd).
Supervision :- is considered as any service for teachers that eventually results in improving instruction, learning, and the curriculum that consists of positive, dynamic, democratic actions for the continued growth of all concerned - the student, the teacher, the supervisor, the administrator, and the parent as well as the community (Neagley and Evans,1980).
Zone and Woreda :- Ethiopia follows the federal system and is divided into two chartered cities and nine administrative regions, one of which is the Amhara Region. Zone is a clustered government administrative system within each Region. Within Zones there are Woredas. Woreda represent district level government administration structure within a Zone.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter contains mainly history of using instructional media in classroom theoretical framework of perception which is central concept for conducting the study. The first and second parts discuss the History and utilization of instructional media technology in classroom teaching. In the second, third and fourth parts Factors affecting instructional media technology integration in classroom teaching, the role of instructional leaders and trends of change in perception described. In the last two parts perception theories, attributes, models and research conceptual framework are discussed. The literatures also include empirical data that are hoped to shade some light to the discussion.
2.1. History and Definition of Instructional Media Technology
Media and its use
According to Chiu (2010) citing (Heinich, Molenda & Russeil, 1993; Kupsh, Tanes & Graves, 1990; Levie, 1898), definition Media are vehicles through which messages or knowledge and skills are conveyed from a presenter or a teacher to the audience or the learner. Technology is commonly thought of in terms of gadgets, instruments, machines and devises… (Muffoletto,1994). When we see the nature of ‘media as a vessel’ through which sound is passing as Yerges (1969), indicated there are different kinds of media in nature, such as air, water(liquid), and wood(solid) , by which sound emitting from a source travels and then reaches a receiver. Artificial media in physical world, according to Romiszowski (1988), narrowly includes those complex electronic communication media, such as films or television, and uncomplicated devises, such as slides, photographs, diagrams and charts which could effectively bring about planned instruction. In present day they are called information communication technology (ICT) as Jo Shan Fu (2013), described includes computers, internet, and electronic delivery systems such as radios, televisions, and projectors among others, and widely used in today’s education field.
In history of mankind knowledge and experience had been transferred from generation to generation using different methods like oral story, cave pictures, stone writings, and Egyptian papyrus. We can say these are the oldest forms of educational media used to retain and transfer knowledge. According to Saettler (1990), the history of educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge, and early cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information.
Evolution of educational technology
Educational technology according to Markova (2014), is concerned with learning out comes and it is a broad field that has the potential to touch virtually eventually every element of teaching and learning at every education institution. To reach the present day development educational technology has passed at least five stages in history ( Deka, 2011). The first stage as Deka (2011), mentioned are non-projected aids usage; which includes use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. Liu (n.d) said the inventions of Abacus in 3000 B.C, counting board called Salamis Table in 400 B.C., Chinas Swan Pan and Japan Soroba in 200 A.D. for calculation are some of the earliest types of technologies for education. Newton (1993) citing Flanagan (1989), said that one of the oldest and most widely used forms of educational resource regardless of the influx of other instructional media in to classroom are print materials. Liu (n.d) mentioned that Johannes Gutenberg of Germany printing press used to print the first book ever, the Bible between 1452 and 1456. He added that horn book in 1650, slide rule in 1654, school slate and chalkboard in 1890 are used for instruction. But regarding print materials Kozma (1991) and Romiszowski (1988) stated that are “the most common medium encountered in learning” and “continue to be the single most common category of teaching materials”. Westbury (1989) said in a daily works of teachers and schools books are “the central tools and objects of attention in all schooling” (p.476).
According to Deka (2011), the second stage of development in educational technology associated with electronic revolution, which is the use of various projected audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television. Radio staring from its early days was a good candidate for mass education and instruction. Casey (2008) and Nasseh (1997), mentioned that not so far from its early days 1920’s that educational radio broadcasting started, viewed as the most promising new technology with its ability to reach distant learners, that allows listeners to be far away from their instructors and replaced the old printed type correspondence courses. Intensifying its power Reiser (2001), states that by the early 1930s many audio visual advocators were thinking radio as the medium that would revolutionize education. Radio becomes very popular within short time. Comparing with television Radio was in existence 38 years before 50 million people tuned in; television took 13 years to reach that benchmark (Gigliott, 1997). According to Liu (n.d.), the first educational films like the growth of plants, emergence of butterfly, and undersea views are exhibited in 1902 by Charles Urban. are introduced by Thomas Edison in classroom. He added that the first television get on air in 1927 and in 1953 television used for classroom education.
The third stage linked with the development of mass media which in turn lead to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes (Deka, 2011). He added that computer assisted instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also become popular during this era. In 1965 according to Liu (n.d), the first true computer invented and mass produced personal computers (PC) get into market in large amount and then CAI started in 1980’s. Liu also added in 1990’s windows developed and network system introduced following in 1991 World Wide Web (WWW) were released. The 1990’s products like video disk, CD-ROM’s, Multimedia, DVD, Teleconferencing and multiple types of software’s started in this same decade.
The fourth stage as Deka (2011), mentioned is identified by the individualized process of instruction. This is marked Deka added due to the invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. In this stage a system of self learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged. The fifth stage influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and use of the computer in instruction (Deka 2011).
There are several types of instructional Medias depending on their nature and situations of utilization. Enguday (2003) citing Amare (2003) stated that instructional media includes persons, print media, audio (radio recordings), audio-visual materials (television, video, and motion pictures), visuals (pictures, charts) and enactive media such as real objects. In Polizzi (2011), research ICT refers to both old media; such as radio and television, as well as new media; such as desktop and laptop computer, and ICT integration into teaching refers to both teaching through the media and teaching about the media. In another document Sive(1983), classified media in terms of attributes in to the following categories: “audio, printed, projected still-visual, motion-visual, and audio-motion-visual” (p.24). According to Abimbade (1997); Afolabi, Abidoye & Afolabi (2012) instructional media can be classified into three categories: non-print such as projected materials like films, slides, film-strips; printed media are like books, text, maps, journals and electronic media consists of visual, audio and audio-visuals that relies on electricity to function effectively (p.2).
The term instructional technology as Newberry (1999), said can be titled several things, such as educational technology, computer technology, and information technology. Rubin (2013) adds Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as instructional medium and went further to stress that not only is ICT the base of learning environment, but also it provides individuals to have lifelong learning, to improve educational outcomes, to learn new occupational skills, and decrease inequalities between groups. According to Dugger (1999), educational technology involves “using technological developments such as computers, audiovisual equipments, and mass media to aid in teaching all subjects- is concerned with creating the optimum teaching and learning environment through the use of technology”. (p.58) Therefore educational technology can be defined as “ a combination of the process and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies” (Roblyer & Edwards, 2000).
Almost every material that is used to disseminate information can be defined as instructional media materials. As Romiszowski (1996), mentioned instructional media include newspapers, magazines, pictures, text books, laboratory equipments, audiocassettes, tapes, film scripts and slides, overhead and opaque projectors, real objects and computers. Romiszowski also included traditional materials such as chalkboards, handouts, charts and videotapes, as well as newer materials and methods such as DVDs, CD-ROMs, Internet, and interactive video conferencing as instructional Medias. Moreover Robert (2011), indicated that within the last decades multitude of technological advances like iPod, iPad, USB Flash Drive, High definition television, and smart phone are few examples that revolutionized our daily lives. Therefore instructional media according to Ajelabi (2000), refers to a broad range of information carrying resources that constitute and integral component of classroom teaching and learning, and are utilized in an instructional process with the hope of facilitating effective and efficient communication in the teaching and learning process. But technology education is different from educational technology, which most of the time called instructional technology. In this regard technology education’s main focus is to “develop technological literacy in all students through the study of and about technology” (Newberry, 1999).
Multimedia in Education
Integrating educational technology is a process of determining and implementing specific tools and methods are appropriate for a given classroom situation and problems. The best way of using media for education purpose is multimedia approach. Multimedia means according to Chiu (2010) Fetterman(1997) and Beckman(1996), is a combinations of various media that include one or more media such as graphics, video, animation, images, and sound in addition to textual information and they mainly includes such combinations like: projected still-visual, audio- projected still-visual, and audio-motion-visual. However Dillon and Gabbard(1999), argued that the impact of multimedia instructional materials on a person’s higher order cognitive skills improvement is not well established and stated that there is no convincing evidence for increased learning in multimedia environments. But Jonassen (1989), Delany & Gilbert (1991), states that multimedia is attention-capturing or engaging to use and represents a natural form of representation with respect to the workings of the human mind. In addition to this Collier (1987) and Barrett (1988), researches show that with multimedia, users can explore information in-depth on demand and interact with instructional material on a self-paced mode. Knowing the importance of instructional media to expand and enrich knowledge many countries utilized it in combination with printed materials as well as audio recordings for their primary, secondary and university education. For instance in Kdevries (2007), document it was stated that; In Asia, the 44 radio and TV universities in China (including the China Central Radio and Television University), Universitas Terbuka in Indonesia, and Indira Ghandi National Open University have made extensive use of radio and television, both for direct class teaching and for school broadcasting, to reach more of their respective large populations. Japan University of the Air was broadcasting 160 television and 160 radio courses in the year 2000 with supplemental print materials, face-to-face instruction, and online tutorials.
One of best known implementation of multimedia in instruction is utilization of radio. Dewey (1937) stated that by being offered in conjunction with traditional text-based curricula, educational radio made according to educational theory of the day that proposed active engagement of students in materials, interactively and engagement between teachers and students, as well as opportunities for more experimental learning would create a more solid, and successful learning environment all possible. As Haworth & Hopkins (2009), stated that radio is considered best by educators who practiced traditional, non-engaging methodology in its use in classroom teaching. They added that educational radio also had effect of foreshadowing future implementation of educational technology and this can be explained in the manner in which other technologies such as television and the internet were incorporated in education because of the framework that was previously laid out by radio. Radio undergoes some modification to make it more communicating and interactive. This idea described in Dock and Helwig (1999), explanation of Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) in that it is a methodology developed to make a typical one-way technology into a tool for active learning inside and outside of the classroom, continues to be an attractive educational strategy in developing countries. Dock and Helwig added that IRI may be described as interactive lesson in which an external teaching element, delivered by a distant teacher through the medium of radio or audiocassette, is carefully integrated with classroom teachers and learners.
The begging of utilization of modern media technologies for education in Ethiopia If we consider everything which is deliberately prepared to convey a message as media there are different forms of ancient writings and cave pictures in different parts of Ethiopia. But if we consider just the form of media that used for education purpose the oldest media is The Bible written in Geez. The early form of Ge’ez was written in boustrophedon, which is writing in alternate lines in opposite directions, as from left to right and then from right to left on the next line, and then left to right on the next line, and so on. (Asher, 1994,p.1149). The Bible was translated into Ge’ez from Greek. Greek influence is also seen in the organization of the Ge’ez letters, which is very similar to Greek alphabet organization (Asher, 1994, P. 1149).
The history of modern print media in Ethiopia as Neggussie (2006), pointed out can be traced back to the reign of Menelik II who ruled from 1889-1913. He added that the first medium to be introduced was weekly news paper La Semaine d’Ethiopia, 1890, published in French by a Franciscan missionary living in Harar. Neggussie (2006), in his writing mentioned that the first Amharic newspaper was issued in 1895 and it was handwritten a four page weekly newspaper named Aemero. After this between 1912 and 1915 weekly newspapers like Melekete Selam, Yetor Wore and many others emerged (Neggussie, 2006).
Regarding electronics media Ethiopia has a rich experience spanning more than three decades in using radio and television to support primary, secondary and non-formal education (Tilson & Demissew,2000). According to Ethiopian Mass Media (2000), the audio (radio) and video (television) technologies emerged in Ethiopia in 1935 and in 1964 respectively. Tilson & Demissew (2000), added that Educational Media Agency (EMA) of the Ministry of Education, which has provided the leadership in this area, traces is origin to the Audio-Visual Center, established 1952/53. Tilson and Demissew (2000), said the Center developed, produced and distributed audio-visual teaching aids, and even had a mobile team that traveled to villages and schools to show films and slides. Mass media, radio and television, under the Ministry of Education covering over 90% of the country have been playing a very important role in the formal education in Ethiopia unique among the developing counties (Gupta,1995).
In 1965, a year after the introduction of television in the country, television became the first technology for broadcasting educational programs using the facilities of the Ministry of Information (Tilson & Demissew,2000). They added that in 1969, EMA started broadcasting from its own studio, an indication of its technical and production attainment. At that time, as a result of increased enrollment in schools, the multiple shift system was introduced, and EMA had to repeat the broadcast of lessons for each shift. Later in 1971, educational radio broadcasting was initiated after a humble experiment using audiocassette programs in a prison in Addis Ababa(Tilson & Demissew,2000). Unlike many developing countries where school broadcasts are often a result of partnership between the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Information (Kdevries,2007), in Ethiopia all school radio broadcasts are done independently by Education Bureaus and educational satellite television broadcast are in collaboration with Telecommunication Corporation.
The first transmitter that was donated by and erected with the help of government of The Netherlands has been operational since 1971 in Sidamo, Wolayeta(Gupta,1995). After this, studios and transmitters procured and 12 Education Media Centers are established in different parts of Ethiopia. Beginning from 1991, the administration and management of the educational system follows the decentralized government structure in Ethiopia and becomes one of the duties of the Region Education Bureaus. Mehadi and Tesfaye (2010), citing (TGE, 1994; MoE, 2006) stated that the Ethiopian Education and Training Policy promises to intensify the integration of instructional technology in school curriculum. Citing Teshome (1998), Enguday (2003) indicated that research and discussions about radio support programs in Ethiopia conclusions suggested the main goals of using radio for formal education are improving educational access, student learning, school resources, teacher competence, and educational relevance. Edguday added that the long term goal of the policy is to improve the quality and relevance of education as well as to expand access and quality.
Amhara Region Instructional Media Utilization
In Amhara region in both Primary as well as in Secondary education instructional media technologies are utilized for classroom teaching. There are four educational media centers having radio station and full staff members equipped with recording and transmitters. Almost all Secondary schools have plasma television set with signal reception systems as well as computers with few exceptions of the newly established once. Almost all primary schools do have radio sets with memory flash recorded education programs. There is ICT core process with staff members at bureau level and the structure exists in zone, woreda and school level to facilitate material procurement, installation, maintenance service and to give utilization training for teacher.
As Enguday (2003), indicated particularly in Amhara Region Education Bureau Primary School teachers training colleges the expected profile of the teachers are to acquire the necessary professional capabilities which means the competency to select and apply appropriate and varied learner centered methods and teaching aids as well as using educational mass media is one. Edguday citing Education Sector Development Program (ESDP) and Amhara Region Education Bureau (1999), report indicated that teachers of lower primary school in Ethiopia are expected to prepare and use instructional media as far as they can in order to enhance and concretize teaching and learning because it is particularly important due to the fact that student’s abstraction level is low or not fully develop.
2.2. Instructional Technology Importance in Classroom Teaching
Function of instructional media
Learning requires retention of what our sense organs receive and our brain analyzed. But this retention becomes minimal if the information we received is through one sense organ however the process will be enhanced if the reception is through multiple resources. According to Wiman & Mierhenry (1969), people generally remember 10 percent of what they read, 20 percent of what they hear, 30 percent of what they see, and 50 percent of what they hear and see. Therefore, it is advisable to use multiple resource for education as Edgar Dale in his cone of experience Tadesse (2001), indicated “audio-visual materials supply concrete basis for conceptual thinking, they give rise to meaningful concepts enriched by meaningful association, hence they offer the best antidote for the disease of verbalism”. This was verified by Marshal (2002), technology through sound, text, and pictures can create learning environments that support the making of associations by providing access to new challenges, contexts, and information that might otherwise be impossible in their absence. Marshal added that multimedia sometimes working alone and other times together, can create rich environments conductive to the acquisition of knowledge.
The use of modern instructional technologies enhance teaching, and learning by promoting all the characteristics of successful learning:
gain and retain knowledge, develop critical thinking skill, integrate knowledge within and across disciplines, the ability to work in a team to solve problems, to excite and motivate students, to effectively communicate with students to bring latest information to students, to be well prepared to teach (Marshal,2002) .
Among many elements of school quality indicated by Getahune (2000) citing Bruce (1986: 20), two of them are the presence of Instructional media (radio) and Active learning by students (participation). Chiu (2010a), in his presentation indicated that audio-visual media and other instructional materials play two major roles in instruction: ether as instructional support or as the teaching method itself. Hardesty (1984), also listed four advantages of using media; “1) Reach a large audience; 2) extend the influence of quality instruction; 3) overcome time and space; and 4) create special effects to enhance learning”. (p.12) Moreover Tadesse (2001), says audio-visual materials help in completing the triangular process of learning vis-à-vis, motivation, clarification and stimulation. Regarding patterns of using media for instruction Chiu (2010a) citing Stoddart (1986), mentioned three patterns as additive, integrated, and independent approaches. The use of media particularly radio and television broadcast for education purpose further described by Kdevries (2007), are three general approaches which are : 1) direct class teaching, where broadcast programming substitutes for teachers on a temporary basis; 2) school broadcasting, where broadcast programming provides complementary teaching and learning resources not otherwise available; 3) general educational programming over community, national and international stations which provide general and informal educational opportunities. Kdevries mentioned the most notable and best documented example of direct class teaching approach to improve the quality of teaching and act as a regular structured aid to teachers in under-resource schools is Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) which is implemented in Latin America and Africa many countries, particularly in Asia it was implemented in 1980s and 1990 in Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. Regarding example of broadcast television for direct class teaching Kdevries(2007), mentioned the 1968 Mexico’s Telesecundaria as a cost effective strategy for expanding lower secondary schooling in small and remote communities. Kdevries further described the third approach as non-formal educational opportunities for all types of learners using several types of programs like news, documentaries, quiz shows, educational cartoons, etc. He mentioned some examples in United States like Sesame Street, National Geographic, Discovery television shows and regarding radio program like Voice of America and The Farm Radio Forum of Canada which began in 1940s that serves as a model for radio discussion programs worldwide. In another document Romisziowski (1998), has grouped the role of media in to two that; one is media used as exclusively instructional aids, to enhance or enrich the teacher’s presentation and the second is media as instructional system where they are used to promote individualization of instruction in both conventional as well as non-conventional setting. Furthermore Taiwo (2009), strengthened the idea of educational media two basic functions both for teaching and avenues for learning i.e., as instructional aid and system by enhancing clarity in communication, diversity in method, and forcefulness in appeal by so doing these media will determine more than anything else the quality of the educational effort.
It is the combined effects of multimodal sensory perception which makes media more powerful tool for instruction. Sabirah (2009), described about ICT help to improve quality of education as motivating students to learner: video, television and multimedia computer programs with combined effects of text, sound, color, and motion provide challenging and authentic content that will engage the student in learning. Similarly interactive radio with sound effects, songs, and dramatizations motivate student to listen and be involved in the lessons. He added that it also helps in facilitating the acquisition of basic skills: through drill and practice ICT media can improve student’s higher order thinking skills and creativity. Syazwan (2009), indicated that ICT can enhances learner-center learning: such as active learning, collaborative learning, creative learning and evaluative learning. Sabirah (2009), also added that ICT enhancing teacher training: it can improve access and the quality of teacher training; countries like South Korea,
China, and India utilized it through their universities for professional development of their inservice primary and secondary school teachers.
In many parts of the world the need to implement problem solving, creative thinking and cooperative learning to promote students intellectual capacity makes educators integrate media technologies (Haack, 2003). A good summary of contributions of instructional media in classroom teaching Streit, Teague & Newhouse (1984), mentioned the following four points;
1. Students were able to see the world by visual materials such as film-strips, slides, and prints, which provided a variety of learning experience;
2. Accurate information of visuals & sounds could be communicated to the students by media as vehicles;
3. Instructional media maximized options for securing learning experiences for instructors by giving free choice and;
4. Different methods to help students attain learning objectives.
Because of these instructional advantages Afolabi et.al., (2012), stressed importance of provision of instructional media materials as “government and other stakeholders in education sector should as a matter of urgency supply schools with all the necessary instructional media to enhance effective teaching and learning of social studies and other school subjects”(p.6).
Referring to Merriam-Weber in his writing Marshall (2002), described multimedia as “using, involving, or encompassing several media.” He added citing Mayer (2001), that conceptualizes multimedia across three areas: delivery hardware (i.e., computer screen, audio speaker, or television), presentation mode (i.e., words and/or pictures), and sensory modalities (i.e., auditory or visual). Confirming the effectiveness of multimedia Chiu (2010), citing Kupsh, Jones, & Graves (1990) suggested that media used with effective strategies in presentation could hold a longer span of the audience’s attention and add flavor to classrooms and to business meetings. This happens because as Marshall (2002), indicated educational technologies with their multiple modalities (audiovisual) have the ability to go beyond audio in that they not only present multiple media, but they can also promote the learner to contemplate information, perform tasks, refine thinking, and demonstrate understanding which we call active learning. Technology prompt learning is the use of multiple media to present information for instance Marshall (2002), says in the case of television and film, visual and auditory media combine to present a rich experience for the viewer. Furthermore Getahun (2002), citing Schramm (1977) has realized the importance of multimedia instruction which facilitate the effectiveness of learning as follows:
We have pointed out that almost all teaching is multimedia, and that “teacher instruction” as measured in most experiments and compared with ‘media instruction” is usually teacher plus more. We have thousand years of educational history to tell us that teachers themselves believe multimedia instruction is more effective than a single medium (1977:38).
Multimedia utilization makes learners more motivated which result in the ownership of the ideas presented. But as Lehrer (1993), stated the process of internalizing and building ideas from a multimedia presentations required learners to transform information into dimensional representations, determine the relative importance of content, segment information into nodes, link the information segments by semantic relationships, and decide how to represent ideas. Onasanya (2008), stressed that learners should be assisted, encouraged and motivated not only to learn but also to continue to learn. To help learners acquire the new ideas effectively Lehrer (1993), mentioned using interactive tools to develop content helped engage students in the curriculum, increase knowledge retention, and build student ability to apply knowledge to other topics.
The present day to day life requires knowhow of technology equipments. Robert (2011), citing Thomas (2005), suggested Dewey saying “Education is not just the preparation for life but, rather, education is life” for this to happen technology can be an active tool in bringing Dewey’s educational visions to realization in today’s classrooms. Technology according to Massachusetts Software Council (1994), lends itself well to learning and instruction because it is a powerful tool that, when properly implemented, improves student learning and achievement. Therefore as Newberry (1999), mentioned it to participate fully in today’s workforce and enjoy the new innovative leisure activities, students need to study technology thoroughly.
Although technology is often viewed as a strategy that will facilitate student’ academic achievement as Waxman et al., (2013) citing several researchers (Cuban, 2001; Leonard & Leonard,2006; Padro’n, Waxman, Lee, Lin & Michko, 2012) stated that there technology is not being integrated in schools, especially into the teaching and learning process. Those involved in education sector have a duty to ensure that all of the students have an appropriate familiarity with the technology that is so rapidly remarking the world; so that they get skills they need to function effectively in the world of work (Gigliott, 1997). It is not only to prepare students for future life but primarily as Seels (2011), stated utilization of media facilities in classroom teaching improve pupils learning, interest, motivation, attention, participation, perception and retention. In addition to these Instructional media enrich learner’s knowledge and reinforce verbal instruction; which means as Afolabi et.al., (2012) citing Ajelabi (2000:2), mentioned when instructional media are used, there is tendency to make classroom environment lively and interesting.
Russell (1982), compared the traditional and modern media in that electronic media provided variety and excitement that printed materials and lectures alone lacked and were building blocks for building basic information, as well as passive stimuli to induce students’ active expression. Use of traditional media for instruction is the characteristics of teacher-centered learning According to Derebssa (n.d); There are many reasons that teacher-centered learning needs to shift learner-centered learning. One is that student-centered learning is more aliened with the lifelong learning skills needed in the workforce of the information age. Second, with the rapid changes in history and culture, textbooks based and teacher-led learning has become obstacle. Instead technology resources are replacing these obstacle approaches to create an interactive learner-centered classroom.
So that as Kongshem (2002), said students learn to use technology to be productive citizens, education must harness the many powers of technology to improve instruction and create relevant learning environment. Regarding the effects of media Robert (2011), stated that students get excited when technology is used in the classroom, and their excitement results in a greater comprehension of the curriculum. In addition Robert says technology provides students with the opportunity to become more involved with their learning, allowing them to interact with the content. Therefore as Light (2009), mentioned it when effectively integrated into a high-quality learning environment ICT can help deepen students’ content knowledge, engage them in constructing their own knowledge, and support the development of complex thinking skills. Integrating media in classroom teaching allows students to participate on more kinesthetic type activities that give students a chance to show what they taught (Robert, 2011). According to Afolabi et al., (2012) citing Ambimbade (1997), it also makes students learn more and retain better what they have been taught and that it also promotes and sustains student’ interests; it also allows the learners to discover themselves and their abilities.
Although utilization of media for instruction considered very effective motivate and attain learning objectives of student’s one factor that preventing this is their perception to media. As Gundacker, Waltenstorfer & Gumpendorferstr (1999), mentioned the audio-visual perception of the world of young people and their desire for communication can be realized through the filming process as part of film education. In one research Lehrer (1993), found out that high level involvement and engagement of both high and low ability levels students where becomes very task-oriented and autonomous as they gained confidence with the technology tools used to create the interactive projects. Therefore as Sandholtz (1997), stated by engaging students in learning through the use of technology, students spend more time learning and practicing the basic tasks than student who approach the same tasks in a traditional paper-and-pencil manner. In addition to this Robert (2011) citing Fore and Spencer (2007), stated that students get excited when technology is used in the classroom, and their excitement results in a greater comprehension of the curriculum.
Media enriched environment has got plenty of advantages for students but there are factors that affect their involvements. As Haack (2003), said students in technology supported classroom have powerful tools to help them gather information, consult with colleagues, and present their findings that shows technology, fused into new learning models, can improve student achievement. At risk students have shown a great improvement when technology is introduced into their curriculum. Many experts believe the reason for this is that technology provides educators with a way to individualize and customize the curriculum to match learner’s developmental needs, and provides a non-threatening and motivating environment for repetitious learning tasks (Sinatra, Beaudry, Pizzo & Geisert , 1994). As Afolabi et al., (2012), indicated several factors female participation in technology in that female student often run away from science and technological subjects because of social pressures and potential attitude of female role models. They further added the problem of gender difference that in secondary schools boys and girls feel that teachers, counselors and parents perceive science subjects especially technology as male oriented field course. Another factor that influences student’s involvement in technology is attitude. As Apple Corporation (2002), stated that students who have positive reaction to use technology as a learning tool will significantly increase their learning, negative student’s reactions most certainly will impede learning. Positive student perceptions and performance in such situation according to Clark (1985), may result as much from the novelty of the information technology as from the impact of the technology on the teaching and learning process. A longer exposure in ICT environment can foster students’ higher critical thinking skill so that they can attain higher levels of cognition like analysis, synthesis, evaluation ( Bonwell & Eison, 1991; Shan Fu, 2013), and they can integrate their prior experience (Tadesse,2001). Therefore, Shan Fu (2013) says schools are strongly advised to integrate technology across all of the learning areas and among all learning levels. There are several inherent advantages for students when media is used in instruction;
First, effective uses of media are vital for encouraging and facilitating students’ learning. Second, through the use of media subject content can be more carefully selected and organized. Thus, the quality of instruction delivered by teacher can be delivered in a well organized, consistent, specific and clearly defined manner. Third, teacher’s delivery of instruction can be much more standardized as learners’ with varying abilities can receive the same message and their individual differences catered for using media. Also, instructional media usage in practical teaching can make instruction to be much more interesting and enjoyable.
From teachers’ point of view as Onasanya (2008) citing Agun (1988), instructional media are those materials used by teachers to present, illustrate and elucidate the lesson. Onasanya further described media can promote in addition to student-student, student-teacher interaction it also improves teacher-teacher interaction that promotes stimulus variation for feedback as well as reinforcement. Media also save teaching time as they require short time to present large information (Onasanya, 2008). In another document Morris (1962), mentioned the function of technological media is to supplement the teacher through enhancing his effectiveness in the classroom. In this regard Bastable, Gramet, Jacobs and Sopezyk (2010) media have a potential to assist learners not only in acquiring knowledge and skills but also in retaining more effectively what they learn. To do this objective Bastable and et al., (2010) added that instructional media should reinforce and supplement-not substitute for for-the educator’s teaching efforts. Implementing instructional media in classroom according to Robert (2011), provided teachers with the opportunity to reflect on their practices while embracing new, innovative strategies that motivate and enhance student learning. Tadesse (2001) in his research paper mentioned citing Aggarwal (1986:154), about advantages of technological media devices as they help the teacher clarify, establish, correlate and co-ordinate accurate concepts, interpretations and appreciations and enable him/her to make learning more concrete, effective, interesting, inspirational, meaningful and vivid. In addition to these since students enter into schools with varying degree of abilities and potentials, teachers need instructional media to help them communicate effectively, and thus cope with students’ needs based on their abilities (Onasanya, 2008).
One of the many objectives of lesson planning improves retention by increasing interaction and empowering students. So instructional process as Gigliott (1997), mentioned demands teachers prior planning and preparation; to be organized and adaptable; make it more suited to students preferred learning style; use multiple message delivery means like text, sound and images to enrich and enliven the classroom so that communication between everyone in the classroom. Bringing media materials along in the class doesn’t bring the desired objectives Light (2009), says that teachers must know how to structure lessons, select resources, guide activities, and support this learning process; many traditionally- trained teachers are not prepared to take on these task which requires more student centered learning.
The instructional media programs have got multifaceted advantages they are not only important for students but also they help teachers improve their teaching methods and to change their attitude towards utilization of media in classroom. Such idea suggested in many documents for instance Cavanaugh, Gillan, Kromrey, Hess & Blomeyer (2004), described that in addition to targeting students, progressive educational radio could also focus on teachers, assisting them in learning the methods of teaching. This fact also verified by Bianchi (2002), in that teachers who created media programs at the school agreed with the principles of its effectiveness and through programming, tried to demonstrate that when the classroom teacher actively facilitated learning, students were more attentively and involved. But Taiwo (2009) citing Lewis (1990:144), study that tested fifteen questions in an effort to determine teacher perceptions relative to education media his findings were that teachers perceive educational media as being readily available and that they perceive formal training in the area of audiovisual instruction as being unnecessary. In particular in United States utilization of radio in education (educational Radio) according to Postman (1993), met with a collision between difficulty and confusion; by so-called “technophobes” and “technophiles”. Haworth & Hopkins (2009), also described about the hindrance to the widespread adoption of radio in education is that teachers and students needed to be prepared to interact with the content of the radio program. This exclusion of many alternative effective educational media materials as Derebssa (nd) research findings obtained from classroom observation and analysis of curricular materials, for students in Ethiopia school system is because of the fact that repetition is associated with creating a deep impression or develop understanding by discovering new meaning … and lecture method is found to be more appropriate for establishing such understanding.
Instructional leaders’ perspective
Due to the presence of complex multiple types of message delivery, retrievals as well as accumulation technologies teachers should be taught how to make and utilize different instructional media materials. However instructional media intrinsic value in teaching and learning processes as Onasanya (2008), stated educators have recognized long time ago and this intern engendered the inclusion of components of media education, in teacher training programs. Because of this school leaders didn’t give proper concern towards integration of media materials in classroom teaching. In this regard Polizzi (2011), research result shows that principal’s behavior seems to be independent from teachers’ attitudes towards ICT integration into teaching, in that there is no relationship between teachers’ attitudes towards ICT integration in teaching and principals’ supportive behaviors. Haack (2003), study also did not find gender or access to technology significantly influenced the perception of principals their basic technology skills and abilities to satisfy administrative and teaching technology standards. In contrast to these in Robert (2011), study about effects of technology in classroom teaching on principal at rural school reported that technology in rural schools brings the world to the children like virtual field trips give kids the opportunity to see things they would have never seen before. Another benefit of principals had seen on their campuses concerning technology was its ability to help low- performing students achieve. In Robert (2011), study one principal stated that technology has made a difference in our school because it serves as a needed resource for both our teachers and students because with the use of technology we have been able to meet the needs of our low performing students. But many research according to Waxman et al., (2013), suggested that school leaders play a key role in determining whether or not technology is integrated in their schools. They added citing Ritchie (1996) that the lack or presence of leadership support negatively or positively influences technology adoption and implementation in schools respectively.
Media Specialists/ School Pedagogical Centers experts’ perspective
In the year 1975 the term ‘school library media center’ and ‘school library media specialist’ had been introduced then the concept of libraries and person working in them was changed to resource based teaching and learning where the concept of the learner as a problem solver and director his/her learning using the instructional method that provide access to a variety of media formats and technologies (Gwendolyn, 1998). The library media specialist as the instructional consultant and partner according to Gwendolyn (1998:3), give advice and share experience to classroom teacher in their responsibilities of the teaching process as they design, implement and evaluate instruction for and with students. He added that in USA some public institutions who responded to the call developed libraries plus audiovisual centers but staffed and housed them in separate quarters so that most visionary instructional leaders hired broadly trained persons to oversee the development and execution of library centers which contained print and non-print resource.
A study of pedagogical centers in primary schools of Addis Ababa, Getahun (2002) citing Amare and Tasew (1996:36), indicated that the availability of educational materials has received increasing attention in the last couple of decades because of growing evidence that it is an important correlates and a classroom achievement. However one of the several factors that hinder the utilization of media for classroom instruction according to Engudy (2003), research findings are lack of effort on the part of the teacher him/herself to go find from pedagogical centers and use, lack of facilities in schools to prepare media materials, shortage of time to learn about the available media materials, lack of trained pedagogical center personnel, lack of coordination between schools and responsible bodies to prepare training workshop, and in- service trainings are some of problems mentioned.
Research findings reviled effectiveness of media technology for education
About the function of Instructional media technology reviewing several documents Chiu (2010a), stated that they are employed to enhance instructional effectiveness and help the learners attained their learning objectives or change their behavior. Moreover Light (2009) citing (Hennessy, Deaney & Ruthven, 2003; Kozma & McGhee, 2003), said cooperative and supportive relationship of students with teachers which is very important for learning as different researches in many countries identified that can be improved by introduction of technology into the learning environment. Marshall (2002), described that the process of learning, including the linking of existing knowledge to newly acquired content, suggests that technology can, and dose, facilitate learning.
In his experimental research Lehrer (1993), students in the multimedia and control group ( i.e., who learned traditionally) immediately no significance difference but after a year, important difference emerged. Lehrer finding showed student in the control group could recall almost nothing about the historical content, whereas students in the multimedia group displayed elaborate concepts and ideas that they had extended to other areas of history which is a knowledge that was richer, better connected, more applicable in the future and have significantly higher level of engagement. In another research Okolo and Ferretti (1998), showed that student composition representing ideas simultaneously through text and audio, video and sound i.e., use of wider range of media, increased the likely hood that students will acquire an understanding of complex information. In addition to this Okolo and Ferretti noted that students with a wide range of abilities i.e., readily mastered these tools, and were highly motivated by the opportunity to enhance their writing with other media which means student’s exposure to multimedia instruction increased their variety of expression enhanced attitudes as well. Marshall (2002), reviewing more than 50 research studies addressing voice, video, and computer-based learning provide conclusive evidence that students can, and do, learn from educational technologies. Another research conducted by Robert (2011), of the 265 comments about how technology had influenced their schools, only 8.3% of the principals reported technology had no influence or a negative influence. According to Robert finding the reason given over 50% of the time was a lack of resources, so that they state that technology really had not impacted the students yet.
Because of all these facts several measures have been recommended to improve student’s attitude and academic achievement in school subjects (Afolabi et al., 2012). Among the measures that improved students’ academic achievement recommended by Afolabi et al.,(citing Oyedeji, 2002; Afuwape, 2004), are appropriate uses of teaching methods, instructional media and resource and enriched classroom.
2.3. Factors Affecting Instructional Media Technology Integration in Classroom Teaching
2.3.1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic barriers to instructional media integration in classroom teaching
Enguday (1988) citing Callahan & Clark (1988), noted that in actual classroom situation the degree to which teachers utilize instructional media has become one of the major challenges in the field of education. Particularly in developing country as Light (2009) citing (Light & Menso, 2006; Perez et al., 2003) , stated ICT integration in classroom is challenging because of a number of factors such as teachers knowledge, time, access to ICT tools, inability to alignment of ICT with pedagogical goals. Ether (1999), categorized barriers of technology integration by teachers into two broader classifications: first-order barriers ‘extrinsic’ to teachers (access, time, support, resources, and training) and second-order barriers ‘intrinsic’ to teachers (attitudes, beliefs, practices and resistance).
Every institution according to Markova (2014), has its own traditions and culture that help its members to define who they are, how they perform their jobs, and what they believe in as a group. When we see external factors affecting ICT integration at school level in general Shan Fu (2013), included ICT technology availability and accessibility, time to plan for instruction, technical and administrative support, school curriculum, school climate and culture, teaching load and management routine, and pressure to prepare students for national entrance exam. Shan Fu (2013), also added internal factors related to teaching includes; understanding of ICT use; beliefs, which may conflict with the application of ICT; attitudes toward technology integration; perceptions including intention or motivation to use ICT; self-confidence and knowledge; technology skills; readiness to use ICT; and technology self-efficacy. In particular Ertmer (1999), Holloway (1996), Susan (1997), Mehadi & Tesfaye (2010) citing (Moore et al., 2005; Earl, 2002; Arends,1997; Betz, 2000) , identified the barriers affecting teachers: first-order barriers extrinsic to teachers (access, time, support, resources, training, teaching tasks like amount of subject taught/weekly load and number of students in class) and second-order barriers intrinsic to teachers (attitudes, beliefs, practices, resistance). Ertmer added that even if every first-order barriers were removed, teachers would not automatically use technology they continue to affect but from time to time they vanish. Other factors which are barriers of technology integration even when both intrinsic and extrinsic barriers removed are; teachers’ reluctant (Ertmer, 1999:51), phobia for certain medium and not convinced that teaching with words alone is very tedious, wasteful and ineffective (Enguday, 2003 citing Romiszowski, 1974), and fear of using any other form of technology (Duhaney, 2000). Teachers resistance in the form of traditional instructional beliefs may be acting as major negative factor in the implementation of technology in education(Handal, 2004), this is because according to Ponticell (2003), they have been shown to be conservative as a group that reflexively resist curricular and instructional innovation.
The issue of pre and in-service teacher’s trainings are a responsibility of educational administrators and leaders. Because Susan (1997), indicated that many teachers encountered technical and logistical problems that they cannot solve themselves and often lack the training and support necessary to resolve the problems. Regarding training according to Grabe and Grabe (1998), study approximately fifty percent of teacher-education graduates surveyed felt they were either not prepared or were poorly prepared to use technology. Shan Fu (2013), identified three barriers to effective technology integration from education leaders perspective include: school inspectors focus more on the quantity of course content and student test scores than on ICT usage (citing Yildirim, 2007); lack of appropriate administrative support for the effective use of ICT (citing Lim, 2007); and lack of appropriate hardware, software, and materials (citing Yildirim, 2007).
Many research findings stated Susan (1997) citing (Chin & Hortin, 1993; Denk, Martin & Sarangarm, 1993; Schrum, 1995; Wang & Chan, 1995), either time or access or both issues are the dominant critical factors that teachers describe as constraints to integrate media in classroom instruction. Susan added that teachers do have several tasks that need time like meetings, to plan lessons, to learn how to use the equipment or application, and time to solve the problems encountered.
2.3.2. Positive actions for integrating instructional media in classroom teaching
Gabriella (2011), mentioned the chain of relations of perception, attitude, intention and behavior is that perception influence attitudes; these attitudes then affect the behavioral intention to use a technological system; such intentions influence actual technology use. Therefore Gabriella stressed that if they have positive attitude school principals increase the amount of ICT equipment in schools, they can indirectly support an increase of media and technology usage in the classroom. Gabriella (2011), research finding indicates there is no relationship between teachers’ attitudes towards ICT integration in teaching and principals’ supportive behaviors, but principals in schools where large amount of ICT equipment available for teachers tend to give stronger support for its integration into teaching. But Tadesse (2001) citing Berhane (1999), confirmed that teachers with positive attitude towards radio instruction were shown to have a better performance. Susan (1997) citing Harvey & Purnell (1995), indicated that teachers perception is of great value to other teachers, in-service coordinators, school administrators, and educational media material developers because introduction of technology as a useful tool in instruction takes time and actually using it and should be an on-going process, not a static event.