Factors Affecting the Adoption of Small Scale Irrigation in the Ameya District of South West Shoa

Bachelor Thesis 2008 31 Pages

Agrarian Studies


Table of Contents


List of Tables and Figures

List of Annexes

Acronyms (Abbreviations)

1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study

2 Review of Literature
2.1 Definition of Concepts
2.2 Small Scale Irrigation

3 Methodology
3.1 Background of the study area
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Sampling techniques
3.4 Methods of Data collection & source of relevant data
3.5 Method of Data analysis

4 Results and Discussion
4.1 Summary of Background Information of Sample Farmers
4.2 Access to media & Source of Agricultural information of the sample farmers
4.3 Impact of Irrigation on living status of sample farmers
4.4 Attitude of sample farmers towards development of the scheme & their condition on using irrigation
4.5 Major constraints that were hindering the sustainable use of irrigation Scheme

5 Conclusion & Recommendations
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendations



I would like to thank my advisor Ato Samson Ishetu for providing invaluable advice, comment & suggestions in writing my proposal and this report

Acknowledgements go also to the South West Shoa Zone Agriculture & Rural Development Office, Ameya District Irrigation Development Office and Karayu Marii Development center for their support during conducting the survey

Last but not least, I offer my special thanks to Mesi & Hawi (My wife & daughter) for their encouragement during my study and sacrificing their interest to let me join University

List of Tables and Figures

Table 1: Land use pattern of the Karayu Meri Sakala PA

Table 2: Population of the Karayu Meri Sakala PA

Table 3: Major Crops produced & purpose of production in the Project area

Table 4: Trend of area Cultivated using Kulis SSIP

Table 5: Average family size & land holding of sample farmers

Table 6: Educational status of Respondents (Sample farmers)

Table 7: Frequency distribution of age class of sample farmers

Table 8: Frequency of Radio possession of sample farmers

Table 9: Agricultural information sources of sample farmers

Table 10: Comparison of oxen owned by the sample farmers

Table 11: Perception/opinion of sample farmers’ towards the impact of irrigation project

Table 12: Interest of the sample farmer for Development of Kulit SSIP

Table 13: Access to Farm land under command area

Table 14: Farmers participation in operation & maintenance of the Project

Table 15: Factors that hinders usage of Kulit SSIP

Table 16: Area cultivated by sample farmers as to years 2000

Table 17: Frequency distribution of area cultivated by users as to year 2000

Table 18: Response of user about factors which leads to decrease cultivated land

Table 19: Frequency distribution of Area cultivated by users as to year 2000

Table 20: Response of users about factors which leads them to decrease cultivated Land

Figure 1: Area cultivated by user sample farmers (1997 – 2000)

List of Annexes

Annex 1: Questionnaire used for scheduled interview

Acronyms (Abbreviations)

- CSA Central statistics authority

- DA Development Agent

- ESRDF Ethiopian Social Rehabilitation and development Fund

- FAO United nations Food and Agriculture Organizations

- Hec. Hectare(s)

- MOI Ministry of Information

- MOWR Ministry of water Resource

- WUAS Water users association

- OBPED Oromia Bureau of Planning & Economic Development

- OIDA Oromia Irrigation Development Authority

- O & M Operation & Management

- PA Peasant association

- SSIP Small Scale Irrigation Project

1 Introduction

1.1 Background

Agriculture is the major primary economic activities of the Ethiopian population. Due to the existence of diversified topography, soil, weather and climatic conditions that favor agricultural activities the majority of the Ethiopian population have been engaged in and generate their income from the sector.

However, agriculture in Ethiopia is mainly characterized by the use of backward & traditional farm implements and subsistence farming system dominates by rain fed agricultural production that resulted to low and declining productivity of the sector.

Despite the bottlenecks mentioned above and a number of other factors, agriculture in Ethiopia was and remain to be the leading and determinant sector of the country's economy by being the major supplier of food crops for domestic consumption and the main sources of export commodities and capital to be accumulated for the process of establishing the future industrialized Ethiopia.

In order to make the sector plays its role to the level best, quite a number of efforts should be made by the concerned stakeholders to improve and change the overall performance of agricultural activities carried out on private agricultural holdings and large and medium scale farms (CSA, 2004).

In this direction, the government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has developed and started to implement a Rural Development policies & strategies; which focus on Agriculture and Rural Development. Then irrigation development and improving water resource usage is employed as one strategy to increase productivity (MOI, 2001). Though Ethiopia has 3.5 million hectares of irrigable land, irrigation covers only 0.16 million ha. or about 5% of the total irrigable land (MOWR, 1997). The dependence of most of the farmers on rain fed agriculture has made the country's agricultural economy extremely fragile and vulnerable to the impact of weather and climatic variability. Absence of rainfall during rainy seasons, and the consecutive dry spells at critical times of crop growing season lead to partial or total crop failure; which in turn results in food shortages.

Even though agriculture is one way or another has been the principal sector of the economy for several thousand years, it remained less efficient owing to old and traditional means and practices of farming on one hand, and the variability in the amount and distribution of rainfall from year to-year, on the other. Nearly, the entire peasant farming depends on rainfall which has greater impact in hindering the agricultural production system (Fekadu, 1991)

Thus, the use of supplementary irrigation from either traditional or modern water harvesting structures is considered the primary measure to be taken against the problem. In this direction government of Ethiopia is making serious efforts by allocating a fairly large amount of budget for the development of irrigation structures.

In the same way the Kulit SSIP have constructed by OIDA with the fund from ESRDF by diverting a river Kulit at the cost of 1.8 mil. birr ( of this birr 122,221.70 was Community's contribution) in the year 1992-1994 E.C. intended to serve about 234 households and total population of 1170 with objective of improving production.

In general to meet an objective of a given project the intended beneficiaries have to participate and make use of it, but there is case happened (as the one I have been studied) that beneficiaries would have not fully adopt or participate in a given technology.

The cause of this problem could be as explained on (water Report No. 17, FAO 1998) "a project – led approach in design and implementation is followed rather than a demand – drive selection. As a result, beneficiary participation is often sacrificed in favor of accelerating construction activities. Farmers are, therefore, not convinced of the need to take full responsibility for bringing land in to production & taking responsibility for scheme operation and Management." Thus, this particular study was intended to investigate factors hindering the farmer’s participations on small scale irrigation while they have full access to it.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

As the main economic sectors of Ethiopia, agriculture is dependent on rainfall; this problem coupled with the lack of improved inputs and technologies leads the farmers to survive under pressure of food shortage.

Now a days, to over come or alleviate this problem different interventions has been taken of these promoting small scale irrigation development to use the country's surface and ground water was taken as a strategy and constructions are undergone with the participation of users.

In many cases, however there is some efficiency problems and (or management problem) is observed while farmers are willing to use irrigation. And those irrigation users have a good economic status.

But in this case large number of farmers under a command area of kulit small scale irrigation project lacks interest to use the technology, even though different measures have been taken to motivate them to participate. As the data from Ameya District reveals, out of the intended hectare to be developed under the irrigation, i.e. 200 hectares, only 34 hectares was developed as to year 1999 E.C

In the study area the cause for farmers' lack of interest in irrigation practice, and the factors affecting the adoption of this technology had not clearly identified. Therefore, this study was initiated to identify major problems which hinders farmer participation and to see factors affecting the adoption of small scale irrigation.

1.3 Objectives of the study

This research has conducted to attain the following objectives:-

1. to assess factors that hinders the adoption of Small Scale Irrigation technology,
2. to identify (examine) problems which contributed for less participation of the farmers on small scale irrigation (SSI).
3. to generate possible solutions to improve participation of the community on irrigation

1.4 Research Questions

The research was intended to answer the following questions:-

1. What are the factors impeding adoption of small scale irrigation?
2. What are the problems contributing for less participation of farmers on small scale irrigation?
3. What are possible solutions to improve community participation on irrigation?

1.5 Significance of the Study

As irrigation is the focus area of government’s development intervention, different measures have been taken so far to mobilize farmers to participate in irrigation (the kulit small scale irrigation scheme); only few number of farmer are participate and the project is not functioning with its full capacity the resource is going lost. So to alleviate this problem the research has been conducted focusing:-

- On identifying major problems or cases that hinder farmers from using the irrigation,
- On evaluating factors affecting adoption of the irrigation development in the area,
- To recommend possible solutions which help to utilize this resources efficiently,
- To point out problems related to project planning, implementation and operation stages,

And, the study will contribute as a ground for further studies & has helped the researcher to get a practical experience on conducting a research. The research have generate scientifically analyzed information which will give a clue to improve farmers' participation on kulit SSIP-which in turn might have a great impact on productivity of the farm households.



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Title: Factors Affecting the Adoption of Small Scale Irrigation in the Ameya District of South West Shoa