Table of Contents
The Romantic Poet of Today
i. A Definition ofEnglish Romantic Poetry
ii. Popular RockMusicasHeirtoRomanticPoetry
iii. Peter Doherty andhis RomanticPublicPersona
iv. Peter Doherty and his Romantic Poetic Doctrines
i. Down for the Outing
ii. The Ballad of Grimaldi
iv. The Good Old Days
Peter Doherty is a poet of today whose form of expression is music. Devoting himself to being a “popstar [as well as] performance poet” (Doherty, Books of Albion 9), he is subject to extensive media coverage as a celebrity (cf. 262), on the one hand meticulously vituperated by the tabloid press for his junkie rocker lifestyle (cf. 141; Hannaford 158), on the other hand glorified as “a folk hero” (168), a “legend” (B Libertines 0:09:12) who “has come to epitomise British rock 'n' roll [...] as both pariah and idol” (Hannaford 3), “a true romantic with a God-given gift for melody and verse” (Pomphrey qtd. in 258) and even further as “the last of the Rock Romantics” (5).
Indeed, it can be argued that Doherty exercises a romanticizing of England as well as of his environment (cf. 60), and the issue of his work, in his own words “love, England & a quest for depth, grace & charm” (Books of Albion 19), is evocative of the emphasis on aestheticism, feeling, imagination and nationalism associated with English Romantic poetry (cf. “Romantic poetics”; “Romanticism” Encyclopedia Britannica). He employs in his works the themes of Albion and Arcady, glorifying a romanticised, idealised and imagined England with the first and in an escapist manner searching for liberty and infinity with the latter (cf. Yates & Samson 20-22; Black 109) - declaring Albion to be his and his band's “vessel” (qtd. in Hannaford 44) and their mission to “sail the good ship Albion to Arcadia” (qtd. in 44). This is strongly reminiscent of the remote-affine, idealist, symbolist, libertarian, nostalgic and visionary characteristics that compose English Romantic poetry as well as its stress on the sublime and the infinite (cf. Wu xxxvi-xxxix; Day 1, 2, 4, 172; Stewart 63; Goodman 195). Doherty proclaims:
What you have with us is some people who can write some songs and, in the process, create another land. We have a romantic vision. We have a dream and, much to my surprise, it seems to be coming true. (qtd. in Black 20)
This statement can be considered a direct reenactment of the Romantics' thought that “they could create, through their writing, a promised land” (Wu xxxvii).
All of these observations lead to the interpretation that Peter Doherty certainly shares poetic doctrines with English Romantic poetry. Nonetheless, Doherty's public presentation and depiction as a Romantic, be it by himself or by the media, must also be taken into account. It is neither without significance nor reason that he is declared a Romantic on account of his philosophy (cf. Hannaford 229), lifestyle (cf. 231) and “self-destruction” (Anonymous Fan qtd. in 330), just as his own frequent referencing and citing of the Romantic poets (cf. From Albion to Shangri-La 178), the placement of these in relation to Doherty by others (cf. В Libertines 0:08:46-0:09:19) and overall his depiction as well as self-depiction in interviews, books and in his published diaries. The question that therefore evidently arises is: Subjected to a lyric analysis, can Peter Doherty be termed a Romantic poet?
Bearing in mind Pattison's words that “rock has endowed the conventions of Romanticism with popular life” (38) and Hannaford's that Doherty has “revived the notion of the rockstar as intellectual and as romantic troubadour” (227), this bachelor paper will aim to answer this question by firstly providing a definition of English Romantic poetry and a justification as to why popular rock music can be considered heir to Romantic poetry, therefore why Doherty and his song lyrics can be subdued to a lyric poetry analysis, then by examining the depiction and perception of Doherty as a Romantic public persona and distinguishing this from his poetic doctrines that resemble those of the Romantic poet, Albion and Arcady. These two themes will be examined and put into literary context, whereupon the second part of this paper will comprise the lyric analysis of four of Doherty's songs with regard to the literary attributes that define Romantic poetry. Finally, a conclusion of all that has been found will close the paper, delivering an answer to the stated question.
Duncan Wu exclaims in the introduction to his anthology of Romanticism that Lord Byron was the first to enjoy the new-born “cult of celebrity” (xxxv) of the age, with “day-to-day reports of his affairs and adventures [filling] their [the gossip-columnists] pages. It is hard to imagine a poet now generating such speculation, or crowds of people following him through the streets” (xxxv). Peter Doherty is that poet - and this paper will conclude whether he can be ascribed to the same poetic movement as his predecessor.
The Romantic Poet of Today
i. A Definition of English Romantic Poetry
To begin with, a foundation for a definition of English Romantic poetry must be laid by briefly introducing Romanticism as a whole. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines Romanticism as
a (1) : a literary, artistic and philosophical movement originating in the 18th century, characterized chiefly by a reaction against neoclassicism and an emphasis on the imagination and emotions, and marked especially in English literature by sensibility and the use of autobiographical material, an exaltation of the primitive and the common man, an appreciation of external nature, an interest in the remote, a predilection for melancholy, and the use in poetry of older verse forms [...]
b : adherence to a romantic attitude or style. (“Romanticism”)
The 5th edition of The Oxford Companion to English Literature adds that
Intellectually it marked a violent reaction to the Enlightenment. Politically it was inspired by the revolutions in America and France Emotionally it expressed an extreme assertion of the self and the value of individual experience . . . together with the sense of the infinite and the transcendental. Socially it championed progressive causes The stylistic keynote of Romanticism is intensity, and its watchword is 'Imagination'. (Drabbe qtd. in Day 1)
It is important to note here that Romanticism is often described as a fluxionary movement and concept that “belongs to no period” (Wordsworth & Wordsworth xxiii) - despite its “centre of gravity [...] [being determined as] the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth” (Day 4) - “and although many definitions are suggested, none command universal agreement” (Wu xxix). Romanticism is rather “an aspiring, a hopefulness - an exalting, and exulting, of the imagination” (Wordsworth & Wordsworth xxiii), a “mood in which 'we recognize / A grandeur in the beatings of the heart'” (xxiii), a term that describes a general, timeless movement without claiming universality of its elements (cf. Day 5). The German historical philosophical dictionary Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie delineates this generality of Romanticism as the term's shift from its historical, chronologically assignable character to a transcendental, anthropological meaning (cf. “Romantik”). However, Paul O'Flinn argues in his book How to Study Romantic Poetry that “generalisations about Romanticism [...] are usually of doubtful worth” (8) as one cannot universalize “a range of voices saying different, often contradictory things” (6) - an argument confirming Wu's and Day's that a coherency of the elements of Romanticism across its voices is not implied, whilst it nevertheless remains a movement of transgressive, “fluid” (Wu xxix) character.
English Romantic poetry, though categorized according to its literary landmarks into roughly the same time span as Romanticism (cf. Wordsworth & Wordsworth xxiii-xxiv), is also assigned this fluid and transgressive character (cf. Chandler & McLane 3), mainly “because it speaks about a world that we not only recognise but also still inhabit” (O'Flinn 4) - or, in Harold Bloom's words: “For English-speaking readers, this age may be defined as extending from the childhood of Blake and Wordsworth to the present moment” (2), as “every fresh attempt of Modernism to go beyond Romanticism ends in the gradual realization of the Romantics' continued priority” (5).
Despite the therefore rather “over-systematising and simplifying” (Day 5) character of summaries of English Romantic poetry, many attempts are nevertheless made to define it, often within a more comprehensive than synoptic context which bears in mind that “Romantic assumptions evolve gradually, and over a length of time, before finding expression in the verse” (Wordsworth & Wordsworth xxvii). For instance, Harold Bloom, who distinguishes English from continental Romanticism by means of the English “native tradition of major poets writing in an ancestral mode” (3) and thus the English Romantic poets' “strong mutual conviction that they are reviving the true English tradition of poetry, which they thought had vanished” (3), terms English Romanticism and its poetry “a revival of romance” (3) and moreover “an internalization of romance, particularly of the quest variety” (3), from which follows that “the entire rhythm of the quest is heard again in the movement of the poet himself from poem to poem” (3). On this idea he bases his definition of two modes or phases of English Romantic poetry, the first called “Prometheus” (9) and the second “the Real Man, the Imagination” (9). The Prometheus phase is, according to Bloom, “marked by a deep involvement in political, social, and literary revolution, and a direct, even satirical attack on the institutional orthodoxies of [...] society [...] and the neoclassic literary and intellectual tradition” (9-10) - a description highly reminiscent of the definitions ofRomanticism quoted above (see p. 3).
The Real Man, the Imagination, emerges after terrible crises in the major stage of the
Romantic quest, which is typified by a relative disengagement from revolutionary activism [...] so as to bring the search within the self and its ambiguities. In the Prometheus stage, the quest is allied to the libido's struggle against repressiveness, and nature is an ally, though always a wounded and sometimes a withdrawn one. In the Real Man, [...] nature is the immediate though not the ultimate antagonist. The final enemy to be overcome is a recalcitrance in the self, [.] the Selfhood. (10)
These movements of the English Romantic poet towards and away from nature as well as the self are what for Bloom constitutes the poet's development during his “internalization of quest- romance” (14) and he concludes for the Real Man, the Imagination, that
[t]here are thus two main elements in the major phase of the Romantic quest, the first being the inward overcoming of the Selfhood's temptation, and the second the outward turning of the triumphant Imagination, free of further internalizations - though “outward” and “inward” become [...] false conceptual distinctions in this triumph, which must complete a dialectic of love by uniting the Imagination with its bride, who is a transformed ongoing creation of the Imagination rather than a redeemed nature. (16)
Adrian Day, who provides a chronological overview of constructions of the term Romantic, propounds interpretations of a development of English Romantic poetry similar to Bloom's proposition (which is taken into account as well). He quotes, for instance, Courthope, who claims that the Romantic poets “founded their matter and style on the principles to which that [French] Revolution gave birth” (qtd. in 88), yet defining for the poetry was “the translation of that external revolutionary energy into internal, 'spiritual' terms” (Dowden qtd. in 89). And
Abrams' proposition [...] is that Romantic poets 'were all centrally political and social poets' [...] [who alongside] English radicals at the time of the French Revolution tended to interpret the Revolution in the light of the messianic, millenial, and apocalyptic framework of biblical prophecy. A renovated earth [...] was to be instituted through the Revolution. And poets declared themselves to be specially endowed with the capacity to envision this apocalypse. [...] Blake's elevation of the function of the poet to the role of the visionary bard was, Abrams continues, a typically Romantic move [...]. (Day 94-95)
This proposition highly resembles Bloom's Prometheus phase, and it is in Abrams' work that Day also explores what resembles Bloom's second phase, the Real Man, the Imagination. He demonstrates how Abrams distinguishes between two moods:
'The great Romantic poems were written not in the mood of revolutionary exaltation but in the later mood of revolutionary disillusionment or despair' [,] [...] disillusionment with historical reality [...]. (Day 97)
Day goes on to quote Abrams' proposition, made by means of an analysis of Wordsworth, that the English Romantic poets concluded from this disillusionment a “revelation” (qtd. in 98) concerning man's inherent qualities:
Wordsworth evokes from the unbounded and hence impossible hopes in the French Revolution a central Romantic doctrine; one which reverses the cardinal neoclassic ideal of setting only accessible goals, by converting what had been man's tragic error - the inordinacy of his 'pride' that persists in setting infinite aims for finite man - into his specific glory and his triumph [...]. (qtd. in 98)
Abrams observes a shift ofhope
[...] from the history of mankind to the mind of the single individual, from militant external action to an imaginative act; and the marriage between the Lamb and the New Jerusalem has been converted into a marriage between subject and object, mind and nature, which creates a new world out of the old world of sense [...]. (qtd. in 99)
Very much like Bloom's interpretation of a dialectic of love between the Imagination and its creation (see quote p. 5), Abrams' interpretation sees “the dialectic between subject and object [...] and the hope of synthesizing the two terms of the dialectic [...] at the heart of Romanticism” (Day 105-106). However, in further examining “the Romantic symbolic mode” (110) that aims towards this synthesis, Day finds Paul de Man's critique to be that “Romanticism's claims to have found through symbolic language a means of uniting the subject, the self, in all its temporality, with a larger, often transcendental, object were a delusion” (121). Day continues by considering the work of Belsey, who sees “the self-cancelling logic of Romantic dreams of reconciling subject and the object in a way which gives priority to the subject” (121) and claims that it is “the heroic
impossibility of this task which produces Romantic exultation and despair” (qtd. in 121). Finally, Day observes that
[i]n the wake of de Man's essay numerous critics in the 1970s and 1980s began to interpret the basic strategy of Romantic poetry as one in which the poets sought to evade recognition simultaneously of their own temporality and the temporality of the language within which the self is constituted. (122)
It is “the self-referential, self-mystifying, self-transcendentalizing Romantic ideology advanced by the mature Wordsworth or Coleridge” (Day 161), “this focus on and celebration of subjectivity that is sometimes seen as the distinctive Romantic innovation” (47), yet the self's transcendence remains an unattainable goal.
Wordsworth & Wordsworth determine the development of English Romantic poetry and its “ideals, values and belief” (xxvii) as a process initiated by reaction against “neo-classicism and the Age of Reason” (xxvii), “but at a secondary stage a new optimism, a new momentum, is created that is forward-looking, positive in itself” (xxvii). They suggest that
[t]he optimism (or naivity) to be seen in this keeping faith with the Revolution is a major characteristic of the earlier Romantic poets. They have both to come to terms with disappointment, and to quell disillusion by finding an apolitical basis for confidence in humanity and hope for the future. To some it seemed at first that Godwin's faith in reason might provide the answer, but instinctively they were drawn rather to feeling and imagination. (xxix)
Whilst in this aspect Wordsworth & Wordsworth's proposition resembles those of Bloom and Abrams, it differs in their distinction not between two phases or moods, but between two generations of English Romantic poetry when placing the poets into historical context. The first generation, embodied by “Smith, Burns, Robinson, Blake, Southey, Coleridge & Wordsworth” (xli) and assigned to the time span between 1786 and the end of the 1790s (cf. xxxv, xli), is marked by the revolutionary optimism depicted above (see quote) and its poets, “at times openly millenarian [...] [,] view man as godlike in his potential. Their theme is imagination” (xli). The second generation, emerging after a “gap [.] widened by the fact that so little major poetry was published between 1800 and 1810” (xxxix), lack this optimism (cf. xli). Instead, these poets (namely “Byron, Shelley, Hunt, Hemans, Keats, Landon and Hood” (xli)) distance themselves from the subjects of revolution, the lower and working class (cf. xlii) and write poems whose “solipsistic beauty shares with no one, values only the moods of the writer” (xlii) - an interpretation that can be regarded as an alternative parallel to Bloom's interpretation of the internalization of romance and movement towards the self.
Bearing all of these propositions for definitions of English Romantic poetry in mind, it can be ascertained that they all share the observation of an internalization of revolutionary doctrines, a conversion of these, as it were, into an exaltation of the single individual and the imagination, of their boundlessness in potential, and furthermore a development of striving towards the unity of the subject, the mind, the imagination, and the object, nature, imagination's product.
On the one hand, English Romantic poetry is defined as an ongoing, transgressive development which “denotes not just a period, but a style, a movement, a way of thinking [...], even a way of being in the world” (Chandler & McLane 3), so that “poets writing long after the Battle of Waterloo might well think of themselves as 'in the Romantic line'” (3) - and, having demonstrated that Romanticism and “the literature of the period has been ceaselessly reinterpreted and reconstructed” (Day 202) throughout the time that comes after it, Day concludes in his work that this “is not surprising” (202), as it has been done “by later commentators who have themselves only been ringing the changes on paradigms laid down in the period itself” (202). Wordsworth & Wordsworth put it this way: “our version of the Romantic period is a reflection of our taste, not that of the time” (xl), Chandler & McLane additionally suggest that “Romantic poetry, however deeply rooted in its historical and cultural moment, also remains 'ever more about to be,' [...] ever ready to be reactivated and reimagined by the latest reader” (8).
On the other hand, the considered propositions and observations nevertheless claim to lay down set attributes and literary features of English Romantic poetry. And in addition to the exultation of the limitless imagination and individual, the shift of revolutionary hope from society to the single mind, the poet as “visionary bard” (Day 95), the “dialectic of love” (Bloom 16) between man, or the imagination, and his counterpart, or its creation, the use of symbolism, and the quest for nontemporality, or infinity, as well as the attributes listed in the dictionaries (see p. 3), the works that aim to define English Romantic poetry specify several further attributes, which shall in the following paragraphs also be taken into consideration.
To stay in line with the adaptation and conversion of revolutionary doctrines in English Romantic poetry, the first further literary attribute considered here is laid out by Frye, who claims that Romanticism and its poetry were “primarily a revolution in poetic imagery” (qtd. in Day 101):
What I see first of all in Romanticism is the effect of a profound change, not in belief, but in the spatial projection of reality. This in turn leads to a different localizing of the various levels of that reality. . . .
the metaphorical structure of Romantic poetry tends to move inside and downward instead of outside and upward, hence the creative world is deep within, and so is heaven or the place of the presence of God. [...] In the Romantic construct there is a center where inward and outward manifestations of a common motion and spirit are unified, where the ego is identified as itself because it is also identified with something which is not itself, (qtd. in Day 102-103)
Frye gives examples of this 'metaphorical structure' in several Romantic poems' depictions of worlds and constructs situated “underneath experience” (qtd. in Day 102), “down” (qtd. in 102), coming “from below” (qtd. in 103), and “at the deep center” (qtd. in 103) - as opposed to the structures ofheaven and grace as outward influences in pre-Romantic poetry (cf. 103).
Secondly, Wordsworth & Wordsworth observe a “Romantic Platonism” (xxxii) and Unitarianism (cf. xxxii), acted out and proclaimed especially by Coleridge (cf. xxxii-xxxv), who “sought ways of understanding the 'unity of consciousness'” (xxxiii) and stated
[...] that the Great Invisible is 'by symbols seen', that it is our task to read the Book of Nature, interpret the 'eternal language that [our] God utters'. It is this [...] implication that gives to Coleridge his lifelong preoccupation with imagination - the power that [...] enables us to perceive the godhead, and perceive ourselves at one with it. 'Tis the sublime of man' [...]. (xxxiv)
“Romantic treatments of the sublime as that which exceeds formulation and representation, that which signifies transcendence” (Day 163) as well as “the self’s own sublime potential” (163) are in English Romantic poetry linked to a sense of and search for eternity as well as infinity: in the Platonic and Unitarian line, Blake states that “If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is, infinite” (qtd. in Wordsworth & Wordsworth xxxiv). Wordsworth & Wordsworth collaterally suggest that “man would regain the lost fourfold vision of eternity” (xxxiv) and add Wordsworth's idea that “imagination was associated with an 'obscure sense of possible sublimity'” (xxxiv). Day observes that “Burke found the sublime in anything earthly that could produce the impression of infinity: in natural phenomena and in human constructions whose dimensions, particularly along the vertical line, are huge and grand” (184), and proposes himself that “the capacity to apprehend the absolute is frequently referred to by the Romantics with the term imagination, just as the term imagination is often used to define the absolute itself” (59). For Day, “the tension between subject and object in Romantic writing is resolved in an idealist fashion through the positing of an ultimate correlation between the individual mind and the mind of the absolute” (59) - in a quest to reconcile contraries (cf. 58).
Within this context, the English Romantic poet's self-assigned role as “visionary bard” (Day 95) is again constructed, and Abrams defines it as follows:
In many poems the Romantics do not write direct political and moral commentary but [...] 'politics of vision', uttered in the persona of the inspired prophet-priest. [...] the Romantic Bard is one 'who present, past, and future sees'; so that in dealing with current affairs his procedure is often panoramic, his stage cosmic, his agents quasi- mythological, and his logic of events apocalyptic. Typically this mode of Romantic vision fuses history, politics, philosophy, and religion into one grand design, by asserting Providence - or some form of natural teleology - to operate in the seeming chaos of human history so as to effect from present evil a greater good; [...] the French Revolution functions as the symptom [...] of the abrupt culmination of this design, from which will emerge a new man on a new earth which is a restored Paradise. (qtd. in Day 95-96)
Furthermore, a sense of “cultural nationalism” (Chandler & McLane 4) is observed in English Romantic poetry. Chandler & McLane term this “ethnopoetics” (5):
In addition to, or entwined with, a poetry-of-consciousness, or reflexive subjectivity, Romantic poetry emerges as a project of cultural enquiry, national fantasy, and sociopolitical critique as much as a poetry of self and nature: ethnopoetics meets psychology in this period in ways that still shape our own. (5)
Wordsworth & Wordsworth similarly take note, under the sub-heading “A New Style and a New Spirit” (xxx), of a “primitivist view of poetry as naturalness [...] being advanced” (xxx) before English Romantic poetry, “stirred by patriotism etc. 'the ancient bard arose and sang . . . native effusions of the heart'” (xxx), a view that is adopted by the Romantic poets who follow, yet modified to fit the contemporary world:
The difference between the primitivist critic and the Romantic poet is that Blair [...] continues to think in terms of a distant past, Wordsworth looks through similar eyes at the 'solitary rural scenes' of contemporary England, (xxxi)
This suggestion can be understood as the English Romantic poets' celebration of a cultural nationalism based on national history, yet transferred onto contemporary life in England,
The aspect of “cultural enquiry [...] [and] national fantasy” (Chandler & McLane 5) leads directly on to another feature of English Romantic poetry “so frequently associated [with Romanticism] as to be nearly synonymous” (Goodman 195) - the predilection for nostalgia. Quoting Wordsworth's claim that “Poetry is passion: it is the history or science of feelings” (qtd. in 195) to introduce his work, Goodman characterizes today's view of romantic nostalgia, worth quoting at length, and he begins with listing the “many returns associated with the [Romantic] period” (195):
[...] its “nostalgia for the natural object, expanding to become nostalgia for the origin of this object,” the longing for nature [,] [...] the retrieval of romance modes, the renewed interest or imaginative investment in national and cultural pasts, the turn from polite culture to the “very language of men” [...] and the reanimation of oral cultures and orality [...]. The [...] understanding of nostalgia in each case casts the phenomenon as a distancing, even a falsification, of the pressing realities of modernity: urbanization, the vexed national politics within a newly but uneasily united kingdom of Britain, the equally if not more vexed international marketplace. This is the nostalgia familiar [...] today - the sentimental and safe retrospect, the pleasing melancholy, the whitewashing of less lovable aspects of history, past and present alike. Susan Stewart thus writes that nostalgia testifies to “a longing that of necessity is inauthentic . . . because the past it seeks has never existed except in narrative.” The nostalgic, she writes, “is enamored of distance, not of the referent itself.” Nostalgia, writes one critic of postmodernity, “exiles us from the present as it brings the imagined past near”; another, Frederic Jameson, argues that nostalgia [...] is “an elaborated symptom of the waning of our historicity, of our lived possibility of experiencing history in some active way.” (195)
Goodman argues that in the Romantic period (which he assigns to the 18th and early 19th century (cf. 196)) however, nostalgia was defined rather as a scientific disease triggered by displacement through warfare, colonialism as well as forced travel (cf. 196) and characterized, contrarily to today's view, by “the growing pains of historical existence” (196). He goes on to state his proposition that, in the course of the emergence of English Romantic poetry, the “new 'home' for the historical disease [...] [came to lie] in Romantic-era writings on aesthetics. More specifically, it came to reside in the period's discourse about Poetry” (197), in the sense that “the history of mobility - and history perceived as motion - came to lodge in the project and practice of poetry itself” (199). Goodman finds, in analyzing Wordsworth's “The Thorn", that “the effects of nostalgia are no longer just a subject of representation - they have become a defining principle of representation” (206), and that the scientific disease nostalgia finds a “lineal descendant here, in that 'craving of the mind [...]'” (207) practiced by the Romantic poets, who seemingly aim to
[...] make craving nostalgics of us all - that is, to correct our eyes from skimming the 'space upon paper' by catching our minds in the same repetitive motion to induce or encourage thought's tendency to return to the same grooves [...]. (207)
The return to these 'grooves' is, according to Goodman, in other words characterized as “a mindfulness of the affective weight ('balance of feelings') rather than the semantic or informational content of words” (207), and he elaborates that “words as things are [in English Romantic poetry] preferred to words valued for their exchangeability - [...] as 'symbols of the passion' [...] [rather than] as spaces on the paper” (208). It can in other words be said that nostalgia in English Romantic poetry is coupled, like its Platonism, Unitarianism, exaltation of imagination and search for unity, with a strong affinity for symbolism as well as aestheticism. The Romantic poem, “according to Wordsworth, seeks both to recreate and to induce by means of tautology and other forms of repetition or repetitive motion” (208) - a literary feature Goodman terms “the arrested locomotion - the logo-motion” (208). He suggests that it is “the pathos of motion, or a certain kind of endless, unfree motion” (208) that has been transmuted from the scientific understanding of a disease into “poetic motion[,] [...] the motion simulated and induced by the poem and the techniques of the meter, which contribute, along with other verbal effects, to that overall motion” (209).
 The term 'lyric analysis' used in this paper describes the analysis of song lyrics by means of the tools ofliterary criticism used for analyzing lyric poetry as set out by Meyer and Wainwright.